REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0532.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: extracellular vesicles; exosomes; platelets; regenerative medicine
Online: 23 July 2021 (09:58:26 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) present a great potential for the development of new treatments in the biomedical field. To be used as therapeutics, many different sources have been used for EVs obtention, while only few studies have addressed the use of platelet derived EVs (pEVs). In fact, pEVs have been shown to intervene in different healing responses, thus some studies have evaluated their regenerative capability in wound healing or hemorrhagic shock. Even more, pEVs have proven to induce cellular differentiation, enhancing musculoskeletal or neural regeneration. However, the obtention and characterization of pEVs is widely heterogeneous and differs from the recommendations of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles. Therefore, in this review, we aim to present the main advances in the therapeutical use of pEVs in the regenerative medicine field while highlighting the isolation and characterization steps followed. The main goal of this review is to portray the studies performed in order to enhance the translation of the pEVs research into feasible therapeutical applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0167.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: extracellular vesicles; exosomes; microvesicles; apoptotic bodies; apoptotic extracellular vesicles; cell death; inflammation; sepsis; lung inflammatory disorders; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 9 September 2021 (10:31:49 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been identified as novel mediators of intercellular communication. They work via delivering the sequestered cargo to cells in close vicinity as well as distant sites in the body, regulating pathophysiological processes. Cell death and inflammation are biologically crucial processes in both normal physiology and pathology. These processes are indistinguishably linked with their effectors modulating the other process. For instance, during an unresolvable infection, the upregulation of specific immune mediators leads to inflammation causing cell death and tissue damage. EVs have gained considerable interest as mediators of both cell death and inflammation during conditions such as sepsis. This review summarizes the types of extracellular vesicles known to date and their roles in mediating immune responses leading to cell death and inflammation with specific focus on sepsis and lung inflammation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0638.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: egg; embryo; extracellular vesicle; exosome; fallopian tube; microvesicle; oocyte; oviductosome; oviduct; sperm
Online: 30 October 2020 (13:09:26 CET)
In mammals, the oviduct (or the Fallopian tube in humans) can be divided into the infundibulum (responsible for oocyte pick-up), ampulla (site of fertilization), isthmus (where preimplantation embryos develop), and uterotubal junction (where embryos transit to the uterus). The oviductal fluid, as well as extracellular vesicles produced from the oviductal epithelial cells, referred to as oEVs, have been shown to improve the fertilization process, prevent polyspermy, and aid in embryo development. oEVs contain molecular cargos (such as miRNAs, mRNAs, proteins, and lipids) that can be delivered and fuse to recipient cells. oEVs produced from the ampulla appear to be functionally distinct from those produced from the isthmus. In multiple species including mice, cats, dogs, pigs, and cows, oEVs can be incorporated into the oocytes, sperm, and embryos. In this review, we show the positive impact of oEVs on gamete function as well as blastocyst development and how they may improve embryo quality in in vitro conditions in an assisted reproductive technology setting for rodents, domestic animals, farm animals, and humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0257.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Extracellular vesicles (EVs); mRNA; fungal pathogen; plant pathogen; Ustilago maydis
Online: 9 June 2021 (10:59:36 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) can transfer diverse RNA cargo for intercellular signalling. EV-associated RNAs have been found in diverse fungi and were proposed to be relevant for pathogenesis in animal hosts. In plant-pathogen interactions, small RNAs are exchanged in a cross-kingdom RNAi warfare and EVs were considered to be a delivery mechanism. To extend the search for EV-associated molecules involved in plants-pathogen communication, we have characterised the repertoire of EV-associated mRNAs secreted by the maize smut pathogen, Ustilago maydis. For this initial survey, EVs were isolated from axenic filamentous cultures that mimic infectious hyphae. The EV-associated RNAs were resistant to degradation by RNases and the presence of intact mRNAs was evident. The set of mRNAs enriched inside EVs relative to the fungal cells are functionally distinct from those that are depleted from EVs, particularly overrepresented in metabolic enzyme activities. Intriguingly, mRNAs of some known effectors and other proteins linked to virulence were found in EVs. Furthermore, several mRNAs enriched in EVs are also upregulated during infection, suggesting that EV-associated mRNAs may participate in plant-pathogen interaction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0004.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: extracellular vesicles; EVs; exosomes; mesenchymal stem cell EVs; plant-derived EVs; wound healing; scaffolds
Online: 2 August 2021 (08:57:45 CEST)
Each year, millions of individuals suffer from a non-healing wound, abnormal scarring, or injuries accompanied by an infection. For these cases, scientists are searching for new therapeutic interventions, from which one of the most promising is the use of extracellular vesicles (EVs). Naturally, EV-based signalling takes part in all four wound healing phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation and remodelling. Such an extensive involvement of EVs suggests exploiting their action to modulate the impaired healing phase. Furthermore, next to their natural wound healing capacity, EVs can be engineered for better defined pharmaceutical purposes, such as carrying specific cargo or targeting specific destinations by labelling them with certain surface proteins. This review aims to promote scientific awareness in basic and translational research of EVs by summarizing the current knowledge about their natural role in each stage of skin repair and the most recent findings in application areas, such as wound healing, skin regeneration and treatment of dermal diseases, including the stem cell-derived, plant-derived and engineered EVs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0404.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: milk; human; microbiota; microbiome; extracellular vesicle; breastfeeding
Online: 23 April 2020 (05:11:19 CEST)
The microbiota of human breast milk (HBM) contributes to infant gut colonization; however, whether bacterial extracellular vesicles (EVs) are present in HBM or might contribute to this process remains unknown. In the present study, we characterized the HBM microbiota of healthy Korean mothers and measured the key bacteria likely affecting infant gut colonization by analyzing both the microbiota and bacterial EVs. A total of 22 HBM samples were collected from lactating mothers. The DNA of bacteria and bacteria-derived EVs was extracted from each sample. Gene analysis was performed using Illumina MiSeq. Firmicutes accounted for the largest portion among the phyla, followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroides, and Actinobacteria in both bacteria and bacterial EV samples. At the genus level, Streptococcus (25.1%) and Staphylococcus (10.7%) were predominant in bacterial samples, whereas Bacteroides (9.1%), Acinetobacter (6.9%), and Lactobacillaceae(f) (5.5%) were prevalent in bacterial EV samples. Several genera including Bifidobacterium were significantly positively correlated between the two samples. Our findings reveal the diverse bacterial communities in HBM of healthy lactating mothers and suggest the presence of key bacteria with metabolic activity in HBM and that EVs derived from these bacteria may contribute to the vertical transfer of gut microbiota from mother to infant.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0507.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: liposomes, exosomes, extracellular vesicles, drug delivery, drug targeting, bioinspired systems, engineered systems.
Online: 22 October 2018 (15:35:20 CEST)
The similarities between exosomes and liposomes, together with the high organotropism of several types of exosomes, have recently prompted the development of engineered-exosomes or exosome-mimetics, which may be artificial (liposomal) or cell-derived vesicles, as advanced platforms for targeted drug delivery. Here we provide the current state-of-the-art of using exosome or exosome-inspired systems for drug delivery. We review the various approaches investigated and the shortcomings of each approach. Finally the challenges identified up-to-date in this field are summarized.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0242.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: extracellular vesicles; stem cells; induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs); regenerative medicine
Online: 15 April 2020 (10:08:44 CEST)
Regenerative medicine aims to repair damaged or missing cells, tissues or organs for the treatment of various diseases, poorly managed with conventional drugs and medical procedures. To date there are different approaches to obtain these results. Multimodal regenerative methods include transplant of healthy organs, tissues, or cells, body stimulation to activate a self healing response in damaged tissues, as well as the combined use of cells and bio-degradable scaffold to obtain functional tissues. Certainly, stem cells and derived products are promising tools in regenerative medicine due to their ability to induce de novo tissue formation and/or promote tissue and organ repair and regeneration. Currently, several studies have shown that the beneficial stem cell effects in damaged tissue restore are not depending on their engraftment and differentiation on the injury site, but rather to their paracrine activity. It is now well known that paracrine action of stem cells is due to their ability to release Extracellular Vesicles (EVs). EVs play a fundamental role in cell-to cell communication and are directly involved in tissue regeneration. In the present review, we tried to summarize the molecular mechanisms trough which EVs carry out their therapeutic action and their possible application for the treatment of several diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0696.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: extracellular vesicles; enveloped viruses; lentiviral vectors; exosome; proteomic; lipidomic; transcriptomic
Online: 29 March 2021 (13:53:53 CEST)
Lentiviral vectors (LVs) are a powerful tool for gene and cell therapy and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) have been extensively used as a platform for production of these vectors. Like most cells and cellular tissues, HEK293 cells release extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs released by cells share similar size, biophysical characteristics and even a biogenesis pathway with cell-produced enveloped viruses, making it a challenge to efficiently separate EVs from LVs. Thus, EVs co-purify with LVs during downstream processing, becoming “impurities” in the context of cell therapy. To characterize EVs from an inducible lentivirus producing cell line, two conditions were studied: non-induced and induced. EVs’ identity was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and western blot. Seven proteins were identified by mass spectrometry as potential EV markers. Lipid composition of EVs and LVs showed similar enrichment in phosphatidylserine. RNA cargos in EVs showed enrichment in genes involved in viral processes and binding functions. Flow virometry, GTA and ddPCR results also confirmed the heterogenic nature of EVs and LVs populations. These findings provide insights on the product profile of lentiviral preparation and could help develop separation strategies of co-produced EVs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0462.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Hypoxia; Extracellular vesicles; Breast Cancer; Cell Invasion
Online: 26 August 2022 (14:08:23 CEST)
Hypoxia, a condition of low oxygenation frequently found in triple-negative breast tumors (TNBC), promotes extracellular vesicle (EV) secretion and favors cell invasion, a complex process in which cell morphology is altered, dynamic focal adhesion spots are created, and ECM is re-modeled. Here, we investigated the invasive properties triggered by TNBC-derived hypoxic small EV (SEVh) in vitro in cells cultured under hypoxic and normoxic conditions, using pheno-typical and proteomic approaches. SEVh characterization demonstrated increased protein abundance and diversity over normoxic SEV (SEVn), with enrichment in pro-invasive pathways. In normoxic cells, SEVh promotes invasive behavior through pro-migratory morphology, in-vadopodia development, ECM degradation and matrix metalloprotease (MMP) secretion. Pro-teome profiling of normoxic cells exposed to SEVh determined enrichment in metabolic processes and cell cycle, modulating cell health to escape apoptotic pathways. In hypoxia, SEVh was re-sponsible for proteolytic and catabolic pathway inducement, interfering with integrin availabil-ity and gelatinase expression. Overall, our results demonstrate the importance of hypoxic signal-ing via SEV in tumors for the early establishment of metastasis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0529.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: extracellular vesicles, EVs , traumatic brain injury, bone loss, TBI
Online: 23 October 2018 (08:56:08 CEST)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major source of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Patients suffering from TBI exhibit a higher susceptibility to bone loss and an increased rate of bone fractures; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Herein, we observed significantly lower bone quality and elevated levels of inflammation in bone and bone marrow niche after controlled cortical impact-induced TBI in in-vivo CD-1 mice. Further, we identified dysregulated NFB signaling, an established mediator of osteoclast differentiation and bone loss, within the bone marrow niche of TBI mice. Ex vivo studies revealed increased osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow-derived cells from TBI mice, as compared to sham injured mice. Finally, we found bone marrow derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) from TBI mice enhanced the colony forming ability and osteoclast differentiation efficacy of bone marrow cells and activated NFB signaling genes in bone marrow-derived cells. Taken together, we provide evidence that TBI-induced inflammatory stress on bone and the bone marrow niche may activate NFB leading to accelerated bone loss. Targeted inhibition of these signaling pathways may reverse TBI-induced bone loss and reduce fracture rates.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0518.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: virus; extracellular vesicles; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; membrane vesicluation
Online: 31 May 2020 (21:35:23 CEST)
Within the micro and nano world, tiny membrane-enclosed bits of material are more or less free to move and act as communication tools within cells, between cells, between different tissues and between organisms in global environment. Based on the mechanism of membrane budding and vesiculation that includes all types of cells, in this review, we attempted to present a review on SARS-CoV-2 virus actions in compartments of different scales (cells and their surroundings, tissues, organisms and society). Interactions of the virus with cells on a molecular level, with neural system, endothelium, hematopoietic system, gastrointestinal system and genitourinary system. Transmission route between organisms and between mother and fetus are considered. Also, transmission of virus through contact with materials and with environment, the suggested measures to prevent contamination with the virus and to support the organism against the disease are given.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0229.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: extracellular vesicles; melanoma; doxorubicin; drug delivery systems.
Online: 11 May 2021 (10:19:50 CEST)
Tailoring extracellular vesicles (EVs) as targeted drug delivery systems to enhance the therapeutic efficacy showed superior advantage over liposomal therapies. Herein, we developed a novel nanotool for targeting B16.F10 murine melanoma, based on EVs stabilized with Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and loaded with doxorubicin (DOX). Nanosized EVs were efficiently enriched from melanoma cells cultured under metabolic stress by ultrafiltration coupled with size exclusion chromatography (UF-SEC) and characterized by size, morphology, and proteome. To reduce their clearance in vivo, EVs were PEGylated and passively loaded with DOX (PEG-EV-DOX). Our data suggested that the low PEG coverage of EVs might still favor EV surface protein interactions with target proteins from intratumor cells, ensuring their use as “Trojan horses” to deliver DOX to the tumor tissue. Moreover, our results showed a superior antitumor activity of PEG-EV-DOX in B16.F10 murine melanoma models in vitro and in vivo compared to that exerted by clinically applied liposomal DOX in the same tumor model. The PEG-EV-DOX administration in vivo reduced NF-κB activation and increased BAX expression, suggesting better prognosis of EV-based therapy than liposomal DOX treatment. Collectively, our results highlight the promising potential of EVs as optimal tools for systemic delivery of DOX to solid tumors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0069.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: extracellular vesicles (EVs); urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs); exosomes; biomarkers; liquid biopsy; cirrhosis; fibrosis; hepatocarcinoma (HCC); alcoholic liver disease (ALD).
