ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0083.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: drug-resistant TB; heteroresistance; mutations; spoligotyping
Online: 9 June 2023 (15:36:21 CEST)
Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is still a major public health concern in South Africa. Mutations in M. tuberculosis can cause varying levels of phenotypic resistance to anti-TB medications. There have been no prior studies on gene mutations and the genotyping of DR-TB in the rural Eastern Cape Province; hence we aimed to identify DR-TB mutations, genetic diversity and allocated lineages among patients in this area. Using Xpert® MTB/RIF, we assessed the rifampin-resistance of sputum samples collected from 1157 patients suspected of having tuberculosis. GenoType MTBDR plus VER 2.0 was used for the detection of mutations causing resistance to anti-TB medications. The next step was to spotlight type 441 isolates. The most prevalent rifampin resistance-conferring mutations were in rpoB codon S531L, in INH-resistant strains, katG gene at codon S315TB and the inhA gene at codon C-15TB had highest mutations; 54.5% and 24.7%, respectively. In addition, 24.6% of strains showed mutations in both the rpoB and inhA genes, while 69.9% of strains showed mutations in both the katG and rpoB genes. Heteroresistance was seen in 17.9% of all cases in the study. According to spoligotyping analysis, Beijing families predominated. Investigating the evolutionary lineages of M. tuberculosis isolates can be done using the information provided by the study's diversity of mutations. In locations where these mutations have been discovered, decision-making regarding standardization of treatment regimens or individualized treatment may be aided by the detection frequency of rpoB, katG, and inhA mutations in various study areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0723.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Complementary And Alternative Medicine Keywords: Synergistic effect; Antibiotic resistance; Medicinal Plants; Penicillin G; Sutherlandia Frutescens; Microbial sensitivity tests; Drug combinations
Online: 9 June 2023 (13:09:26 CEST)
(1) Background: The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a growing concern in the field of medicine. This has led to the need for alternative treatments for bacterial infections. (2) Methods: The present study aimed to investigate the synergistic effect of a water-based extract of S. fru-tescens and penicillin G on the growth of E. faecalis. (3) Results: The study found that the combina-tion of the plant extract and penicillin G had a synergistic effect on the inhibition of bacterial growth, with a significantly larger inhibition zone observed compared to penicillin G alone. The MIC and MBC tests also demonstrated that the combination of the plant extract and penicillin G was more effective against E. faecalis than penicillin G alone, with a dilution of 1 in 4 yielding 100% inhibition of growth. (4) Conclusion: Although the specific mechanism of action was not dis-cussed in the study, the results suggest that the combination of the plant extract and penicillin G may offer a promising alternative treatment for antibiotic-resistant infections. Further research is needed to determine the active compounds in the plant extract and to investigate the synergistic effect of the combination on other strains of bacteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0718.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: digital models; Bolton index; orthodontics CAD Software; extra-oral scanner
Online: 9 June 2023 (12:37:09 CEST)
Introduction: Due to the great development of digital technology, through CAD (Computer - Aided Design) and CAM (Computer - Aided Manufacturing) systems, digital models could be used in orthodontic treatment planning decision-making, as there are numerous studies in the literature that support the validity of measurements of digital models of anterior teeth and the total coefficient of Bolton analysis. The aim of the study was to compare the average length value of the current upper and lower arches with that of a hypothetical nickel-titanium wire and the accuracy of the Bolton index measurement. In the present study, 138 dental casts were analyzed using Ortho3Shape software. Using the Ortho3Shape software, it was possible to measure the real and ideal lower arch lengths and, with regard to Bolton analysis, the values of the anterior and total Bolton coefficients. By comparing the values obtained with those of the study by A. Anand Kumar et al. using CBCT and plaster casts, the reliability of the measurements obtained with such CAD/CAM orthodontic software was evaluated. Considering the validity of digital measurements demonstrated by the studies and systematic reviews in the literature, it can be stated that CAD/CAM digital models can be a viable alternative to plaster models in the coming years, as they can facilitate model preservation and retrieval. For future studies and research, it would be preferable to use intra-oral scanners (IOS) in order to ensure greater accuracy, requiring only one step and ensuring a better outcome for the patient.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0670.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: ANOCA; INOCA; MINOCA; vasospastic angina; microvascular angina; coronary microvascular dysfunction; bolus thermodilution method; continuous thermodilution method
Online: 9 June 2023 (10:57:44 CEST)
A considerable number of patients with angina or myocardial ischemia have no significant coronary artery disease on invasive angiography. In recent years, several steps towards a better comprehension of the pathophysiology of these conditions, angina or ischemia with non-obstructive coronary arteries (ANOCA/INOCA) have been made. Nevertheless, several gaps in knowledge still remain. This review is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of ANOCA and INOCA with a particular focus on pathophysiology, recent diagnostic innovations, gaps in knowledge and treatment modalities.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0701.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Iron isomaltoside; NF-kappaBeta; dehydroxymethyepoxyquinmicin (DHMEQ); mesothelial cells
Online: 9 June 2023 (10:37:47 CEST)
Background. Intravenous iron therapy is used in treatment of anemia in uremic pa-tients. In patients treated with peritoneal dialysis iv. infused iron diffuses into the peritoneal cavity and may cause injury to the mesothelial cell. Methods. We studied effect of Iron Isomaltoside (IIS) in presence of NF-κβ inhibitor dehydroxymethyepoxyquinmicin (DHMEQ) on function of the peritoneal mesothelial cells. Experiments were performed on human peritoneal mesothelial cells in in vitro culture ex-posed to IIS 15 ug/dL ± DHMEQ 1 ug/mL. Intracellular oxidative stress, secretory activity and collagen synthesis in the cells were studied. Results. IIS induced oxidative stress in the mesothelial cells and that effect was weaker in presence of DHMEQ (-52%,p<0.001). In cells exposed to IIS increased expression of genes for IL6 (+74%,p<0.001), PAI-1 (+43%, p<0.01) and TGFβ (+53%,p<0.001) was observed and reduced for tPA (-36%,p<0.01). In presence of IIS increased secretion of IL6 (+56%, p<0.001), TGFβ (+49%,p<0.001) and PAI-1 (+51%, p<0.001) was observed whereas secretion of tPA was reduced (-25%, p0.001). DHMEQ reduced changes in genes and secre-tory activity caused by IIS. In presence of IIS synthesis of collagen in mesothelial cells was increased (+45%,p<0.001) and that effect was weaker (-25% vs. IIS, p<0001) when simulta-neously DHMEQ was used. Discussion. IIS induces proinflammatory changes in mesothelial cells, deteriorates their fibrinolytic activity and stimulates synthesis of collagen. All these effects are reduced when simultaneously NF-κβ inhibitor – DHMEQ is used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0695.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Autophagy; Cancer; Chemotherapy; Homeostasis; Hydroxychloroquine; Mitochondria; Oxidative Stress; Rapamycin; Therapeutics
Online: 9 June 2023 (09:31:12 CEST)
Neuroblastoma is the most common tumour in children under 1 year old, accounting for approximately 50% of infant cancer cases. Although current treatments are relatively efficacious against this cancer, associated adverse effects could be detrimental to growth and development. In contrast, glioblastoma accounts for 52% of brain tumours and has an extremely poor prognosis. Current chemotherapeutics include temozolomide, which has numerous negative side-effects and a low-effective rate. Previous studies have shown the manipulation of autophagy to be a promising method for targeting cancers, including glioblastoma. We sought to determine the effects of autophagic alterations in combination with current chemotherapies in both neuroblastoma and glioblastoma. Supplementing cisplatin or temozolomide with autophagy activator rapamycin stabilized cancer cell mitochondria, despite having little effect on apoptosis or oxidative stress. Autophagy inhibition via 3-methyladenine or hydroxychloroquine alongside standard chemotherapies enhanced apoptosis and oxidative stress, with 3-methyladenine also disrupting mitochondrial health. Importantly, combining hydroxychloroquine with 0.5 µM cisplatin or 50 µg/mL temozolomide was as or more effective than 2 µM cisplatin or 100 µg/mL temozolomide alone. Analyzing these interesting results, a combined treatment of autophagy inhibitor with a standard chemotherapeutic agent could help to improve patient prognosis and reduce chemotherapy doses and their associated side-effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0692.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: Valproic acid; GastroPlus based prediction; Cationic nanoemulsion; Gels; In vitro– ex vivo permeation profile; CLSM study
