REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0865.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Diabtetic retinoapthy; Exosomes; extracellular vesicles; precision medicine
Online: 13 June 2023 (03:08:48 CEST)
Diabetes and diabetes-induced micro and macrovascular complications are major causes of healthcare problems. The extracellular vesicles are produced by all cells from all organisms. They are shown to have properties of the producer cells and also reflect the host physiology and pathology. Since the EVs represent the cellular state they are excellent biomarkers. In this review, we will focus on the EVs produced by the Neuro Vascular Unit cells of the eye as well as the extraocular cells in the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy. A brief account of the use of these nanovesicles in personalised medicine is also given.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0532.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: extracellular vesicles; exosomes; platelets; regenerative medicine
Online: 23 July 2021 (09:58:26 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) present a great potential for the development of new treatments in the biomedical field. To be used as therapeutics, many different sources have been used for EVs obtention, while only few studies have addressed the use of platelet derived EVs (pEVs). In fact, pEVs have been shown to intervene in different healing responses, thus some studies have evaluated their regenerative capability in wound healing or hemorrhagic shock. Even more, pEVs have proven to induce cellular differentiation, enhancing musculoskeletal or neural regeneration. However, the obtention and characterization of pEVs is widely heterogeneous and differs from the recommendations of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles. Therefore, in this review, we aim to present the main advances in the therapeutical use of pEVs in the regenerative medicine field while highlighting the isolation and characterization steps followed. The main goal of this review is to portray the studies performed in order to enhance the translation of the pEVs research into feasible therapeutical applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1553.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Extracellular Vesicles, immune response, mycosis
Online: 24 July 2023 (10:28:58 CEST)
Like other organisms, fungi produce extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are involved in various biological processes, including intercellular communication and the transport of molecules between cells. These EVs can be applied in fungal pathogenesis, virulence, and interactions with other organisms, including host cells, in the case of fungal infections. While some types of mycoses are relatively common and easily treatable, certain neglected mycoses pose significant public health challenges, such as sporotrichosis, chromoblastomycosis, and paracoccidioidomycosis. These infectious diseases can cause significant morbidity and disability, leading to a reduced quality of life for the patients. So, research about the virulence factor is essential to understand how fungi escape the immune system. In this context, this manuscript reviews the study of fungi EVs, their cargo, their obtaining, and their role during the infectious process, which is extremely important for understanding this neglected mycosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0167.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: extracellular vesicles; exosomes; microvesicles; apoptotic bodies; apoptotic extracellular vesicles; cell death; inflammation; sepsis; lung inflammatory disorders; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 9 September 2021 (10:31:49 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been identified as novel mediators of intercellular communication. They work via delivering the sequestered cargo to cells in close vicinity as well as distant sites in the body, regulating pathophysiological processes. Cell death and inflammation are biologically crucial processes in both normal physiology and pathology. These processes are indistinguishably linked with their effectors modulating the other process. For instance, during an unresolvable infection, the upregulation of specific immune mediators leads to inflammation causing cell death and tissue damage. EVs have gained considerable interest as mediators of both cell death and inflammation during conditions such as sepsis. This review summarizes the types of extracellular vesicles known to date and their roles in mediating immune responses leading to cell death and inflammation with specific focus on sepsis and lung inflammation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0638.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: egg; embryo; extracellular vesicle; exosome; fallopian tube; microvesicle; oocyte; oviductosome; oviduct; sperm
Online: 30 October 2020 (13:09:26 CET)
In mammals, the oviduct (or the Fallopian tube in humans) can be divided into the infundibulum (responsible for oocyte pick-up), ampulla (site of fertilization), isthmus (where preimplantation embryos develop), and uterotubal junction (where embryos transit to the uterus). The oviductal fluid, as well as extracellular vesicles produced from the oviductal epithelial cells, referred to as oEVs, have been shown to improve the fertilization process, prevent polyspermy, and aid in embryo development. oEVs contain molecular cargos (such as miRNAs, mRNAs, proteins, and lipids) that can be delivered and fuse to recipient cells. oEVs produced from the ampulla appear to be functionally distinct from those produced from the isthmus. In multiple species including mice, cats, dogs, pigs, and cows, oEVs can be incorporated into the oocytes, sperm, and embryos. In this review, we show the positive impact of oEVs on gamete function as well as blastocyst development and how they may improve embryo quality in in vitro conditions in an assisted reproductive technology setting for rodents, domestic animals, farm animals, and humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0257.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Extracellular vesicles (EVs); mRNA; fungal pathogen; plant pathogen; Ustilago maydis
Online: 9 June 2021 (10:59:36 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) can transfer diverse RNA cargo for intercellular signalling. EV-associated RNAs have been found in diverse fungi and were proposed to be relevant for pathogenesis in animal hosts. In plant-pathogen interactions, small RNAs are exchanged in a cross-kingdom RNAi warfare and EVs were considered to be a delivery mechanism. To extend the search for EV-associated molecules involved in plants-pathogen communication, we have characterised the repertoire of EV-associated mRNAs secreted by the maize smut pathogen, Ustilago maydis. For this initial survey, EVs were isolated from axenic filamentous cultures that mimic infectious hyphae. The EV-associated RNAs were resistant to degradation by RNases and the presence of intact mRNAs was evident. The set of mRNAs enriched inside EVs relative to the fungal cells are functionally distinct from those that are depleted from EVs, particularly overrepresented in metabolic enzyme activities. Intriguingly, mRNAs of some known effectors and other proteins linked to virulence were found in EVs. Furthermore, several mRNAs enriched in EVs are also upregulated during infection, suggesting that EV-associated mRNAs may participate in plant-pathogen interaction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0004.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: extracellular vesicles; EVs; exosomes; mesenchymal stem cell EVs; plant-derived EVs; wound healing; scaffolds
Online: 2 August 2021 (08:57:45 CEST)
Each year, millions of individuals suffer from a non-healing wound, abnormal scarring, or injuries accompanied by an infection. For these cases, scientists are searching for new therapeutic interventions, from which one of the most promising is the use of extracellular vesicles (EVs). Naturally, EV-based signalling takes part in all four wound healing phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation and remodelling. Such an extensive involvement of EVs suggests exploiting their action to modulate the impaired healing phase. Furthermore, next to their natural wound healing capacity, EVs can be engineered for better defined pharmaceutical purposes, such as carrying specific cargo or targeting specific destinations by labelling them with certain surface proteins. This review aims to promote scientific awareness in basic and translational research of EVs by summarizing the current knowledge about their natural role in each stage of skin repair and the most recent findings in application areas, such as wound healing, skin regeneration and treatment of dermal diseases, including the stem cell-derived, plant-derived and engineered EVs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0404.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: milk; human; microbiota; microbiome; extracellular vesicle; breastfeeding
Online: 23 April 2020 (05:11:19 CEST)
The microbiota of human breast milk (HBM) contributes to infant gut colonization; however, whether bacterial extracellular vesicles (EVs) are present in HBM or might contribute to this process remains unknown. In the present study, we characterized the HBM microbiota of healthy Korean mothers and measured the key bacteria likely affecting infant gut colonization by analyzing both the microbiota and bacterial EVs. A total of 22 HBM samples were collected from lactating mothers. The DNA of bacteria and bacteria-derived EVs was extracted from each sample. Gene analysis was performed using Illumina MiSeq. Firmicutes accounted for the largest portion among the phyla, followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroides, and Actinobacteria in both bacteria and bacterial EV samples. At the genus level, Streptococcus (25.1%) and Staphylococcus (10.7%) were predominant in bacterial samples, whereas Bacteroides (9.1%), Acinetobacter (6.9%), and Lactobacillaceae(f) (5.5%) were prevalent in bacterial EV samples. Several genera including Bifidobacterium were significantly positively correlated between the two samples. Our findings reveal the diverse bacterial communities in HBM of healthy lactating mothers and suggest the presence of key bacteria with metabolic activity in HBM and that EVs derived from these bacteria may contribute to the vertical transfer of gut microbiota from mother to infant.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0507.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: liposomes, exosomes, extracellular vesicles, drug delivery, drug targeting, bioinspired systems, engineered systems.
Online: 22 October 2018 (15:35:20 CEST)
The similarities between exosomes and liposomes, together with the high organotropism of several types of exosomes, have recently prompted the development of engineered-exosomes or exosome-mimetics, which may be artificial (liposomal) or cell-derived vesicles, as advanced platforms for targeted drug delivery. Here we provide the current state-of-the-art of using exosome or exosome-inspired systems for drug delivery. We review the various approaches investigated and the shortcomings of each approach. Finally the challenges identified up-to-date in this field are summarized.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0242.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: extracellular vesicles; stem cells; induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs); regenerative medicine
Online: 15 April 2020 (10:08:44 CEST)
Regenerative medicine aims to repair damaged or missing cells, tissues or organs for the treatment of various diseases, poorly managed with conventional drugs and medical procedures. To date there are different approaches to obtain these results. Multimodal regenerative methods include transplant of healthy organs, tissues, or cells, body stimulation to activate a self healing response in damaged tissues, as well as the combined use of cells and bio-degradable scaffold to obtain functional tissues. Certainly, stem cells and derived products are promising tools in regenerative medicine due to their ability to induce de novo tissue formation and/or promote tissue and organ repair and regeneration. Currently, several studies have shown that the beneficial stem cell effects in damaged tissue restore are not depending on their engraftment and differentiation on the injury site, but rather to their paracrine activity. It is now well known that paracrine action of stem cells is due to their ability to release Extracellular Vesicles (EVs). EVs play a fundamental role in cell-to cell communication and are directly involved in tissue regeneration. In the present review, we tried to summarize the molecular mechanisms trough which EVs carry out their therapeutic action and their possible application for the treatment of several diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0696.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: extracellular vesicles; enveloped viruses; lentiviral vectors; exosome; proteomic; lipidomic; transcriptomic
Online: 29 March 2021 (13:53:53 CEST)
Lentiviral vectors (LVs) are a powerful tool for gene and cell therapy and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) have been extensively used as a platform for production of these vectors. Like most cells and cellular tissues, HEK293 cells release extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs released by cells share similar size, biophysical characteristics and even a biogenesis pathway with cell-produced enveloped viruses, making it a challenge to efficiently separate EVs from LVs. Thus, EVs co-purify with LVs during downstream processing, becoming “impurities” in the context of cell therapy. To characterize EVs from an inducible lentivirus producing cell line, two conditions were studied: non-induced and induced. EVs’ identity was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and western blot. Seven proteins were identified by mass spectrometry as potential EV markers. Lipid composition of EVs and LVs showed similar enrichment in phosphatidylserine. RNA cargos in EVs showed enrichment in genes involved in viral processes and binding functions. Flow virometry, GTA and ddPCR results also confirmed the heterogenic nature of EVs and LVs populations. These findings provide insights on the product profile of lentiviral preparation and could help develop separation strategies of co-produced EVs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0462.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Hypoxia; Extracellular vesicles; Breast Cancer; Cell Invasion
Online: 26 August 2022 (14:08:23 CEST)
Hypoxia, a condition of low oxygenation frequently found in triple-negative breast tumors (TNBC), promotes extracellular vesicle (EV) secretion and favors cell invasion, a complex process in which cell morphology is altered, dynamic focal adhesion spots are created, and ECM is re-modeled. Here, we investigated the invasive properties triggered by TNBC-derived hypoxic small EV (SEVh) in vitro in cells cultured under hypoxic and normoxic conditions, using pheno-typical and proteomic approaches. SEVh characterization demonstrated increased protein abundance and diversity over normoxic SEV (SEVn), with enrichment in pro-invasive pathways. In normoxic cells, SEVh promotes invasive behavior through pro-migratory morphology, in-vadopodia development, ECM degradation and matrix metalloprotease (MMP) secretion. Pro-teome profiling of normoxic cells exposed to SEVh determined enrichment in metabolic processes and cell cycle, modulating cell health to escape apoptotic pathways. In hypoxia, SEVh was re-sponsible for proteolytic and catabolic pathway inducement, interfering with integrin availabil-ity and gelatinase expression. Overall, our results demonstrate the importance of hypoxic signal-ing via SEV in tumors for the early establishment of metastasis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1984.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: nanoquercetin; extracellular vesicles; hepatocellular carcinoma; therapeutics; anticancer; drug delivery
Online: 1 December 2023 (03:08:11 CET)
Over the few decades, cancer-associated mortalities and morbidities were continuously increased worldwide despite sophisticated technological advancements. Pharmaceutical interventions associated with drugs exhibit a high degree of side effects and toxicities in addition to very high costs. Subsequently, to reduce or to vanish the side effects and high costs, researchers are now exploring natural bioactive compounds such as quercetin in its nanoformulations along with biologics as cargo delivery vehicles. Quercetin along with mesenchymal stromal lineage-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) possesses an anti-cancer potential that can be explored to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Exerting enhanced effect, nano quercetin synergistically with EVs triggers the anti-cancer mechanisms by regulating and dysregulating several signalling mechanisms including NF-κB, p53, JAK/STAT, MAPK, Wnt/β-catenin and PI3K/AKT, in addition to PBX3/ERK1/2/CDK2, and miRNAs modulation. In addition, findings regarding the potential checkpoints of anti-cancer signalling pathways were investigated that offer opportunities to develop engineered EVs incorporated with nano quercetin for the development of novel therapeutics to treat HCC in future. In this present mechanistic review, we abridged the regulation of such signalling mechanisms synergetic approach of nano quercetin and EVs. The regulatory role of EVs in the manifestation of innumerable miRNAs has also been tailed with special context to HCC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0657.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; neurodegenerative diseases; extracellular vesicles; exosomes; miRNA; biomarkers
Online: 9 June 2023 (03:13:34 CEST)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe and incurable neurodegenerative disease, char-acterized by the progressive death of motor neurons, leading to paralysis and death. It is a rare disease distinguished by high patient-to-patient heterogeneity, making its study arduous and complex. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) emerged as an important player in ALS development. Thus, ALS phenotype-expressing cells can spread their abnormal bioactive cargos through the secretion of EVs, even at far distant tissues. Importantly, due to their nature and composition, EVs’ formation and cargo can be exploited for the better comprehension of this elusive disease and identification of novel biomarkers, as well as for potential therapeutic applications, such as those based on stem cell-derived exosomes. This review highlights the recent advances in the identification of the role of EVs in ALS etiopathology and how EVs can be promising new approaches for therapeutic strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0413.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: extracellular vesicles; Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis; virulence; macrophages
Online: 7 November 2023 (07:54:33 CET)
Leishmania spp. is the aetiologic agent of leishmaniasis, a disease endemic in several developing countries. The parasite expresses and secretes several virulence factors that subvert macrophage function and immune response. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) can carry molecules of the parasites that show immunomodulatory effects on macrophage activation and disease progression. In the present work, we detected a significantly higher expression of lpg3 and gp63 genes in Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes recovered after successive experimental infections (IVD-P) compared to those cultured for a long period (LT-P). In addition, we observed a significantly higher percentage of infection and internalized parasites in groups of macrophages infected with IVD-P. Macrophages previously treated with EVs from LT-P showed higher percentages of infection and production of inflammatory cytokines after challenge with the parasite compared to untreated ones. However, macrophages infected with parasites and treated with EVs did not reduce the parasite load. In addition, no synergistic effects were observed in infected macrophages treated with EVs and reference drugs. In conclusion, parasites cultured for a long period in vitro and recovered from animals’ infection differently affect the macrophage response. Furthermore, EVs produced by these parasites affected macrophage response in the early infection of these cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1305.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Heat-shock-protein; extracellular vesicles; reprograming tumors; tumor evolucionary pressure
Online: 18 May 2023 (08:46:07 CEST)
Considering tumors from an evolucionary perspective, successive tumor cells undergo turnover in response to stressful conditions which pressures tumor cells to adapt to a new environment. Tumor cells uses parts of themselves to communicate and share biological information, known as extracellular vesicles (EV) secretion to promote their survival and “survive to each and every metabolic cost”. Tumor microenvironment (TME) is a miscellaneous of cells, factors, extracellular matrix proteins and EVs. EVs include smalls (<160nm, exosomes) and larger (100-1,000nm, microvesicles) lipid bilayer enclosed packages of biomolecules that are shed by tumors to TME. Tumor-derived extracellular vesicles transfer adaptative stress signaling to recipient cells, reprograming these cells. Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) are more prominent stress response regulators found in exosomes. HSP-loaded exosomes actively reprogram tumor and TME cells to acquire mechanisms that contribute to tumor progression and therapy resistance. The intercellular communication mediated by HSP-loaded EVs favors the escape of tumor cells from, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, hypoxia, apoptosis and anti-cancer therapies. Extracellular HSPs activate and deactivate immune response, induce cell differentiation, changes vascular homeostasis, and help to augment the pre-metastatic niche formation. Here we will explore the EV mechanism of HSP transmission among TME cells and the relevance of these intercellular communications for resistance to therapies in cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0529.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: extracellular vesicles, EVs , traumatic brain injury, bone loss, TBI
Online: 23 October 2018 (08:56:08 CEST)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major source of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Patients suffering from TBI exhibit a higher susceptibility to bone loss and an increased rate of bone fractures; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Herein, we observed significantly lower bone quality and elevated levels of inflammation in bone and bone marrow niche after controlled cortical impact-induced TBI in in-vivo CD-1 mice. Further, we identified dysregulated NFB signaling, an established mediator of osteoclast differentiation and bone loss, within the bone marrow niche of TBI mice. Ex vivo studies revealed increased osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow-derived cells from TBI mice, as compared to sham injured mice. Finally, we found bone marrow derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) from TBI mice enhanced the colony forming ability and osteoclast differentiation efficacy of bone marrow cells and activated NFB signaling genes in bone marrow-derived cells. Taken together, we provide evidence that TBI-induced inflammatory stress on bone and the bone marrow niche may activate NFB leading to accelerated bone loss. Targeted inhibition of these signaling pathways may reverse TBI-induced bone loss and reduce fracture rates.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0518.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: virus; extracellular vesicles; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; membrane vesicluation
Online: 31 May 2020 (21:35:23 CEST)
Within the micro and nano world, tiny membrane-enclosed bits of material are more or less free to move and act as communication tools within cells, between cells, between different tissues and between organisms in global environment. Based on the mechanism of membrane budding and vesiculation that includes all types of cells, in this review, we attempted to present a review on SARS-CoV-2 virus actions in compartments of different scales (cells and their surroundings, tissues, organisms and society). Interactions of the virus with cells on a molecular level, with neural system, endothelium, hematopoietic system, gastrointestinal system and genitourinary system. Transmission route between organisms and between mother and fetus are considered. Also, transmission of virus through contact with materials and with environment, the suggested measures to prevent contamination with the virus and to support the organism against the disease are given.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0229.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: extracellular vesicles; melanoma; doxorubicin; drug delivery systems.