Online: 1 February 2021 (18:15:22 CET)
(1) Background: Alcohol abuse has a high impact on the mortality and morbidity related to a great number of diseases and is responsible for the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). It remains challenging to detect and evaluate its severity, which is crucial for prognosis. In this work, we studied if urinary EVs (uEVs) could serve in diagnose and evaluate cirrhosis in ALD. (2) Methods: uEVs characterization by cryo-electron microscopy (Cryo-EM), Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) and Western blotting (WB) was performed in a cohort of 21 controls and 21 cirrhotic patients. Then, proteomics of urinary EVs (uEVs) was carried out in a second cohort of 6 controls and 8 patients in order to identify new putative biomarkers for cirrhosis in ALD. (3) Results: uEVs concentration, size and composition were altered in cirrhotic patients. A total of 1304 proteins were identified in uEVs, and 90 of them were found to be altered in cirrhotic patients. (4) Conclusions: uEVs could be considered as a tool and a supplier of new biomarkers for ALD, whose application would be especially relevant in chronic patients. Yet, further research is necessary to obtain more relevant result in clinical terms.
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: endosome; exosome; extracellular vesicles; fungal RNA biology; membrane trafficking; RNA transport; RNA recognition motif
Online: 21 January 2020 (03:26:40 CET)
Membrane-coupled RNA transport is an emerging theme in fungal biology. This review focuses on the RNA cargo and mechanistic details of transport via two inter-related sets of organelles: endosomes and extracellular vesicles for intra- and intercellular RNA transfer. Simultaneous transport and translation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) on the surface of shuttling endosomes is a conserved process pertinent to highly polarised eukaryotic cells, such as hyphae or neurons. Here we detail the endosomal mRNA transport machinery components and mRNA targets of the core RNA-binding protein Rrm4. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are newly garnering interest as mediators of intercellular communication, especially between pathogenic fungi and their hosts. Landmark studies in plant-fungus interactions indicate EVs as a means of delivering various cargos, most notably small RNAs (sRNAs), for cross-kingdom RNA interference. Recent advances and implications of the nascent field of fungal EVs are discussed and potential links between endosomal and EV-mediated RNA transport are proposed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0078.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Extracellular vesicles; neurodegenerative disorders; mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns; inflammation
Online: 6 July 2022 (09:16:21 CEST)
Neuroinflammation is a common hallmark in different neurodegenerative conditions that share neuronal dysfunction and a progressive loss of a selectively vulnerable brain cell population. Alongside ageing and genetics, inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction are considered key risk factors. Microglia are considered immune sentinels of the central nervous system capable of initiating an innate and adaptive immune response. Nevertheless, the pathological mechanisms underlying the initiation and spread of inflammation in the brain are still poorly described. Recently, a new mechanism of intercellular signalling mediated by small extracellular vesicles (EVs) has been identified. EVs are nanosized particles (30-150 nm) with a bilipid membrane that carries cell-specific bioactive cargos that participate in physiological or pathological processes. Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are cellular components recognized by the immune receptors of microglia, inducing or aggravating neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative disorders. Diverse evidence links mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation mediated by mitochondrial-DAMPs (mtDAMPs) such as mitochondrial DNA, TFAM and cardiolipin, among others. Mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDVs) are a subtype of EVs produced after mild damage to mitochondria and, upon fusion with multivesicular bodies (MVBs), are released as EVs to the extracellular space. MDVs are particularly enriched in mtDAMPs which can induce an immune response and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Importantly, growing evidence supports the association between mitochondrial dysfunction, EVs release and inflammation. Here, we describe the role of extracellular vesicles-associated mtDAMPS in physiological conditions and as neuroinflammation activators contributing to neurodegenerative disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0215.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: extracellular vesicles; vesicle labelling; vesicle tracking; helminth; proteomics; Cryo–TEM
Online: 10 July 2020 (16:11:09 CEST)
In the last two decades, extracellular vesicles (EVs) from the three domains of life, archae, bacteria and eukaryota, have gained increasing scientific attention. As such, the role of EVs in host-pathogen communication and immune modulation are being intensely investigated. Pivotal to EV research is the determination of how and where EVs are taken up by recipient cells and organs in vivo, which requires suitable tracking strategies including labelling. Labelling of EVs is often performed post-isolation which increases risks of non-specific labelling and the introduction of labelling artefacts. Here we exploited the inability of helminths to de novo synthesise fatty acids to enable labelling of EVs by whole organism uptake of fluorescent lipid analogues and the subsequent incorporation in EVs. We showed uptake of DOPE-Rhodamine in Anisakis spp. and Trichuris suis larvae. EVs isolated from supernatant of Anisakis spp. labelled with DOPE-Rhodamine were characterised to assess effects of labelling on size, structure and fluorescence of EVs. Fluorescent EVs were successfully taken up by the human macrophage cell line THP-1. This study therefore presents a novel staining method that can be utilized by the EV field in parasitology and potentially across multiple species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0371.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3); extracellular vesicles (EVs); tumoroid; tumor organoid; tumorigenesis; three-dimensional (3D) culture system
Online: 25 March 2020 (05:25:09 CET)
The tumor organoid (tumoroid) model in three-dimensional (3D) culture systems has been developed to reflect more closely the in vivo tumors than 2D-cultured tumor cells. Notably, extracellular vesicles (EVs) are efficiently collectible from the culture supernatant of gel-free tumoroids. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 3 is a multi-functional factor playing crucial roles in tumor progression. However, roles of MMP3 within tumor growth and EVs have not unveiled. Here, we investigated the protumorigenic roles of MMP3 on integrities of tumoroids and EVs. We generated MMP3-knockout (KO) cells using the CRISPR/Cas9 system from rapidly metastatic LuM1 tumor cells. Moreover, we established fluorescent cell lines with palmitoylation signal-fused fluorescent proteins (tdTomato and enhanced GFP). Then we confirmed the exchange of EVs between cellular populations and tumoroids. LuM1-tumoroids released large EVs (300-1000 nm) and small EVs (50-200 nm) while the knockout of MMP3 resulted in the additional release of broken EVs from tumoroids. The loss of MMP3 leads to a significant reduction in tumoroid size and to the development of the necrotic area within tumoroids. MMP3 and CD9 (a category-1 EV marker tetraspanin protein) were significantly down-regulated in MMP3-KO cells and their EV fraction. These weakened phenotypes by MMP3 KO were markedly rescued by the addition of MMP3-rich EVs or conditioned medium (CM) collected from LuM1-tumoroids, which caused a dramatic rise in the expression of MMP3, CD9, and Ki-67 (a marker of proliferating cells) in the MMP3-null/CD9-low tumoroids. Notably, MMP3 enriched in tumoroids-derived EVs and CM deeply penetrated into recipient MMP3-KO tumoroids, resulting in a remarkable enlargement of solid tumoroids, while MMP3-null EVs did not. These data demonstrate that EVs can mediate molecular transfer of MMP3 resulting in increasing the proliferation and CD9+ tumorigenesis, indicating crucial roles of MMP3 in tumor progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0577.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Melanoma patients; Small Extracellular Vesicles; Proteomics; Fatty acids; Biomarkers
Online: 24 May 2021 (15:07:09 CEST)
The early detection of cutaneous melanoma, a potentially lethal cancer with rising incidence, is key to increase survival and therapeutic adjustment. Especially in stages II-IV biomarkers are urgently needed for adjuvant therapy purposes after resection and for treatment of metastatic patients. We here investigated if fatty acid (FA) and protein composition of small extracellular vesicles (sEV) deriving from plasma of 0-I, II, and III-IV stage melanoma patients (n=38) could reflect disease stage and thus function as biomarker. The subpopulation of sEV expressing CD81 (CD81sEV) was isolated by an ad hoc immune affinity technique from microvesicle-depleted plasma. Biological macromolecules were investigated by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in CD81sEV. A higher content of FA and a decrease in Saturation Index (C18:0/C18:1), already detectable in early stages, distinguished patients’ from healthy donor CD81sEV. Proteomics (identifier PXD024434) detected an exclusive and significant increase of CD14, PON1, PON3 and APOA5 in stage II and a significant decrease of Rap1b in stage III-IV CD81sEV. The FA and proteomic stage dependent CD81sEV signature strengthens the potential of circulating sEV studies in providing discriminatory information for early diagnosis, prediction of metastatic behavior and follow up of melanoma patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0545.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: trastuzumab, HER2, extracellular vesicles, breast cancer, proteomic analysis, immunoelectron microscopy, TOP1, CD63, mitochondria.
Online: 24 February 2021 (11:38:41 CET)
Cancers overexpressing the ERBB2 oncogene are aggressive and associated with a poor prognosis. Trastuzumab is a ERBB2 specific recombinant antibody employed for the treatment of these diseases since it blocks ERBB2 signaling causing growth arrest and survival inhibition. While the effects of Trastuzumab on ERBB2 cancer cells are well known, those on the extracellular vesicles released from these cells are scarce. This study focused on ERBB2+ breast cancer cells and aimed to establish what type of EVs they release and whether Trastuzumab affects their morphology and molecular composition. To these aims, we performed immunoelectron microscopy, immunoblot, and high-resolution mass spectrometry analyses on EVs purified by differential centrifugation of culture supernatant. Here we show that EVs released from ERBB2+ breast cancer cells are polymorphic in size and appearance, and that ERBB2 is preferentially associated with large (120 nm) EVs. Moreover, we report that Tz induces the expression of a specific glycosylated 50 kDa isoform of the CD63 tetraspanin and modulates the expression of 51 EVs proteins, including TOP1. As these proteins are functionally associated with organelle organization, cytokinesis, and response to lipids, we suggest that Tz may influence these cellular processes in target cells at distant sites via modified EVs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0349.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: systematic review; extracellular vesicles; EVs; asthma; therapy; inflammation; respiratory disease; airway hyperresponsiveness; BALF
Online: 16 July 2020 (12:52:03 CEST)
Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children. It is characterized by difficulty in breathing and chronic airway inflammation associated with narrowing of the airways, and airway hyperresponsiveness. If left untreated, asthma can lead to respiratory distress and even death. A number of medications are available and prescribed to manage asthma. Yet despite that, only half of the asthmatic patients are able to control their condition. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an important role in transporting contents such as nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids to other cells. While EVs have been extensively studied as biomarkers of various pathological states, evidence indicates that they can play protective and therapeutic roles in mitigating diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and asthma. Here we propose to conduct a systematic review that provides a detailed analysis of the therapeutic effect of EVs in mitigating the primary (inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness) and secondary outcomes (airway remodelling, molecular indices of cellular signalling, and inflammatory mediators in serum) associated with asthma in preclinical studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0531.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Microglia; Extracellular vesicles; migration; P2X4 receptor; MFG-E8; lipid rafts
Online: 22 June 2021 (08:26:41 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) effectively suppress neuroinflammation and induce neuroprotective effects in different disease models. However, the mechanisms by which EVs regulate neuroinflammatory response of microglia remain largely unexplored. Here, we addressed this issue by testing the action of EVs derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth stem cells (SHEDs) on immortalized human microglial cells. We found that EVs induced a rapid increase in intracellular Ca2+ and promoted a significant ATP release in microglial after 20 min of treatment. Boyden chamber assays revealed that EVs promoted microglial migration by 20 %. Pharmacological inhibition of different subtypes of purinergic receptors demonstrated that EVs activated microglial migration preferentially through the P2X4R pathway. Proximity ligation and co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that EVs promote association between milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor VIII (MFG-E8) and P2X4 receptor proteins. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of αVβ3/αVβ5 integrin suppressed EV -induced cell migration and formation of lipid rafts in microglia. These results demonstrate that EVs promote microglial motility through P2X4 R/ MFG-E8 – dependent mechanisms. Our findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms through which EVs target human microglia that may be exploited for the development of new therapeutic strategies targeting disease associated neuroinflammation.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0025.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: glioblastoma; extracellular vesicles; Next Generation Sequencing; pathogenic mutations; NF1
Online: 1 August 2022 (15:07:04 CEST)
The biological heterogeneity of glioblastoma (GBM), the most aggressive type of brain cancer, is a critical hallmark, caused by changes in the genomic mutational asset and influencing the clinical progression over the time. The understanding and monitoring of the mutational profile is important not only to reveal novel therapeutic targets in this set of patients, but also to ameliorate the clinical stratification of subjects and the prognostic significance. As neurosurgery represents the primary technique to manage GBM, it is of outmost importance to optimize alternative and less invasive methods to monitor the dynamic mutation profile of these patients. Extracellular vesicles (EV) are included in the liquid biopsy analysis and have emerged as the biological mirror of escaping and surviving mechanisms by many tumors as well as glioblastoma. Very few studies have investigated the technical feasibility to detect and analyze the genomic profile by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) in circulating EV of patients with grade IV glioblastoma. Here, we attempted to characterize and to compare with the corresponding matched tissue samples, potential variants with pathogenic significance of the DNA contained in peripheral blood derived EV. The NGS analysis has revealed that patients with grade IV glioblastoma, exhibited lesser DNA content in EV than controls and that both in EV and matched cancer tissues, the NF1 gene was consistently mutated in all patients with the c.2568C>G as the most common pathogenic variant expressed. This study supports the clinical utility of the circulating EV in glioblastoma and as eligible tool for personalized medicine.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0211.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Extracellular Vesicles (EVs); Exosomes; Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC); gradient Size Exclusion Chromatography (gSEC); Ion Exchange Chromatography; Hybrid Chromatography
Online: 14 October 2021 (10:23:28 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived membranous particles secreted by all cell types into the extracellular milieu. EVs carry, protect, and transport a wide array of bioactive cargoes to recipient/target cells. EVs regulate physiological and pathophysiological processes in recipient cells and are important in therapeutics/drug delivery. Despite these great attributes of EVs, an efficient protocol for EV separation from biofluids is lacking. Numerous techniques have been adapted for the separation of EVs with size exclusion chromatography (SEC)-based methods being the most promising. Here, we review the SEC protocols used for EV separation, and discuss opportunities for significant improvements, such as the development of novel particle purification liquid chromatography (PPLC) system capable of tandem purification and characterization of biological and synthetic particles with near-single vesicle resolution. Finally, we identify future perspectives and current issues to make PPLC a tool capable of providing a unified, automated, adaptable, yet simple and affordable particle separation resource.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0186.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: heat shock protein (HSP); extracellular vesicle (EV); exosome; oncosome; immune evasion; resistance-associated secretory phenotype (RASP); EMT; hypoxia; biomarker; liquid biopsy
Online: 17 August 2019 (16:15:01 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EV) released by tumor cells are a major aspect of the resistance-associated secretory phenotype (RASP), by which immune evasion can be established. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are an evolutionarily conserved family of molecular chaperones, which stabilize proteins, minimize protein misfolding and aggregation within the cell, besides facilitating protein translocation, refolding and degradation. (i) Releases of extracellular HSPs (ex-HSP) and EV-associated HSPs (EV-HSP) are essential in RASP, by which molecular cotransfer of HSPs with oncogenic factors into recipient cells can promote cancer progression and resistance against stress such as hypoxia, radiation, chemicals, and immune system. (ii) RASP of tumor cells can eject anticancer drugs, molecularly targeted therapeutics, and immune checkpoint inhibitors with EVs. (iii) Cytotoxic lipids can be also released from tumor cells as RASP. Nevertheless, ex-HSP and EV-HSP can play immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive roles by binding to receptors such as LRP1/CD91/A2MR, scavenger receptors, and toll-like receptors expressed on recipient cells. Liquid biopsy of HSPs in body fluids may be useful in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment in cancer. Regarding HSP90-targeted therapeutics, we summarize the pros, cons, and problem solutions in this review. Although production of HSPs are canonically induced by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), recent studies discovered that production of HSPs is also regulated by matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) and production of cochaperone CDC37 is reciprocally regulated by myeloid zinc finger 1 (MZF1) and SCAN-D1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0260.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: thyroid cancer; PTC; BRAFV600E; mouse model; miRNA; extracellular vesicles; heterogeneity; se-quencing