Online: 9 June 2023 (09:20:55 CEST)
Oral and parenteral delivery of first-line anticonvulsant Valproic cid (VA) are associated with serious adverse effects, high hepatic metabolism, high clearance, and low bioavailability in brain. GastroPlus program was used to predict in vivo performance of immediate (IR) and sustained release (SR) products in human. HSPiP software predicted excipients with maximum possible miscibility of the drug. Based on GastroPlus and HSPiP program, various excipients were screened for experimental solubility study and prepared cationic nanoemulsions and respective gels for nasal to brain delivery. These were characterised for size, size distribution, polydispersity index, zeta potential, morphology, pH, % transmittance, drug content, and viscosity. In vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation profile (goat nasal mucosa), and penetration studies were conducted. Result showed that in-vivo oral drug dissolution and absorption were predicted as 98.6 mg and 18.8 mg, respectively from both tablets (IR and SR) at 8 h using GastroPlus. The drug access to the portal vein was relatively predicted high in IR (115 mg) as compared to SR (82.6 mg). Plasma drug concentration-time profile predicted was in good agreement with published reports. The program predicted duodenum and jejunum as the prime site of drug absorption and no effect of nanonization on Tmax for sustained release formulation. Hansen parameters suggested suitable selection of excipients. The program recommended for nasal to brain delivery of the drug using cationic mucoadhesive product. The optimized stable CVE6 was associated with optimal size (113 nm), low PDI (0.26), high zeta potential (+34.7 mV), high transmittance (97.8%), and high strength (0.7 %w/w). In vitro release and ex vivo permeation of CVE6 were found to be substantially high as compared to anionic AVE6 and respective gels. Penetration study executed high fluorescence intensity with CVE6 and CVE6-gel as compared to suspension and ANE6 which may be attributed to electrostatic interaction between mucosal membrane and nanoglobules. Thus, cationic nanoemulsion and respective mucoadhesive gel are promising strategy for delivery of VA to brain through intransal administration for the treatment of seizure and convulsion.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0690.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: hyperferritinemic syndrome; hyperinflammatory state; hypercitokinemia; immunosupression
Online: 9 June 2023 (09:10:35 CEST)
The concept of “hyperferritinemic syndrome” defines a complex pathophysiological and clinical entity, characterized by a systemic hyperinflammatory state, generally associated with elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines (hypercytokinemia) and high serum levels of ferritin (hyperferritinemia), traditionally recognized as an iron-binding plasma protein involved in the storage of iron in a biologically available form for different physiological cellular processes. Recent studies have shown that ferritin has other important functions as well, operating both as a proinflammatory mediator and as a immunosupressive agent, its elevated levels in the serum being detected in various conditions associated with inflammatory states, such as infectious diseases, autoimmune and autoinflammatory disorders and, in some cases, in malignancies. Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (cAPS), systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) and adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD) and acquired forms of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), which includes macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), have been associated with hyperinflammatory states and dramatic elevations of serum ferritin, generating hyperferritinemic syndromes. Severe forms of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), in which MAS may frequently develop, has also been linked to the development of a hyperferritinemic syndrome. This review offers several insights into the physiological and pathophysiological roles of ferritin in several (hyper-)inflammatory diseases, but also into the causal entities, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical manifestations and diagnostic features of somewhat obscure, yet potentially fatal pathological conditions, reunited under the concept of hyperferritinemic syndromes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0689.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Black ginseng; Ginsenosides; UPLC-Q-TOF/MS; processing; multivariate statistical analysis
Online: 9 June 2023 (08:43:03 CEST)
Black ginseng is a type of processed ginseng that is traditionally used as herbal medicine in East Asian countries. It is prepared from fresh, white, or red ginseng by undergoing a process of steaming and drying nine times. However, the chemical differentiation of black ginseng with different processing levels is not well understood. The aim of this study is to propose a new method for discriminating and quantifying black ginseng. Six ginsenosides from black ginseng were accurately quantified, and based on this, the black ginseng samples were divided into uncompleted and completed black ginseng. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight/mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) combined with a multivariate statistical analysis strategy was then employed to differentiate the two groups. A total of 141 ions were selected as analytical markers of black ginseng, with 45 of these markers being annotated by matching precise m/z and MS/MS data from prior studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0684.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Female soccer; isokinetics; hamstring/quadriceps ratio; dominant non dominant limb ratio; errors in isokinetic dynamometry
Online: 9 June 2023 (08:17:33 CEST)
Isokinetic testing of the knee joint is the “gold standard” in strength assessment in sport especially in soccer, where it is part of pre-season screening to establish norms in case of injuries. There are many devices on the market that make it difficult to use of normative data. Isokinetics literature in females’ soccer players is scarce in comparison to males. Furthermore, evaluation protocols strongly differ from each other, using different ranges of speeds, movement patterns and output data. Thus, it is difficult for the researcher and the clinician to choose a correct protocol for isokinetic evaluation in female soccer players. The indexes of isokinetic performance that are widely accepted are the hamstring/quadriceps (H/Q) ratio and dominant/non-dominant (D/ND) ratio as reference. In this review are highlighted some common features of isokinetic testing in female soccer players of different levels of qualification. From this study, it emerges that, for a reliable test, 3 reps at the speed of 60°/sec in knee flexion/extension is preferable due to the high reliability and that an optimal H/Q ratio in healthy female soccer players of different level of qualification and age is 50%, while the interlimb differences (D/ND) should be below 10%.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0678.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Right-sided ligamentum teres; Three-dimensional computed tomography; Intraoperative ultrasonography; Laparoscopic hepatectomy; Expanded left lateral sectionectomy
Online: 9 June 2023 (07:14:27 CEST)
Right-sided ligamentum teres (RSLT) is a rare anatomic variant in which the fetal umbilical vein connects to the right portal vein. Patients with RSLT frequently have hepatic vasculature and bile duct anomalies, which increase the risk of complications with hepatectomy. Most patients with RSLT undergo open hepatectomy. We describe a patient with RSLT and hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent laparoscopic hepatectomy. The patient was a 69-year-old man with hepatocellular carcinoma located in the left liver based on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging also demonstrated RSLT. Three-dimensional CT analysis revealed independent right lateral type anomalies of the portal vein and bile duct. Laparoscopic extended left lateral sectionectomy was performed after careful surgical planning. Ultrasonography was used frequently during surgery to avoid damaging the right hepatic vasculature. The left lateral and partial left median sections were removed as planned. The patient’s postoperative recovery was uneventful. Avoiding injury to the right hepatic vasculature is essential when performing left lobectomy, including left lateral sectionectomy, in patients with RSLT. Laparoscopic hepatectomy can be performed safely in patients with RSLT, provided that careful surgical planning is conducted using preoperative three-dimensional CT analysis and intraoperative ultrasonography is used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0668.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: radiofrequency ablation; hepatocarcinoma; volumetry; local tumour progression.