Online: 11 May 2021 (10:19:50 CEST)
Tailoring extracellular vesicles (EVs) as targeted drug delivery systems to enhance the therapeutic efficacy showed superior advantage over liposomal therapies. Herein, we developed a novel nanotool for targeting B16.F10 murine melanoma, based on EVs stabilized with Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and loaded with doxorubicin (DOX). Nanosized EVs were efficiently enriched from melanoma cells cultured under metabolic stress by ultrafiltration coupled with size exclusion chromatography (UF-SEC) and characterized by size, morphology, and proteome. To reduce their clearance in vivo, EVs were PEGylated and passively loaded with DOX (PEG-EV-DOX). Our data suggested that the low PEG coverage of EVs might still favor EV surface protein interactions with target proteins from intratumor cells, ensuring their use as “Trojan horses” to deliver DOX to the tumor tissue. Moreover, our results showed a superior antitumor activity of PEG-EV-DOX in B16.F10 murine melanoma models in vitro and in vivo compared to that exerted by clinically applied liposomal DOX in the same tumor model. The PEG-EV-DOX administration in vivo reduced NF-κB activation and increased BAX expression, suggesting better prognosis of EV-based therapy than liposomal DOX treatment. Collectively, our results highlight the promising potential of EVs as optimal tools for systemic delivery of DOX to solid tumors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0069.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: extracellular vesicles (EVs); urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs); exosomes; biomarkers; liquid biopsy; cirrhosis; fibrosis; hepatocarcinoma (HCC); alcoholic liver disease (ALD).
Online: 1 February 2021 (18:15:22 CET)
(1) Background: Alcohol abuse has a high impact on the mortality and morbidity related to a great number of diseases and is responsible for the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). It remains challenging to detect and evaluate its severity, which is crucial for prognosis. In this work, we studied if urinary EVs (uEVs) could serve in diagnose and evaluate cirrhosis in ALD. (2) Methods: uEVs characterization by cryo-electron microscopy (Cryo-EM), Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) and Western blotting (WB) was performed in a cohort of 21 controls and 21 cirrhotic patients. Then, proteomics of urinary EVs (uEVs) was carried out in a second cohort of 6 controls and 8 patients in order to identify new putative biomarkers for cirrhosis in ALD. (3) Results: uEVs concentration, size and composition were altered in cirrhotic patients. A total of 1304 proteins were identified in uEVs, and 90 of them were found to be altered in cirrhotic patients. (4) Conclusions: uEVs could be considered as a tool and a supplier of new biomarkers for ALD, whose application would be especially relevant in chronic patients. Yet, further research is necessary to obtain more relevant result in clinical terms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1873.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Bacterial Extracellular Vesicles; Therapeutics; Neurodegenerative Disease; Alzheimer's Disease; Nanocarriers
Online: 27 June 2023 (09:27:15 CEST)
Bacterial Extracellular Vesicles (BEVs) generated from the bacteria has high feasibility of intracellular interactions with other cells, can be used as a cargo to deliver any therapeutic substances like monoclonal antibodies, proteins, plasmids, siRNA and small molecules for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). BEVs have a high ability for delivering therapeutic molecules across the blood-brain barrier to treat Alzheimer's Disease (AD) via various mechanisms. In this review, we have sum up in-depth research details of the role and advancement of BEVs in NDs, AD and its Therapeutics. Moreover, details about offensive and defensive functions of BEVs in ND pathogenesis and examine the critical BEV networks in the microbiome-gut-brain axis and their role in neurodegenerative disorders. Additionally determining the roles of BEVs in the neuroimmune system and their interaction with neurodegenerative disorders and exploring the risk factors of BEVs in the autophagy-lysosomal pathway and their possible effects on neurodegenerative disorders are summarised in detail. In conclusion, this review seeks to contribute to a better understanding of the potential function of BEVs in NDs and to identify new therapeutic intervention strategies.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: endosome; exosome; extracellular vesicles; fungal RNA biology; membrane trafficking; RNA transport; RNA recognition motif
Online: 21 January 2020 (03:26:40 CET)
Membrane-coupled RNA transport is an emerging theme in fungal biology. This review focuses on the RNA cargo and mechanistic details of transport via two inter-related sets of organelles: endosomes and extracellular vesicles for intra- and intercellular RNA transfer. Simultaneous transport and translation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) on the surface of shuttling endosomes is a conserved process pertinent to highly polarised eukaryotic cells, such as hyphae or neurons. Here we detail the endosomal mRNA transport machinery components and mRNA targets of the core RNA-binding protein Rrm4. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are newly garnering interest as mediators of intercellular communication, especially between pathogenic fungi and their hosts. Landmark studies in plant-fungus interactions indicate EVs as a means of delivering various cargos, most notably small RNAs (sRNAs), for cross-kingdom RNA interference. Recent advances and implications of the nascent field of fungal EVs are discussed and potential links between endosomal and EV-mediated RNA transport are proposed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0078.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Extracellular vesicles; neurodegenerative disorders; mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns; inflammation
Online: 6 July 2022 (09:16:21 CEST)
Neuroinflammation is a common hallmark in different neurodegenerative conditions that share neuronal dysfunction and a progressive loss of a selectively vulnerable brain cell population. Alongside ageing and genetics, inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction are considered key risk factors. Microglia are considered immune sentinels of the central nervous system capable of initiating an innate and adaptive immune response. Nevertheless, the pathological mechanisms underlying the initiation and spread of inflammation in the brain are still poorly described. Recently, a new mechanism of intercellular signalling mediated by small extracellular vesicles (EVs) has been identified. EVs are nanosized particles (30-150 nm) with a bilipid membrane that carries cell-specific bioactive cargos that participate in physiological or pathological processes. Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are cellular components recognized by the immune receptors of microglia, inducing or aggravating neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative disorders. Diverse evidence links mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation mediated by mitochondrial-DAMPs (mtDAMPs) such as mitochondrial DNA, TFAM and cardiolipin, among others. Mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDVs) are a subtype of EVs produced after mild damage to mitochondria and, upon fusion with multivesicular bodies (MVBs), are released as EVs to the extracellular space. MDVs are particularly enriched in mtDAMPs which can induce an immune response and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Importantly, growing evidence supports the association between mitochondrial dysfunction, EVs release and inflammation. Here, we describe the role of extracellular vesicles-associated mtDAMPS in physiological conditions and as neuroinflammation activators contributing to neurodegenerative disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0215.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: extracellular vesicles; vesicle labelling; vesicle tracking; helminth; proteomics; Cryo–TEM
Online: 10 July 2020 (16:11:09 CEST)
In the last two decades, extracellular vesicles (EVs) from the three domains of life, archae, bacteria and eukaryota, have gained increasing scientific attention. As such, the role of EVs in host-pathogen communication and immune modulation are being intensely investigated. Pivotal to EV research is the determination of how and where EVs are taken up by recipient cells and organs in vivo, which requires suitable tracking strategies including labelling. Labelling of EVs is often performed post-isolation which increases risks of non-specific labelling and the introduction of labelling artefacts. Here we exploited the inability of helminths to de novo synthesise fatty acids to enable labelling of EVs by whole organism uptake of fluorescent lipid analogues and the subsequent incorporation in EVs. We showed uptake of DOPE-Rhodamine in Anisakis spp. and Trichuris suis larvae. EVs isolated from supernatant of Anisakis spp. labelled with DOPE-Rhodamine were characterised to assess effects of labelling on size, structure and fluorescence of EVs. Fluorescent EVs were successfully taken up by the human macrophage cell line THP-1. This study therefore presents a novel staining method that can be utilized by the EV field in parasitology and potentially across multiple species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0276.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: tRNA fragments; extracellular vesicles; Gastric Cancer; NGS data repurposing; cancer biomarkers
Online: 15 March 2023 (09:18:23 CET)
Transfer RNA fragments (tRFs) have gene silencing effects similarly to miRNAs, can be sorted into extracellular vesicles (EVs) and are emerging as potential circulating biomarkers for cancer diagnosis. We aimed at analyzing the expression of tRFs in gastric cancer (GC) and understanding their potential as biomarkers. We explored miRNA datasets from gastric tumors and normal adjacent tissues (NAT) from TCGA repository, and proprietary 3D-cultured GC cell lines and corresponding EVs, in order to identify differentially represented tRFs using MINTmap and R/Bioconductor packages. Selected tRFs were validated in patient-derived EVs. We found 613 Differentially Expressed (DE)-tRFs in the TCGA dataset, of which 19 were concomitantly upregulated in TCGA gastric tumors and present in 3D-cells and EVs, but barely expressed in NAT. Moreover, 20 tRFs were expressed in 3D-cells and EVs and downregulated in TCGA gastric tumors. Of these 39 DE-tRFs, 9 tRFs were also detected in patient-derived EVs. Interestingly, the targets of these 9 tRFs affect neutrophil activation and degranulation, cadherin binding, focal adhesion and cell-substrate junction, highlighting these pathways as major targets of EV-mediated crosstalk with the tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, as they are present in four distinct GC datasets and can be detected even in low quality patient-EV derived samples, they hold promise as GC biomarkers. By repurposing already available NGS data, we could identify and cross-validate a set of tRFs holding potential as GC diagnosis biomarkers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0371.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3); extracellular vesicles (EVs); tumoroid; tumor organoid; tumorigenesis; three-dimensional (3D) culture system
Online: 25 March 2020 (05:25:09 CET)
The tumor organoid (tumoroid) model in three-dimensional (3D) culture systems has been developed to reflect more closely the in vivo tumors than 2D-cultured tumor cells. Notably, extracellular vesicles (EVs) are efficiently collectible from the culture supernatant of gel-free tumoroids. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 3 is a multi-functional factor playing crucial roles in tumor progression. However, roles of MMP3 within tumor growth and EVs have not unveiled. Here, we investigated the protumorigenic roles of MMP3 on integrities of tumoroids and EVs. We generated MMP3-knockout (KO) cells using the CRISPR/Cas9 system from rapidly metastatic LuM1 tumor cells. Moreover, we established fluorescent cell lines with palmitoylation signal-fused fluorescent proteins (tdTomato and enhanced GFP). Then we confirmed the exchange of EVs between cellular populations and tumoroids. LuM1-tumoroids released large EVs (300-1000 nm) and small EVs (50-200 nm) while the knockout of MMP3 resulted in the additional release of broken EVs from tumoroids. The loss of MMP3 leads to a significant reduction in tumoroid size and to the development of the necrotic area within tumoroids. MMP3 and CD9 (a category-1 EV marker tetraspanin protein) were significantly down-regulated in MMP3-KO cells and their EV fraction. These weakened phenotypes by MMP3 KO were markedly rescued by the addition of MMP3-rich EVs or conditioned medium (CM) collected from LuM1-tumoroids, which caused a dramatic rise in the expression of MMP3, CD9, and Ki-67 (a marker of proliferating cells) in the MMP3-null/CD9-low tumoroids. Notably, MMP3 enriched in tumoroids-derived EVs and CM deeply penetrated into recipient MMP3-KO tumoroids, resulting in a remarkable enlargement of solid tumoroids, while MMP3-null EVs did not. These data demonstrate that EVs can mediate molecular transfer of MMP3 resulting in increasing the proliferation and CD9+ tumorigenesis, indicating crucial roles of MMP3 in tumor progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0678.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: bone regeneration; callus tissue; cissus quadrangularis; extracellular vesicles
Online: 12 September 2023 (05:44:18 CEST)
Exosomes are membrane-bound, biologically active nanovesicles of size 30-200 nm produced by many cell types, such as both mammalian and plant cells. They are wrapped in a phospholipid bilayer and play a significant role in intercellular communications. The ease in their isolation and the ability of plant-derived exosome-like nanovesicles (PDEVs) to efficiently deliver bioactive constituents into mammalian cells have made them popular in contemporary research. PDEVs share many characteristics with mammalian EVs (MEVs), including shape, size, surface charge, and consist of bioactive molecules like lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and tiny metabolites. However, the chemical composition profile of PDEVs and their biogenesis mechanism differ significantly from those of MEVs. They have been widely explored as potential therapeutic agents and are considered as good alternatives to act as a carrier for drug delivery. The present work elucidates the isolation of exosome-like-nanovesicles (henceforth exosomes) from the culture supernatants of an in vitro cultured callus tissue derived from a bone healing plant known for its osteogenic activity, i.e., Cissus quadrangularis. The physical and biological properties of exosomes were successfully studied using different characterization techniques. To assess their therapeutic potential, we studied the internalisation of calcein-AM labeled exosomes by human derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). Additionally, we evaluated the potential of exosomes in the migration of cells in a cell scratch assay with hMSCs and their effect on amelioration of oxidative stress was investigated on preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells that were pre-treated with these exosomes. Furthermore, we investigated their proliferation and differentiation to osteoblasts like cells with the help of resazurin assay and alkaline phosphatase assay (ALP). The obtained results provide a primary justification for the use of Cissus quadrangularis-derived exosomes as a nanocarrier for drug molecules for various therapeutic bone applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0577.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Melanoma patients; Small Extracellular Vesicles; Proteomics; Fatty acids; Biomarkers
Online: 24 May 2021 (15:07:09 CEST)
The early detection of cutaneous melanoma, a potentially lethal cancer with rising incidence, is key to increase survival and therapeutic adjustment. Especially in stages II-IV biomarkers are urgently needed for adjuvant therapy purposes after resection and for treatment of metastatic patients. We here investigated if fatty acid (FA) and protein composition of small extracellular vesicles (sEV) deriving from plasma of 0-I, II, and III-IV stage melanoma patients (n=38) could reflect disease stage and thus function as biomarker. The subpopulation of sEV expressing CD81 (CD81sEV) was isolated by an ad hoc immune affinity technique from microvesicle-depleted plasma. Biological macromolecules were investigated by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in CD81sEV. A higher content of FA and a decrease in Saturation Index (C18:0/C18:1), already detectable in early stages, distinguished patients’ from healthy donor CD81sEV. Proteomics (identifier PXD024434) detected an exclusive and significant increase of CD14, PON1, PON3 and APOA5 in stage II and a significant decrease of Rap1b in stage III-IV CD81sEV. The FA and proteomic stage dependent CD81sEV signature strengthens the potential of circulating sEV studies in providing discriminatory information for early diagnosis, prediction of metastatic behavior and follow up of melanoma patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0545.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: trastuzumab, HER2, extracellular vesicles, breast cancer, proteomic analysis, immunoelectron microscopy, TOP1, CD63, mitochondria.