Online: 18 March 2022 (03:53:48 CET)
Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common endocrine malignancy which diagnosis and recurrences still challenge clinicians. New perspectives to overcome those issues could come from the study of extracellular vesicles (EVs) populations and content. Here, we aimed to elucidate the heterogeneity of EVs circulating in tumor and the changes in their microRNA content during cancer progression. Using a mouse model expressing BRAFV600E, we isolated and characterized EVs from thyroid tissue by ultracentrifugations and elucidated their microRNA content by small RNA sequencing. Cellular origin of EVs was investigated by ExoView and that of deregulated EV-microRNA by qPCR on FACS-sorted cell populations. We found that PTC released more EVs bearing epithelial and immune markers, as compared to healthy thyroid, and that changes in EV-microRNAs abundance were mainly due to their deregulated expression in thyrocytes. Pathway analysis showed that the more abundant EV-microRNAs could impact on immune processes. Altogether, our work provides a full description of in vivo-derived EVs produced by, and within, normal and cancerous thyroid. We elucidated the global EV-microRNAs signature, the dynamic loading of microRNAs in EVs upon BRAFV600E induction, and their cellular origin. Thyroid tumor-derived EV-microRNAs could support the establishment of a permissive immune microenvironment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0261.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: sebaleic acid; sapienic acid; positional fatty acid isomer; trans geometrical isomer; extracellular vesicle lipidome; desaturase enzyme; elongase enzyme; lipidomics
Online: 22 January 2020 (16:10:25 CET)
A new pathway leading to the n-10 fatty acid series has been recently evidenced, starting from sapienic acid - a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) resulting from the transformation of palmitic acid by delta-6 desaturase. Sapienic acid attracts attention as novel marker of cancer cell plasticity. Here, we analyzed fatty acids including the n-10 fatty acid contents, and compared for the first time cell membranes and the corresponding extracellular vesicles (EV) of two human prostatic adenocarcinoma cell lines of different aggressiveness (PC3 and LNCaP). The n-10 components were 9-13% of the total fatty acids in both cancer cell lines and EVs, with total MUFA levels significantly higher in EVs of the most aggressive cell type (PC3). High sapienic/palmitoleic ratios indicated the preference for delta-6 vs. delta-9 desaturase enzymatic activity in these cell lines. The expressions analysis of enzymes involved in desaturation and elongation by qRT-PCR showed a higher desaturase activity in PC3 and a higher elongase activity toward polyunsaturated fatty acids than toward saturated fatty acids, compared to LNCaP cells. Our results improve the present knowledge in cancer fatty acid metabolism and lipid phenotypes, highlighting EV lipidomics to monitor positional fatty acid isomer profiles and MUFA levels in cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0044.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: extracellular vesicles; mesenchymal cells; proximal tubular cells; renal ischemia/reperfusion; mitochondria; anion superoxide; acellular therapy; regenerative medicine
Online: 3 February 2022 (10:07:54 CET)
Acute kidney injury (AKI) caused by ischemia followed by reperfusion (I/R) is characterized by intense anion superoxide (O2•-) production and oxidative damage. We investigated whether extracellular vesicles secreted by adipose tissue mesenchymal cells (EVs) administrated during reperfusion can suppress the exacerbated mitochondrial O2•- formation after I/R. We used Wistar rats submitted to bilateral renal arterial clamping (30 min) followed by 24 h of reperfusion. The animals received EVs (I/R+EVs group) or saline, I/R group) in the kidney subcapsular space. The 3rd group was of the false-operated rats (SHAM). Mitochondria were isolated from proximal tubule cells and immediately used. Amplex Red™ was used to measure mitochondrial O2•- formation and MitoTracker® Orange to evaluate Δψ. In vitro studies were carried out by using human renal proximal tubular cells (HK-2) co-cultured or not with EVs under hypoxia conditions. Administration of EVs restored O2•- formation to SHAM levels in all mitochondrial functional conditions. The expression of catalase and superoxide dismutase remained unmodified; transcription of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was upregulated. The co-cultures of HK-2 cells with EVs revealed an intense decrease in apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanisms by which EVs recover the renal structure and function after I/R are related to the normalization of the mitochondrial redox environment. The intravesicular catalase is central in the preservation mechanisms that, with the aid of the upregulated antioxidant HO-1/Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 system, depress early processes of cell death after I/R and open new vistas for the treatment of AKI.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0460.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: extracellular vesicles; exosomes; neural tissue repair; neuroregeneration; non-human primates; hydrogels; neural tissue engineering; stroke; cortical injury
Online: 28 May 2020 (13:08:32 CEST)
Neural tissue engineering, nanotechnology and neuroregeneration are diverse biomedical disciplines that have been working together in recent decades to solve the complex problems linked to central nervous system (CNS) repair. It is known that the CNS demonstrates a very limited regenerative capacity because of a microenvironment that impedes effective regenerative processes, making development of CNS therapeutics challenging. Given the high prevalence of CNS conditions such as stroke that damage the brain and place a severe burden on afflicted individuals and on society, it is of utmost significance to explore the optimum methodologies for finding treatments that could be applied to humans for restoration of function to pre-injury levels. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), also known as exosomes, when derived from mesenchymal stem cells, are one of the most promising approaches that have been attempted thus far, as EVs deliver factors that stimulate recovery by acting at the nanoscale level on intercellular communication while avoiding the risks linked to stem cell transplantation. At the same time, advances in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have offered the potential of using hydrogels as bio-scaffolds in order to provide the stroma required for neural repair to occur, as well as the release of biomolecules facilitating or inducing the reparative processes. This review introduces a novel experimental hypothesis regarding the benefits that could be offered if EVs were to be combined with biocompatible injectable hydrogels. The rationale behind this hypothesis is presented, analyzing how a hydrogel might prolong the retention of EVs and maximize the localized benefit to the brain. This sustained delivery of EVs would be coupled with essential guidance cues and structural support from the hydrogel until neural tissue remodeling and regeneration occur. Finally, the importance of including non-human primate (NHP) models in the clinical translation pipeline, as well as the added benefit of multi-modal neuroimage analysis to establish non-invasive, in vivo, quantifiable imaging-based biomarkers for CNS repair are discussed, aiming for more effective and safe clinical translation of such regenerative therapies to humans.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0198.v1
Online: 10 October 2018 (04:09:40 CEST)
Heparanase (HPSE) has been defined as a multitasking protein that exhibits a peculiar enzymatic activity towards HS chains but which simultaneously performs other non-enzymatic functions. Through its enzymatic activity, HPSE catalyzes the cutting of the side chains of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans, thus contributing to the remodeling of the extracellular matrix and of the basal membranes. Furthermore, thanks to this activity, HPSE also promotes the release and diffusion of various HS-linked molecules as growth factors, cytokines and enzymes. In addition to being an enzyme HPSE has been shown to possess the ability to trigger different signaling pathways by interacting with transmembrane proteins. In normal tissue and in physiological conditions, HPSE exhibits only low levels of expression restricted only to keratinocytes, trophoblast, platelets and mast cells and leukocytes. On the contrary, in pathological conditions, such as in tumor progression and metastasis, inflammation and fibrosis, it is overexpressed. With this brief review, we intend to provide an update on current knowledge about the different role of HPSE protein exerted by its enzymatic and not-enzymatic activity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0225.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: heparanase; extracellular matrix (ECM)
Online: 13 July 2018 (04:41:38 CEST)
Heparanase (HPSE) has been defined as a multitasking protein that exhibits a peculiar enzymatic activity towards HS chains but which simultaneously performs other non-enzymatic functions. Through its enzymatic activity, HPSE catalyzes the cutting of the side chains of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans, thus contributing to the remodeling of the extracellular matrix and of the basal membranes. Furthermore, thanks to this activity, HPSE also promotes the release and diffusion of various HS-linked molecules as growth factors, cytokines and enzymes. In addition to being an enzyme HPSE has been shown to possess the ability to trigger different signaling pathways by interacting with transmembrane proteins. In normal tissue and in physiological conditions, HPSE exhibits only low levels of expression restricted only to keratinocytes, trophoblast, platelets and mast cells and leukocytes. On the contrary, in pathological conditions, such as in tumor progression and metastasis, inflammation and fibrosis, it is overexpressed. With this brief review, we intend to provide an update on current knowledge about the different role of HPSE protein exerted by its enzymatic and not-enzymatic activity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0010.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: fibronectin; fibrillogenesis; extracellular matrix; biomechanics; mechanobiology
Online: 2 August 2021 (09:45:17 CEST)
The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a key role as both structural scaffold and regulator of cell signal transduction in tissues. In times of ECM assembly and turnover, cells upregulate assembly of the ECM protein, fibronectin (FN). FN is assembled by cells into viscoelastic fibrils that can bind upward of 40 distinct growth factors and cytokines. These fibrils play a key role in assembling a provisional ECM during embryonic development and wound healing. Fibril assembly is also often upregulated during disease states, including cancer and fibrotic diseases. FN fibrils have unique mechanical properties, which allow them to alter mechanotransduction signals sensed and relayed by cells. Binding of soluble growth factors to FN fibrils alters signal transduction from these proteins, while binding of other ECM proteins, including collagens, elastins, and proteoglycans, to FN fibrils facilitates the maturation and tissue specificity of the ECM. In this review, we will discuss the assembly of FN fibrils from individual FN molecules; the composition, structure, and mechanics of FN fibrils; the interaction of FN fibrils with other ECM proteins and growth factors; the role of FN in transmitting mechanobiology signaling events; and approaches for studying the mechanics of FN fibrils.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0346.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: Exosomes, extracellular vesicles, immune regulation, autoimmunity
Online: 28 December 2018 (12:28:28 CET)
T-cell mediated immune responses should be regulated to avoid the development of autoimmune or chronic inflammation diseases. Several mechanisms have been described to regulate this process, namely death of overactivated T cells by cytokine deprivation, suppression by T regulatory cells (Treg), induction of expression of immune checkpoint molecules such as CTLA-4 and PD-1, or activation-induced cell death (AICD). In addition, activated T cells release membrane microvesicles called exosomes during these regulatory processes. In this review, we revise the role of exosome secretion in the different pathways of immune regulation described to date and its importance in the prevention of autoinmune disease. Expression of membrane-bound death ligands on the surface of exosomes during AICD, or the more recently described transfer of miRNA or even DNA inside T-cell exosomes are molecular mechanisms that will be analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0043.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: biosensors; cyclic voltammetry; electrochemical sensors; extracellular electron transfer; extracellular polymeric substances; growth curve; microbial growth phases
Online: 5 January 2020 (16:23:51 CET)
Microbial growth has been of prime importance to the researchers in health and biotechnology industries. It has been known to be closely associated to the secretion of extracellular polymeric substances that help in the formation of colonies. Inter-microbial communication happens within such colonies by means of extracellular electron transfer mediated by the aforementioned polymeric substances. Conventionally, different phases of microbial growth are monitored with the aid of a traditional UV-Visible spectrophotometer by measuring the optical density of the liquid medium at 280 nm. In this paper, we have developed an alternative novel way to sense different growth phases employing electrochemical means i.e. two-terminal cyclic voltammetry. This cyclic voltammetry relies on the extracellular electron transfer mechanism taking place via the polymeric substances secreted by the microorganisms, measured by the temporal area changes in the current-voltage hysteresis curves in the inoculated nutrient broth. This work paves a new way to detect the biological activity in the medium, which can be directly correlated to the population of microorganisms. It would be of immense interest to scientists and researchers working in the field of microbiology as well as in development of biosensors, electrochemical sensors etc. which would be helpful in absence of traditional spectrophotometers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0293.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: extracellular matrix; biosensing; machine learning; wound healing
Online: 22 March 2022 (03:50:47 CET)
Impaired wound healing is a significant financial and medical burden. The synthesis and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in a new wound is a dynamic process that is constantly changing and adapting to the biochemical and biomechanical signaling from the extracellular microenvironments of the wound. This drives either a regenerative or fibrotic and scar-forming healing outcome. Disruptions in ECM deposition, structure, and composition lead to impaired healing in diseased states, such as in diabetes. Valid measures of the principal determinants of successful ECM deposition include bacterial contamination, tissue perfusion, and mechanical injury and strain. These measures are used by wound-care providers to intervene upon the healing wound to steer healing toward a more functional phenotype with improved structural integrity and healing outcomes and to prevent adverse wound developments.In this review, we discuss bioengineering advances in non-invasive detection of biologic and physiologic factors of the healing wound, visualizing and modeling the ECM, and computational tools to efficiently evaluate the complex data acquired from the wounds to prognosticate healing outcomes and intervene effectively. We focus on bioelectronics and biologic interfaces of the sensors and actuators for real time biosensing and actuation. We also discuss high-resolution, advanced imaging techniques, which go beyond traditional confocal and fluorescence microscopy to visualize microscopic details of the composition of the matrix, linearity of collagen, and live tracking of components within the ECM. Computational modeling of the matrix, including partial differential equation datasets as well as machine learning models that can serve as powerful tools for physicians to guide their decision-making process are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0409.v1
Online: 16 November 2020 (10:38:44 CET)
Herpesviruses produce a plethora of pleomorphic and heterogeneous particle populations. The composition and biological role of these is not understood. Detailed analysis has been challenging due to the lack of multidimensional identification and purification methodologies. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), originally developed to sort objects with at least ten thousand-fold larger volumes, has recently been applied to cellular exosomes as well as viral particles and has been dubbed nanoscale flow cytometry or “flow virometry”. In comparison to other nanoparticles, herpesvirus concentrations can be measured with high precision using simple culturing methods. Here, we used this unique capability to evaluate a standard FACS sorter. We demonstrate that detection and separation capabilities were insufficient to distinguish infectious fluorescent viral populations from populations lacking fluorescence and infectivity. Moreover, fluorescent populations did not contain single virus particles but mostly aggregates. On top, analysis of viral samples by flow cytometry was confounded by swarm detection, as multiple objects are measured simultaneously and interpreted as a single object. Despite these technical difficulties, comparison of crude supernatant to gradient purified HCMV revealed that infectious virus is a minor proportion of the particles released from infected cells. Our data stress the need for a set of standardized controls and protocols when applying FACS to biological nanoparticles and highlights technical challenges that need to be solved before flow virometry can achieve its full potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0082.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: dog; prostatic tissue; extracellular matrix; picrosirius; immunohistochemistry
Online: 21 February 2019 (06:52:00 CET)