Online: 9 June 2023 (04:39:56 CEST)
(1) Background: Evaluating if necrosis volumetric assessment of pre-/post-RFA in HCC can be an accurate predictor of LTP (local tumor progression) and survival.; (2) Methods: Retrospective, descriptive and analytical study conducted between 01.01.2018 - 30.09.2021 in the Radiology and Medical Imaging Department of Fundeni Clinical Institute. 35 patients, each with one LI-RADS 4 or 5 treated lesion were eligible to be included. Volumetry was performed using OsiriX MD. Initial lesion volume, ideal necrosis volume (0,5-1 cm safety margin) and actual necrosis volume at 1 and 6 months post-procedure were performed; (3) Results: Results and discussions: Actual necrosis volume is influenced by several factors: lesion position, proximity to great vessels or other critical structures. The overall recurrence-free survival rate was similar to data in other studies (77% in the first year post-RFA). This study showed that having the actual necrosis volume at 1 month smaller than ideal necrosis volume is a good predictor for local tumor progression (p < 0,05); (4) Conclusions: Volumetric assessment of necrosis is easily attainable and can help improve prediction of local tumour progression.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0666.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: Blastomycosis; Blastomyces dermatitidis; Endemic Fungi; Axe Throwing; Occupational Exposure
Online: 9 June 2023 (04:32:25 CEST)
Blastomycosis is an endemic fungal disease seen prominently in the northern regions of North America, manifested as pulmonary disease, however also with dissemination to the skin, bones, and genitourinary tract. We describe a case of a patient in Southern California diagnosed with disseminated blastomycosis due to a novel occupational exposure of axe throwing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0663.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Flavonoid; non-canonical inflammasome; anti-inflammatory; inflammatory disease; nutraceutical
Online: 9 June 2023 (04:12:04 CEST)
Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that activate inflammatory responses by inducing pyroptosis and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Along with many previous studies on inflammatory responses and diseases induced by canonical inflammasomes, an increasing number of studies have demonstrated that non-canonical inflammasomes, such as mouse caspase-11 and human caspase-4 inflammasomes, are emerging key players in inflammatory responses and various diseases. Flavonoids are natural bioactive compounds found in plants, fruits, vegetables, and teas and have pharmacological properties in a wide range of human diseases. Many studies have successfully demonstrated that flavonoids play an anti-inflammatory role and ameliorate many inflammatory diseases by inhibiting canonical inflammasomes. Others have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory roles of flavonoids in inflammatory responses and various diseases, with a new mechanism by which flavonoids inhibit non-canonical inflammasomes. This review discusses recent studies that have investigated the anti-inflammatory roles and pharmacological properties of flavonoids in inflammatory responses and diseases induced by non-canonical inflammasomes and further provides insight into developing flavonoid-based therapeutics as potential nutraceuticals against human inflammatory diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0659.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Endothelium; VE-cadherin; ACE2; SARS-CoV2 infection; Long COVID syndrome
Online: 9 June 2023 (03:43:57 CEST)
Long COVID-19 syndrom appears after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus (SARS-CoV-2) infection with acute damages to microcapillaries, microthombi and endotheliitis. However, the mech-anisms involved in these processes remain to be identified. All blood vessels are lined with a monolayer of endothelial cells called vascular endothelium of which one of the major properties is to prevent coagulation. VE cadherin is a component of endothelial cell junctions responsible for maintenance of the integrity of the vessels through homophilic interaction of its Ca++- dependent adhesive extracellular domain. We first provide evidence that VE-cadherin is a target in vitro for ACE2 cleavage because its extracellular domain (hrVE-ED) contains two amino acid sequences for ACE2 substrate recognition at the po-sitions 256P-F257 and 321PMKP-325L. Indeed, incubation of hrVE-ED with the active ecto-peptidase hrACE2 for 16 hrs in the presence of 10M ZnCl2 showed a dose-dependent (from 0.2 ng/ul to 2 ng/ul) decrease of the VE-cadherin immunoreactive band. In vivo, in the blood from patients having severe COVID-19, a circulating form of ACE2 was detected with an apparent molecular mass of 70 kDa while it was barely detectable in patients with mild infection. Of importance, in the patients with severe COVID-19 disease, the presence of three soluble fragments of VE-cadherin (70, 62, 54 kDa) were detected using the antiEC1 antibody while only the 54 kDa fragment was present in patients with mild disease. Altogether, these data clearly support a role for ACE2 on VE-cadherin cleavage leading to potential biomarkers in SARS-CoV2 infection related with the vascular disease in “Long COVID-19”.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0657.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; neurodegenerative diseases; extracellular vesicles; exosomes; miRNA; biomarkers
Online: 9 June 2023 (03:13:34 CEST)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe and incurable neurodegenerative disease, char-acterized by the progressive death of motor neurons, leading to paralysis and death. It is a rare disease distinguished by high patient-to-patient heterogeneity, making its study arduous and complex. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) emerged as an important player in ALS development. Thus, ALS phenotype-expressing cells can spread their abnormal bioactive cargos through the secretion of EVs, even at far distant tissues. Importantly, due to their nature and composition, EVs’ formation and cargo can be exploited for the better comprehension of this elusive disease and identification of novel biomarkers, as well as for potential therapeutic applications, such as those based on stem cell-derived exosomes. This review highlights the recent advances in the identification of the role of EVs in ALS etiopathology and how EVs can be promising new approaches for therapeutic strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0651.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Exome-wide association stud; Vitamin D deficiency; genetic determinants; polygenic risk score; Middle Eastern population.
Online: 8 June 2023 (14:18:18 CEST)
Middle East region experiences a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, yet most genetic studies on Vitamin D have focused on European populations. Furthermore, there is a lack of research on the genomic risk factors affecting the elderly population, who are more susceptible to health burden. We investigated the genetic determinants of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in elderly Lebanese individuals (n=199) through a whole exome-based genome-wide association study. We identified new loci with suggestive evidence of an association with Vitamin D levels, including rs141064014 in the MGAM gene (P-value of 4.40 × 10−06) and rs7036592 in PHF2 (P-value of 8.43 × 10−06). A meta-analysis of the Lebanese data and the largest European genome-wide association study confirmed consistence replication of numerous variants, including rs2725405 in SLC38A10 (P-value of 3.73 x 10-08). Despite the lower performance of European-derived polygenic risk scores compared to the European estimations, it still effectively predicted Vitamin D deficiency among elderly Lebanese individuals. Our findings provide novel insights into the genetic mechanisms of Vitamin D deficiency in Middle Eastern elderly populations, facilitating the development of personalized approaches for more effective management of hypovitaminosis D. Additionally, we demonstrated that whole exome-based genome-wide association study is an effective method for identifying genetic components associated with phenotypes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0650.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: bidirectional endoscopy; children; propofol; patient time requirements
Online: 8 June 2023 (14:07:20 CEST)
The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of propofol-based sedation and midazo-lam sedation in same-day bidirectional endoscopy (BDE) in children. The charts of children (≤15 years old) who had undergone same-day BDE were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic data, indications, sedatives and their dosages, clinical outcomes, endoscopic findings, adverse events, and patient time requirements were compared in cases with propofol-based and midazolam se-dation. A total of 91 children [51 boys, mean age 13 years (range 9-15)] were enrolled. Propofol alone or in combination with midazolam and/or pentazocine was given in 51 (propofol-based sedation group) while midazolam alone or in combination with pentazocine was given in 40 (midazolam sedation group). The mean doses of propofol, midazolam and pentazocine were 96 mg (range 40–145 mg), 4.1 mg (range 3–5 mg) and 7.5 mg in the propofol group while the mean doses of midazolam and pentazocine were 6.2 mg (range 4–10 mg) and 15 mg in the midazolam group, respectively. The total procedure times and endoscopic findings between the two groups were similar, but the median patient time requirement in the propofol group was significantly shorter than that of the midazolam group (7.3 h vs. 8.4 h, P<0.001). No adverse events occurred in either group. Propofol-based sedation shortened patient time requirements in same-day BDE compared with midazolam sedation in children.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0644.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: mild traumatic brain injury; post-concussion syndrome; neuroinflammation; pro-inflammatory cytokines; diagnosis; outcomes; recovery.