Online: 24 February 2021 (11:38:41 CET)
Cancers overexpressing the ERBB2 oncogene are aggressive and associated with a poor prognosis. Trastuzumab is a ERBB2 specific recombinant antibody employed for the treatment of these diseases since it blocks ERBB2 signaling causing growth arrest and survival inhibition. While the effects of Trastuzumab on ERBB2 cancer cells are well known, those on the extracellular vesicles released from these cells are scarce. This study focused on ERBB2+ breast cancer cells and aimed to establish what type of EVs they release and whether Trastuzumab affects their morphology and molecular composition. To these aims, we performed immunoelectron microscopy, immunoblot, and high-resolution mass spectrometry analyses on EVs purified by differential centrifugation of culture supernatant. Here we show that EVs released from ERBB2+ breast cancer cells are polymorphic in size and appearance, and that ERBB2 is preferentially associated with large (120 nm) EVs. Moreover, we report that Tz induces the expression of a specific glycosylated 50 kDa isoform of the CD63 tetraspanin and modulates the expression of 51 EVs proteins, including TOP1. As these proteins are functionally associated with organelle organization, cytokinesis, and response to lipids, we suggest that Tz may influence these cellular processes in target cells at distant sites via modified EVs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2084.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: urinary extracellular vesicles,; exosomes; urine; diabetic kidney disease; reference genes; miRNA; mRNA; sequencing
Online: 30 May 2023 (08:23:23 CEST)
Urinary extracellular vesicles (uEV) hold non-invasive RNA biomarkers for genitourinary tract diseases. However, missing knowledge about reference genes and effects of pre-analytical choices hinder biomarker studies. We aimed to assess how pre-analytical variables (urine storage temperature, isolation workflow) affect diabetic kidney disease (DKD) -linked miRNAs or kidney -linked miRNAs and mRNAs (kidney-RNAs) in uEV isolates and to discover stable reference mRNAs across diverse uEV datasets. We studied nine raw and normalized sequencing datasets including healthy controls and individuals with prostate cancer or type 1 diabetes with or without albuminuria. We focused on kidney-RNAs reviewing literature for DKD-linked miRNAs from kidney tissue, cell culture and uEV/urine experiments. RNAs were analyzed by expression heatmaps, hierarchical clustering and selecting stable mRNAs with normalized counts (>200) and minimal coefficient of variation. Kidney-RNAs were decreased after urine storage at -20°C vs -80°C. Isolation workflows captured kidney-RNAs with different efficiencies. Ultracentrifugation captured DKD -linked miRNAs that separated healthy and diabetic macroalbuminuria groups. Eleven mRNAs were stably expressed across the datasets. Hence, preanalytical choices had variable effects on kidney-RNAs – analyzing kidney-RNAs complemented global correlation, which could fade differences in some relevant RNAs. Replicating prior DKD-marker results and discovery of candidate reference mRNAs encourages further uEV biomarker studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0925.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: platelet-leukocyte aggregates; extracellular vesicles; tissue factor; COVID-19; immunothrombosis
Online: 16 October 2023 (09:56:37 CEST)
Severe COVID-19 is frequently associated with thromboembolic complications. Increased platelet activation and platelet-leukocyte aggregate formation can amplify thrombotic responses by inducing tissue factor (TF) expression on leukocytes. Here, we characterized TF-positive extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their cellular origin in 12 patients suffering from severe COVID-19 (time course, 134 samples overall) and 25 healthy controls. EVs exposing phosphatidylserine (PS) were characterized by flow cytometry. Their cellular origin was determined by staining with anti-CD41, anti-CD45, anti-CD235a, and anti-CD105 as platelet, leukocyte, red blood cell, and endothelial markers. We further investigated the association of EVs with TF, platelet factor 4 (PF4), C-reactive protein (CRP) and high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB-1). COVID-19 patients showed higher levels of PS-exposing EVs compared to controls. The majority of these EVs originated from platelets. A higher amount of EVs in patient samples were associated with CRP, HMGB-1, PF4, and TF, as compared to EVs from healthy donors. In COVID-19 samples, 16.5% of all CD41+ EVs displayed the leukocyte marker CD45, and 55.5% of all EV aggregates (CD41+CD45+) co-expressed TF, which reflects the interaction of platelets and leukocytes in COVID-19 on an EV level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1185.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: renal cell carcinoma; liquid biopsy; blood; extracellular vesicles; microRNA; biomarker; diagnostics; prognosis; prediction
Online: 28 April 2023 (13:00:31 CEST)
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the second most common cancer of the urinary system. The current therapeutic strategies are based on partial or total nephrectomy and/or targeted therapies based on immune checkpoint inhibitors to which patients are often refractory. Preventive and screening strategies are not existing and the few available biomarkers for RCC are characterized by the lack of sensitivity, outlining the need of novel noninvasive and sensitive biomarkers for an early diag-nosis and a better disease monitoring. Blood liquid biopsy (LB) is a non- or minimally invasive procedure for a more representative view of tumor heterogeneity than the tissue biopsy, poten-tially allowing real-time monitoring of cancer evolution. Growing interest is focused on the extra-cellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by either healthy or tumoral cells and recovered in a variety of bio-logical matrices, blood included. EVs are involved in cell-to-cell crosstalk transferring their mRNAs, miRNAs, and proteins content. In particular, transferred miRNAs may regulate the tu-morigenesis and proliferation also impacting on resistance to apoptosis, thus representing poten-tial useful biomarkers. Here we present the latest efforts in the identification of circulating miR-NAs in blood samples, focusing on the potential use of EV derived miRNAs as RCC diagnostic, prognostic markers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0349.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: systematic review; extracellular vesicles; EVs; asthma; therapy; inflammation; respiratory disease; airway hyperresponsiveness; BALF
Online: 16 July 2020 (12:52:03 CEST)
Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children. It is characterized by difficulty in breathing and chronic airway inflammation associated with narrowing of the airways, and airway hyperresponsiveness. If left untreated, asthma can lead to respiratory distress and even death. A number of medications are available and prescribed to manage asthma. Yet despite that, only half of the asthmatic patients are able to control their condition. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an important role in transporting contents such as nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids to other cells. While EVs have been extensively studied as biomarkers of various pathological states, evidence indicates that they can play protective and therapeutic roles in mitigating diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and asthma. Here we propose to conduct a systematic review that provides a detailed analysis of the therapeutic effect of EVs in mitigating the primary (inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness) and secondary outcomes (airway remodelling, molecular indices of cellular signalling, and inflammatory mediators in serum) associated with asthma in preclinical studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0531.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Microglia; Extracellular vesicles; migration; P2X4 receptor; MFG-E8; lipid rafts
Online: 22 June 2021 (08:26:41 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) effectively suppress neuroinflammation and induce neuroprotective effects in different disease models. However, the mechanisms by which EVs regulate neuroinflammatory response of microglia remain largely unexplored. Here, we addressed this issue by testing the action of EVs derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth stem cells (SHEDs) on immortalized human microglial cells. We found that EVs induced a rapid increase in intracellular Ca2+ and promoted a significant ATP release in microglial after 20 min of treatment. Boyden chamber assays revealed that EVs promoted microglial migration by 20 %. Pharmacological inhibition of different subtypes of purinergic receptors demonstrated that EVs activated microglial migration preferentially through the P2X4R pathway. Proximity ligation and co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that EVs promote association between milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor VIII (MFG-E8) and P2X4 receptor proteins. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of αVβ3/αVβ5 integrin suppressed EV -induced cell migration and formation of lipid rafts in microglia. These results demonstrate that EVs promote microglial motility through P2X4 R/ MFG-E8 – dependent mechanisms. Our findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms through which EVs target human microglia that may be exploited for the development of new therapeutic strategies targeting disease associated neuroinflammation.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0025.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: glioblastoma; extracellular vesicles; Next Generation Sequencing; pathogenic mutations; NF1
Online: 1 August 2022 (15:07:04 CEST)
The biological heterogeneity of glioblastoma (GBM), the most aggressive type of brain cancer, is a critical hallmark, caused by changes in the genomic mutational asset and influencing the clinical progression over the time. The understanding and monitoring of the mutational profile is important not only to reveal novel therapeutic targets in this set of patients, but also to ameliorate the clinical stratification of subjects and the prognostic significance. As neurosurgery represents the primary technique to manage GBM, it is of outmost importance to optimize alternative and less invasive methods to monitor the dynamic mutation profile of these patients. Extracellular vesicles (EV) are included in the liquid biopsy analysis and have emerged as the biological mirror of escaping and surviving mechanisms by many tumors as well as glioblastoma. Very few studies have investigated the technical feasibility to detect and analyze the genomic profile by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) in circulating EV of patients with grade IV glioblastoma. Here, we attempted to characterize and to compare with the corresponding matched tissue samples, potential variants with pathogenic significance of the DNA contained in peripheral blood derived EV. The NGS analysis has revealed that patients with grade IV glioblastoma, exhibited lesser DNA content in EV than controls and that both in EV and matched cancer tissues, the NF1 gene was consistently mutated in all patients with the c.2568C>G as the most common pathogenic variant expressed. This study supports the clinical utility of the circulating EV in glioblastoma and as eligible tool for personalized medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0197.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: cell lines; chemoresistance; EpCAM; extracellular vesicles; HGSOC 1
Online: 4 May 2023 (05:18:59 CEST)
Platinum-resistant high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is invariably a fatal disease, so a central goal in ovarian cancer research is to develop novel strategies to overcome platinum resistance. Treatment is thus moving towards personalized therapy. However, validated molecular biomarkers to predict patients’ risk of developing platinum resistance are still lacking. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are promising candidates for biomarkers. EpCAM-specific EVs are largely unexplored biomarkers in predicting chemoresistance. Using transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis and flow cytometry, we compared the characteristics of EVs released from a cell line derived from a clinically confirmed cisplatin-resistant patient (OAW28) and EVs released from two cell lines from tumors sensitive to platinum-based chemotherapy (PEO1, OAW42). We showed that characteristics of EVs released from the HGSOC cell line of chemoresistant patients had higher heterogeneity in size, a larger proportion of medium/large (>200nm) EVs and a higher number of released EpCAM-positive EVs of different sizes, although expression of EpCAM predominated, especially on those larger than 400 nm. We also determined a strong positive correlation between the concentration of EpCAM-positive EVs and expression of cellular EpCAM. These results may contribute to prediction of platinum resistance in the future, although they should first be validated in clinical samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1563.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Matrix vesicles; extracellular vesicles; osteoblasts; osteogenesis; endocytosis; differentiation; microRNA; caveolin
Online: 21 June 2023 (13:41:33 CEST)
Matrix vesicles (MVs) are nano-sized extracellular vesicles that are anchored in the extracellular matrix (ECM). In addition to playing a role in biomineralization, osteoblast-derived MVs were recently suggested to have regulatory duties. The aims of this study were to: establish the characteristics of osteoblast-derived MVs in the context of extracellular vesicles like exosomes, assess their role in modulating osteoblast differentiation, and examine their mechanism of uptake. MVs were isolated from the ECM of MG-63 human osteoblast-like cell cultures and characterized via enzyme activity, transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, western blot, and small RNA sequencing. Osteoblasts were treated with MVs from two different culture conditions (growth media [GM]; osteogenic media [OM]) to evaluate their effects on differentiation and production of inflammatory markers and on macrophage polarization. MV endocytosis was assessed using a lipophilic, fluorescent dye and confocal microscopy with the role of caveolae determined using methyl-β-cyclodextrin. MVs exhibited a four-fold enrichment in alkaline phosphatase specific activity compared to plasma membranes, were 50-150nm in diameter, possessed exosomal markers CD63, CD81, and CD9 and endosomal markers ALIX, TSG101, and HSP70, and were selectively enriched in microRNA linked to an anti-osteogenic effect and to M2 macrophage polarization. Treatment with GM or OM MVs decreased osteoblast differentiation. Osteoblasts endocytosed MVs by a mechanism that involves caveolae. These results support the hypothesis that osteoblasts produce MVs that participate in the regulation of osteogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1260.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Protons; X-rays; oral squamous cell carcinoma; extracellular vesicles; non-targeted effects of radiation
Online: 19 October 2023 (09:59:48 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-bound particles released from cells, and their cargo can alter the function of recipient cells. EVs from X-irradiated cells have been shown to play a likely role in non-targeted effects. However, EVs derived from proton irradiated cells have not yet been studied. We aimed to investigate and compare the proteome of EVs and their cell of origin after proton or X-irradiation. The EVs were derived from a human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell line exposed to 0, 4, or 8 Gy with either protons or X-rays. The EVs and irradiated OSCC cells underwent liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for protein identification. Interestingly, we found different protein profiles both in the EVs and in the OSCC cells after proton irradiation compared to X-irradiation. In the EVs, we found that protons cause a downregulation of proteins involved in cell growth and DNA damage response compared to X-rays. In the OSCC cells, proton and X-irradiation induced dissimilar cell death pathways and distinct DNA damage repair systems. These results are of potential importance for understanding how non-targeted effects in normal tissue can be limited and for future implementation of proton therapy in the clinic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0774.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: canine leishmaniasis; natural zoonotic infection; clinical and histopathologic features; cell communication by secreting extracellular vesicles; lipid profiles of cultured parasites.