This study aimed to investigate Coll-I, III, IV and elastin in canine normal prostate and PC, using Picrosirius red (PSR) and Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. Eight normal prostates and 10 PC from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples were used. Collagen fibers area was analyzed with ImageJ software. The distribution of Coll-I and Coll-III was approximately 80% around prostatic ducts and acini, 15% among smooth muscle and 5% surrounding blood vessels, in both normal prostate and PC. There was a higher median area of Coll-III in PC, when compared to normal prostatic tissue (p=0.001 for PSR and p= 0.05 for IHC). Immunostaining for Coll-IV was observed in the basal membrane of prostate acini, smooth muscle, blood vessels, and nerve fibers of normal and PC samples. Although there was no difference in Coll-IV area between normal tissue and PC, tumors with Gleason score 10 showed absence of Coll-IV, when compared to scores 6 and 8 (p=0.0095). Elastic fibers were found in the septa dividing the lobules and around the prostatic acini of normal samples, and was statistically higher in PC, compared to normal tissue (p=0.00229). Investigation of ECM components brings new information and should be correlated with prognosis in future studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0018.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: xenograft; zebrafish; extracellular matrix; matrix metalloproteinases; MMPs
Online: 6 September 2017 (08:55:20 CEST)
Though the cancer research community has used mouse xenografts for decades more than zebrafish xenografts, zebrafish have much to offer: they are cheap, easy to work with, and the embryonic model is relatively easy to use in high-throughput assays. Zebrafish can be imaged live, allowing us to observe cellular and molecular processes in vivo in real time. Opponents dismiss the zebrafish model due to the evolutionary distance between zebrafish and humans, as compared to mice, but proponents argue for the zebrafish xenograft’s superiority to cell culture systems and its advantages in imaging. This review places the zebrafish xenograft in the context of current views on cancer and gives an overview of how several aspects of this evolutionary disease can be addressed in the zebrafish model. Zebrafish are missing homologs of some human proteins and (of particular interest) several members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family of proteases, which are known for their importance in tumour biology. This review draws attention to the implicit evolutionary experiment taking place when the molecular ecology of the xenograft host is significantly different than that of the donor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0095.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: mechanosensitivity; proliferation; myocyte; actincytoskeleton; extracellular matrix; L-DOPA
Online: 7 June 2022 (08:05:44 CEST)
Cells actively sense differences in topology, matrix elasticity and protein composition of the extracellular microenvironment and adapt their function and morphology. In this study, we focus on the cross-talk between matrix stiffness and protein coating density that regulate morphology and proliferation dynamics of single myocytes. For this, C2C12 myocytes were monitored on L-DOPA functionalized hydrogels of 22 different elasticity and fibronectin density compositions. Static images were recorded and statistically analyzed to determine morphological differences and to identify the optimized extracellular matrix (ECM). Using that information, selected ECMs were used to study the dynamics before and after cell proliferation by statistical comparison of distinct cell states. We observed a fibronectin density independent increase of the projected cell area until 12 kPa. Additionally, changes in the fibronectin density led to an area optimum at about 2.6 μg/cm, which was confirmed by an independent F-actin analysis, revealing a maximum actin filament to cell area ratio of 7.5 %. The proliferation evaluation showed an opposite correlation between cell spreading duration and speed to the matrix elasticity and protein density, which did not affect the cell cycle duration. In summary, we identified an optimized ECM composition, while independent matrix properties regulate distinct cell characteristics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0389.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: 3D Bioprinting; Extracellular Matrix; Extrusion; Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering
Online: 22 November 2021 (12:26:49 CET)
There is need to address the challenges of organ shortage, through development of tissues and organs with alternatives to those of the allograft-kind. This illustrates the quest behind novel biofabrication strategies such as 3D bio-printing, which is necessary to create artificial multi-cellular tissues/organs. Several findings have been reported in this review. First, the role of ECM components in tissue regenerative medicine is presented. Different ECM components such as collagen, gelatin, elastin, fibronectin, laminins and glycosaminoglycans are concisely examined for their tissue regenerative medicine applications. Next, current state of research on extrusion-based 3D bio-printing techniques and their limitations are reviewed. For example, we show that cell viability is still a challenge with extrusion, while the use of natural polymers such as collagen in improving composites’ mechanical properties is limited. Lastly, we examine unresolved research questions necessary to advance the present state of research in the field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0130.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: fusion protein; extracellular vesicles; target delivery; RNA sorting
Online: 8 October 2021 (09:21:36 CEST)
The advancement of precision medicine critically depends on the robustness and specificity of the carriers used for the targeted delivery of effector molecules in the human body. Numerous nanocarriers have been explored in vivo, to ensure the precise delivery of molecular cargos via tissue-specific targeting, including the endocrine part of the pancreas, thyroid, and adrenal glands. However, even after reaching the target organ, the cargo-carrying vehicle needs to enter the cell and then escape from lysosomal destruction. Most of artificial nanocarriers suffer from intrinsic limitations that either prevent them from completing the specific delivery of the cargo. In this respect, extracellular vesicles (EVs) seem to be the natural tool for payload delivery due to their versatility and low toxicity. However, EV-mediated delivery is not selective and usually short-ranged. By inserting the viral membrane fusion proteins into exosomes, it is possible to increase the efficiency of membrane recognition and also ease the process of membrane fusion. This review describes the molecular details of the viral-assisted interaction between the target cell and extracellular vesicles. We also discuss the question of the usability of viral fusion proteins in developing extracellular vesicle-based nanocarriers with higher efficacy of payload delivery. Finally, this review specifically highlights the role of Gag and RNA binding proteins in RNA sorting into extracellular vesicles.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0398.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Type I hypersensitivity; IgE; AIT; SIT; extracellular vesicles; vaccine
Online: 24 December 2021 (10:52:50 CET)
Allergic diseases represent a global health and economic burden of increasing significance. The lack of disease-modifying therapies besides specific allergen immunotherapy (AIT) which is not available for all types of allergies, necessitates the study of novel therapeutic approaches. Exosomes are small endosome-derived vesicles delivering cargo between cells and thus allowing inter-cellular communication. Since immune cells make use of exosomes to boost, deviate, or suppress immune responses, exosomes are intriguing candidates for immunotherapy. Here, we review the role of exosomes in allergic sensitization and inflammation and we discuss the mechanisms by which exosomes could be used in immunotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of allergic diseases. We propose the following approaches: a) Mast cell derived exosomes expressing IgE receptor FcεRI could absorb IgE and down-regulate systemic IgE levels. b) Tolerogenic exosomes could suppress allergic immune responses via induction of regulatory T cells. c) Exosomes could promote TH1-like responses towards an allergen. d) Exosomes could modulate IgE-facilitated antigen presentation.
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Aspergillus sp.; extracellular laccase; production; purification; characterization; dye decolorization
Online: 8 December 2019 (17:24:19 CET)
Although laccase has been recognized as a wonder molecule, and green enzyme, the use of low yielding fungal strains, poor production, purification, and low enzyme kinetics have hampered its larger-scale applications. Hence the present research was aimed to select high yielding fungal strains and to optimize the production, purification, and kinetics of laccase of Aspergillus sp. HB_RZ4. Aspergillus sp. HB_RZ4 produced a copious amount of laccase on under meso-acidophillic shaking conditions in a medium containing glucose and yeast extract. A 25 µM of CuSO4 enhanced the enzyme yield. The enzyme was best purified on Sephadex G-100 column. Purified enzyme resembled with the laccase of A. flavus. Kinetics of purified enzyme revealed the high substrate specificity and good velocity of reaction with ABTS as substrate. The enzyme was stable over a wide range of pH and temperature. The peptide structure of the purified enzyme resembled with the laccase of A. kawachii IFO 4308. The fungus decolorized various dyes independent of the requirement of a laccase mediator system (LMS). Aspergillus sp. HB_RZ4 came out as a potent natural producer of laccase, it decolorized the dyes even in absence of LMS and thus can be used for bioremediation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0171.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: NOX, sulfenylation, Nrf2, SKN-1, centenarians, extracellular matrix, longevity
Online: 10 September 2018 (12:59:22 CEST)
An accumulating body of evidence suggests that physiological reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by NADPH oxidases act as a redox signal to re-establish homeostasis, a capacity that progressively declines during aging, but is maintained in long-lived animals to promote healthy aging. In the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, ROS generated by dual oxidases (Duox) are important for extracellular matrix integrity, pathogen defense, oxidative stress resistance, and longevity. The Duox enzymatic activity is tightly regulated and under cellular control. Developmental molting cycles, pathogen infections, toxins, mitochondrial-derived ROS, drugs, and small GTPases (RHO-1) can activate Duox (BLI-3) to generate ROS, whereas NADPH oxidase inhibitors and negative regulators, such as MEMO-1, can inhibit Duox to generate ROS. Three mechanisms-of-action have been discovered for the Duox/BLI-3-generated ROS: 1) enzymatic activity to catalyze cross-linking of free tyrosine ethyl ester in collagen bundles to stabilize extracellular matrices, 2) high ROS bursts/levels to kill pathogens, and 3) Redox signaling activating downstream kinase cascades to transcription factors orchestrating oxidative stress- and immunity responses to re-establish homeostasis. Although Duox function at the cell surface is well established, recent genetic and biochemical data also suggests a novel role for Duoxs at the endoplasmic reticulum membrane to control redox signaling. Evidence underlying these mechanisms initiated by ROS from NADPH oxidases and their relevance for human aging are discussed in this review. Appropriately controlling NADPH oxidase activity for local and physiological redox signaling to maintain cellular homeostasis might be a therapeutic strategy to promote healthy aging.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0021.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Extracellular Traps; Inflammation; Neutrophils; Basophils; Macrophage/Monocytes; Therapeutic Targets; autoimmunity
Online: 1 March 2022 (12:39:13 CET)
The first description of a new form of neutrophil cell death distinct from that of apoptosis or necrosis was discovered in 2004 and coined neutrophil extracellular traps “(NETs)” or “NETosis”. Different stimuli for NET formation, and pathways that drive neutrophils to commit to NETosis have been elucidated in the years that followed. Critical enzymes required for NET formation have been discovered, and targeted therapeutically. NET formation is no longer restricted to neutrophils but has been discovered in other innate cells: Macrophages/Monocytes, Mast Cells, Eosinophils, Basophils, Dendritic cells, and extracellular DNA is extruded from both B and T cells. It has become clear that although this mechanism is thought to enhance host defence by ensnaring bacteria within large webs of DNA to increase bactericidal killing capacity, it is also injurious to innocent bystander tissue. Proteases and enzymes released from extracellular traps (ETs), injure epithelial and endothelial cells perpetuating inflammation. In the context of autoimmunity ETs release over 70 well known autoantigens. ETs are associated with pathology in multiple diseases: lung diseases, vasculitis, autoimmune kidney diseases, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. Defining these pathways that drive ET release will provide insight into mechanisms of pathological insult, and provide potential therapeutic targets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0320.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Arteriogenesis; Arterial structure; extracellular matrix; peripheral arterial disease; collateral circulation
Online: 18 November 2021 (10:59:12 CET)
When a large artery becomes occluded, hemodynamic changes stimulate remodeling of arterial networks to form collateral arteries in a process termed arteriogenesis. However, the structural changes necessary for collateral remodeling have not been defined. We hypothesize that decon-struction of the extracellular matrix is essential to the remodeling of smaller arteries into effective collaterals. Using multiphoton microscopy, we analyzed collagen and elastin structure in maturing collateral arteries isolated from ischemic rat hindlimbs. Collateral arteries harvested at different timepoints showed progressive diameter expansion associated with striking rearrangement of in-ternal elastic lamina (IEL) into a loose fibrous mesh, a pattern persisting at 8 weeks. Despite a 2.5-fold increase in luminal diameter, total elastin content remained unchanged in collaterals compared with control arteries. Among the collateral midzones, baseline elastic fiber content is low. Outward remodeling of these vessels with a 10-20 fold diameter increase was associated with fractures of the elastic fibers and evidence of increased wall tension as demonstrated by straight-ening of the adventitial collagen. Inhibition of lysyl oxidase (LOX) function with β-aminopropionitrile resulted in severe fragmentation or complete loss of continuity of the IEL in developing collaterals. Collateral artery development is associated with permanent redistribution of existing elastic fibers to accommodate diameter growth. We found no evidence of new elastic fiber formation. Stabilization of the arterial wall during outward remodeling is necessary and dependent on LOX activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0572.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: aging; collagen; extracellular matrix; fibroblast; skin; tenascin C; TGF-β
Online: 28 October 2020 (08:49:54 CET)
Tenascin C (TNC) is an element of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of various tissues, including the skin, and is involved in modulating ECM integrity and cell physiology. Although skin aging is apparently associated with changes in the ECM, little is known about the role of TNC in skin aging. Here we found that Tnc mRNA level was significantly reduced in the skin tissues of aged mice compared with young mice, consistent with reduced TNC protein expression in aged human skin. TNC-large (TNC-L; 330-kDa) and -small (TNC-S; 240-kDa) polypeptides were observed in conditional media from primary dermal fibroblasts. Both recombinant TNC polypeptides, corresponding to TNC-L and TNC-S, increased the expression of type I collagen and reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in fibroblasts. Treatment of fibroblasts with a recombinant TNC polypeptide, corresponding to TNC-L, induced phosphorylation of SMAD2 and SMAD3. TNC increased the level of TGF-β1 mRNA and upregulated the expression of type I collagen by activating the TGF-β signaling pathway. In addition, TNC also promoted the expression of type I collagen in fibroblasts embedded in a three-dimensional collagen matrix. Our findings suggest that TNC contributes to the integrity of ECM in young skin and to prevention of skin aging.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: circulating tumor biomarkers; extracellular vesicles; biological nanoparticles; liquid biopsy; biosensing
Online: 31 January 2020 (05:18:15 CET)
Exosomes are nano-sized extracellular vesicles excreted by mammalian cells that circulate freely in the bloodstream of living organisms. Exosomes have a lipid bilayer that encloses genetic material used in intracellular communication (e.g., double-stranded DNA, micro-RNAs, and messenger RNA). Recent evidence suggests that dysregulation of this genetic content within exosomes has a major role in tumor progression and in the surrounding microenvironment. Motivated by this discovery, we focused here on using exosomal biomarkers as a diagnostic and prognostic tool for cancer. In this review, we discuss recently discovered exosome-derived proteomic and genetic biomarkers used in cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Although several genetic biomarkers have been validated for their diagnostic values, proteomic biomarkers are still being actively pursued. We discuss both commercial technologies and emerging technologies for exosome isolation and analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0004.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Lewis lung cancer; miRNAs; transcription factors; extracellular matrix; cancer cachexia
Online: 1 September 2019 (08:37:12 CEST)
Cachexia is a complex metabolic syndrome characterized by loss of skeletal muscle, leading to a significant weight loss that impacts patient morbidity and mortality. Given the complexity of gene regulatory networks that control gene expression, our objective was to perform an integrative mRNA and miRNA profiling to identify genetic programs that capture essential mechanistic details that promote muscle atrophy in cancer cachexia. Here, we used RNA sequencing to analyze miRNAs and mRNAs expression profiles in tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of the Lewis lung carcinoma model of cancer cachexia. In addition, we compared these findings with RNA-Seq data from C2C12 myotubes treated in vitro with the cachectic factors tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Extracellular matrix (ECM) alterations were validated by picrosirius staining, western blot, and fractal dimension analyses. We found 1,008 mRNAs and 18 miRNAs differentially expressed in cachectic mice. This set of genes was associated with the ECM, proteolysis, and inflammatory response. Enrichment analysis of transcriptional factor binding sites revealed activation of the atrophy-related transcriptional factors: NF-κB, Stat3, AP-1, and FoxO. Furthermore, the integration of mRNA and miRNA expression profiles identified post-transcriptional regulation by miRNAs of genes involved in ECM organization, cell migration, transcription factors binding, ion transport, and FoxO signaling pathway. C2C12 myotubes treated with TNF-α and IFN-γ similarly down-regulate subsets of ECM genes, including collagens. Our integrative analysis of miRNA-mRNA co-profiles comprehensive characterized regulatory relationships of molecular pathways and revealed miRNAs targeting ECM-associated genes in cancer cachexia. We also confirmed in C2C12 myotubes that changes in ECM-associated genes are dependent on inflammatory signaling of the cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0063.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: matreotype; proteomics; transcriptomics; lifespan; extracellular matrix; ECM; collagen; MMP; homeostasis