Online: 8 June 2023 (11:36:44 CEST)
Mild TBI (mTBI) accounts for most TBI cases, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite their high incidence, mTBI pathophysiology remains largely unknown. Recent studies have shown that the inflammatory response is activated early after mTBI and can persist for several weeks or months. However, limited evidence on the utility of inflammatory biomarkers as predictors of clinical outcomes in mTBI was previously provided. Thus, this study aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge on the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of mTBI and the potential of some inflammatory biomolecules as biomarkers of mTBI. Thus, it was shown that the increase of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β plasma levels could be implicated in the development of the early post-concussion symptoms. On the other hand, the persistence of the increased plasmatic concentrations of IL-10 and IL-8 for as long as six months following the brain injury event could suggest chronic inflammation leading to neuroinflammation and late or persistent symptoms. In this context, our findings showed that the inflammatory biomarkers could be relevant in diagnosing or predicting recovery or long-term outcomes of mTBI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0626.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: diabetic kidney injury; inflammation; systemic inflammatory index
Online: 8 June 2023 (10:26:17 CEST)
Background: The systemic inflammatory index (SII) is a new inflammatory marker that has been the subject of various studies in diseases with chronic inflammation. Diabetic nephropathy is also a disease that goes with chronic inflammation. We aimed to evaluate the relationship be-tween SII and diabetic nephropathy. Methods: Patients with diabetes who applied to our outpatient clinic are included in the study. Diabetic patients are divided into two groups: those with diabetic nephropathy and those with-out. In addition, healthy individuals who applied to our clinic for general check-ups during these dates are included as control group. The SII values and other characteristics of the three study groups are compared. Results: The median SII value for those with DKI was 584 (178-4819); for those without DKI, it was 282 (64-618); and for the control group, it was 236 (77.5-617) (p<0.001). SII was significantly and positively correlated with BMI, weight, blood glucose, HbA1c, CRP and creatinine, and neg-atively correlated with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) value. The SII value higher than 336 has 75% sensitivity and 70% specificity in detecting DKI. Conclusion: The SII value could predict diabetic kidney injury in diabetics and it could be used as an adjunctive diagnostic tool.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0617.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor; nerve growth factor; Alzheimer’s disease; allosteric modulator; cognitive function; anti-depressant
Online: 8 June 2023 (09:55:01 CEST)
The introduction of anti-amyloid monoclonal antibodies against Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is of high importance. However, even though treated patients show very little amyloid pathology, there is only a modest effect on the rate of cognitive decline. Although this effect possibly can increase over time, there is still a need for alternative treatments that will improve the cognitive function in patients with AD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize the triazinetrione ACD856, a novel pan-Trk positive allosteric modulator, in multiple models to address its neuroprotective and potential disease modifying effects. The pharmacological effect of ACD856 was tested in recombinant cell lines, primary cortical neurons or animals. We demonstrate that ACD856 enhanced NGF-induced neurite outgrowth, increased the levels of the pre-synaptic protein SNAP25 in PC12 cells and increased the degree of phosphorylated TrkB in SH-SY5Y cells. In primary cortical neurons, ACD856 led to increased levels of phospho-ERK1/2, showed neuroprotective effect against amyloid-beta or energy-deprivation induced neurotoxicity, and increased the levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Consequently, administration of ACD856 resulted in a significant increase of BDNF in the brains of 21-months old mice. Furthermore, repeated administration of ACD856 resulted in a sustained anti-depressant effect which lasted up to seven days, suggesting effects that go beyond merely symptomatic effects. In conclusion, the results confirm ACD856 as a cognitive enhancer, but more importantly, they provide substantial in vitro and in vivo evidence of neuroprotective and long-term effects that contribute to neurotrophic support and increased neuroplasticity. Presumably, the described effects of ACD856 may improve cognition, increase resilience, and promote neurorestorative processes, thereby leading to a healthier brain in patients with AD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0614.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: frailty, comorbidities, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, infections, malignancies
Online: 8 June 2023 (09:30:13 CEST)
With the introduction of more and more monoclonal antibodies selectively targeting various mediators of the immune-system, together with Janus-Kinase (JAK)-inhibitors with variable affinities towards different JAK subtypes, the available therapeutic options for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have undergone an acceleration in the last five years. On the other hand, the prevalence of IBD patients over 65-years of age is steadily increasing and, with this, there is a large population of patients that presents more comorbidities, polypharmacy, and, more frequently, frailty compared to younger patients, exposing them to potentially major risks for adverse events deriving from newer therapies, e.g. infections, cardiovascular risks, and malignancies. Unfortunately, pivotal trials for the commercialization of new therapies rarely include older IBD patients and those with serious comorbidities are virtually excluded. In the present review, we focus on existing literature from pivotal trials and real-world studies, analyzing data on efficacy/effectiveness and safety of newer therapies in older IBD patients with special emphasis on comorbidities and frailty, two distinct but intercorrelated aspects of the older population since age by itself seems to be of minor importance.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0612.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: mannan; candida; carriage; infant; neonate
Online: 8 June 2023 (09:17:54 CEST)
It is estimated that almost 4% of all neonatal intensive care unit admissions are attributed to Candida spp. infections. Clinical diagnosis of invasive fungal infection (IFI) is not easy as signs and symptoms are commonly vague. Mannan antigen (MA) in neonates is not well studied and the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of MA (Platelia™ Candida Ag Plus kit, Bio-Rad) in a neonatal unit. This is a prospective case-control study, which compared the performance of MA between neonates who had rectal Candida colonization with non-colonized controls. We cultured 340 rectal swabs of neonates and 39 of them were positive for Candida albicans colonization. MA was checked in 25 C. albicans colonized and in 30 non-colonized neonates with similar postnatal age and gender distribution. During the hospitalization period there was not any IFI in the neonatal population. MA was negative in all non-colonized neonates (30/30, 100% specificity) and in 24 out of 25 colonized neonates (96% specificity). However, the one infant with positive rectal colonization and MA had recent Candida mucositis. The results indicate a high specificity of the assay even in neonates colonized with Candida. Further investigation in neonates with IFI is required in order to determine the sensitivity of the method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0611.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: semaglutide; drug misuse; drug abuse; pharmacovigilance; image- and performance-enhancing (IPED) drugs; glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists
Online: 8 June 2023 (09:01:58 CEST)
Recent media reports commented about a possible antidiabetics’ misuse issue related to molecules promoted as a weight-loss treatment in non-obese people. We here evaluated available pharmacovigilance misuse/abuse signals related to semaglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, in comparison to other GLP-1 receptor agonists (albiglutide; dulaglutide; exenatide; liraglutide; lixisenatide; tirzepatide) and the phentermine-topiramate combination. To that aim, we analysed the Food and Drug Administration-FDA Adverse Events Reporting System (FAERS) dataset, performing a descriptive analysis of adverse event reports (AER) and calculating related pharmacovigilance measures, including the reporting odds ratio (ROR) and the proportional reporting ratio (PRR). During January 2018-December 2022, a total of 31,542 AER involving the selected molecules were submitted to FAERS; most involved dulaglutide (n=11,858; 37.6%) and semaglutide (n=8,249; 26.1%). In comparing semaglutide vs the remaining antidiabetics, the AER ‘drug abuse’, ‘drug withdrawal syndrome’, ‘prescription drug used without a prescription’ and ‘intentional product use issue’ respective PRR values were 4.05, 4.05, 3.60 and 1.80 (all<0.01). The same comparisons of semaglutide vs the phentermine-topiramate combination were not associated with any significant differences. To our best, this is the first study documenting the misusing/abusing potential of semaglutide in comparison with other novel antidiabetics and the phentermine-topiramate combination. Current findings will need to be confirmed by further empirical investigations to fully understand the safety profile of those molecules.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0609.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Kinases; human diseases; macrocyclic inhibitors; drug discovery
Online: 8 June 2023 (08:54:08 CEST)