Online: 9 August 2023 (10:50:56 CEST)
Leishmaniases are zoonotic vector-borne diseases caused by a wide variety of Leishmania species with complex transmission cycles involving different reservoirs, potential new hosts and vectors. Similarly, to other eukaryotes, Leishmania use released extracellular vesicles (LEVs) to play important initial interactions that are crucial to modulate the subsequent systemic immune response on the establishment of infection in humans and other important hosts like dogs. Recent studies in endemic areas of Brazil concluded that canine infections were predominantly due to L. amazonensis and not restricted to L. infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi). Under these premises, the diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis needs to be improved, including the identification of current etiological agent, the clinical differential diagnosis and the histopathologic features. In this way, the dual aim of that study is to register collected observations for the diagnosis of natural canine infections and to insert in vitro results in the field of LEVs that still research gaps to be filled to understand the mechanisms and biological aspects involving the parasite-host interactions. Therefore, the future studies of Parasitology research for both of these fields are very important for the interventions for the prevention, control, elimination and eradication worldwide.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0211.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Extracellular Vesicles (EVs); Exosomes; Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC); gradient Size Exclusion Chromatography (gSEC); Ion Exchange Chromatography; Hybrid Chromatography
Online: 14 October 2021 (10:23:28 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived membranous particles secreted by all cell types into the extracellular milieu. EVs carry, protect, and transport a wide array of bioactive cargoes to recipient/target cells. EVs regulate physiological and pathophysiological processes in recipient cells and are important in therapeutics/drug delivery. Despite these great attributes of EVs, an efficient protocol for EV separation from biofluids is lacking. Numerous techniques have been adapted for the separation of EVs with size exclusion chromatography (SEC)-based methods being the most promising. Here, we review the SEC protocols used for EV separation, and discuss opportunities for significant improvements, such as the development of novel particle purification liquid chromatography (PPLC) system capable of tandem purification and characterization of biological and synthetic particles with near-single vesicle resolution. Finally, we identify future perspectives and current issues to make PPLC a tool capable of providing a unified, automated, adaptable, yet simple and affordable particle separation resource.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0186.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: heat shock protein (HSP); extracellular vesicle (EV); exosome; oncosome; immune evasion; resistance-associated secretory phenotype (RASP); EMT; hypoxia; biomarker; liquid biopsy
Online: 17 August 2019 (16:15:01 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EV) released by tumor cells are a major aspect of the resistance-associated secretory phenotype (RASP), by which immune evasion can be established. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are an evolutionarily conserved family of molecular chaperones, which stabilize proteins, minimize protein misfolding and aggregation within the cell, besides facilitating protein translocation, refolding and degradation. (i) Releases of extracellular HSPs (ex-HSP) and EV-associated HSPs (EV-HSP) are essential in RASP, by which molecular cotransfer of HSPs with oncogenic factors into recipient cells can promote cancer progression and resistance against stress such as hypoxia, radiation, chemicals, and immune system. (ii) RASP of tumor cells can eject anticancer drugs, molecularly targeted therapeutics, and immune checkpoint inhibitors with EVs. (iii) Cytotoxic lipids can be also released from tumor cells as RASP. Nevertheless, ex-HSP and EV-HSP can play immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive roles by binding to receptors such as LRP1/CD91/A2MR, scavenger receptors, and toll-like receptors expressed on recipient cells. Liquid biopsy of HSPs in body fluids may be useful in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment in cancer. Regarding HSP90-targeted therapeutics, we summarize the pros, cons, and problem solutions in this review. Although production of HSPs are canonically induced by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), recent studies discovered that production of HSPs is also regulated by matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) and production of cochaperone CDC37 is reciprocally regulated by myeloid zinc finger 1 (MZF1) and SCAN-D1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0260.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: thyroid cancer; PTC; BRAFV600E; mouse model; miRNA; extracellular vesicles; heterogeneity; se-quencing
Online: 18 March 2022 (03:53:48 CET)
Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common endocrine malignancy which diagnosis and recurrences still challenge clinicians. New perspectives to overcome those issues could come from the study of extracellular vesicles (EVs) populations and content. Here, we aimed to elucidate the heterogeneity of EVs circulating in tumor and the changes in their microRNA content during cancer progression. Using a mouse model expressing BRAFV600E, we isolated and characterized EVs from thyroid tissue by ultracentrifugations and elucidated their microRNA content by small RNA sequencing. Cellular origin of EVs was investigated by ExoView and that of deregulated EV-microRNA by qPCR on FACS-sorted cell populations. We found that PTC released more EVs bearing epithelial and immune markers, as compared to healthy thyroid, and that changes in EV-microRNAs abundance were mainly due to their deregulated expression in thyrocytes. Pathway analysis showed that the more abundant EV-microRNAs could impact on immune processes. Altogether, our work provides a full description of in vivo-derived EVs produced by, and within, normal and cancerous thyroid. We elucidated the global EV-microRNAs signature, the dynamic loading of microRNAs in EVs upon BRAFV600E induction, and their cellular origin. Thyroid tumor-derived EV-microRNAs could support the establishment of a permissive immune microenvironment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0276.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: colorectal cancer; cancer stem cells; extracellular vesicles; high frequency dielectrophoresis; mi-crofluidic lab-on-a-chip
Online: 19 October 2022 (10:03:50 CEST)
Cancer stem cells remain a challenge to isolate and characterize because of their plastic phenotype. Using a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip based on ultra-high frequency dielectophoresis, we measured the electromagnetic signature of colorectal cancer cells and demonstrated that cancer stem cells show a distinct and lower electromagnetic signature than differentiated cells. The release of extracellular vesicles from tumor cells can drive tumor progression and metastasis development. As extracellular vesicles from cancer stem cells carry more aggressive content, we treated colorectal cancer cells with these vesicles to test whether the lab-on-a-chip can detect a change in phenotype. The electromagnetic signature of treated cells is modified in comparison to untreated cells and sometimes even when no biological change is observed. The lab-on-a-chip provides rapid and relevant result without prior labeling compared to conventional biological approaches. It could be useful in the clinic for early detection of cancer stem cells in the tumor mass and for monitoring the aggressive potential of extracellular vesicles in the bloodstream in order to adapt therapeutic management and prevent relapse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0261.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: sebaleic acid; sapienic acid; positional fatty acid isomer; trans geometrical isomer; extracellular vesicle lipidome; desaturase enzyme; elongase enzyme; lipidomics
Online: 22 January 2020 (16:10:25 CET)
A new pathway leading to the n-10 fatty acid series has been recently evidenced, starting from sapienic acid - a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) resulting from the transformation of palmitic acid by delta-6 desaturase. Sapienic acid attracts attention as novel marker of cancer cell plasticity. Here, we analyzed fatty acids including the n-10 fatty acid contents, and compared for the first time cell membranes and the corresponding extracellular vesicles (EV) of two human prostatic adenocarcinoma cell lines of different aggressiveness (PC3 and LNCaP). The n-10 components were 9-13% of the total fatty acids in both cancer cell lines and EVs, with total MUFA levels significantly higher in EVs of the most aggressive cell type (PC3). High sapienic/palmitoleic ratios indicated the preference for delta-6 vs. delta-9 desaturase enzymatic activity in these cell lines. The expressions analysis of enzymes involved in desaturation and elongation by qRT-PCR showed a higher desaturase activity in PC3 and a higher elongase activity toward polyunsaturated fatty acids than toward saturated fatty acids, compared to LNCaP cells. Our results improve the present knowledge in cancer fatty acid metabolism and lipid phenotypes, highlighting EV lipidomics to monitor positional fatty acid isomer profiles and MUFA levels in cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2226.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: annexin V; connexin 43; endothelial cells; extracellular vesicles; heart failure; leukocytes; microvesicles; phosphatidylserine; platelets; red blood cells
Online: 30 June 2023 (10:49:27 CEST)
Circulating extracellular microvesicles (cEVs) are characterised by presenting surface antigens of parental cells. Since their biogenesis involves the translocation of phosphatidylserine (PS) from the inner to the outer-leaflet of the plasma membrane, exposed PS has been considered as a recognition hallmark of cEVs. However, not all cEVs externalise PS. In this study we have phenotypically and quantitatively characterised cEVs by flow cytometry with special attention to the proportions of PS in chronic heart failure patients (cHF; n=119) and reference non-HF group (n=21). PS─-cEVs were predominantly found in both groups. Parental markers showed differential pattern depending on PS exposure. Endothelium-derived and connexin 43-rich cEVs were mainly PS─-cEVs and significantly increased in cHF. On the contrary, platelet-derived cEVs were mostly PS+ and were increased in non-HF. We observed similar levels of PS+- and PS─-cEVs in non-HF subjects when analysing immune cell-derived EVs, but there was a subset-specific difference in cHF patients. Indeed, those cEVs carrying CD45+, CD29+, CD11b+ and CD15+ were mainly PS+-cEVs, while those carrying CD14+, CD3+ and CD56+ were mainly PS─-cEVs. In conclusion, endothelial and red blood cells are stressed in cHF patients as detected by a high shedding of cEVs. Despite PS+-cEVs and PS─-cEVs represent two distinct cEV populations, their release and potential function as both biomarkers and shuttles for cell communication seem unrelated to PS content.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0044.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: extracellular vesicles; mesenchymal cells; proximal tubular cells; renal ischemia/reperfusion; mitochondria; anion superoxide; acellular therapy; regenerative medicine
Online: 3 February 2022 (10:07:54 CET)
Acute kidney injury (AKI) caused by ischemia followed by reperfusion (I/R) is characterized by intense anion superoxide (O2•-) production and oxidative damage. We investigated whether extracellular vesicles secreted by adipose tissue mesenchymal cells (EVs) administrated during reperfusion can suppress the exacerbated mitochondrial O2•- formation after I/R. We used Wistar rats submitted to bilateral renal arterial clamping (30 min) followed by 24 h of reperfusion. The animals received EVs (I/R+EVs group) or saline, I/R group) in the kidney subcapsular space. The 3rd group was of the false-operated rats (SHAM). Mitochondria were isolated from proximal tubule cells and immediately used. Amplex Red™ was used to measure mitochondrial O2•- formation and MitoTracker® Orange to evaluate Δψ. In vitro studies were carried out by using human renal proximal tubular cells (HK-2) co-cultured or not with EVs under hypoxia conditions. Administration of EVs restored O2•- formation to SHAM levels in all mitochondrial functional conditions. The expression of catalase and superoxide dismutase remained unmodified; transcription of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was upregulated. The co-cultures of HK-2 cells with EVs revealed an intense decrease in apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanisms by which EVs recover the renal structure and function after I/R are related to the normalization of the mitochondrial redox environment. The intravesicular catalase is central in the preservation mechanisms that, with the aid of the upregulated antioxidant HO-1/Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 system, depress early processes of cell death after I/R and open new vistas for the treatment of AKI.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0460.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: extracellular vesicles; exosomes; neural tissue repair; neuroregeneration; non-human primates; hydrogels; neural tissue engineering; stroke; cortical injury
Online: 28 May 2020 (13:08:32 CEST)
Neural tissue engineering, nanotechnology and neuroregeneration are diverse biomedical disciplines that have been working together in recent decades to solve the complex problems linked to central nervous system (CNS) repair. It is known that the CNS demonstrates a very limited regenerative capacity because of a microenvironment that impedes effective regenerative processes, making development of CNS therapeutics challenging. Given the high prevalence of CNS conditions such as stroke that damage the brain and place a severe burden on afflicted individuals and on society, it is of utmost significance to explore the optimum methodologies for finding treatments that could be applied to humans for restoration of function to pre-injury levels. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), also known as exosomes, when derived from mesenchymal stem cells, are one of the most promising approaches that have been attempted thus far, as EVs deliver factors that stimulate recovery by acting at the nanoscale level on intercellular communication while avoiding the risks linked to stem cell transplantation. At the same time, advances in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have offered the potential of using hydrogels as bio-scaffolds in order to provide the stroma required for neural repair to occur, as well as the release of biomolecules facilitating or inducing the reparative processes. This review introduces a novel experimental hypothesis regarding the benefits that could be offered if EVs were to be combined with biocompatible injectable hydrogels. The rationale behind this hypothesis is presented, analyzing how a hydrogel might prolong the retention of EVs and maximize the localized benefit to the brain. This sustained delivery of EVs would be coupled with essential guidance cues and structural support from the hydrogel until neural tissue remodeling and regeneration occur. Finally, the importance of including non-human primate (NHP) models in the clinical translation pipeline, as well as the added benefit of multi-modal neuroimage analysis to establish non-invasive, in vivo, quantifiable imaging-based biomarkers for CNS repair are discussed, aiming for more effective and safe clinical translation of such regenerative therapies to humans.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0198.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: heparanase; extracellular matrix (ECM)
Online: 10 October 2018 (04:09:40 CEST)
Heparanase (HPSE) has been defined as a multitasking protein that exhibits a peculiar enzymatic activity towards HS chains but which simultaneously performs other non-enzymatic functions. Through its enzymatic activity, HPSE catalyzes the cutting of the side chains of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans, thus contributing to the remodeling of the extracellular matrix and of the basal membranes. Furthermore, thanks to this activity, HPSE also promotes the release and diffusion of various HS-linked molecules as growth factors, cytokines and enzymes. In addition to being an enzyme HPSE has been shown to possess the ability to trigger different signaling pathways by interacting with transmembrane proteins. In normal tissue and in physiological conditions, HPSE exhibits only low levels of expression restricted only to keratinocytes, trophoblast, platelets and mast cells and leukocytes. On the contrary, in pathological conditions, such as in tumor progression and metastasis, inflammation and fibrosis, it is overexpressed. With this brief review, we intend to provide an update on current knowledge about the different role of HPSE protein exerted by its enzymatic and not-enzymatic activity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0225.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: heparanase; extracellular matrix (ECM)
Online: 13 July 2018 (04:41:38 CEST)
Heparanase (HPSE) has been defined as a multitasking protein that exhibits a peculiar enzymatic activity towards HS chains but which simultaneously performs other non-enzymatic functions. Through its enzymatic activity, HPSE catalyzes the cutting of the side chains of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans, thus contributing to the remodeling of the extracellular matrix and of the basal membranes. Furthermore, thanks to this activity, HPSE also promotes the release and diffusion of various HS-linked molecules as growth factors, cytokines and enzymes. In addition to being an enzyme HPSE has been shown to possess the ability to trigger different signaling pathways by interacting with transmembrane proteins. In normal tissue and in physiological conditions, HPSE exhibits only low levels of expression restricted only to keratinocytes, trophoblast, platelets and mast cells and leukocytes. On the contrary, in pathological conditions, such as in tumor progression and metastasis, inflammation and fibrosis, it is overexpressed. With this brief review, we intend to provide an update on current knowledge about the different role of HPSE protein exerted by its enzymatic and not-enzymatic activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1215.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Mycobacterium avium; biofilm; resistance; extracellular matrix
Online: 19 September 2023 (15:34:32 CEST)