Online: 5 August 2019 (14:22:17 CEST)
Accumulation of damage is generally considered the cause of aging. Interventions that delay aging mobilize mechanisms that protect and repair cellular components. Consequently, research has been focused on studying the protective and homeostatic mechanisms within cells. However, in humans and other multicellular organisms, cells are surrounded by extracellular matrices (ECM), which are important for tissue structure, function and intercellular communication. During aging, components of the ECM become damaged through fragmentation, glycation, crosslinking, and accumulation of protein aggregation, all of which contribute to age-related pathologies. Interestingly, placing senescent cells into a young ECM rejuvenates them and we found that many longevity-assurances pathways re-activate de-novosynthesis of ECM proteins during aging. This raises the question of what constitutes a young ECM to reverse aging or maintain health? In order to make inroads to answering this question, I suggest a systems-level approach of quantifying the matrisome or ECM compositions reflecting health, pathology, or phenotype and propose a novel term, the “matreotype”, to describe this. The matreotype is defined as the composition and modification of ECM or matrisome proteins associated with or caused by a phenotype, such as longevity, or a distinct and acute physiological state, as observed during aging or disease. Every cell type produces its unique ECM. Interestingly, cancer-cell types can even be identified based on their unique ECM composition. Thus, the matreotype reflects cellular identity and physiological status. Defined matreotypes could be used as biomarkers or prognostic factors for disease or health status during aging with potential relevance for personalized medicine. Treatment with biologics that alter ECM-to-cell mechanotransduction might be a strategy to reverse age-associated pathologies. An understanding of how to reverse from an old to a young matreotype might point towards novel strategies to rejuvenate cells and help maintain tissue homeostasis to promote health during aging.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0052.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Exosomes, mass spectrometry, proteomics, biomarkers, cancer, extracellular vesicles, microvesicles, oncosomes
Online: 4 April 2019 (12:29:44 CEST)
The proteomic profile of extracellular vesicles (EVs) has been of increasing interest, particularly in understanding cancer growth, drug resistance, and metastatic behavior. Emerging data suggests that cancer-derived EVs may carry an array of oncogenic cargo, including certain integrin proteins that may, in turn, promote cell detachment, migration, and selection of future metastatic sites. We previously reported a large comparison of secreted vesicle protein cargo across sixty diverse human cancer cell lines. Here, we analyze the distinct integrin profiles of these cancer EVs. We further demonstrate the enrichment of integrin receptors in breast cancer EVs compared to vesicles secreted from benign breast epithelial cells. Total EV integrin levels, including the quantity of integrins α2, αv, β4, and β5 correlate with breast tumor stage. In particular, integrin α2 also largely reflects progenitor cell expression, highlighting the utility of this integrin protein as a potential circulating biomarker of primary tumors. This study provides preliminary evidence of the value of vesicle-associated integrin proteins in cancer diagnosis and prediction of tumor stage. Differential expression of integrins across cancer cells, and selective packaging of integrins into EVs may contribute to further understanding the development and progression of tumor growth and metastasis across a variety of cancer types.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0070.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: phototrophic bacteria; phototrophic extracellular electron uptake; comparative genomics; transcriptomics; environmental microbiology
Online: 6 May 2022 (09:35:45 CEST)
Rhodovulum spp. are anoxygenic photosynthetic purple bacteria with versatile metabolisms, including the ability to obtain electrons from minerals in their environment to drive photosynthesis, a relatively novel process called phototrophic extracellular electron uptake (pEEU). Recently, our group isolated 15 strains of R. sulfidophilum to observe this metabolism in marine phototrophs. Our group previously observed carbon dioxide fixation coupled to phototrophic iron oxidation (photoferrotrophy) and pEEU in AB26 and identified a novel di-heme c¬-type cytochrome EeuP important for pEEU but not photoferrotrophy. Taxonomic re-evaluation based on 16S and pufM phylogenetic analyses led us to re-classify two isolates, AB26 and AB19, as Rhodovulum visakhapatnamense. The AB26 genome consists of 4,380,746 base-pairs, including two plasmids, and encodes 4,296 predicted protein-coding genes. AB26 contains 22 histidine kinases, 20 response regulators, and dedicates ~16% of its genome to transport. Transcriptomic data under aerobic, photoheterotrophy, photoautotrophy, and pEEU reveals how gene expression varies between metabolisms. Lastly, we use transcriptomic data for a comparative genomic analysis of potential pEEU-relevant genes between all 15 isolates. With these data we identify potential pEEU capable phototrophs within these isolates, and likely molecular mechanisms of pEEU.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0307.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: receptors; extracellular DNA; cell-surface bound DNA; cell-surface bound RNA
Online: 29 April 2022 (15:04:38 CEST)
Here, our data provide the first evidence for the existence of a previously unknown receptive system formed by novel DNA- and RNA-based receptors in eukaryotes. This system, named the TR-system, is capable of recognizing and generating a response to different environmental factors and has been shown to orchestrate major vital functions of fungi, mammalian cells, and plants.Recently, we discovered the existence of a similar regulatory system in prokaryotes. These DNA- and RNA-based receptors are localized outside of the membrane forming a type of a network around cells that respond to a variety of chemical, biological, and physical factors and enabled the TR-system to regulate major aspects of eukaryotic cell life as follows: growth, including reproduction and development of multicellular structures; sensitivity to temperature, geomagnetic field, UV, light, and hormones; interaction with viruses; gene expression, recognition and utilization of nutrients. The TR-system was also implicated in cell memory formation and was determined to be responsible for its maintenance and the forgetting of preceding events. This system is the most distant receptive and regulatory system of the cell that regulates interactions with the outer environment and governs the functions of other receptor-mediated signaling pathways.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0145.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Exosome; Extracellular Vesicle; Diagnostics; Vaccine; Treatment
Online: 12 June 2020 (09:01:02 CEST)
Our first modern global pandemic is caused by a nanosized lipid vesicle, called SARS-CoV-2. Its molecular structure and biogenesis have remarkable similarities with Extracellular Vesicles (EVs, most notably exosomes) that are constantly shed by all cells during their life. Their resemblance may not be a coincidence. Growing body of evidence has shown that EVs have significant roles in various biological processes, including viral infection, transmission and anti-viral response. Drawing comparison with the virus might shed light on how we could fight the COVID-19 disease. This may include novel EV research and diagnostics technologies as well as novel EV-based treatments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0355.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: TGF-β; cancer; immunosuppression; TAK1; mechanobiology; extracellular matrix; tensegrity; DNA damage
Online: 25 May 2018 (08:37:53 CEST)
TGF-β signaling transduces immunosuppressive biochemical and mechanical signals in the tumor microenvironment. In addition to canonical SMAD signaling, TGF-β can promote tumor growth and survival by inhibiting proinflammatory signaling and extracellular matrix remodeling. In this article, we will review how TAK1 activation lies at the intersection of proinflammatory signaling by immune receptors and anti-inflammatory signaling by TGF-β receptors. Additionally, we will discuss the role of TGF-β in the mechanobiology of cancer. Understanding how TGF-β dampens proinflammatory responses and induces pro-survival mechanical signals throughout cancer development will be critical in designing therapeutics which inhibit tumor progression while bolstering the immune response.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: extracellular vesicle engineering; microRNA; loading; anti-tumor; cancer stem cells; exosomes; coincubation
Online: 10 December 2020 (10:34:42 CET)
Extracellular vesicles are considered a novel therapeutic tool, due to their ability to transfer their cargoes to target cells. Different strategies to directly load extracellular vesicles with RNA species have been proposed. Electroporation has been used for the loading of non-active vesicles, however the engineering of vesicles already carrying a therapeutically active cargo is still under investigation. We here set up a coincubation method to increase the anti-tumor effect of extracellular vesicles isolated from human liver stem cells (HLSC-EVs). Using the coincubation protocol, vesicles were loaded with the anti-tumor miRNA-145, and their effect was evaluated on renal cancer stem cell invasion. Loaded HLSC-EVs maintained their integrity and miR transfer ability, and miR-145 was protected by RNAse digestion possibly due to its binding to RNA-binding proteins on HLSC-EV surface, such as Annexin A2. Moreover, miR-145 coincubated HLSC-EVs were more effective in inhibiting the invasive properties of cancer stem cells, in comparison to naïve vesicles. The protocol reported here exploits a well-described property of extracellular vesicles to bind nucleic acids on their surface and protect them from degradation, in order to obtain an effective miRNA loading that results in the increase of the effect of naïve active extracellular vesicles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0124.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: horse; aynchronous embryo transfer; conceptus; endoemtrium; transcriptome; extracellular exosome; IGFBP3; Kininogen 1
Online: 7 March 2020 (16:11:52 CET)
Pre-implantation horse conceptuses require nutrients and signals from histotroph, the composition of which is regulated by luteal progesterone and conceptus-secreted factors. To distinguish progesterone and conceptus effects we shortened the period of endometrial progesterone-priming by asynchronous embryo transfer. Day 8 embryos were transferred to synchronous (day 8) or asynchronous (day 3) recipients, and RNA sequencing was performed on endometrium and conceptuses recovered 6 and 11 days later (embryo days 14 and 19). Asynchrony resulted in many more differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in conceptus membranes (3473) than endometrium (715). Gene ontology analysis identified upregulation in biological processes related to organogenesis and preventing apoptosis in synchronous conceptuses on day 14, and in cell adhesion and migration on day 19. Asynchrony also resulted in large numbers of DEGs related to ‘extracellular exosome’. In endometrium, genes involved in immunity, the inflammatory response, and apoptosis regulation were upregulated during synchronous pregnancy and, again, many genes related to extracellular exosome were differentially expressed. Interestingly, only 14 genes were differentially expressed in endometrium recovered 6 days after synchronous versus 11 days after asynchronous transfer (day 14 recipient in both). Among these, KNG1 and IGFBP3 were consistently up-regulated in synchronous endometrium. Furthermore bradykinin, an active peptide cleaved from KNG1, stimulated prostaglandin release by cultured trophectoderm cells. The horse conceptus thus responds to a negatively asynchronous uterus by extensively adjusting its transcriptome, whereas the endometrial transcriptome is modified only subtly by a more advanced conceptus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0670.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: proteomics; peptide location fingerprinting; extracellular matrix; biomarkers; ageing; intervertebral disc; spine; mass spectrometry
Online: 29 July 2021 (15:46:49 CEST)
In ageing tissues, long-lived extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are susceptible to the accumulation of structural damage due to diverse mechanisms including glycation, oxidation and protease cleavage. Peptide location fingerprinting (PLF) is a new mass spectrometry (MS) analysis technique capable of identifying proteins exhibiting structural differences in complex proteomes. PLF applied to published young and aged intervertebral disc (IVD) MS datasets (posterior, lateral and anterior regions of the annulus fibrosus), identified 268 proteins with age-related structural differences. For several ECM assemblies (collagens I, II and V and aggrecan), these differences were markedly conserved between degeneration-prone (posterior and lateral) and resistant (anterior) regions. Significant differences in peptide yields, observed within collagen I, II and V α-chains (COL1A2, COL2A1, COL5A1), were located within their triple helical regions and/or cleaved C-terminal propeptides, indicating potential accumulation of damage and impaired maintenance in ageing. Several proteins (COL5A1, COL2A1 and aggrecan) also exhibited tissue region (lateral)-specific differences in structure between aged and young, suggesting that some ageing mechanisms may act locally within tissues. This study not only provides evidence of age-related changes in ECM protein structures which are tissue-region specific, but also highlights the ability of PLF to identify potential protein biomarkers of localised tissue remodelling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0130.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs); intestinal barrier integrity; DNase I; DSS/TNBS-induced colitis
Online: 7 July 2020 (16:34:41 CEST)
Aberrant neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and the loss of barrier integrity in inflamed intestinal tissues have long been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, whether NETs alter intestinal epithelium permeability during colitis remains elusive. Here, we demonstrated that NETs promote the breakdown in intestinal barrier function for the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation in mouse models of colitis. NETs were abundant in the colon of mice with colitis experimentally induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Analysis of the intestinal barrier integrity revealed that NETs impaired gut permeability, enabling the initiation of luminal bacterial translocation and inflammation. Furthermore, NETs induced the apoptosis of epithelial cells and disrupted the integrity of tight junctions and adherens junctions. Intravenous administration of DNase I, an enzyme that dissolves the web-like DNA filaments of NETs, during colitis restored the mucosal barrier integrity which reduced the dissemination of luminal bacteria, and attenuated intestinal inflammation in both DSS and TNBS models. We conclude that NETs serve a detrimental factor in the gut epithelial barrier function leading to the pathogenesis of mucosal inflammation during acute colitis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0237.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: molecular profile; extracellular matrix; osmotic pressure; depth articular cartilage; spheroidal organoid; cartilage regeneration
Online: 18 April 2018 (08:48:06 CEST)
Articular chondrocytes are surrounded by chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, which attracts an abundant volume of interstitial water. The articular cartilage is compressed with joint-loading and weight-bearing stresses, followed by a bulging of the tissue during times of off-loading. Thus, osmotic pressure in articular cartilage is higher than in other tissues due to the fixed charged density and altered between loading and off-loading due to change in water content. Another unique characteristic of the articular cartilage is that it has longitudinal depth: surface, middle, and deep zones. Since each zone composes unique components of extracellular matrices, each zone has a various level of the osmotic pressure. It was unclear how changes in osmotic pressure affected chondrocyte homeostasis and matrix accumulation in specific longitudinal zone. We hypothesized that change in extrinsic osmotic pressure alters metabolic functions and histogenesis of extracellular matrix by zone-specific chondrocytes. We compared the gene expression of matrix related typical anabolic and catabolic molecules produced by zone specific articular chondrocytes and the immunohistology of these corresponding genes. Since the newly synthesized matrix needed a space to accumulate, we used a chondrocyte-spheroid model formed by longitudinal depth zone-derived cells and altered extrinsic osmotic pressure by changing media containing different osmotic pressures. Anabolic molecules upregulated continuously at high osmotic pressure and transiently by switching back the osmotic pressure from high to low. Each zone derived chondrocytes showed zone specific level of the gene expression. The spheroids once exposed to the high osmotic pressure accumulated extracellular matrices with empty spaces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0474.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: NELL2; Preproenkephalin; Endoplasmic reticulum; Calcium ion; Protein kinase C; Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)
Online: 28 September 2021 (13:40:26 CEST)
Preproenkephalin (PPE) is a precursor molecule for multiple endogenous opioid peptides Leu-enkephalin (ENK) and Met-ENK, which are involved in a wide variety of modulatory functions in the nervous system. Despite the functional importance of ENK in the brain, the effect of brain-derived factor(s) on PPE expression is unknown. We report the dual effect of neural epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like-like 2 (NELL2) on PPE gene expression. In cultured NIH3T3 cells, transfection of NELL2 expression vectors induced an inhibition of PPE transcription intracellularly, in parallel with downregulation of protein kinase C signaling pathways and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Interestingly, these phenomena were reversed when synthetic NELL2 was administered extracellularly. The in vivo disruption of NELL2 synthesis resulted in an increase in PPE mRNA level in the rat brain, suggesting that the inhibitory action of intracellular NELL2 predominates the activation effect of extracellular NELL2 on PPE gene expression in the brain. Biochemical and molecular studies with mutant NELL2 structures further demonstrated the critical role of EGF-like repeat domains in NELL2 for regulation of PPE transcription. These are the first results to reveal the spatio-specific role of NELL2 in the homeostatic regulation of PPE gene expression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0485.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: extracellular vesicles; exosomes; microvesicles; differential ultracentrifugation; poly-ethylene glycol; immunoaffinity capture; microfluidics; size exclusion chromatography