Kinases play an important role in regulating various intracellular signaling pathways that control cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and other cellular processes and their deregulation causes more than 400 diseases. Consequently, macrocyclization can be considered a noteworthy approach to develop new therapeutic agents for human diseases. Macrocyclization has emerged as an effective drug discovery strategy over the past decade to improve target selectivity and potency of small molecules. Small compounds with linear structures upon macrocyclization can lead to changes in their physicochemical and biological properties by firmly reducing conformational flexibility. A number of distinct protein kinases exhibit similar binding sites. Comparison of protein binding site provides crucial insights for the drug discovery and development. Binding site similarities are helpful to understand polypharmacology, identifying potential off-targets and repurposing of known drugs. In this review, we focused on comparing binding sites of those kinases for which macrocyclic inhibitors are available/studied so far. Furthermore, we calculated the volume of binding site pocket for each targeted kinase and then compared it with the binding site pocket of the kinase for which only acyclic inhibitors were designed till date. Our review and analysis of several explored kinases might be useful to target new protein kinases for macrocyclic drug discovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1684.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Arm elevation; Grocery Shelving Test; Functional assessment; Reference values; Upper limb activities
Online: 8 June 2023 (08:52:16 CEST)
Background: Arm elevation plays an important role in simple and complex daily tasks. Muscles that stabilize the shoulder girdle also function as respiratory accessory muscles. Dual demand on these muscles, particularly in patients with chronic respiratory conditions, leads to dyspnea and fatigue of the upper limb, making simple daily activities difficult. Various tests, including Grocery Shelving Task (GST), are designed to assess functional performance during upper limb activities. The aim of the study is to derive reference values for GST among the population of the United Arab Emirates Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 220 healthy individuals of both genders between the ages of 20 and 69. Duration required to complete GST was recorded. The correlation between duration and age, height, body mass and body mass index (BMI) were also assessed. Results: Reference values for duration (in seconds) in females for age groups 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59 and 60-69 are 43.5±5.5, 43.1±8.08, 48.1±6.7, 44.9±7.1, 46.7±6.5 respectively. Values for males of age groups 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59 and 60-69 are 45.7±6.7, 44.8±8.9, 42.5±10.01, 53.4±4.2, and 53.9±5.4 respectively. Conclusion: Reference values for GST duration were obtained. Weak correlations were found between duration and age, height, body mass, BMI of the participants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0602.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Chemotherapy Resistance; Molecular Targeting; Signalling Pathway; Metastasis; Apoptosis; Tumor Microenvironment; Cancer Stemness
Online: 8 June 2023 (07:37:41 CEST)
Cancer is a devastating disease, causing tremendous morbidity and mortality each year. Cancer can be considered as a genetic disease in the sense that instabilities in protooncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are among the hallmarks of cancer progression and metastasis. However, a particular cancer can express different proteins in different patients, making cancer a heterogeneous disease. This heterogeneity in part influences treatment resistance and failure. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the mechanism by which cancer cells develop and enhance resistance to different agents. This review aims to present the general paradigm and recent updates on cancer cell resistance to different antitumor agents. It demonstrates that tumor resistance results from a myriad of factors, including tumor microenvironment, supporting immune cells, and cancer stem cells. This interaction contributes to cancer cells overcoming the therapeutic effects of different classes of antitumor agents, such as cytotoxic chemotherapeutics, targeted agents, and immunotherapies. With the development of advanced molecular analysis, specialized genomic assessment has assisted clinicians and researchers in choosing selected agents combating cancer cells. Together, this approach can potentially reduce treatment toxicity, health system burden, and financial costs while improving patient quality of life. Understanding the exact mechanism of drug resistance in cancer cells can open the way to new effective and less toxic therapeutics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0574.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: assessment; awareness; diagnosis; dysphagia; intensive care; management; screening; treatment; practices
Online: 8 June 2023 (04:39:36 CEST)
Post-extubation dysphagia (PED) can lead to serious health problems in critical ill patients, yet routine bedside screening may be lacking in many Intensive Care Units (ICUs), possibly due to limited awareness for this condition. This study aimed to establish baseline data on the current approaches, the status of perceived best practices to PED screening and treatment, as well as to assess awareness of PED. A nationwide cross-sectional, online survey was conducted of all adult ICUs in the Republic of Cyprus in June 2018. More than 85% of ICUs reported that there was no standard protocol indicating which patients should be screened for PED. Cough reflex testing and water swallow test were the most reported assessment methods used to confirm the presence of PED. Muscle strengthening exercises without swallowing and swallowing exercises were mostly used to treat dysphagia. Overall, 28.6% of the ICUs agreed that PED was common in their unit. We identified gaps in Greek Cypriot ICUs awareness and knowledge regarding PED screening and treatment. Comprehensive unit-based dysphagia education programs must be urgently im-plemented and interdisciplinary and collaborative work between nurses, intensivists and speech and language therapists is needed to address the situation and improve the quality of care pro-vided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0583.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: cosmetics; skin microbiota; Staphylococcus epidermidis; lactic acid; PCA
Online: 8 June 2023 (04:09:58 CEST)
Cosmetics have various characters, but there have been no studies which classified the properties of cosmetics based on their effects on skin-domesticated bacteria. In this study, we established an anaerobic culture and short-chain fatty acid measurement system using Staphylococcus epidermidis, a representative bacterium of indigenous skin bacteria. Furthermore, this system was used to extract and classify the characteristics of 9 cosmetics. Cosmetics containing ferments of rice and soy were clustered in the vicinity, although one cosmetic containing soy ferment was clustered distant from other similar cosmetics. Cosmetics from South Asia and those containing natural plant extracts were clustered in the vicinity. These results show that this method can be utilized as a cosmetics pattern map, and will provide a method to prevent growth of opportunistic bacteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0579.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Hb Adana; non-deletional α-thalassaemia; Hb Constant Spring; HbE
Online: 8 June 2023 (03:58:49 CEST)
Hb Adana is a non-deletional α-thalassaemia variant, due to mutations in α1- or α2-globin codon 59 (αCD59) that produce unstable α-globin. Clinical appearance can range from silent carrier to blood transfusion reliance, hepatosplenomegaly, skeletal deformities, and spinal cord compression. Despite the importance of Hb Adana inheritance, this Hb variant is challenging to study since molecular tests are scarce and routine diagnosis can be missed. This study explored the distribution of Hb Adana among local high school students and evaluate the hematological parameters and haemoglobin analysis of Hb Adana in this region of Malaysia. This retrospective study included 13,721 blood samples from high school students enrolled in Malaysia's National Thalassaemia Screening Program at Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II (HRPZ II). Multiplex Gap PCR was used to detect deletional α-thalassaemia. Common non-deletional α-thalassaemia was detected using multiplex ARMS PCR. Evaluable data were retrieved from the HRPZ II database. Results: A total of 2327 subjects exhibited common deletional (n=1037, 44.6%) and non-deletional (n=1290, 55.4%) α-thalassaemia. Hb Constant Spring was the most frequent non-deletional α-thalassaemia. Thirty-one participants (1.33%) had αCD59α/αα and one (0.04%) had αCD59α/-α3.7. The 32 Hb Adana subjects were 87.5% Malay, and 12.5% Orang Asli. Additionally, seven cases of HbE/Hb Adana were discovered. The haemoglobin level in heterozygous Hb Adana ranged from mild anaemia to normal, 95.0 g/L to 153.0 g/L. The MCV and MCH were approximately 73 fL and 23 pg, respectively. Conclusions: We have denoted the distribution of alpha thalassaemia mutation patterns among high school students in Kelantan, Northeast Peninsular of Malaysia. Our observation showed Hb Adana was rarely uncommon in our region and the co-inheritance with an α-gene deletion generates α+-thalassaemia; with HbE, α0-thalassaemia. All heterozygous Hb Adana exhibited low MCVs and MCHs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0476.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Late potentials; signal-averaged electrocardiogrhy; heart rate variability; fatal arrhyrthmia; sudden cardiac death
Online: 8 June 2023 (03:37:05 CEST)
Abstract: Background and Objectives: Holter-based late potentials (LPs) are useful for predicting lethal arrhythmias in organic cardiac diseases. Although Holter-based LPs exhibit diurnal varia-tion, no studies have evaluated the optimal timing of LP measurement over 24 h for predicting lethal arrhythmia that leads to sudden cardiac death. Thus, this study aimed to validate the most effective timing for Holter-based LP testing and to explore factors influencing diurnal variability of LP parameters. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 126 patients with post-myocardial infarction (MI) status and 60 control participants who underwent high-resolution Holter electrocardiography. Among the 126 post-MI patients, 23 developed sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) (the MI-VT group), while 103 did not (the MI-non-VT group) during the obser-vation period. Holter-based LPs were measured at 0:00, 4:00, 8:00, 12:00, 16:00, and 20:00, and heart rate variability analysis was simultaneously performed to investigate factors influencing diurnal variability of LP parameters. Results: Holter-based LP parameters showed diurnal variation with significant deterioration at night and improvement during the day. Assessment at the time with the longest duration of low-amplitude signals <40 μV in the filtered QRS complex terminus (LAS40) gave the highest receiver operating characteristics curve (area under the curve, 0.659) and the highest odds ratio (3.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.45–9.71; p=0.006) for predicting VT. In the multiple regression analysis, heart rate and noise were significant factors affecting LP parameters in the MI-VT and control groups. In the non-VT group, LP parameters were significantly influenced by noise and parasympathetic heart rate variability parameters such as logPNN50. Conclusions: For Holter-based LP measurements, test accuracy was higher when LP was measured at the time of the highest or worst value of LAS40. Changes in autonomic nervous system activity, including heart rate and noise levels, were factors influencing diurnal variability.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0576.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: TGA; recurrence; chronobiology