Pulmonary infections with Mycobacterium avium occur in susceptible individuals following exposure to the bacterium in the environment, where it often persists in biofilms. Many methods have been used to generate biofilms of M. avium, and it is unknown whether different approaches generate similar structures and cell phenotypes. To make a parallel comparison of in vitro biofilm ultrastructure, extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, and drug susceptibility of biofilm resident bacteria, we used two published methods to generate M. avium biofilms: four week incubation in M63 medium or 24 hour exposure to dithiothreitol (DTT). Scanning electron microscopy revealed differences in biofilm ultrastructure between the two methods, including variation in appearance of ECM materials and morphology of resident cells, while light microscopy and staining with calcofluor white indicated that both biofilms contained polysaccharides characteristic of cellulose. Measuring susceptibility of biofilms to degradation by enzymes suggested differences in structurally important ECM molecules, with DTT biofilms having important protein and, to a lesser extent, cellulose components, and M63 biofilms having moderate protein, cellulose, and DNA components. Both biofilms conferred resistance to the bactericidal effects of amikacin and clarithromycin, with resident cells being killed at >10-fold lower rates than planktonic cells at almost all concentrations. Though these comparisons indicate differences in biofilm responses by M. avium under differing conditions, they also suggest common features of biofilm formation including cellulose production and antimicrobial resistance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0050.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: P2X7 receptor; extracellular vesicles; inflammation; neurodegeneration
Online: 2 May 2023 (03:54:14 CEST)
Extensive evidence indicates that activation of P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), an ATP-gated ion channel highly expressed in immune and brain cells, is strictly associated with the release of extracellular vesicles. Through this process, P2X7R-expressing cells regulate non-classical protein secretion and transfer bioactive components to other cells, including misfolded proteins, participating in inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we summarize and discuss the studies addressing the impact of P2X7R activation on extracellular vesicle release and their activities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0010.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: fibronectin; fibrillogenesis; extracellular matrix; biomechanics; mechanobiology
Online: 2 August 2021 (09:45:17 CEST)
The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a key role as both structural scaffold and regulator of cell signal transduction in tissues. In times of ECM assembly and turnover, cells upregulate assembly of the ECM protein, fibronectin (FN). FN is assembled by cells into viscoelastic fibrils that can bind upward of 40 distinct growth factors and cytokines. These fibrils play a key role in assembling a provisional ECM during embryonic development and wound healing. Fibril assembly is also often upregulated during disease states, including cancer and fibrotic diseases. FN fibrils have unique mechanical properties, which allow them to alter mechanotransduction signals sensed and relayed by cells. Binding of soluble growth factors to FN fibrils alters signal transduction from these proteins, while binding of other ECM proteins, including collagens, elastins, and proteoglycans, to FN fibrils facilitates the maturation and tissue specificity of the ECM. In this review, we will discuss the assembly of FN fibrils from individual FN molecules; the composition, structure, and mechanics of FN fibrils; the interaction of FN fibrils with other ECM proteins and growth factors; the role of FN in transmitting mechanobiology signaling events; and approaches for studying the mechanics of FN fibrils.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0346.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Exosomes, extracellular vesicles, immune regulation, autoimmunity
Online: 28 December 2018 (12:28:28 CET)
T-cell mediated immune responses should be regulated to avoid the development of autoimmune or chronic inflammation diseases. Several mechanisms have been described to regulate this process, namely death of overactivated T cells by cytokine deprivation, suppression by T regulatory cells (Treg), induction of expression of immune checkpoint molecules such as CTLA-4 and PD-1, or activation-induced cell death (AICD). In addition, activated T cells release membrane microvesicles called exosomes during these regulatory processes. In this review, we revise the role of exosome secretion in the different pathways of immune regulation described to date and its importance in the prevention of autoinmune disease. Expression of membrane-bound death ligands on the surface of exosomes during AICD, or the more recently described transfer of miRNA or even DNA inside T-cell exosomes are molecular mechanisms that will be analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0043.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: biosensors; cyclic voltammetry; electrochemical sensors; extracellular electron transfer; extracellular polymeric substances; growth curve; microbial growth phases
Online: 5 January 2020 (16:23:51 CET)
Microbial growth has been of prime importance to the researchers in health and biotechnology industries. It has been known to be closely associated to the secretion of extracellular polymeric substances that help in the formation of colonies. Inter-microbial communication happens within such colonies by means of extracellular electron transfer mediated by the aforementioned polymeric substances. Conventionally, different phases of microbial growth are monitored with the aid of a traditional UV-Visible spectrophotometer by measuring the optical density of the liquid medium at 280 nm. In this paper, we have developed an alternative novel way to sense different growth phases employing electrochemical means i.e. two-terminal cyclic voltammetry. This cyclic voltammetry relies on the extracellular electron transfer mechanism taking place via the polymeric substances secreted by the microorganisms, measured by the temporal area changes in the current-voltage hysteresis curves in the inoculated nutrient broth. This work paves a new way to detect the biological activity in the medium, which can be directly correlated to the population of microorganisms. It would be of immense interest to scientists and researchers working in the field of microbiology as well as in development of biosensors, electrochemical sensors etc. which would be helpful in absence of traditional spectrophotometers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1339.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: diabetic retinopathy; ghrelin; neutrophils; neutrophil extracellular traps
Online: 22 November 2023 (08:20:19 CET)
Background and Objectives: Since the protective role of ghrelin against high glucose-induced retinal damage was not yet explored, we aimed to investigate the serum levels of total ghrelin (TG), its acylated (AG) and des-acylated (DAG) forms in diabetic retinopathy (DR) patients. Moreover, the correlation between serum ghrelin and neutrophil elastase (NE) levels, enhancing the risk of microhemorrhages, was investigated; Materials and Methods: Serum markers were determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays in 12 non-diabetic subjects (CTRL), 15 diabetic patients without DR (Diabetic), 15 patients with non-proliferative (NPDR) and 15 patients with proliferative DR (PDR); Results: TG and AG serum levels were significantly decreased in NPDR (P < 0.01 vs Diabetic) and in PDR patients (P < 0.01 vs NPDR). AG serum levels were inversely associated with DR progression (r = -0.83,P < 0.01), serum neutrophils percentage (r = -0.74, P < 0.01) and serum NE levels (r = -0.73, P < 0.01). These were significantly increased in NPDR (P < 0.01 vs Diabetic) and PDR (P < 0.01 vs PDR) groups, positively correlating with DR progression (r = 0.86, P < 0.01). Conclusions: The reduction of circulating AG and its association with the increased risk of microhemorrhages could be considered a novel marker for DR progression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0835.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: hyponatremia, water-electrolyte imbalance, tonicity, extracellular fluid
Online: 13 September 2023 (10:36:55 CEST)
The perturbation in water balance rather than any change in salt content is the main cause of hyponatremia, the most frequent electrolyte abnormality defined as serum sodium concentration <135 mEq/L. Hyponatremia may be divided as mild (Na>120 mEq/L) or severe (Na<120 mEq/L) hyponatremia, most frequently observed in elderly ICU hospitalized patients. Based on tonicity hyponatremia may be hypotonic (decreased concentration of solute), isotonic, and hypertonic (falsely low sodium). According to the volume of the extracellular fluid (ECF) hyponatremia is further divided as hypovolemic, euvolemic, or hypervolemic hyponatremia. Finally, hyponatremia may develop rapidly as acute (<48 h) with usually severe symptoms, or slowly as chronic hyponatremia, being usually asymptomatic or with mild symptoms. Patient’s medical history and clinical symptoms and signs could point to a certain diagnostic direction. Acute severe hyponatremia is presented with headaches, vomiting, nausea, fatigue, impaired cognition, gait with increased falls symptoms etc., while the severe symptomatology due to hyponatremic encephalopathy is presented as confusion, agitation, seizures, or even coma and death. Nevertheless, an urgent evaluation of the volume and neurological status is essential for prevention of neurological damages. The treatment of hyponatremia should of course be based on the underlying cause, the duration and degree of hyponatremia, the observed symptoms, and volume status of patient.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2159.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: fibrosis; inflammatory; fibroblasts; extracellular matrix; therapeutic strategy
Online: 29 June 2023 (14:13:43 CEST)
Fibrosis is a prevalent and detrimental condition associated with various diseases with a high impact on global morbidity and mortality rates. Despite its diverse causes and affected organs, common underlying mechanisms drive the development and progression of the disease. These mechanisms include an exaggerated inflammatory response, excessive activation of fibroblasts, and abnormal tissue remodeling following severe or repetitive tissue injury. Although significant advancements have been achieved to enhance our understanding of fibrosis, there is still a gap between identifying potential antifibrotic targets and successfully translating them into effective clinical interventions. Novel approaches that target specific cellular and molecular processes involved in fibrosis hold promise for reducing the pathological consequences of the disease. Understanding the pathogenesis and clinical implications of fibrotic diseases is crucial for developing effective therapeutic strategies and improving patient outcomes. In this review, we introduce the concept of fibrosis, discuss the mechanisms by which it arises, and explore existing and emerging therapeutic approaches in development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1436.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: NASH; Lipotoxicity; NAFLD; extracellular RNA; RNase1; TLR3
Online: 20 June 2023 (11:38:31 CEST)
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a clinically serious stage of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Histologically characterized by hepatocyte ballooning, immune cell infiltration and fibrosis, NASH at a molecular level involves lipid induced hepatocyte death and cytokine production. Currently, there are very few diagnostic biomarkers available to screen NASH, and no pharmacological intervention is available for its treatment. In this study, we show that hepatocyte damage by lipotoxicity results in the release of extracellular RNAs (eRNAs) which serve as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that stimulate the expression of pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory cytokines, aggravating inflammation, and cell death in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the inhibition of eRNA activity by RNase 1 significantly increased cellular viability and reduced NF-kB mediated cytokine production. Similarly, RNase 1 administration significantly improved hepatic steatosis, inflammatory and injury markers in a murine NASH model. This study, therefore, for the first time, underscores the therapeutic potential of inhibiting eRNA action as a novel strategy for NASH treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0293.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: extracellular matrix; biosensing; machine learning; wound healing
Online: 22 March 2022 (03:50:47 CET)
Impaired wound healing is a significant financial and medical burden. The synthesis and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in a new wound is a dynamic process that is constantly changing and adapting to the biochemical and biomechanical signaling from the extracellular microenvironments of the wound. This drives either a regenerative or fibrotic and scar-forming healing outcome. Disruptions in ECM deposition, structure, and composition lead to impaired healing in diseased states, such as in diabetes. Valid measures of the principal determinants of successful ECM deposition include bacterial contamination, tissue perfusion, and mechanical injury and strain. These measures are used by wound-care providers to intervene upon the healing wound to steer healing toward a more functional phenotype with improved structural integrity and healing outcomes and to prevent adverse wound developments.In this review, we discuss bioengineering advances in non-invasive detection of biologic and physiologic factors of the healing wound, visualizing and modeling the ECM, and computational tools to efficiently evaluate the complex data acquired from the wounds to prognosticate healing outcomes and intervene effectively. We focus on bioelectronics and biologic interfaces of the sensors and actuators for real time biosensing and actuation. We also discuss high-resolution, advanced imaging techniques, which go beyond traditional confocal and fluorescence microscopy to visualize microscopic details of the composition of the matrix, linearity of collagen, and live tracking of components within the ECM. Computational modeling of the matrix, including partial differential equation datasets as well as machine learning models that can serve as powerful tools for physicians to guide their decision-making process are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0409.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: HSV-1; HCMV; flow virometry; extracellular vesicles
Online: 16 November 2020 (10:38:44 CET)
Herpesviruses produce a plethora of pleomorphic and heterogeneous particle populations. The composition and biological role of these is not understood. Detailed analysis has been challenging due to the lack of multidimensional identification and purification methodologies. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), originally developed to sort objects with at least ten thousand-fold larger volumes, has recently been applied to cellular exosomes as well as viral particles and has been dubbed nanoscale flow cytometry or “flow virometry”. In comparison to other nanoparticles, herpesvirus concentrations can be measured with high precision using simple culturing methods. Here, we used this unique capability to evaluate a standard FACS sorter. We demonstrate that detection and separation capabilities were insufficient to distinguish infectious fluorescent viral populations from populations lacking fluorescence and infectivity. Moreover, fluorescent populations did not contain single virus particles but mostly aggregates. On top, analysis of viral samples by flow cytometry was confounded by swarm detection, as multiple objects are measured simultaneously and interpreted as a single object. Despite these technical difficulties, comparison of crude supernatant to gradient purified HCMV revealed that infectious virus is a minor proportion of the particles released from infected cells. Our data stress the need for a set of standardized controls and protocols when applying FACS to biological nanoparticles and highlights technical challenges that need to be solved before flow virometry can achieve its full potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0082.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: dog; prostatic tissue; extracellular matrix; picrosirius; immunohistochemistry
Online: 21 February 2019 (06:52:00 CET)
This study aimed to investigate Coll-I, III, IV and elastin in canine normal prostate and PC, using Picrosirius red (PSR) and Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. Eight normal prostates and 10 PC from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples were used. Collagen fibers area was analyzed with ImageJ software. The distribution of Coll-I and Coll-III was approximately 80% around prostatic ducts and acini, 15% among smooth muscle and 5% surrounding blood vessels, in both normal prostate and PC. There was a higher median area of Coll-III in PC, when compared to normal prostatic tissue (p=0.001 for PSR and p= 0.05 for IHC). Immunostaining for Coll-IV was observed in the basal membrane of prostate acini, smooth muscle, blood vessels, and nerve fibers of normal and PC samples. Although there was no difference in Coll-IV area between normal tissue and PC, tumors with Gleason score 10 showed absence of Coll-IV, when compared to scores 6 and 8 (p=0.0095). Elastic fibers were found in the septa dividing the lobules and around the prostatic acini of normal samples, and was statistically higher in PC, compared to normal tissue (p=0.00229). Investigation of ECM components brings new information and should be correlated with prognosis in future studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0018.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: xenograft; zebrafish; extracellular matrix; matrix metalloproteinases; MMPs
Online: 6 September 2017 (08:55:20 CEST)
Though the cancer research community has used mouse xenografts for decades more than zebrafish xenografts, zebrafish have much to offer: they are cheap, easy to work with, and the embryonic model is relatively easy to use in high-throughput assays. Zebrafish can be imaged live, allowing us to observe cellular and molecular processes in vivo in real time. Opponents dismiss the zebrafish model due to the evolutionary distance between zebrafish and humans, as compared to mice, but proponents argue for the zebrafish xenograft’s superiority to cell culture systems and its advantages in imaging. This review places the zebrafish xenograft in the context of current views on cancer and gives an overview of how several aspects of this evolutionary disease can be addressed in the zebrafish model. Zebrafish are missing homologs of some human proteins and (of particular interest) several members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family of proteases, which are known for their importance in tumour biology. This review draws attention to the implicit evolutionary experiment taking place when the molecular ecology of the xenograft host is significantly different than that of the donor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1309.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Biofilm matrix; Bibliometric Study; Proteins; Polysaccharides; Extracellular DNA
Online: 21 October 2023 (03:37:40 CEST)