Online: 20 August 2020 (09:44:09 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous vesicles secreted by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and play a vital role in intercellular communication. EVs are classified into several subtypes based on their origin, physical characteristics, and biomolecular makeup. Exosomes, a subtype of EVs, are released by the fusion of multivesicular bodies (MVB) with the plasma membrane of the cell. Several methods have been described in literature to isolate exosomes from biofluids including blood, urine, milk, and cell culture media among others. While differential ultracentrifugation (dUC), has been widely used to isolate exosomes, other techniques including ultrafiltration, precipitating agents such as poly-ethylene glycol (PEG), immunoaffinity capture, microfluidics and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) have emerged as credible alternatives with pros and cons associated with each. In this review, we provide a summary of commonly used exosomal isolation techniques with a focus on SEC as an ideal methodology. We evaluate the efficacy of SEC to isolate exosomes from an array of biological fluids, with a particular focus on its application to adipose tissue-derived exosomes. We argue that exosomes isolated via SEC are relatively pure and functional, and that this methodology is reproducible, scalable, inexpensive, and does not require specialized equipment or user expertise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0311.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: adipose tissue; mesenchymal stem cells; regenerative medicine; lipocell; extracellular matrix preservation; ringer’s lactate; liposuction
Online: 24 December 2019 (07:53:44 CET)
This work aims to characterize a new method to recover low-manipulated human adipose tissue, enriched of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ATD-MSCs) for autologous use in regenerative medicine applications. Lipoaspirated fat collected from patients was processed through Lipocell, a II-a medical device for dialysis of adipose tissue, by varying filter sizes and washing solutions. ATD-MSCs yield was measured with flow cytometry after SVF isolation in fresh and cultured samples. Purification from oil and blood was measured after centrifugation with spectrophotometer analysis. Extracellular matrix preservation was assessed through H&E staining and biochemical assay for total collagen, type-2 collagen, and GAGs quantification. Flow cytometry showed a 2-fold increase of ATD-MSCs yield in treated samples in comparison with untreated lipoaspirate; no differences where reported when varying filter size. The association of dialysis and washing thoroughly removed blood and oil from samples. Tissue architecture and extracellular matrix integrity were unaltered after Lipocell processing. Dialysis procedure associated with Ringer’s lactate preserves the proliferation ability of ATD-MSCs in cell culture. The characterization of the product shows that Lipocell is an efficient method to purify the tissue from undesired byproducts, preserving ATD-MSCs vitality and ECM integrity, resulting in a promising tool for regenerative medicine applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0222.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Keywords: regenerative medicine; tissue engineering; decellularized extracellular matrix; 3D bioprinting; bioink, scaffolds; biofabrication; transplantation.
Online: 21 August 2019 (09:46:26 CEST)
Abstract: The promise of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering is founded on the ability to regenerate diseased or damaged tissues and organs into functional tissues and organs or the creation of new tissues and organs altogether. In theory, all damaged and diseased tissues and organs can be regenerated or created using different configurations and combinations of extracellular matrix, cells and inductive biomolecules. Currently, regenerative medicine and tissue engineering can allow the improvement of patients’ quality of life through availing novel treatment options. Tissues and organs have a specific ECM, with specific proteins and factors released by cells residing within the local microenvironment. The coupling of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering field with 3D printing is revolutionizing the treatment of patients in a huge way. 3D bioprinting allows the proper placement of cells and ECMs, allowing the recapitulation of native microenvironments of tissues and organs. 3D bioprinting utilizes different bioinks made up of different formulations of ECM/biomaterials, biomolecules and even cells. The choice of the bioink used during 3D bioprinting is very important as properties such as printability, compatibility and physical strength influence the final construct printed. The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides both physical and mechanical microenvironment needed by cells to survive and proliferate. Decellularized ECM bioink contains biochemical cues from the original native ECM and also the right proportions of ECM proteins. Different techniques and characterization methods are used to derive bioinks from several tissues and organs and to evaluate their quality. This review discusses the uses of decellularized ECM bioinks and argues that they represent the most biomimetic bioinks available. In addition, we briefly discuss some polymer-based bioinks utilized in 3D bioprinting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0211.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: lipoprotein; extracellular vesicles; exosome; ectosome; stress response; resistant cancer; metastatic cancer; heat shock stress
Online: 10 October 2018 (09:44:17 CEST)
Resistant cancer often shows a particular secretory trait such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) and extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and oncosomes surrounded by lipid bilayers. Lipoproteins are biochemical assemblies that transport hydrophobic lipid (a.k.a. fat) molecules in body fluid and are composed of a single-layer phospholipid and cholesterol outer shell, lipids molecules within the particles, and apolipoproteins embedded in the membrane. However, lipoprotein storage and secretion by cancer cells have not well-investigated yet. We found lipoproteins were stored and abundantly secreted by neuroendocrine, castration-resistant prostate cancer (NEPC / CRPC) cells but barely secreted by colon cancer cells and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. In addition, large EVs (approx. 300 nm diameter) and potential oncosomes were released by CRPC and OSCC cells. Proteomics revealed that CRPC cells secreted EVs enriched with tetraspanins and extracellular matrices which were reduced upon heat shock stress and alternatively lipoproteins and HSPs were secreted upon stress. Heat shock stress triggered secretion of lipoprotein-EV complexes that contained apolipoprotein A, B, C and E. These data suggested that vesicular assembly composed of EVs and lipoproteins enriched with cholesterols and phospholipids may be stored in resistant cancer cells but released upon cell stress that is increased in cancer therapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0110.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Sonic Hedgehog; endothelial cells; endothelial progenitor cells; canonical signaling; non-canonical signals; extracellular vesicles
Online: 17 September 2018 (08:45:16 CEST)
The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays an important role in embryonic and postnatal vascular development and in maintaining the homeostasis of organs. Under physiological conditions, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), a secreted protein belonging to the Hh family, regulates endothelial cell growth, promotes cell migration, and stimulates the formation of new blood vessels. The present review highlights recent advances made in the field of Shh signaling in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). The canonical and non-canonical Shh signaling pathways in EPCs and endothelial cells (ECs) related to homeostasis, Shh signal transmission by extracellular vesicles (EVs) or exosomes containing single-strand non-coding miRNAs, and impaired Shh signaling in cardiovascular diseases are discussed. As a promising therapeutic tool, the possibility of using the Shh signaling pathway for the activation of EPCs in patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases is further explored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0256.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: Extracellular matrices; Macromolecular crowding; human iPSC derived astrocytes; human iPSC derived dopaminergic neurons; drug testing
Online: 19 May 2022 (08:50:28 CEST)
The neuroglial extracellular matrix (ECM) provides critical support and physiological cues for the proper growth, differentiation, and function of neuronal cells in the brain. However, in most in vitro settings that study neural physiology, cells are grown as monolayers on stiff surfaces that maximize adhesion and proliferation, and therefore lack the physiological cues that ECM in native neuronal tissues provides. Macromolecular crowding (MMC) is a biophysical phenomenon based on the principle of excluded volume that can be harnessed to induce native ECM deposition by cells in culture. Here, we show that MMC using two species of Ficoll with vitamin C supplementation significantly boosts deposition of relevant brain ECM by cultured human astrocytes. Dopaminergic neurons co-cultured on this astrocyte-ECM bed prepared under MMC treatment showed longer and denser neuronal extensions, a higher number of pre ad post synaptic contacts, and increased physiological activity as evidenced by higher frequency calcium oscillation, compared to standard co-culture conditions. When the pharmacological activity of various compounds was tested on MMC-treated co-cultures, their responses were enhanced, and for apomorphine, a D2-receptor agonist, it was inverted in comparison to control cell culture conditions, thus emulating responses observed in in vivo settings. These results indicate that macromolecular crowding can harness the ECM-building potential of human astrocytes in vitro forming an ultra-flat 3D microenvironment that makes neural cultures more physiological and pharmacological relevant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0464.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: tumor-associated macrophage; exosomes; extracellular vesicles; heat shock proteins; oral cancer; fluorescent labeling of exosomes
Online: 19 April 2021 (11:50:52 CEST)
Tumor-associated macrophages are a key component in the tumor microenvironment, secreting extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as exosomes and other various factors for intercellular communication. However, macrophage-derived EVs heterogeneity and their cytotoxicity to cancer cells has not been well understood. Here, we aimed to separately isolate various types of macro-phage-EVs by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) method and investigate EV transmission and cytotoxicity to oral cancer cells. For fluorescence-labeling of cellular and EV membranes, palmitoylation signal-fused GFP and tdTomato were expressed in THP-1 monocytic cells and HSC-3 oral cancer cells, respectively. We found that fluorescence-labeled EVs secreted by macrophages were highly transmissive to oral cancer cells than those from parental monocytic cells. In a co-culture system and conditioned medium (CM), a macrophage-secreted unidentified factor was cytotoxic to oral cancer cells. We fractionated macrophage-derived EVs by the SEC method and performed western blotting to characterize various EV types. Three fractions were characterized: small exosomes (EXO-S: < 50 nm) fraction containing HSP90α, HSP90β, CD63 (EV marker) and β-actin; large exosomes (EXO-L: 50-200 nm) fraction containing CD9 (EV marker) and HSP90β; large EVs (100-500 nm) fraction. Notably, the macrophage-derived small exosomes fraction was cytotoxic to oral cancer cells, while large exosomes and large EVs were not. There-fore, it was implicated that macrophage-derived small exosomes are cytotoxic with high trans-mission potential to cancer cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0200.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: exosomes; micro vesicles; extracellular vesicles; mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC); miRNA; cell therapy; artificial nano particles
Online: 16 June 2020 (07:57:00 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EV) such as exosomes, are newly recognized fundamental, natural and physiologic particles of life that seemingly are involved all biologic processes and clinical diseases. Due to their universal involvements, understanding the nature and the potential therapeutic uses of these nano-vesicles requires innovative experimental approaches, in virtually every field. Of the EV group, exosome nano-vesicles and larger companion extracellular micro vesicles (MV) can mediate completely new phenomena dependent on intercellular transfer of proteins and selected RNAs; particularly miRNAs, between donor and targeted cells to elicit epigenetic alterations inducing functional cellular changes. These recipient acceptor cells are nearby (paracrine transfers) or far away after distribution via the circulation (endocrine transfers). The major properties of such vesicles seem to have been conserved over eons, suggesting that they may have ancient evolutionary origins arising perhaps even before cells in the primordial soup from which life evolved. Their potential ancient evolutionary attributes may be responsible for the ability of some modern day exosomes to withstand unusually harsh conditions; perhaps due to unusual membrane lipid compositions. This is exemplified by maternal milk exosome survival of the neonatal acid/enzyme rich stomach. It is postulated that this also applies to their durable presence in phagolysosomes; suggesting unique intracellular release of contents. A major issue discussed is the generally poorly realized superiority of these naturally evolved nano vesicles to therapies compared human engineered artificial nanoparticles; say for treatment of cancers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0171.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Trypanosoma cruzi; TGF-β; heart fibrosis; extracellular matrix; signaling pathways; SMAD2; p-38 MAPK; c-Jun
Online: 14 May 2019 (12:28:59 CEST)
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a determinant for inflammation and fibrosis in cardiac and skeletal muscle in Chagas disease. To determine its regulatory mechanisms, we investigated the response of T. cruzi-infected cardiomyocytes (CM), cardiac fibroblasts (CF) and L6E9 skeletal myoblasts to TGF-β. Cultures of CM, CF and L6E9 were infected with T. cruzi (Y strain) and treated with TGF-β (1–10 ng/mL, 1h or 48 h). Fibronectin (FN) distribution was analyzed by immunofluorescence and Western blot (WB). Phosphorylated SMAD2 (PS2), phospho-p38 (p-p38), and phospho-c-Jun (p-c-Jun) signaling were evaluated by WB. CF and L6E9 showed an increase in FN from 1 ng/mL of TGF-β, while CM displayed FN modulation only after 10 ng/mL treatment. CF and L6E9 showed higher PS2 levels than CM, while p38 is less stimulated in CF than CM and L6E9. After T. cruzi infection, localized FN disorganization was observed in infected CF and L6E9. T. cruzi induced an increase in FN in CF cultures, mainly in uninfected cells. Infected CF cultures treated with TGF-β showed a reduction in PS2 and an increase in p-p38 and p-c-Jun levels. Our data suggest that p38 and c-Jun pathways may be participating in the fibrosis regulatory process mediated by TGF-β after T. cruzi infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0244.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: contaminants of emerging concern; bisphenol; microalgae; Phaeodactylum tricornutum; bacteria, extracellular vesicles; electron microscopy; flow cytometry; mass spectrometry
Online: 17 June 2022 (03:57:22 CEST)
Small cellular particles are released into the surroundings of cells and are proposed to play an important role in intercellular communication and consequently the responses of microbial com-munities to environmental stressors. We studied the connection between the small cellular parti-cles and the efficiency of three culture series of the microalge Phaeodactylum tricornutum and bac-teria (axenic microalgae, bacterial culture and co-culture of the two) in removing bisphenols from their growth medium. The microorganism growth rate was determined by flow cytometry, protein profiles were examined by protein gel electrophoresis, cultures and small cellular particle isolates were imaged by scanning electron microscopy, and bisphenols were analyzed using gas chroma-tography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Higher growth rates of microal-gae were observed in the co-culture than in the axenic microalgal culture, while the presence of bisphenols neither influenced the morphology of the microalgal cells, protein profiles, nor the small cellular particle isolates. Biotic removal of bisphenols ranged from 0% to 71% and differed among the culture series in a compound-specific manner. However, it remains unclear which mechanisms influenced algal growth and bisphenol removal. Further research on the mechanisms of interspecies communication is needed to advance our understanding of microbial communities at the nano-level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0256.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; pathological cardiac hypertrophy; sarcomere; cardiac myocyte; cardiac fibroblast; cardiac fibrosis; myocyte-fibroblast interaction; extracellular matrix
Online: 12 July 2021 (12:13:53 CEST)
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited cardiovascular disorder affecting 1 in 500 people in the general population. Although characterized by asymmetric left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte disarray and cardiac fibrosis, HCM is in fact a highly complex disease with heterogenous clinical presentation, onset and complications. While HCM is generally accepted as a disease of the sarcomere, variable penetrance in families with identical genetic mutations challenges the monogenic origin of HCM and instead implies a multifactorial cause. Furthermore, large scale genome sequencing studies revealed that many genes previously reported as causative of HCM in fact have little or no evidence of disease association. These findings thus call for a re-evaluation of the sarcomere-centered view of HCM pathogenesis. Here, we summarize our current understanding of sarcomere-independent mechanisms of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, highlight the role of extracellular signals in cardiac fibrosis, and propose an alternative but integrated model of HCM pathogenesis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0754.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Exosome isolation and characterization; Exosomal research guidelines; Intercellular communication and host manipulation; Leishmania extracellular vesicles cargo; Leishmaniases.