Online: 8 June 2023 (03:32:28 CEST)
The pathogenesis of transient global amnesia (TGA), a dramatic but self-limiting episode of anterograde amnesia with a variable duration of retrograde amnesia, remains unknown. Although most episodes are single, TGA has a finite recurrence rate. Studies of case series and large patient cohorts have typically been used to investigate possible precipitating and predisposing factors for TGA. Study of recurrent TGA episodes in single cases might provide another way to address pathogenetic factors. A patient with recurrent TGA is presented to illustrate such considerations with respect to possible chronobiological factors in TGA pathogenesis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0567.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: chronic coronary syndromes; revascularization; prognosis; ISCHEMIA; ISCHEMIA-EXTEND
Online: 8 June 2023 (02:13:16 CEST)
Coronary revascularization is one of the most studied treatment modalities in cardiology, however, there is no consensus among experts about its indications in patients with stable coronary artery disease (SCAD). Contemporary data regarding the role of revascularization in SCAD are in clear conflict with the current European guidelines. This article discusses the main statements of the most significant American and European Guidelines on myocardial revascularization of the last decade, and also analyzes the appropriateness of revascularization to improve the prognosis and symptoms in CCS in the light of new research data, primarily the ISCHEMIA study (NCT01471522) and ACC/AHA 2021 Revascularization Guidelines based on them. Data on the revascularization in CCS obtained after the completion of ISCHEMIA (including the interim analysis of ISCHEMIA-EXTEND) and their potential significance are discussed. The results of ISCHEMIA sub-analyses in the most important ‘controversial’ subgroups (3-vessel disease, proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD) disease, strongly positive stress test, etc.) are reviewed, as well as the results of the ISCHEMIA-CKD substudy in patients with severe chronic kidney disease (CKD).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0559.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: Bone conduction; Cartilage conduction; Hearing device; Amplification; Aural atresia; Canal stenosis; Conductive hearing loss; Chronic otitis media
Online: 7 June 2023 (13:22:41 CEST)
A relatively loud sound is audible when a vibrator is attached to the aural cartilage. This form of conduction is referred to as cartilage conduction (CC). In Japan, a new type of hearing aid has been developed using CC and is available in clinical practice since 2017. A clinical study conducted prior to its launch demonstrated its benefits, particularly in patients with aural atresia who were unable to use air-conduction hearing aids. Several studies have been published on the benefits of CC hearing aids since their introduction in clinical practice. Most of the patients included in these studies had canal stenosis or aural atresia, and the purchase rates of CC hearing aids in these patients were relatively high. However, the number of patients with open ears was small, with overall poor results in the trials, with the exception in patients with continuous otorrhea. CC hearing aids are considered a good option for compensating hearing loss in ears with canal stenosis or atresia in both bilateral and unilateral cases. However, CC hearing aids are not currently considered the first choice for patients with an open ear,.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0554.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: systemic lupus erythematosus; treatment; hydroxychloroquine; corticosteroids; biologic agents; belimumab; rituximab; anifrolumab; tocilizumab; baricitinib
Online: 7 June 2023 (13:04:07 CEST)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the prototype of systemic autoimmune diseases is characterized by extreme heterogeneity with a variable clinical course. Renal involvement may be observed and affects the outcome. Hydroxychloroquine is the cornerstone of lupus treatment. Conventional immunosuppressive therapy includes corticosteroids, methotrexate, azathioprine, cyclosporine and tacrolimus. Cyclophosphamide and mycophenolate mofetil may also be used. However, despite conventional immunosuppressive treatment flares occur and broad immunosuppression is accompanied by multiple side effects. Flare occurrence, target organ involvement, side effects of broad immunosuppression, increased knowledge of the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in SLE pathogenesis as well as the availability of biologic agents has led to the application of biologic agents in SLE management. Biologic agents targeting various pathogenetic paths have been applied. B cell targeting agents have been used successfully. Belimumab, a B cell targeting agent has been approved for the treatment of SLE. Rituximab, an anti-CD20 targeting agent is also used in SLE. Anifrolumab, an interferon I receptor targeting agent has beneficial effects on SLE. In conclusion, biologic treatment is applied in SLE and should be further evaluated with the aim of a good treatment response and a significant improvement in quality of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0551.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Argyrophilic Nucleolus Organizer Region; Hypoxia; Brain; Carbon Monoxide Poisoning; Marker
Online: 7 June 2023 (12:11:19 CEST)
We aimed to evaluate the effect of hypoxia caused by different levels of chronic carbon monoxide (CO) exposure via total AgNOR area/total nuclear area (TAA/TNA) ratio and mean AgNOR number on rat brain tissue. Eighteen Albino Wistar adult male rats were randomly divided into three groups (control as group A, 1000ppm and 3000ppm concentration of CO gas exposed as group B and C, respectively). CO gas was chronically given as 30 min a day during seven days. Statistically significant differences were found among the groups for both mean AgNOR number (χ2=12.051, p=0.002) and TAA/TNA (χ2=12.316, p=0.002), respectively. When the two groups are compared in terms of TAA/TNA ratio, statistically significant differences were detected between control and 1000ppm (Z=-2.882, p=0.004), between control and 3000 ppm (Z=-2.882, p=0.004) for TAA/TNA ratio. Statistically significant differences were found between control and 1000 ppm (Z=-2.882, p=0.004), between control and 3000 ppm (Z=-2.887, p=0.004) for mean AgNOR number. It is important to determine new markers with high sensitivity and easy to apply in order to determine the effect of toxication in different organs and tissues (especially brain tissues) that are chronically exposed to carbon monoxide intoxication. It seems that AgNOR may be used for this purpose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0550.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Global sagittal balance; Transforaminal epidural steroids injections; Lumbar spinal stenosis
Online: 7 June 2023 (12:10:35 CEST)
Patients' functional adaptation to pain can affect global sagittal alignment. This study evaluated the short-term spinal sagittal alignment change after Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection (TFESI) in lumbar spinal stenosis patients. Patients with lumbar spinal stenosis who underwent TFESI were retrospectively examined. Clinical outcomes were Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Before and two weeks after the intervention, whole spine lateral standing view radiographs were taken. Radiographic parameters, e.g., Sagittal Vertical Axis (SVA), C2C7 Cobb, Thoracic Kyphosis (TK), Lumbar Lordosis (LL), Pelvic Incidence (PI), Pelvic Tilt (PT), Sacral Slope (SS), and Lumbopelvic Mismatch (PI-LL), were measured. Ninety-nine patients (mean age 64.3 ± 9.2 years) were included in this study. Both VAS and ODI outcomes were statistically improved after two weeks of intervention. Radiographic parameters showed that SVA, PT, and PI-LL mismatch were significantly decreased, while C2C7 Cobb, TK, SS, and LL were significantly increased after the intervention. SVA was improved by 29.81% (52.76 ± 52.22 mm to 37.03 ± 41.07 mm, P < 0.001). PT was also decreased significantly from 28.71° ± 10.22° to 23.84° ± 9.96° (P < 0.001). Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection (TFESI) significantly improves VAS, ODI, and global sagittal parameters in lumbar spinal stenosis patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0548.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; hepatocellular carcinoma; farnesyltransferase inhibitor; hypoxia-inducible factor-1α; anti-inflammatory response; nuclear factor-κB; transforming growth factor-β; Warburg effect; reactive oxygen species; interleukin-6
Online: 7 June 2023 (12:05:28 CEST)
Inflammatory processes play major roles in carcinogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) derived from non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). But there are no therapies for NASH related HCC, especially focusing on these critical steps. Previous studies reported that farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) have anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects. However, the influence of FTIs on NASH-related HCC has not been elucidated. In HCC cell lines, HepG2, Hep3B, and Huh-7, we confirmed expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, an accelerator of tumor aggressiveness and the inflammatory response. We established NASH-related HCC models under inflammation and free fatty acid burden and confirmed that HIF-1α expression was increased under both conditions. Tipifarnib, which is an FTI, strongly suppressed increased HIF-1α, inhibited cell proliferation, and induced apoptosis. Simultaneously, intracellular interleukin-6 as an inflammation marker was increased under both conditions and significantly suppressed by tipifarnib. Additionally, tipifarnib suppressed expression of phosphorylated nuclear factor-κB and transforming growth factor-β. Finally, in a NASH-related HCC mouse model burdened with diethylnitrosamine and a high fat diet, tipifarnib significantly reduced tumor nodule formation in association with decreased serum interleukin-6. In conclusion, tipifarnib has anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory effects in a NASH-related HCC model and may be a promising new agent to treat this disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0513.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: HBV; potential HBV carriers; stability analysis; reproduction number; vaccine