Biofilm matrix is akin to bacterial abodes, primarily composed of proteins, polysaccharides, extracellular DNA, and lipids, providing essential structural support to bacteria. While some biofilm matrix offers significant benefits, such as engineered biofilm reactors that assist in water pollutant removal, others pose risks to human health, potentially leading to conditions like lung infections. Realizing the potential of advantageous biofilm matrix and mitigating the harmful effects of detrimental ones necessitates a comprehensive and systematic exploration of this intricate domain. To facilitate this examination, our study leveraged a dataset of the 1000 most pivotal papers in the field and conducted an exhaustive bibliographic review. This paper serves as a valuable resource for understanding the current progress in biofilm matrix research and delving into vital avenues for future exploration in this dynamic field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1111.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: thraustochytrids; molasses; extracellular enzymes; Aurantiochytrium; lipid; fatty acids
Online: 18 September 2023 (04:48:55 CEST)
The production of oil by thraustochytrids is still costly because of its necessary and expensive culture medium. We evaluated the growth, lipid production, and fatty acid composition in an inexpensive, molasses-based (M) medium. Newly isolated thraustochytrid strains were identified as members of genus Aurantiochytrium based on 18S rRNA gene sequences. Isolated strains were repeatedly cultured in M medium for acclimatization to the medium. Acclimatized and non-acclimatized strains were cultured in basal GY medium and M medium. The lipid in the cultured cells were extracted by the Folch method, and the fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The growth and lipid production in the non-acclimatized strains were significantly inhibited by culturing in M medium, whereas the growth and lipid production were improved by acclimatization treatment in the same medium. The fatty acid composition in the cultured cells were affected by the M medium compared to the basal GY medium. The production of some enzymes such as leucine and valine aryl-amidase was suppressed in the M medium, and the activities recovered by acclimatization treatment. The growth of some strains in the molasses medium was thus recovered by the acclimatization process, and the profiles of extracellular enzymes were also affected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1202.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: exosomes; extracellular vesicles; isolation methods; ultrafiltration; precipitation; ultracentrifugation
Online: 18 August 2023 (08:19:24 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are enclosed by a lipid-bilayer membrane and secreted by all types of the cells under various physiological conditions. EVs play important roles in intercellular communication and crosstalk between tissues in the body. They are classified into three groups, such as apoptotic bodies, microvesicles, and exosomes. Exosomes were isolated from biofluids including blood, urine, milk, and cell culture media. Exosomes have significant potential for drug delivery and diagnosis. However, the method of isolation affects the physical and biological properties of exosomes. Several methods based on different principles have been developed for exosome isolation. These include ultrafiltration, precipitation, ultracentrifugation, size-exclusion chromatography, and microfluidics. In this study, we applied three common methods, such as ultrafiltration, precipitation, and ultracentrifugation, to isolate exosomes from the cell culture medium and investigated the effects of these different isolation methods on the size distribution and quality of the isolated exosomes. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images, size distribution, total protein content, and the effect of exosomes on the viability of hypoxic cells were analyzed in this study. The analysis revealed that compared to other methods, the ultracentrifugation method can isolate exosomes with smaller diameter (ranging from 20 to 80 nm), lower total protein content (50 µg/ml), and causing the increased viability of the hypoxic cells. The precipitation method does not require special equipment and is inexpensive, if the quality and purity of this method are solved, and it can be used as the best method for exosome isolation. This study can serve as a guide for choosing the best exosome isolation method for applications in medicine according to the needs, time, cost, and equipment.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1004.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Reproductive Medicine Keywords: reproductive biology; ovarian function; PRP; extracellular matrix; entropy
Online: 14 August 2023 (10:31:12 CEST)
Diminished ovarian reserve can be regarded as a sentinel indicator to foreshadow severe follicular loss and, ultimately, systemic aging. The negative slope of human ovulatory fidelity begins with a robust follicular endowment which gradually declines over time. In contrast, the youthful ovarian phenotype requires the coordinated work of endothelial, granulosa, immune, perivascular, stromal and possibly germline stem cells. Such a diverse tissue matrix can, in general, be influenced by platelet (PLT)-derived factors but this has not yet been specifically confirmed in the ovary after platelet-rich plasma (PRP). How could a comparable response be validated? Here a prospective, experimental study is proposed whereby eligible patients already undergoing scheduled laparoscopy provide ovarian tissue via biopsy submitted for co-culture with autologous Ca+2 activated PRP. Recognizing the interlocking, central roles of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), incubated samples would be assessed for these in vitro before vs. after PRP exposure, in addition to stereomicroscopy. A mathematical model is available to track NF-κB oscillations and estimate gene expression, cell development, growth, apoptosis, and key immune and inflammatory actions. Since NF-κB and TNF-α are discharged in activated PLT releasate (or react to its cargo proteins) this audit permits extraction of response markers observed post-stimulus, thus linking discrete signals to transcriptional output, cellular fitness, and ovarian cytoarchitecture. From this, a hypothesis could emerge where intraovarian PRP is found to make no direct impact on follicles, although modified ovarian field function and curtailed local entropy incidentally favor optimized oocyte competence as a secondary effect.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1285.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Extracellular vesicles; MicroRNAs; Sorting mechanism; Biomarkers; Heart failure
Online: 20 July 2023 (02:49:03 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are emerging mediators of intracellular and inter-organ communications in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), especially in the pathogenesis of heart failure through the transference of EV-containing bioactive substances. microRNAs (miRNAs) are contained in EV cargo and are involved in the progression of heart failure. Over the past several years, a growing body of evidence has suggested that the biogenesis of miRNAs and EVs are tightly regulated, and the sorting of miRNAs into EVs is highly selective and tightly controlled. Extracellular miRNAs, in particular circulating EV-miRNAs, have shown promising potential as prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers for heart failure and as therapeutic targets. In this review, we summarize the latest progress concerning the role of EV-miRNAs in HF and their application in a therapeutic strategy development for heart failure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0095.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: mechanosensitivity; proliferation; myocyte; actincytoskeleton; extracellular matrix; L-DOPA
Online: 7 June 2022 (08:05:44 CEST)
Cells actively sense differences in topology, matrix elasticity and protein composition of the extracellular microenvironment and adapt their function and morphology. In this study, we focus on the cross-talk between matrix stiffness and protein coating density that regulate morphology and proliferation dynamics of single myocytes. For this, C2C12 myocytes were monitored on L-DOPA functionalized hydrogels of 22 different elasticity and fibronectin density compositions. Static images were recorded and statistically analyzed to determine morphological differences and to identify the optimized extracellular matrix (ECM). Using that information, selected ECMs were used to study the dynamics before and after cell proliferation by statistical comparison of distinct cell states. We observed a fibronectin density independent increase of the projected cell area until 12 kPa. Additionally, changes in the fibronectin density led to an area optimum at about 2.6 μg/cm, which was confirmed by an independent F-actin analysis, revealing a maximum actin filament to cell area ratio of 7.5 %. The proliferation evaluation showed an opposite correlation between cell spreading duration and speed to the matrix elasticity and protein density, which did not affect the cell cycle duration. In summary, we identified an optimized ECM composition, while independent matrix properties regulate distinct cell characteristics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0389.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: 3D Bioprinting; Extracellular Matrix; Extrusion; Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering
Online: 22 November 2021 (12:26:49 CET)
There is need to address the challenges of organ shortage, through development of tissues and organs with alternatives to those of the allograft-kind. This illustrates the quest behind novel biofabrication strategies such as 3D bio-printing, which is necessary to create artificial multi-cellular tissues/organs. Several findings have been reported in this review. First, the role of ECM components in tissue regenerative medicine is presented. Different ECM components such as collagen, gelatin, elastin, fibronectin, laminins and glycosaminoglycans are concisely examined for their tissue regenerative medicine applications. Next, current state of research on extrusion-based 3D bio-printing techniques and their limitations are reviewed. For example, we show that cell viability is still a challenge with extrusion, while the use of natural polymers such as collagen in improving composites’ mechanical properties is limited. Lastly, we examine unresolved research questions necessary to advance the present state of research in the field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0130.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: fusion protein; extracellular vesicles; target delivery; RNA sorting
Online: 8 October 2021 (09:21:36 CEST)
The advancement of precision medicine critically depends on the robustness and specificity of the carriers used for the targeted delivery of effector molecules in the human body. Numerous nanocarriers have been explored in vivo, to ensure the precise delivery of molecular cargos via tissue-specific targeting, including the endocrine part of the pancreas, thyroid, and adrenal glands. However, even after reaching the target organ, the cargo-carrying vehicle needs to enter the cell and then escape from lysosomal destruction. Most of artificial nanocarriers suffer from intrinsic limitations that either prevent them from completing the specific delivery of the cargo. In this respect, extracellular vesicles (EVs) seem to be the natural tool for payload delivery due to their versatility and low toxicity. However, EV-mediated delivery is not selective and usually short-ranged. By inserting the viral membrane fusion proteins into exosomes, it is possible to increase the efficiency of membrane recognition and also ease the process of membrane fusion. This review describes the molecular details of the viral-assisted interaction between the target cell and extracellular vesicles. We also discuss the question of the usability of viral fusion proteins in developing extracellular vesicle-based nanocarriers with higher efficacy of payload delivery. Finally, this review specifically highlights the role of Gag and RNA binding proteins in RNA sorting into extracellular vesicles.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1097.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Atherosclerosis; psoriasis; microRNA; extracellular vesicles; long non-coding RNA
Online: 17 November 2023 (02:35:39 CET)
It is generally accepted that atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. The link between atherosclerosis and other inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) via metabolic, inflammatory, and immunoregulatory pathways is well established. The aim of our review was to summarize the associations between selected microRNAs (miRs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and atherosclerosis, psoriasis, T2DM, and RA. MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNA molecules involved in cell signaling, intracellular communication, and gene expression. We reviewed the role of miR-146a, miR-210, miR-143, miR-223, miR-126, miR-21, miR-155, miR-145, miR-200, miR-133, miR-135, miR-221, miR-424, and let-7 in atherosclerosis, psoriasis, T2DM, and RA. LncRNAs are RNA transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides that are involved in cellular processes such as apoptosis, metabolism, inflammation, cell differentiation, and proliferation. We evaluated the role of lncRNA-H19, lncRNA-MEG3, lncRNA-UCA1, and lncRNA-XIST in atherosclerosis and psoriasis, T2DM, and RA. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a method of intracellular signal transduction. Their function depends on surface expression, cargo, and the cell from which they originate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1434.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: extracellular vesicles; exosomes; proteomics; signaling molecules; biomarkers; mammary neoplasia
Online: 21 September 2023 (08:24:37 CEST)
Cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease, influenced by various factors that affect its progression and response to treatment. Although histopathological diagnosis is crucial for identifying and classifying cancer, it may not accurately predict the disease's development and evolution in all cases. To address this limitation, liquid biopsy has emerged as a valuable tool, enabling a more precise and non-invasive analysis of cancer. Liquid biopsy offers the ability to detect tumor DNA fragments, circulating tumor cells, and exosomes released by cancer cells into the bloodstream. Exosomes, in particular, have attracted significant attention in cancer research due to their specific protein composition, which can provide valuable insights into the disease. The protein profile of exosomes often differs from that of normal cells, reflecting the unique molecular characteristics of cancer. Analyzing these proteins can help identify cancer-associated markers that play critical roles in tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. Ongoing research and clinical validation are essential to advance and effectively utilize protein biomarkers in cancer. Nevertheless, their potential to improve diagnosis and treatment is highly promising. This review discuss several exosome proteins of interest in breast cancer, particularly focusing on studies conducted in mammary tissue and cell lines in humans and experimental animals. Unfortunately, the studies conducted in the canine species are scarce. This emphasis sheds light on the limited research available in this field. Additionally, we present a curated selection of studies that have explored exosomal proteins as potential biomarkers, aiming to achieve the aforementioned benefits in breast cancer diagnosis, prognosis, monitoring, and treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2022.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Cerebral palsy; tendons; extracellular matrix; gene expression; RNA-sequencing
Online: 30 August 2023 (10:14:08 CEST)
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common movement disorder in children with a prevalence rang-ing from 1.5 to 4 per 1000 live births. CP is caused by a non-progressive lesion of the developing brain, leading to progressive alterations of the musculoskeletal system, including spasticity, often leading to the development of fixed contractures, necessitating tendon lengthening surgery. Total RNA-sequencing analysis was performed on semitendinosus tendons from diplegic and tetraple-gic CP patients subjected to tendon lengthening surgery compared to control patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstructive surgery. Tetraplegic CP patients showed increased ex-pression of genes implicated in collagen synthesis and extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover, while only minor changes were observed in diplegic CP patients. In addition, tendons from tetra-plegic CP patients showed an enrichment for upregulated genes involved in vesicle-mediated transport and downregulated genes involved in cytokine and apoptotic signaling. Overall, our results indicate increased ECM turnover with increased net synthesis of collagen in tetraplegic CP patients without activation of inflammatory and apoptotic pathways similar to observations in athletes where ECM remodeling results in increased tendon stiffness and tensile strength. Never-theless, the resulting increased tendon stiffness is an important issue in clinical practice, where surgery is often required to restore joint mobility.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1451.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Non-alcoholic fatty liver; Extracellular vesicles; Biomarkers; Surface proteins
Online: 21 July 2023 (10:05:15 CEST)
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a liver disorder that has become a global health concern due to its increasing prevalence. Currently, there is a need for reliable biomarkers to aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of NAFLD. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are promising candidates in biomarker discovery, as they carry proteins that reflect the pathophysiological state of the liver. In this review, we developed a list of EV proteins that could be used as diagnostic biomarkers for NAFLD. We employed a multi-step strategy that involved reviewing and comparing various sources of information. Firstly, we reviewed papers that have studied EVs proteins as biomarkers in NAFLD, as well as papers that have studied circulating proteins as biomarkers in NAFLD. To further identify potential candidates, we utilized the EV database Vesiclepedia.org to qualify each protein. Finally, we consulted the Human Protein Atlas to search for candidates' localization, focusing on membrane proteins. By integrating these sources of information, we developed a comprehensive list of potential EVs membrane protein biomarkers that could aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of NAFLD. In conclusion, our multi-step strategy for identifying EV-based protein biomarkers for NAFLD provides a comprehensive approach that can also be applied for other diseases. The protein candidates identified through this approach could have significant implications for the development of non-invasive diagnostic tests for NAFLD and improve the management and treatment of this prevalent liver disorder.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2248.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Keywords: Osteoarthritis, Neutrophil, Innate Immunity, Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NET).