Online: 31 May 2021 (11:43:19 CEST)
Leishmania parasites are a group of kinetoplastid pathogens that cause a variety of clinical forms while maintaining cell communication by secreting extracellular vesicles. Emerging technologies have been adapted for the studies of Leishmania-host-cell interactions to enable broad scale analysis of parasite extracellular vesicles. Leishmania extracellular vesicles (LEVS) are naturally released spheroidal nanoparticles of polydispersed suspensions surrounded by a lipid layer of membrane. Although LEVs have increasingly gained in importance, much is still unexplained, including bioavailability and function in the complex molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis. Considering the importance of LEVs in the parasite-host interaction and in the parasite-parasite relationships emerged during evolution, the current review aims at giving an overview of Leishmania summarizing knowledge and formulating guidelines for LEVs research. In the end, we report, direct methods for specific isolation of LEVs from promastigotes and amastigotes culture supernatant suitable for a range of different downstream applications increasing the compatibility and reproducibility to establish optimal and comparable isolation conditions and full LEVs characterization, and crucial immunomodulatory events triggered by this important group of parasites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0096.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: CTR1 metal-binding extracellular domain cloning; copper/silver chelation; E. coli filamentous growth; secondary silver nanoparticles formation
Online: 27 August 2017 (11:56:08 CEST)
There is much interest in effective copper chelators to correct copper dyshomeostasis in neurodegenerative and oncological diseases. In this study, a recombinant fusion protein for expression in E. coli cells was constructed from glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and the N-terminal domain (ectodomain) of human high affinity copper transporter CTR1 (hNdCTR1), which has three metal-bound motifs. Several biological properties of the GST-hNdCTR1 fusion protein were assessed. It was demonstrated that in cells, the protein was prone to oligomerization, formed inclusion bodies and displayed no toxicity. Treatment of E. coli cells with copper and silver ions reduced cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cells expressing GST-hNdCTR1 protein demonstrated resistance to the metal treatments. These cells accumulated silver ions and formed nanoparticles that contained AgCl and Ag0. In this bacterial population, filamentous bacteria with length about 10 μm were often observed. The possibility for the fusion protein carrying extracellular metal binding motifs to integrate into the cell’s copper metabolism and its chelating properties are discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0439.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: extracellular matrix; glycosaminoglycans; inflammatory bowel disease; ulcerative colitis; Crohn´s disease; fibrosis; stenosis; magnetic resonance imaging; elastography; histopathology
Online: 23 August 2021 (13:20:23 CEST)
Work from the last years indicate that the extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a direct role in vari-ous cellular processes including proliferation, migration and differentiation. Besides homeostat-ic processes, its regulatory function in inflammation becomes more and more evident. In in-flammation like inflammatory bowel disease, the ECM composition is constantly remodeled which can result in a structuring of fistulizing disease course. Thus, tracking early ECM changes might bear the potential to predict the disease course. In this review, we will provide an over-view of relevant diagnostic methods focusing on ECM changes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0590.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Hydrogel; Extracellular matrix hydrogels; Myocardial infarctions; Myocardial infarction therapy; Cardiac stem cell therapy; Tissue engineering; Cell-based therapy.
Online: 22 April 2021 (08:16:51 CEST)
The peril of a 3-dimensional, robust and sustained myocardial restoration by means of Tissue Engineering is that it still remains a largely experimental approach. Prolific protocols have been developed and tested in small and large animals, but as clinical cardiac surgeons, we have not come to the privilege of utilizing any of them in our clinical practice. The question arises: why? The heart is a unique organ, anatomically and functionally. It is not an easy target to replicate with current techniques, or even to support its viability and function. Currently available therapies fail to reverse the loss of functional cardiac tissue, the fundamental pathology remains unaddressed and a heart transplantation is an ultima ratio treatment option. Owing to equivocal results of cell-based therapies, several strategies have been pursued to overcome limitations of the current treatment options. Preclinical data as well as first-in-human studies conducted to date have provided important insights into the understanding of injection-based approaches for myocardial restoration. In the light of the available data, injectable biomaterials suitable for transcatheteter delivery appear to have the highest translational potential,. This article presents a current state-of-the-art in the field of hydrogel-based myocardial restoration therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0494.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Latent membrane protein 1; Epstein-Barr virus; Herpesvirus; Proteomics; Mass spectrometry; interactions; signaling; extracellular vesicles; exosomes; CD63; Tetraspanin
Online: 22 February 2021 (16:27:27 CET)
Abstract Tetraspanin CD63 is a cluster of cell surface proteins with four transmembrane domains which associates with tetraspanin-enriched microdomains and typically localizes to late endosomes and lysosomes. CD63 plays an important role in cellular trafficking of different proteins, EV cargo sorting and vesicles formation. We have preciously shown that CD63 is important in LMP1 trafficking to EVs and this also affects LMP1 mediated intracellular signaling including MAPK/ERK, NF-κB and mTOR activation. Using the BioID combined with mass spectrometry, we sought to define the broad CD63 interactome and how LMP1 modulates this network of interacting proteins. We identified a total of 1600 total proteins as proximal interacting newtwork of proteins to CD63. Biological process enrichment analysis revealed significant involvement in signal transduction, cell communication, protein metabolism and transportation. The CD63 only interactome was enriched in Rab GTPases, SNARE proteins and sorting nexins while adding LMP1 into the interactome increased presence of signaling and ribosomal proteins. Our results showed that LMP1 alters the CD63 interactome, shifting the network of proteins enrichment from protein localization and vesicle mediated transportation to metabolic processes and translation. We also show that LMP1 interacts with mTor, Nedd4L and PP2A indicating formation of a multiprotein complex with CD63 thereby potentially regulating LMP1 dependent mTor signaling. Collectively, the comprehensive analysis of CD63 proximal interacting proteins provides insights into network of partners required for endocytic trafficking, extracellular vesicle cargo sorting, formation and secretion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0155.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Aquaponics; Tilapia; Clarias; Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, extracellular enzymes, Pseudomonas flourescens; Pseudomonas veronii, plant growth promotion, In vitro antagonistic
Online: 8 February 2021 (15:46:08 CET)
Background: Aquaponics are food production systems advocated for food security and health. Their sustainability from a nutritional and plant health perspective is, however, a significant challenge. Recirculated aquaculture systems (RAS) form a major part of aquaponic systems, but knowledge about their potential to benefit plant growth and plant health is limited. The current study tested if the diversity and function of microbial communities in two commercial RAS were specific to the fish species used (Tilapia or Clarias) and sampling site (fish tanks and wastewaters), and whether they confer benefits to plants and have invitro antagonistic potential towards plant pathogens. Results: Microbial diversity and composition was found to be dependent on fish species and sample site. The Tilapia RAS hosted higher bacterial diversity than the Clarias RAS; but the latter hosted higher fungal diversity. Both Tilapia and Clarias RAS hosted bacterial and fungal communities that promoted plant growth, inhibited plant pathogens and encouraged biodegradation. The production of extracellular enzymes, related to nutrient availability and pathogen control, by bacterial strains isolated from the Tilapia and Clarias systems, makes them a promising tool in aquaponics and in their system design. Conclusions: This study explored the microbial potential of the commercial RAS with either Tilapia or Clarias as a tool to benefit the aquaponic system with respect to plant growth promotion and control of plant diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0193.v1
Subject: Keywords: Hemocytes; innate immune cells; Phagocytic Activity; Respiratory Burst; microalgae; immunomodulator; shrimps L. vannamei; Vibrio harveyi; Extracellular Polysaccharide (EPS)
Online: 8 December 2020 (09:57:25 CET)
White shrimps are susceptible to outbreaks of vibriosis because they do not have any adaptive immune system, they only have a non-specific innate immune system. The administration of EPS from microalgae Porphyridium cruentum (synonym: P. purpureum) on shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated to determine the effect of this immunostimulant on their non specific immune response and to test if EPS can be used as a protective agent for shrimp related to Vibrio infection. EPS was given to shrimps by immersion method on day 1 and booster on day 8. Shrimp hemocytes were taken on day 1 (EPS administration), day 7 (no treatment), day 8 (EPS booster) and day 9 (Vibrio infection) and tested for their immune response on each treatment. Result shows an increase in values of all immune parameters in line with the increasing EPS concentration, except the Differential Haemocyte Count (DHC). In detail, an increase was noted in total hemocytes (THC) value, Phagocytotic Activity (PA), Respiratory Burst (RB) in line as the EPS concentration increase. Although there is a decrease after the infection, the value obtained is not lower than the control value. These results indicate that EPS from Porphyrydium enhances immune parameters in shrimp rapidly and has the ability as an immunostimulant or an immunomodulator. It is a good modulator for the non specific immune cells of Pacific white shrimps, and it can be used as a preventive agent against Vibrio.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0422.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Hemocytes; Innate Immune Cells; Phagocytic Activity; Respiratory Burst; White-Shrimp; Microalgae; Immunomodulator; Toxicity; Extracellular Polysaccharide; Vibrio harveyi; Danio rerio
Online: 18 February 2021 (15:56:44 CET)
Exopolysaccharides or extracellular polysaccharides (EPS, sPS) represent valuable metabolite compound synthesized from red microalgae. It is a non toxic natural agent and can be applied as immunostimulant. Toxicity test of exopolysaccharides from Porphyridium has been done in-vivo using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryonic model, or the ZET (Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test). The administration of extracellular polysaccharide or exopolysaccharides (EPS) from microalgae Porphyridium cruentum (synonym: P. purpureum) on shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated to determine the effect of this immunostimulant on their non specific immune response and to test if this compound can be used as a protective agent for shrimp related to Vibrio infection. For immune response, exopolysaccharides was given to shrimps by immersion method on day 1 and booster on day 8. Shrimp hemocytes were taken on day 1 (EPS administration), day 7 (no treatment), day 8 (EPS booster) and day 9 (Vibrio infection) and tested for their immune response on each treatment. Result shows that the EPS is not toxic as represented by the normal embryonic development and the mortality data. In the Pacific whiteshrimps, it show an increase in values of all immune parameters in line with the increasing EPS concentration, except the Differential Haemocyte Count (DHC). In detail, an increase was noted in total hemocytes (THC) value, Phagocytotic Activity (PA), Respiratory Burst (RB) in line with the EPS concentration increase. These results and other previous studies indicate that EPS from Porphyridium is safe and it enhances immune parameters in shrimp rapidly and has the ability as an immunostimulant or an immunomodulator. It is a good modulator for the non-specific immune cells of Pacific white shrimps, and it can be used as a preventive agent against vibriosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0281.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: matrix metalloproteinase (MMP); moonlighting metalloproteinase; extracellular vesicles; oncosome; genome editing; cell communication network factor 2 (CCN2/CTGF); transcription factor; cancer
Online: 19 February 2020 (11:52:42 CET)
Matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) plays multiple roles in pro-tumorigenic proteolysis and in intracellular transcription. These include inducing connective tissue growth factor [CTGF, also known as cellular communication network factor 2 (CCN2)] and prompting a new definition of MMP3 as a moonlighting metalloproteinase. Members of the MMP family have been found within tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as oncosomes or exosomes. We here investigated the roles of MMP3-rich oncosomes in tumor progression, molecular transmission, and gene regulation. MMP3 and CCN2/CTGF were significantly co-expressed in tumor samples derived from patients suffering from colorectal adenocarcinoma. We found that oncosomes derived from a rapidly metastatic colon cancer cells (LuM1) were enriched in MMP3 and a C-terminal half fragment of CCN2/CTGF. MMP3-rich oncosomes were highly transmissive into recipient cells and were pro-tumorigenic in an allograft mouse model. Oncosome-derived MMP3 was transmissive into recipient cell nuclei, trans-activated CCN2/CTGF promoter, and induced CCN2/CTGF production at 1 to 6 hours after the addition of oncosomes to culture media. In addition, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of MMP3 showed significant anti-tumor effects, including inhibition of migration and invasion of LuM1 cells in vitro, inhibition of tumor growth in vivo, and reduction of CCN2/CTGF and its promoter activity in vitro. These data newly demonstrate that the oncosome-derived moonlighting metalloproteinase promotes metastasis and is pro-tumorigenic at distant sites as well as a transmissive trans-activator for the cellular communication network gene.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0148.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cell stress response; stressome; extracellular vesicle; heat shock protein 90 (HSP90); cell division control 37 (CDC37); prostate cancer; exosome; ectosome
Online: 11 February 2020 (14:50:14 CET)