Online: 7 June 2023 (11:40:49 CEST)
Hepatitis B is a potentially life-threatening infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which affects the liver. Every year, about 390,000 people die from HBV-related diseases in China, about 86 million people are carriers of HBV, accounting for about 6% of the total population, and 30 million people are chronically infected. From 2002 to 2007, though China government launched “The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI)” program to reduce HBV infection in children, but the number of hepatitis B cases in China remains high. Reasonable estimation of potential HBV carriers is crucial to prevention and control the spread hepatitis B virus. This study is based on the case data from the National Bureau of Statistics of China from 2003 to 2021. We build a dynamic model that includes potential hepatitis B virus carriers, use nonlinear least squares and genetic algorithms to fit the parameters in the model, and calculate the reproduction number of hepatitis B virus transmission in the population and obtain R_c=1.741. The number of potential hepatitis B virus carriers is estimated to be 449,535 (95%CI [415651 to 483420]) based on our model, which is 30.49% of the total number of hepatitis B cases, and the simulation results show the number of chronic hepatitis B incidence decreases as the vaccination rate α increases, increasing α by 20%, the number of chronic hepatitis B incidence decreases by 169,469 on average.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0545.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: conjunctival filtration bleb; glaucoma surgery failure; conjunctival fibrosis; gene expression; profibrotic genes; fibrosis biomarker
Online: 7 June 2023 (11:37:28 CEST)
The early failure of glaucoma surgery is mainly caused by an overly fibrosis at the subconjunctival space causing obliteration of the filtration bleb. Because fibrosis has a suspected basis of genetic predisposition, we have undertaken a prospective study to identify upregulated profibrotic genes in a population of glaucoma patients with signs of conjunctival fibrosis and early postoperative surgical failure. Clinical data of re-operated fibrosis patients, hyperfibrosis patients re-operated more than once in a short time, and control patients with no fibrosis were recorded and analyzed at each follow-up visit. Conjunctival-Tenon surgical specimens were obtained intraoperatively to evaluate the local expression of a panel of genes potentially associated with fibrosis. In order to correlate gene expression signature with protein levels, we quantified secreted proteins in primary cultures of fibroblasts from patients. Expression of VEGF-A, IL-8, C-MYC, and CDKN1A was induced in the conjunctiva of hyperfibrosis patients. VEGF-A and IL-8 protein levels were also increased in fibroblast supernatants. We propose that these proteins may act as biomarkers of conjunctival fibrosis in glaucoma patients undergoing filtering surgery. Molecular markers could be crucial for early detection of patients at high risk of failure of filtration surgery leading to more optimal and personalized treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0544.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cancer; meta-analysis; vitamin D; mortality; incidence
Online: 7 June 2023 (11:11:20 CEST)
It is a well-established fact that inadequate Vitamin D (Vit-D) levels have negative effects on the development and progression of malignant diseases, mainly cancer. The purpose of this paper was to elucidate the effects of Vit-D intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25(OH)D) levels on cancer incidence and mortality, the current evidence in this field, and the biases of this evidence using the meta-meta-analysis method. Meta-analyses focusing on Vit-D intake, serum 25(OH)D levels, and cancer risk/mortality were identified. A structured computer literature search was performed in PubMed/Medline, Web of Science (WoS), and Scopus electronic databases using predetermined keyword combinations. Primary and secondary meta-meta-analyses were carried out, combining odds ratios (ORs), risk ratios (RRs), and hazard ratios (HRs) for outcomes reported in selected meta-analyses. A total of 35 eligible meta-analyses assessing the association between Vit-D and cancer incidence and/or mortality were included in this study. In the pooled analysis, higher Vit-D intake and serum 25(OH)D levels were associated with lower cancer risk (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.90-0.96, p < 0.001; OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.72-0.89, p < 0.001, respectively) and cancer-related mortality (RR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.86-0.93, p < 0.001; RR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.58-0.78, p < 0.001, respectively). When meta-analyses whose primary reports included only randomized controlled trials were pooled, there was no significant association between Vit-D intake and cancer risk (OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.97-1.01, p = 0.320). In subgroup analysis, Vit-D consumption was associated with a significant decrease in colorectal and lung cancer incidence (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.83-0.96, p = 0.002; OR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.83-0.94, p < 0.001, respectively). Taken together, both Vit-D intake and higher 25(OH)D levels may provide remarkable benefits in terms of cancer incidence and mortality, however, careful evaluation according to cancer types is critically important and recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0540.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: VoiceScreen app; dysphonia screening; AVQI; smartphones
Online: 7 June 2023 (10:50:15 CEST)
The aim of the study was to develop the universal-platform-based (UPB) application suitable for different smartphones for estimation of the Acoustic Voice Quality Index (AVQI) and evaluate its reliability in AVQI measurements and normal and pathological voice differentiation. Our study group consisted of 135 adult individuals, including 49 with normal voices and 86 pa-tients with pathological voices. The developed UPB "VoiceSreen" application installed on five iOS and Android smartphones was used for AVQI estimation. The AVQI measures calculated from voice recordings obtained from a reference studio microphone were compared with AVQI results obtained using smartphones. The diagnostic accuracy of differentiating normal and pathological voice was evaluated by applying receiver-operating characteristics. The one-way ANOVA analysis did not detect statistically significant differences between mean AVQI scores revealed using a studio microphone and different smartphones (F= 0.759; p = 0.58). Almost perfect direct linear correlations (r= 0.991- 0.987) were observed between the AVQI results obtained with a studio microphone and different smartphones. An acceptable level of precision of AVQI in discriminating between normal and pathological voices was yielded, with areas under the curve (AUC) displaying 0.834 – 0.862. There were no statistically significant differences between the AUCs (p > 0.05) obtained from studio and smartphone’ microphones. The significant differ-ence revealed between the AUCs was only 0.028. The UPB "VoiceScreen" application represents an accurate and robust tool for voice quality measurement and normal vs. pathological voice screening purposes, demonstrating the potential to be used by patients and clinicians for voice assessment employing both iOS and Android smartphones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0537.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: resistin like molecule; pulmonary hypertension; type 2 inflammation; adaptive immune response; retnla; retnlb; retnlg; mouse strains; experimental pulmonary hypertension; urban PM; urban fine dust; immune response in pulmonary hypertension
Online: 7 June 2023 (10:40:37 CEST)
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) has a high mortality, and few treatment options. Adaptive immune mediators of PH in mice challenged with antigen/particulate matter (antigen/PM) has been the focus of our prior work. We identified key roles of type 2 and type 17 responses in C57BL/6 mice. Here, we focused on type 2 response related cytokines, specifically Resistin-like-molecule (RELM)α, a critical mediator of hypoxia-induced PH. Because of strain differences in the immune responses to type 2 stimuli, we compared C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice. A model of intraperitoneal antigen sensitization with subsequent, intranasal challenges with antigen/PM (ovalbumin and urban ambient PM2.5) or saline was used in C57BL/6 and BALB/c wild type or RELMα-/- mice. Vascular remodeling was assessed by histology, right ventricular (RV) pressure, RV weights and cytokines were quantified. Upon challenge with antigen/PM2.5, both C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice developed pulmonary vascular remodeling; these changes were more prominent in the C57BL/6 strain. Compared to wild type mice, RELMα-/- had significantly reduced pulmonary vascular remodeling in BALB/c, but not in C57BL/6 mice. RV weights, RV IL-33 and RV ST2-IL-33-receptor were significantly increased in BALB/c wild type mice, but not in BALB/c-RELMα-/- or in C57BL/6-wild type or C57BL/6-RELMα-/- mice. RV systolic pressures (RVSP) were higher in BALB/c compared to C57BL/6J mice, and RELMα-/- were not different from their respective wild type controls. In BALB/c mice, RELMα was a key contributor to antigen/PM2.5 induced pulmonary vascular remodeling, RV thickening and RV cytokine responses, highlighting the significance of the genetic background. The RELMα-/- animals demonstrated significantly decreased expression of RELMβ and RELM which makes these mice comparable to a situation where human RELMα levels would be significantly modified, as humans only have one RELM molecule.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0535.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: brain metastases; NSCLC; predictive biomarkers for radiotherapy; radiotherapy; prognostic scores; WBRT; BRAF mutation