Online: 31 May 2023 (12:55:03 CEST)
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative joint disease that causes chronic pain and disability. Different innate immune components, including macrophages, T cells, and neutrophils, participate in osteoarthritis pathophysiology. Neutrophils are the most abundant circulating leukocytes with multiple specialized functions contributing to innate and adaptive immune functions. Although neutrophils produce proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS), matrix-degrading enzymes, and neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) that promote joint degradation as the first recruit cells in an inflamed joint, these cells also play an important role in joint repair by regulating the immune response, releasing anti-inflammatory factors, and activating some protective genes. In this review, various aspects of neutrophil biology, their role in inflammation and its association with osteoarthritis, and possible therapeutic approaches to target neutrophils for the treatment of osteoarthritis are described. Understanding neutrophil heterogeneity and their mechanisms of action in joint inflammation, provides a potential strategy for OA management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0398.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Type I hypersensitivity; IgE; AIT; SIT; extracellular vesicles; vaccine
Online: 24 December 2021 (10:52:50 CET)
Allergic diseases represent a global health and economic burden of increasing significance. The lack of disease-modifying therapies besides specific allergen immunotherapy (AIT) which is not available for all types of allergies, necessitates the study of novel therapeutic approaches. Exosomes are small endosome-derived vesicles delivering cargo between cells and thus allowing inter-cellular communication. Since immune cells make use of exosomes to boost, deviate, or suppress immune responses, exosomes are intriguing candidates for immunotherapy. Here, we review the role of exosomes in allergic sensitization and inflammation and we discuss the mechanisms by which exosomes could be used in immunotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of allergic diseases. We propose the following approaches: a) Mast cell derived exosomes expressing IgE receptor FcεRI could absorb IgE and down-regulate systemic IgE levels. b) Tolerogenic exosomes could suppress allergic immune responses via induction of regulatory T cells. c) Exosomes could promote TH1-like responses towards an allergen. d) Exosomes could modulate IgE-facilitated antigen presentation.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Aspergillus sp.; extracellular laccase; production; purification; characterization; dye decolorization
Online: 8 December 2019 (17:24:19 CET)
Although laccase has been recognized as a wonder molecule, and green enzyme, the use of low yielding fungal strains, poor production, purification, and low enzyme kinetics have hampered its larger-scale applications. Hence the present research was aimed to select high yielding fungal strains and to optimize the production, purification, and kinetics of laccase of Aspergillus sp. HB_RZ4. Aspergillus sp. HB_RZ4 produced a copious amount of laccase on under meso-acidophillic shaking conditions in a medium containing glucose and yeast extract. A 25 µM of CuSO4 enhanced the enzyme yield. The enzyme was best purified on Sephadex G-100 column. Purified enzyme resembled with the laccase of A. flavus. Kinetics of purified enzyme revealed the high substrate specificity and good velocity of reaction with ABTS as substrate. The enzyme was stable over a wide range of pH and temperature. The peptide structure of the purified enzyme resembled with the laccase of A. kawachii IFO 4308. The fungus decolorized various dyes independent of the requirement of a laccase mediator system (LMS). Aspergillus sp. HB_RZ4 came out as a potent natural producer of laccase, it decolorized the dyes even in absence of LMS and thus can be used for bioremediation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0171.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: NOX, sulfenylation, Nrf2, SKN-1, centenarians, extracellular matrix, longevity
Online: 10 September 2018 (12:59:22 CEST)
An accumulating body of evidence suggests that physiological reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by NADPH oxidases act as a redox signal to re-establish homeostasis, a capacity that progressively declines during aging, but is maintained in long-lived animals to promote healthy aging. In the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, ROS generated by dual oxidases (Duox) are important for extracellular matrix integrity, pathogen defense, oxidative stress resistance, and longevity. The Duox enzymatic activity is tightly regulated and under cellular control. Developmental molting cycles, pathogen infections, toxins, mitochondrial-derived ROS, drugs, and small GTPases (RHO-1) can activate Duox (BLI-3) to generate ROS, whereas NADPH oxidase inhibitors and negative regulators, such as MEMO-1, can inhibit Duox to generate ROS. Three mechanisms-of-action have been discovered for the Duox/BLI-3-generated ROS: 1) enzymatic activity to catalyze cross-linking of free tyrosine ethyl ester in collagen bundles to stabilize extracellular matrices, 2) high ROS bursts/levels to kill pathogens, and 3) Redox signaling activating downstream kinase cascades to transcription factors orchestrating oxidative stress- and immunity responses to re-establish homeostasis. Although Duox function at the cell surface is well established, recent genetic and biochemical data also suggests a novel role for Duoxs at the endoplasmic reticulum membrane to control redox signaling. Evidence underlying these mechanisms initiated by ROS from NADPH oxidases and their relevance for human aging are discussed in this review. Appropriately controlling NADPH oxidase activity for local and physiological redox signaling to maintain cellular homeostasis might be a therapeutic strategy to promote healthy aging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0698.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: neuroblastoma; extracellular vesicles; iron oxide nanoparticles; biomimetic models; precision medicine
Online: 10 November 2023 (11:36:59 CET)
Using nanoparticles (NPs) in drug delivery has exhibited promising therapeutic potential 13 in various cancer types. Nevertheless, several challenges must be addressed, including the 14 formation of the protein corona, reduced targeting efficiency and specificity, potential immune 15 responses, and issues related to NP penetration and distribution within 3-dimensional tissues. 16 To tackle these challenges, we have successfully integrated iron oxide nanoparticles into 17 neuroblastoma-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) using the parental labeling method. We first de- 18 veloped a tissue-engineered (TE) neuroblastoma model, confirming the viability and proliferation 19 of neuroblastoma cells for at least 12 days, supporting its utility for EV isolation. Importantly, EVs 20 from long-term cultures exhibited no differences compared to short-term cultures. Concurrently, 21 we designed Rhodamine (Rh), Polyacrylic acid (PAA)-functionalized magnetite nanoparticles 22 (Fe3O4@PAA-Rh) with high crystallinity, purity, and superparamagnetic properties (average size: 23 9.2 ± 2.5 nm). We then investigated the internalization of Fe3O4@PAA-Rh nanoparticles within 24 neuroblastoma cells within the TE model. Maximum accumulation was observed overnight while 25 ensuring robust cell viability. However, nanoparticle internalization was low. Taking advantage of 26 the enhanced glucose metabolism exhibited by cancer cells, glucose (Glc)-functionalized nanoparti- 27 cles (Fe3O4@PAA-Rh-Glc) were synthesized, showing superior cell uptake within the 3D model 28 without inducing toxicity. These glucose-modified nanoparticles were selected for parental labeling 29 of the TE models, showing effective NPs encapsulation into EVs. 30 Our research introduces innovative approaches to advance NPs delivery. By partially addressing 31 the challenges associated with 3D systems, optimizing internalization, and enhancing NPs stability 32 and specificity through EV-based carriers. Also, our findings hold the promise of more precise and 33 effective cancer therapies while minimizing potential side effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1332.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Transforming growth factor beta; YAP; SMAD3; Heart Valve; Extracellular matrix
Online: 20 October 2023 (12:22:01 CEST)
Abstract: The transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) and Hippo signaling pathways are evolutionarily conserved pathways that play a critical role in cardiac fibroblasts during embryonic development, tissue repair, and fibrosis. TGFβ and Hippo signaling is also important for cardiac cushion remodeling and septation during embryonic development. Loss of TGFβ2 in mice causes cardiac cushion remodeling defects resulting in congenital heart disease. In this study, we used in vitro molecular and pharmacologic approaches in the cushion mesenchymal cell line (tsA58-AVM) and investigated if Hippo pathway acts as a mediator of TGFβ2 signaling. Immunofluorescence staining showed that TGFβ2 induced nuclear translocation of activated SMAD3 in the cushion mesenchymal cells. In addition, the results indicated increased nuclear localization of Yes associated protein 1 (YAP1) following a similar treatment of TGFβ2. In collagen lattice formation assays, TGFβ2 treatment of cushion cells resulted in an enhanced collagen contraction compared to the untreated cushion cells. Interestingly, verteporfin, a YAP1 inhibitor, significantly blocked the ability of cushion cells to contract collagen gel in absence or presence of by exogenously added TGFβ2. To confirm the molecular mechanisms of verteporfin induced inhibition of TGFβ2-dependent extra-cellular matrix (ECM) reorganization we performed gene expression analysis of key mesenchymal genes involved in ECM remodeling in heart development and disease. Our results confirmed that verteporfin significantly decreased the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (Acta2), collagen 1a1 (Col1a1), Ccn1 (i.e., Cyr61), and Ccn2 (i.e., Ctgf). Western blot analysis indicated that verteporfin treatment significantly blocked TGFβ2-induced activation of SMAD2/3 in cushion mesenchymal cells. Collectively, these results indicate that TGFβ2 regulation of cushion mesenchymal cell be-havior and ECM remodeling is mediated by YAP1. Thus, TGFβ2 and Hippo pathway integration represents an important step in understanding the etiology of congenital heart disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1637.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Hydrogel; Extracellular matrix; Stiffness; Cell; Cancer; Internal stresses; Bound water
Online: 23 August 2023 (07:17:32 CEST)
Hydrogels can be considered as mimics of extracellular matrix (ECM).Cytoskeleton through integrins is connected with ECM and cytoskeleton tension depends on ECM stiffness.A number of age-related diseases depend on cellular processes related with cytoskeleton function.Some examples of cancer initiation and progression and heart disease in relationship with ECM stiffness has been analysed.Incorporation of rigid particles in ECM can increase ECM stifness and to promote formation of internal residual stresses. Water migration, changes of water binding energy to biomactomolecules, changes of the state of water from tightly bound water to free and loosely bound water changes stiffness of ECM. Risks related with rigid particles incorporation into ECM have been also iscussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1314.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Extracellular vesicles; Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; Hepatocellular carcinoma; microRNAs; Biomarker
Online: 18 August 2023 (10:56:55 CEST)
Extracellular vesicle-derived microRNAs (EV-miRNAs) are promising circulating biomarkers for chronic liver disease. In this study, we explored the potential significance of plasma EV-miRNAs in non-hepatitis B-, non-hepatitis C-related HCC (NBNC-HCC). We compared plasma EV-miRNA profiles between NBNC-HCC and control groups including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and healthy controls using NanoString method. The differentially expressed EV-miRNAs were validated in another set of plasma samples by qRT-PCR. A total of 66 significantly differentially expressed EV-miRNAs between the HCC and control groups were identified in the discovery set. In the validation cohort including plasma samples of 70 NBNC-HCC, 70 NAFLD and 35 healthy controls, 5 plasma EV-miRNAs were significantly elevated in HCC, which included miR-19-3p, miR-16-5p, miR-223-3p, miR-30d-5p, and miR-451a. These miRNAs were found to participate in several cancer-related signaling pathways based on bioinformatic analysis. Among them, EV-miR-19-3p exhibited the best diagnostic performance and displayed a high sensitivity for detecting AFP-negative HCC and early-stage HCC. In multivariate analysis, high EV-miR-19-3p level was demonstrated as an independently unfavorable predictor of overall survival in patients with NBNC-HCC. In conclusion, our data have indicated for the first time that EV-miR-19-3p could serve as a novel circulating biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of NBNC-HCC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0491.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Extracellular matrix; Cell-tissue interactions; Tissue engineering; Regenerative medicine; scaffolds
Online: 7 August 2023 (07:26:41 CEST)
The advancements achieved in Tissue Engineering are based on a careful and in-depth study of cell-tissue interaction. The choice of a certain biomaterial in Tissue Engineering is fundamental as it represents an interface for adherent cells in the creation of a microenvironment suitable for cell growth and differentiation. The knowledge of the biochemical and biophysical properties of the extracellular matrix is a useful tool for the optimization of polymeric scaffolds. The aim of this re-view is to analyse the chemical, physical and biological parameters on which it is possible to act in Tissue Engineering for the optimization of polymeric scaffolds. Understanding the scaffold impact on cell fate is of paramount importance for the successful advancement of Tissue Engineering.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1117.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Extracellular electron transfer; electroactive microorganisms; electron mediators; light; electricity; magnetism
Online: 15 June 2023 (09:48:35 CEST)
Electroactive microorganisms have received a lot of interest in the field of environmental engineering and biotechnology because of their extracellular electron transfer (EET) capability of energy recovery and environmental remediation. However, the low efficiency of EET remains a barrier to its practical implementation. This review presents an introduction to EET, followed by addressing strategies for enhancing EET through different approaches including enhancing EET by mediator materials, external electricity, photo, and magnetism as well as integrated strategies, that is, the combination of multiple means to promote extracellular electron transport and improve the performance of microbial electrochemical systems. Finally, the challenges, perspectives, and new directions for EET enhancement will be discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0642.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: basal breast cancer; extracellular matrix remodeling; ferroptosis; transcriptome; text mining
Online: 8 June 2023 (11:21:03 CEST)
(1) Background: Breast cancer is a frequent heterogeneous disorder diagnosed in woman and is a high cause of mortality of them in reason to rapid metastasis and disease recurrence. Ferroptosis can inhibit breast cancer cell growth, improve the sensitivity of chemotherapy and radiotherapy and inhibit distant metastases so potentially acts on tumor micro-environment; (2) Methods: Ferroptosis/Extracellular matrix remodeling literature text-mining results were integrated in breast cancer transcriptome cohort according their distant relapse free survival (DRFS) under adjuvant therapy (anthracyclin+taxanes) and also in MDA-MB-231 transcriptome functional experiments with ferroptosis activations (GSE173905); (3) Results: Ferroptosis/Extracellular matrix remodeling text-mining identified 910 associated genes in at list 10 articles. Univariate Cox analyses censored on breast cancer (GSE25066) selected 252 individual significant genes and 171 of them found with an adverse expression. Functional enrichment of these 171 adverse genes predicted basal breast cancer signatures. By text-mining some ferroptosis significant adverse selected genes shared citations in domain of ECM remodeling such as: TNF, IL6, SET, CDKN2A, EGFR, HMGB1, KRAS, MET, LCN2, HIF1A, TLR4. A molecular score based on expression the eleven genes was found predictive of worst prognosis breast cancer at univariate level: basal subtype, short DRFS, high grade values 3 and 4, estrogen and progesterone receptors negative and nodal stages 2 and 3. This eleven gene signature was validated as regulated by ferroptosis inductors (erastin and RSL3) in triple negative breast cancer cellular model MDA-MB-231.; (4) Conclusions: Crosstalk between ECM remodeling-Ferroptosis functionalities allowed to define a molecular score which have been characterized as an independent adverse parameter in prognosis of breast cancer patients. Gene signature of this molecular score have been validated to be regulated by erastin/RSL3 ferroptosis activators. This molecular score could be promising to evaluate ECM impact of ferroptosis target therapies in breast cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0211.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: biomaterials; decellularization; extracellular matrix; placenta; placental-derived biomaterials; wound healing
Online: 2 June 2023 (14:14:07 CEST)
Chronic wounds are associated with considerable patient morbidity and present a significant economic burden to the healthcare system. Often, chronic wounds are in a state of persistent in-flammation and unable to progress to the next phase of wound healing. Placental-derived bio-materials are recognized for their biocompatibility, biodegradability, angiogenic, an-ti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-fibrotic, immunomodulatory, and immune privileged prop-erties. As such, placental-derived biomaterials have been used in wound management for more than a century. Placental-derived scaffolds are composed of an extracellular matrix (ECM) that can mimic the native tissue, creating a reparative environment to promote ECM remodeling, cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Reliable evidence exists throughout the literature to support the safety and effectiveness of placental-derived biomaterials in wound healing. How-ever, differences in source (i.e., anatomical regions of the placenta), preservation techniques, decellularization status, design, and clinical application have not been fully evaluated. This re-view provides an overview of wound healing and placental-derived biomaterials, summarizes the clinical results of placental-derived scaffolds in wound healing, and suggests directions for future work.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0070.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Collagen Cross-linking; Extracellular Matrix; Fibrosis; Glycation; Lysyl Oxidase; Polyphenols
Online: 1 June 2023 (08:46:00 CEST)
Collagen, the most abundant structural protein found in mammals, plays a vital role as a constituent of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that surrounds cells. Collagen fibrils are strengthened through the formation of covalent cross-links, which involve complex enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is responsible for catalyzing the oxidative deamination of lysine and hydroxylysine residues, resulting in the production of aldehydes, allysine, and hydroxyallysine. These intermediates undergo spontaneous condensation reactions, leading to the formation of immature cross-links, which are the initial step in the development of mature covalent cross-links. Additionally, non-enzymatic glycation contributes to the formation of abnormal cross-linking in collagen fibrils. During glycation, specific lysine and arginine residues in collagen are modified by reducing sugars, leading to the creation of Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs). These AGEs have been associated with changes in the mechanical properties of collagen fibers. Interestingly, various studies have reported that plant polyphenols possess amine oxidase-like activity and can act as potent inhibitors of protein glycation. This review article focuses on compiling literature describing polyphenols with amine oxidase-like activity and antiglycation properties. Specifically, we explore the molecular mechanisms by which specific flavonoids impact or protect the normal collagen cross-linking process. Furthermore, we discuss how these dual activities can be harnessed to generate properly cross-linked collagen molecules, thereby promoting the stabilization of highly organized collagen fibrils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0270.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Clostridium septicum; fractioned-extracellular proteins; macrophages; cell death; apoptosis; autophagy