Tumor cells exhibit a resistance-associated secretory phenotype involving extracellular vesicles (EVs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs). This response occurs in response to cell stress and cancer therapeutics. HSPs are stress-responsive molecular chaperones promoting proper protein folding, while also being released from cells with EVs as well as in free form as alarmins. We have here investigated the secretory phenotype of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells using proteome analysis. We have also examined the roles of the key co-chaperone CDC37 in stressome release, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and tumor progression. A number of HSP family members and their common receptor CD91/LRP1 were enriched at high levels in CRPC cell-derived EVs among over 700 other protein species. The small EVs (30 to 200 nm in size, potentially exosomes) were released even in a non-heated condition from the prostate cancer cells, whereas EMT-coupled release of EVs (200 to 500 nm, likely ectosomes) with associated HSP90α was increased after heat shock stress (HSS). Lactate dehydrogenase, a marker of membrane leakage/damage of cells, was also released upon HSS from the prostate cancer cells. During this stress response, intracellular CDC37 was also transcriptionally inducible by heat shock factor 1, and knockdown of CDC37 decreased EMT-coupled release of EVs. Triple knockdown of CDC37, HSP90α, and HSP90β was required for efficient reduction of the chaperone trio and to reduce tumorigenicity of the CRPC cells in vivo. Taken together, the data indicated that CDC37 and HSP90 are essential for stressome release and for tumorigenesis in resistant cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0333.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: multiple sclerosis; experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; sexual dimorphism; brain visco-elasticity; magnetic resonance elastography; extracellular matrix; cerebral cortex; neuroinflam-mation; basement membrane
Online: 21 December 2021 (12:53:48 CET)
Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has revealed sexual dimorphism in brain stiffness in healthy individuals and multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. In the animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), we showed previously that inflammation-induced brain softening was associated with alterations of the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, it remained unclear whether the brain ECM presents sex-specific properties that can be visualized by MRE. Therefore, we aimed here at quantifying sexual dimorphism in brain viscoelasticity in association with ECM changes in healthy and inflamed brains. Multifrequency MRE was applied to the midbrain of healthy and EAE mice of both sexes to quantitatively map regional stiffness. To define differences in brain ECM composition, gene expression of the key basement membrane components laminin (Lama4, Lama5), collagen (Col4a1, Col1a1) and fibronectin (Fn1) was investigated by RT-qPCR. We showed that the healthy male cortex expressed less Lama4, Lama5, Col4a1 but more Fn1 (all p < 0.05) than the healthy female cortex, which was associated with 9% softer properties (p = 0.044) in that region. At peak EAE, cortical softening was similar in both sexes compared to healthy tissue, with an 8% difference remaining between males and females during EAE (p < 0.001). Cortical Lama4, Lama5 and Col4a1 expression increased 2 to 3-fold in EAE in both sexes while Fn1 decreased only in males (all p < 0.05). No significant sex differences in stiffness were detected in other brain regions. In conclusion, sexual dimorphism in the ECM composition of cortical tissue in the mouse brain is reflected by in vivo stiffness measured with MRE and should be considered in future studies by sex-specific reference values.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0777.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Exosomal PD-L1 mRNA; extracellular vesicles; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Immunotherapy; PD-L1 axis; Atezolizumab – nab-paclitaxel; Predictive biomarkers; Liquid biopsy
Online: 31 March 2021 (15:27:45 CEST)
Patients diagnosed with unresectable locally advanced Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) usually have poor outcome for its aggressive clinical behaviour. Atezolizumab plus nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab)-Paclitaxel prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) among patients with unresectable locally advanced TNBC but its use is hampered by the lack of reliable predictors of tumor response. Seventy-seven consecutive patients with unresectable locally advanced TNBC treated with Atezolizumab plus nab-Paclitaxel were studied by blood draws at baseline, 28 days and 56 days after initiation of treatment. Exosomal PD-L1 mRNA in plasma was determined using Bio-Rad QX100 digital droplet PCR system and exoRNeasy kit and objective responses were defined following the RECIST criteria v.1.1. The study evaluates whether PD-L1 mRNA copies per ml in plasma-derived exosomes may predict response to anti-PD-L1 antibodies early in the course of therapy. Our data showed patients with unresectable locally advanced TNBC and higher levels of PD-L1 mRNA expression in plasma-derived exosomes at baseline demonstrated greater response to atezolizumab plus nab-paclitaxel. Furthermore, the levels of mRNA decreased with successful treatment while the copy number increased in patients experiencing disease progression following atezolizumab plus nab-paclitaxel. For the first time, our data showed the usefulness of assessment of exosomal PD-L1 as non-invasive real-time biopsy in patients diagnosed with TNBC suggesting exosomal PD-L1 is significantly associated with outcome and response to Atezolizumab plus nab-Paclitaxel.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0138.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: extracellular signal-regulated kinase; MAPK/ERK signaling; intracellular signaling; kidney development; ureteric bud branching morphogenesis; nephrogenesis; progenitor cells; self-renewal; differentiation
Online: 13 March 2019 (09:00:32 CET)
Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are common birth defects deriving from abnormalities in renal differentiation during embryogenesis. CAKUT is the major cause of end-stage renal disease and chronic kidney diseases in children, but its genetic causes remain largely unresolved. Here we discuss advances in the understanding of how MAPK/ERK activity contributes to the regulation of ureteric bud branching morphogenesis, which dictates the final size, shape, and nephron number of the kidney. Recent studies also demonstrate that MAPK/ERK pathway is directly involved in nephrogenesis, regulating both the maintenance and differentiation of the nephrogenic mesenchyme. Interestingly, aberrant MAPK/ERK signaling is linked to many cancers, and recent studies suggest it also plays a role in the most common pediatric renal cancer, Wilms’ tumor.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0312.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: embryonic heart tube; extracellular matrix; cardiac jelly; hydraulic skeleton; heart skeleton; valveless pumping; blood flow; non-circular cross sections; ballooning; trabeculation
Online: 30 January 2019 (11:16:14 CET)
The early embryonic heart is a multi-layered tube consisting of (1) an outer myocardial tube; (2) an inner endocardial tube; and (3) an extracellular matrix layer interposed between myocardium and endocardium, called “cardiac jelly” (CJ). During the past decades, research on CJ has mainly focused on its molecular and cell biological aspects. This review focuses on the morphological and biomechanical aspects of CJ. Special attention is given to (1) the spatial distribution and fiber architecture of CJ; (2) the morphological dynamics of CJ during the cardiac cycle; and (3) the removal/remodeling of CJ during advanced heart looping stages, which leads to the formation of ventricular trabeculations and endocardial cushions. CJ acts as a hydraulic skeleton displaying striking structural and functional similarities with the mesoglea of jellyfish. CJ not only represents a filler substance, facilitating end-systolic occlusion of the embryonic heart lumen. Its elastic components antagonize the systolic deformations of the heart wall and thereby power the refilling phase of the ventricular tube. Non-uniform spatial distribution of CJ generates non-circular cross sections of the opened endocardial tube (initially elliptic, later deltoid), which seem to be advantageous for valveless pumping. Endocardial cushions arise from non-removed remnants of the original CJ.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0125.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: Extracellular vesicles (EVs); Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs); Chlor-amidine (Cl-Am); cancer; neurodegeneration; deimination; cytoskeleton; induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs); histone H3; epigenetics
Online: 16 March 2017 (17:54:15 CET)
Extracellular vesicle (EV) release, which occurs in most eukaryotic cells, has recently been associated with peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD)-driven protein deimination. Evidence points to the involvement of deiminated cytoskeletal proteins and changes in histone deimination. Both PADs and EVs are associated with various pathologies including cancers, autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases. The elevated PAD expression observed in cancers may contribute to increase in EV shedding observed from cancer cells, contributing to cancer progression. Similarly, elevated PAD expression observed in neurodegenerative diseases may cause increased EV shedding and spread of neurodegenerative EV cargo, contributing to disease progression and pathologies. Pharmacological inhibition of PAD-mediated deimination using pan-PAD inhibitor Cl-amidine, reduced cellular EV release in prostate cancer cells, rendering them significantly more susceptible to chemotherapeutic drugs. Studies on models of central nervous system damage have demonstrated critical functional roles for PADs and neuroprotective effects using PAD inhibitors in vivo, while human neurodegenerative iPSC in vitro models showed evidence of increased protein deimination. Besides using refined PAD inhibitors to selectively manipulate EV biogenesis for novel combination therapies in cancer treatment, we also speculate how EV biogenesis could be targeted via the newly identified PAD-pathway to ameliorate neurodegenerative disease progression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0386.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: resistance-associated secretory phenotype (RASP); extracellular vesicle (EV); exosome; oncosome; drug resistance; epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); heat shock protein (HSP); cell stress response; hypoxia; acidosis; tumor immunology
Online: 29 December 2019 (13:46:21 CET)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes or oncosomes are released with molecules unfavorable for survival from cells. In addition, accumulating evidence has shown that tumor cells often eject anti-cancer drugs such as chemotherapeutics and targeted drugs within EVs, a novel mechanism of drug resistance. The EV-releasing, drug resistance phenotype is often coupled with cellular dedifferentiation and transformation, cells undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and taking on a cancer stem cell phenotype. Recent studies have shown that the release of EVs is also involved in immunosuppression. The concept of the resistance-associated secretory phenotype (RASP) is reviewed herein.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0316.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Cancer surgery; Cancer radiotherapy; Cancer immunotherapy; Cancer stroma; Cancer-associated fibroblasts; Carcinogenesis; Cancer resistance to immunotherapy; Exosomes; Hypoxia; Neutrophil extracellular traps; Sphingomyelin; Neutral sphingomyelinase; Tumor microenvironment; Tumor-associated macrophages
Online: 22 June 2022 (10:25:07 CEST)
The central reason behind emergence of clinically-detectable tumors is evasion from immune surveillance due to lack of cancer cells surface membrane expression of tumor-specific peptides in association with MHC class I molecules, concealment of natural killer cells-activating molecules, and absence of inflammation resulting from inefficient stimulation of innate immunity receptors and co-stimulatory molecules. The tumor microenvironment (TME) also contributes to tumor initiation, progression and resistance to therapeutic interventions because of its dense, fibrogenic, barrier-like composition, aberrant vasculature, and production of cytokines and chemokines responsible for recruitment of immune suppressive cells, notably myeloid-derived suppressor cells, M2 macrophages, regulatory T cells, extracellular trap-forming neutrophils, and cancer-associated fibroblasts. We herein show that the relentless efforts and strategies to overcome the TME elusive tumor-promoting impact produced contrasting, opposed, controversial effects, characterized by limited efficacy and proven adversity, and most importantly deterred from attempts to discover and counteract the fundamental inherent mechanisms initiating, and not consequent to, carcinogenesis.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0174.v1
Subject: Keywords: MZA, Manzamine A; CTKD, C-terminal kinase domain; ras-ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) pathway; RSK1, 90kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1; RSK2, 90kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 2; NTKD, N-terminal kinase domain
Online: 4 November 2020 (08:27:07 CET)
Manzamines are complex polycyclic marine-derived β-carboline alkaloids with reported anticancer, immunostimulatory, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, antimalarial, neuritogenic, hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis suppression bioactivities, putatively associated with inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3, cyclin-dependent kinase 5, and vacuolar ATPases. We hypothesized that additional and yet undiscovered molecular targets might be associated with Manzamine A (MZA) reported pharmacological properties. We report herein for the first time to our knowledge that MZA inhibited a 90kDa ribosomal protein kinase S6 (RSK1) when screened against a panel of 30 protein kinases. Furthermore in vitro RSK kinase assays demonstrated a 10-fold selectivity in potency of MZA against RSK1 versus RSK2. MZA’s differential binding and selectivity toward the two isoforms is also supported by computational docking experiments. Specifically, the RSK1-MZA (N- and C-termini) complexes appear to have stronger interactions and preferable energetics contrary to the RSK2-MZA ones. In addition, our computational strategy suggests that MZA binds to the N-terminal kinase domain of RSK1 rather than the C-terminal domain. RSK is a vertebrate family of cytosolic serine-threonine kinases that act downstream of the ras-ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) pathway, which phosphorylates substrates shown to regulate several cellular processes including growth, survival and proliferation. Consequently, our findings have lead us to hypothesize that MZA and the 80 currently known manzamine-type alkaloids isolated from several sponge genera, may have novel pharmacological properties.