Online: 12 April 2023 (10:27:17 CEST)
The induction of macrophage death is regarded as a potential mechanism by which components secreted by Clostridium septicum are used to evade the innate immune response and cause tissue damage. This study aimed to determine the effect of partially purified fractions of extracellular proteins secreted by C. septicum on the death of mouse peritoneal macrophages. Elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages were incubated with partially purified fractions of proteins secreted by C. septicum into culture medium. After incubation, we found that the protein fraction with a molecular weight ≥ 100 kDa caused significant cell death in macrophages, changed cell morphology, increased markers of apoptosis and autophagy, and increased the expression (protein and mRNA) of IL-1 and TNFα. Our data suggest that the proteins secreted by C. septicum (MW ≥100kDa) induce cell death in macrophages by promoting autophagy-triggered apoptosis. This may contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanism of immune evasion by C. septicum at the infection site.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0021.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Extracellular Traps; Inflammation; Neutrophils; Basophils; Macrophage/Monocytes; Therapeutic Targets; autoimmunity
Online: 1 March 2022 (12:39:13 CET)
The first description of a new form of neutrophil cell death distinct from that of apoptosis or necrosis was discovered in 2004 and coined neutrophil extracellular traps “(NETs)” or “NETosis”. Different stimuli for NET formation, and pathways that drive neutrophils to commit to NETosis have been elucidated in the years that followed. Critical enzymes required for NET formation have been discovered, and targeted therapeutically. NET formation is no longer restricted to neutrophils but has been discovered in other innate cells: Macrophages/Monocytes, Mast Cells, Eosinophils, Basophils, Dendritic cells, and extracellular DNA is extruded from both B and T cells. It has become clear that although this mechanism is thought to enhance host defence by ensnaring bacteria within large webs of DNA to increase bactericidal killing capacity, it is also injurious to innocent bystander tissue. Proteases and enzymes released from extracellular traps (ETs), injure epithelial and endothelial cells perpetuating inflammation. In the context of autoimmunity ETs release over 70 well known autoantigens. ETs are associated with pathology in multiple diseases: lung diseases, vasculitis, autoimmune kidney diseases, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. Defining these pathways that drive ET release will provide insight into mechanisms of pathological insult, and provide potential therapeutic targets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0320.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Arteriogenesis; Arterial structure; extracellular matrix; peripheral arterial disease; collateral circulation
Online: 18 November 2021 (10:59:12 CET)
When a large artery becomes occluded, hemodynamic changes stimulate remodeling of arterial networks to form collateral arteries in a process termed arteriogenesis. However, the structural changes necessary for collateral remodeling have not been defined. We hypothesize that decon-struction of the extracellular matrix is essential to the remodeling of smaller arteries into effective collaterals. Using multiphoton microscopy, we analyzed collagen and elastin structure in maturing collateral arteries isolated from ischemic rat hindlimbs. Collateral arteries harvested at different timepoints showed progressive diameter expansion associated with striking rearrangement of in-ternal elastic lamina (IEL) into a loose fibrous mesh, a pattern persisting at 8 weeks. Despite a 2.5-fold increase in luminal diameter, total elastin content remained unchanged in collaterals compared with control arteries. Among the collateral midzones, baseline elastic fiber content is low. Outward remodeling of these vessels with a 10-20 fold diameter increase was associated with fractures of the elastic fibers and evidence of increased wall tension as demonstrated by straight-ening of the adventitial collagen. Inhibition of lysyl oxidase (LOX) function with β-aminopropionitrile resulted in severe fragmentation or complete loss of continuity of the IEL in developing collaterals. Collateral artery development is associated with permanent redistribution of existing elastic fibers to accommodate diameter growth. We found no evidence of new elastic fiber formation. Stabilization of the arterial wall during outward remodeling is necessary and dependent on LOX activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0572.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: aging; collagen; extracellular matrix; fibroblast; skin; tenascin C; TGF-β
Online: 28 October 2020 (08:49:54 CET)
Tenascin C (TNC) is an element of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of various tissues, including the skin, and is involved in modulating ECM integrity and cell physiology. Although skin aging is apparently associated with changes in the ECM, little is known about the role of TNC in skin aging. Here we found that Tnc mRNA level was significantly reduced in the skin tissues of aged mice compared with young mice, consistent with reduced TNC protein expression in aged human skin. TNC-large (TNC-L; 330-kDa) and -small (TNC-S; 240-kDa) polypeptides were observed in conditional media from primary dermal fibroblasts. Both recombinant TNC polypeptides, corresponding to TNC-L and TNC-S, increased the expression of type I collagen and reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in fibroblasts. Treatment of fibroblasts with a recombinant TNC polypeptide, corresponding to TNC-L, induced phosphorylation of SMAD2 and SMAD3. TNC increased the level of TGF-β1 mRNA and upregulated the expression of type I collagen by activating the TGF-β signaling pathway. In addition, TNC also promoted the expression of type I collagen in fibroblasts embedded in a three-dimensional collagen matrix. Our findings suggest that TNC contributes to the integrity of ECM in young skin and to prevention of skin aging.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: circulating tumor biomarkers; extracellular vesicles; biological nanoparticles; liquid biopsy; biosensing
Online: 31 January 2020 (05:18:15 CET)
Exosomes are nano-sized extracellular vesicles excreted by mammalian cells that circulate freely in the bloodstream of living organisms. Exosomes have a lipid bilayer that encloses genetic material used in intracellular communication (e.g., double-stranded DNA, micro-RNAs, and messenger RNA). Recent evidence suggests that dysregulation of this genetic content within exosomes has a major role in tumor progression and in the surrounding microenvironment. Motivated by this discovery, we focused here on using exosomal biomarkers as a diagnostic and prognostic tool for cancer. In this review, we discuss recently discovered exosome-derived proteomic and genetic biomarkers used in cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Although several genetic biomarkers have been validated for their diagnostic values, proteomic biomarkers are still being actively pursued. We discuss both commercial technologies and emerging technologies for exosome isolation and analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0004.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Lewis lung cancer; miRNAs; transcription factors; extracellular matrix; cancer cachexia
Online: 1 September 2019 (08:37:12 CEST)
Cachexia is a complex metabolic syndrome characterized by loss of skeletal muscle, leading to a significant weight loss that impacts patient morbidity and mortality. Given the complexity of gene regulatory networks that control gene expression, our objective was to perform an integrative mRNA and miRNA profiling to identify genetic programs that capture essential mechanistic details that promote muscle atrophy in cancer cachexia. Here, we used RNA sequencing to analyze miRNAs and mRNAs expression profiles in tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of the Lewis lung carcinoma model of cancer cachexia. In addition, we compared these findings with RNA-Seq data from C2C12 myotubes treated in vitro with the cachectic factors tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Extracellular matrix (ECM) alterations were validated by picrosirius staining, western blot, and fractal dimension analyses. We found 1,008 mRNAs and 18 miRNAs differentially expressed in cachectic mice. This set of genes was associated with the ECM, proteolysis, and inflammatory response. Enrichment analysis of transcriptional factor binding sites revealed activation of the atrophy-related transcriptional factors: NF-κB, Stat3, AP-1, and FoxO. Furthermore, the integration of mRNA and miRNA expression profiles identified post-transcriptional regulation by miRNAs of genes involved in ECM organization, cell migration, transcription factors binding, ion transport, and FoxO signaling pathway. C2C12 myotubes treated with TNF-α and IFN-γ similarly down-regulate subsets of ECM genes, including collagens. Our integrative analysis of miRNA-mRNA co-profiles comprehensive characterized regulatory relationships of molecular pathways and revealed miRNAs targeting ECM-associated genes in cancer cachexia. We also confirmed in C2C12 myotubes that changes in ECM-associated genes are dependent on inflammatory signaling of the cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0063.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: matreotype; proteomics; transcriptomics; lifespan; extracellular matrix; ECM; collagen; MMP; homeostasis
Online: 5 August 2019 (14:22:17 CEST)
Accumulation of damage is generally considered the cause of aging. Interventions that delay aging mobilize mechanisms that protect and repair cellular components. Consequently, research has been focused on studying the protective and homeostatic mechanisms within cells. However, in humans and other multicellular organisms, cells are surrounded by extracellular matrices (ECM), which are important for tissue structure, function and intercellular communication. During aging, components of the ECM become damaged through fragmentation, glycation, crosslinking, and accumulation of protein aggregation, all of which contribute to age-related pathologies. Interestingly, placing senescent cells into a young ECM rejuvenates them and we found that many longevity-assurances pathways re-activate de-novosynthesis of ECM proteins during aging. This raises the question of what constitutes a young ECM to reverse aging or maintain health? In order to make inroads to answering this question, I suggest a systems-level approach of quantifying the matrisome or ECM compositions reflecting health, pathology, or phenotype and propose a novel term, the “matreotype”, to describe this. The matreotype is defined as the composition and modification of ECM or matrisome proteins associated with or caused by a phenotype, such as longevity, or a distinct and acute physiological state, as observed during aging or disease. Every cell type produces its unique ECM. Interestingly, cancer-cell types can even be identified based on their unique ECM composition. Thus, the matreotype reflects cellular identity and physiological status. Defined matreotypes could be used as biomarkers or prognostic factors for disease or health status during aging with potential relevance for personalized medicine. Treatment with biologics that alter ECM-to-cell mechanotransduction might be a strategy to reverse age-associated pathologies. An understanding of how to reverse from an old to a young matreotype might point towards novel strategies to rejuvenate cells and help maintain tissue homeostasis to promote health during aging.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0052.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Exosomes, mass spectrometry, proteomics, biomarkers, cancer, extracellular vesicles, microvesicles, oncosomes
Online: 4 April 2019 (12:29:44 CEST)
The proteomic profile of extracellular vesicles (EVs) has been of increasing interest, particularly in understanding cancer growth, drug resistance, and metastatic behavior. Emerging data suggests that cancer-derived EVs may carry an array of oncogenic cargo, including certain integrin proteins that may, in turn, promote cell detachment, migration, and selection of future metastatic sites. We previously reported a large comparison of secreted vesicle protein cargo across sixty diverse human cancer cell lines. Here, we analyze the distinct integrin profiles of these cancer EVs. We further demonstrate the enrichment of integrin receptors in breast cancer EVs compared to vesicles secreted from benign breast epithelial cells. Total EV integrin levels, including the quantity of integrins α2, αv, β4, and β5 correlate with breast tumor stage. In particular, integrin α2 also largely reflects progenitor cell expression, highlighting the utility of this integrin protein as a potential circulating biomarker of primary tumors. This study provides preliminary evidence of the value of vesicle-associated integrin proteins in cancer diagnosis and prediction of tumor stage. Differential expression of integrins across cancer cells, and selective packaging of integrins into EVs may contribute to further understanding the development and progression of tumor growth and metastasis across a variety of cancer types.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0217.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Thromboinflammation; atherosclerosis; neutrophil extracellular traps; NETosis; von Willebrand Factor; neutrophil inflammasome
Online: 3 November 2023 (11:17:35 CET)
The interplay between thrombosis and inflammation, known as thromboinflammation, is a significant pathway driving cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases, as well as COVID-19. Key modulators of this process have emerged as innate immune cells. Strategically positioned to promote thromboinflammation are neutrophils, the most predominant white blood cells in humans. Neutrophils can trigger an organized cell death pathway by releasing decondensed chromatin structures known as neutrophil extracellular traps. These structures are decorated with histones, cytoplasmic, and granular proteins, and have cytotoxic, immunogenic, and prothrombotic effects, which can accelerate disease progression. The activities of PAD4, which catalyses the citrullination of histones, and the neutrophil inflammasome are required for distinct steps leading to extracellular DNA release (NETosis). PAD4 activity has important implications for understanding the processes that drive thromboinflammation by linking the immunological function of neutrophils with the procoagulant and proinflammatory activities of monocytes and platelets. We will discuss how vascular blockages in thromboinflammation occur due to the interaction between neutrophil extracellular traps and ultra-large VWF (von Willebrand Factor). PAD4 activity has important implications for understanding the processes that drive thromboinflammation by linking the immunological function of neutrophils with the procoagulant and proinflammatory activities of monocytes and platelets. It will also review the mechanisms whereby vaso-occlusive events in thrombo-inflammation depend on the interaction of neutrophil extracellular traps with von Willebrand factor and suggest the importance of PAD4 in neutrophil inflammasome assembly and neutrophil extracellular traps in thrombo-inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis and CVD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0812.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: smartphone; fat; extracellular water; body mass index; digital imaging; bioelectrical impedance
Online: 5 October 2023 (13:01:56 CEST)
Hydration and fluids detected with bioimpdance can be confounderdby ecw expansion and overload. to estimates with sufficient accuracy body fat A confrontation with imaging and dxa is confirmatory
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0170.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: wound healing; inflammation; microenvironment; stem cells; extracellular matrix; hypoxia; growth factors
Online: 9 November 2022 (03:41:12 CET)
Based on its large surface area and covering the whole human body, the skin body’s largest organ and its main function is protection. Injuries and wound healing involving the skin offer valuable lessons shared with and of relevance to other organ systems and the diseases that impact them. Arguably the most complex human body process, wound healing is a multifaceted process that involves multiple cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM), with each component playing a specific role in the different stages of the healing process. Importantly, studies indicate that cells with stem cell-like properties are present within many of the human tissues and play key roles in case of tissue and cellular injury. Cell-to-cell and cell-to-ECM interactions are salient in wound healing subsequent to an injury. Microenvironment related factors and the variations therein including hypoxia or the abundance of oxygen, the presence/absence of growth factors and cytokines add to the complexity of the wound healing process and impact cell function and result in compromised or enhanced wound healing. This expert review critically examines the advances in biochemical and analytical tools that are enable the analysis of numerous cells and molecules within the wound microenvironment, revealing great cellular heterogeneity as well as novel molecular targets of importance to enhance wound healing. In a broader angle, we emphasize the ways in which wound healing is significant in the search for perfect skin after injury and in many common complex human diseases including cancer. In all, wound healing is a centrepiece of integrative biology research and applications in medicine as well as dermatology as discussed in this review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0070.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: phototrophic bacteria; phototrophic extracellular electron uptake; comparative genomics; transcriptomics; environmental microbiology
Online: 6 May 2022 (09:35:45 CEST)
Rhodovulum spp. are anoxygenic photosynthetic purple bacteria with versatile metabolisms, including the ability to obtain electrons from minerals in their environment to drive photosynthesis, a relatively novel process called phototrophic extracellular electron uptake (pEEU). Recently, our group isolated 15 strains of R. sulfidophilum to observe this metabolism in marine phototrophs. Our group previously observed carbon dioxide fixation coupled to phototrophic iron oxidation (photoferrotrophy) and pEEU in AB26 and identified a novel di-heme c¬-type cytochrome EeuP important for pEEU but not photoferrotrophy. Taxonomic re-evaluation based on 16S and pufM phylogenetic analyses led us to re-classify two isolates, AB26 and AB19, as Rhodovulum visakhapatnamense. The AB26 genome consists of 4,380,746 base-pairs, including two plasmids, and encodes 4,296 predicted protein-coding genes. AB26 contains 22 histidine kinases, 20 response regulators, and dedicates ~16% of its genome to transport. Transcriptomic data under aerobic, photoheterotrophy, photoautotrophy, and pEEU reveals how gene expression varies between metabolisms. Lastly, we use transcriptomic data for a comparative genomic analysis of potential pEEU-relevant genes between all 15 isolates. With these data we identify potential pEEU capable phototrophs within these isolates, and likely molecular mechanisms of pEEU.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0307.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: receptors; extracellular DNA; cell-surface bound DNA; cell-surface bound RNA
Online: 29 April 2022 (15:04:38 CEST)
Here, our data provide the first evidence for the existence of a previously unknown receptive system formed by novel DNA- and RNA-based receptors in eukaryotes. This system, named the TR-system, is capable of recognizing and generating a response to different environmental factors and has been shown to orchestrate major vital functions of fungi, mammalian cells, and plants.Recently, we discovered the existence of a similar regulatory system in prokaryotes. These DNA- and RNA-based receptors are localized outside of the membrane forming a type of a network around cells that respond to a variety of chemical, biological, and physical factors and enabled the TR-system to regulate major aspects of eukaryotic cell life as follows: growth, including reproduction and development of multicellular structures; sensitivity to temperature, geomagnetic field, UV, light, and hormones; interaction with viruses; gene expression, recognition and utilization of nutrients. The TR-system was also implicated in cell memory formation and was determined to be responsible for its maintenance and the forgetting of preceding events. This system is the most distant receptive and regulatory system of the cell that regulates interactions with the outer environment and governs the functions of other receptor-mediated signaling pathways.