Online: 7 June 2023 (10:37:52 CEST)
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the second most common cancer worldwide, resulting in 1.8 million deaths/year. Most of the patients are diagnosed with a metastatic disease. Central Nervous System is one of the major metastatic sites. Brain metastases are associated with severe neurological symptoms, shorter survival and worst clinical outcomes. Brain radiotherapy and systemic oncological therapies are currently used for controlling both cancer progression and neurological symptoms. Brain radiotherapy includes stereotactic brain ablative radiotherapy (SBRT) or whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). SBRT is applied for single or multiple (≤ 4) small lesions (< 3 cm), while WBRT represents the best treatment choice in case of multiple and large brain metastases. In both cases radiotherapy application can represent an overtreatment causing severe toxicities without achieving a significant clinical benefit. So far, some scores have been proposed to define the potential clinical benefits derived from brain radiotherapy. However, most of them are not well validated into clinical practice. In this article, by presenting a clinical case of a patient with advanced NSCLC carrying a BRAFV600E mutation and brain metastases, we review the variables as well as the potential applicable scores to be considered in order to predict clinical outcomes and benefits from brain radiotherapy in patients with NSCLC and brain metastases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0475.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: Osteoarthritis; Effectiveness; Safety; Glucosamine; systematic review
Online: 7 June 2023 (10:08:22 CEST)
Knee osteoarthritis is the most popular type of osteoarthritis that causes extreme pain in elderly. Currently there is no cure for osteoarthritis. To lessen clinical symptoms, glucosamine was suggested. The primary goal of our study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of glucosamine from recent studies. Electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane were used to assess RCT. From the beginning through March 2023, the papers were checked, and if they fulfilled the inclusion criteria, they were then examined. WOMAC and VAS scales were considered as main outcome measure. A total of 15 studies were selected. Global pain was significantly decreased in comparison to placebo, as measured by the VAS index, with an overall effect size SMD of -7.41 ([95% CI] 14.31, 0.51). The WOMAC scale confirmed that pain, stiffness, and physical function had improved, however the effects were insufficient. A statistical update also revealed that there were no reports of serious medication interactions or significant adverse events. To summarize, glucosamine is more effective than a placebo at reducing pain in knee osteoarthritis patients. In long-term treatment, oral glucosamine sulfate 1500 mg/day is believed to be well tolerated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0527.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: XEN®-63 gel stent; glaucoma; bleb revision
Online: 7 June 2023 (09:29:59 CEST)
The XEN® gel stent reduces intraocular pressure (IOP) in glaucoma. XEN®-45 is widely used while the newer XEN®-63 has a larger lumen that may lower IOP more. We retrospectively compared the first 15 XEN®-63 cases to 15 matched XEN®-45 controls. With a preoperative IOP of 18.1 ± 3.9 mmHg (mean ± SD) and a final IOP of 9.2 ± 4.2 mmHg, XEN®-63 implantation resulted in an IOP reduction of 48.0 ± 23.3%. Similarly, with a preoperative IOP of 18.3 ± 4.5 mmHg and a final IOP of 10.5 ± 2.3 mmHg, XEN®-45 implantation resulted in an IOP reduction of 39.5 ± 17.81%. The median follow-up period was 57 days for the XEN®-63 group and 183 days for the XEN®-45 group. 5/15 eyes of each group underwent open conjunctival bleb revision within the period of observation. Two eyes of the XEN®-63 group also had secondary glaucoma surgery. In both groups only one eye required restart of antiglaucomatous medication. XEN®-63 and XEN®-45 effectively lower IOP and medication. XEN-63 achieved lower IOP over a short follow-up. Com-plication and revision rates were similar.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0518.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depression; anxiety; somatic symptom; organizational factor; occupational factor; effort–reward imbalance; health-promoting leadership; health climate; inner strength; perceived social support; international salespeople; medical device industry
Online: 7 June 2023 (08:42:51 CEST)
Background: Physical and mental health of corporate employees is equally important, especially in international salespeople in the in vitro diagnostic (IVD) medical device industry. The rapid growth of the IVD market is driven by the increasing prevalence of chronic and infectious diseases. This study aims to identify the association of socio-demographic, occupational, organizational, and psychosocial factors with mental health outcomes for depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms in Chinese IVD international salespeople. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional survey of ISs in IVD companies officially registered in China. An online survey was designed to collect data through email contact with IVD companies and social media between August 2022 and March 2023. Measured factors included effort-reward imbalance (ERI), health-promoting leadership (HPL), health climate (HC), inner strength (IS), and perceived social support (PSS). Mental health outcomes assessed using the Core Symptom Index (CSI) were depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms. Results: A total of 244 salespeople responded to the survey. CSI scores indicated that 18.4% (n = 45) and 10.2% (n = 25) of the respondents had symptoms of major depression and anxiety, respectively. ERI was positively correlated, while the IS and PSS were negatively correlated with major depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms (p < .01). Health climate was negatively correlated with major depression (p < .05). Education background was associated with somatic symptoms (p < .05). ERI, IS, and gender were significant predictors of major depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms (p < .05). Conclusion: The prevalence of depression and anxiety in China’s IVD international salespeople was considered low compared with prevalence in Chinese populations during COVID-19, but higher than those before the pandemic. Effort–reward imbalance, inner strength, and gender were significant factors in major depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms among IVD international salespeople.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0517.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: atrial fibrillation; cancer; direct oral anticoagulants
Online: 7 June 2023 (08:36:40 CEST)
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an increasingly recognized comorbidity in patients with cancer. Indeed, cancer patients have a significantly higher incidence of AF than that observed in the general population. A reciprocal relationship between these two diseases has been observed, as much as some assume AF as a marker for occult cancer screening, especially in older adults. The pathophysiological mechanisms are many and varied, including the underlying pro-inflammatory state, specific treatments (chemo and radiotherapy) and surgery. The therapeutic management of patients with cancer and AF involves the same rhythm and frequency control strategies as the general population; however, the numerous interactions with chemotherapeutics, which lead to a significant increase in side effects, as well as the extreme fragility of the patient should be considered. Anticoagulant therapy is also a complex challenge to address, as bleeding and stroke risk scores have not been fully assessed in this subpopulation. Furthermore, in large studies establishing the efficacy of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), cancer patients have been underrepresented. In this review, we elaborate on mechanisms linking AF to cancer patients with a particular focus on therapeutic challenges in this population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0507.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; TILs; PD-L1; immunotherapy; chemotherapy, triple negative breast cancer; HER2; luminal breast cancer; CPS
Online: 7 June 2023 (08:04:20 CEST)
With the rise of novel immunotherapies able to stimulate the antitumor immune response, increasing literature data concerning the immunogenicity of breast cancer have been published in recent years. Numerous clinical studies have been conducted in order to identify novel biomarkers that could reflect the immunogenicity of BC and predict response to immunotherapy. In this regard, TILs have emerged as an important immunological biomarker related to the antitumor immune re-sponse in BC. TILs are more frequently observed in triple-negative breast cancer and HER2+ sub-types where increased TIL levels have been linked to better response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and with improved survival. PD-L1 is a type 1 transmembrane protein ligand expressed on T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells and is considered a key inhibitory checkpoint involved in cancer immune regulation. PD-L1 immunohistochemical expression in breast cancer is observed in about 10–30% of cases and is extremely variable based on tumor stage and molecular subtypes . In detail, TNBC shows the highest percentages of PD-L1 positivity, followed by HER2+ tumors. On the other hand, PD-L1 is rarely expressed (0-10% of cases) in hormone-receptor positive BC. The prognostic role of PD-L1 expression in BC is still controversial since different immunohistochemistry (IHC) clones, cut-off points and scoring systems have been utilized across published studies. In the present paper an extensive review on the current knowledge of immune landscape of BC is provided. In detail TILS and PD-L1 expression across different BC subtypes is discussed also providing a guide for their pathological assessment and reporting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0487.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Pediatric embryonal brain tumors, liquid biopsy, cell-free DNA, molecular diagnosis, nucleosome footprinting
Online: 7 June 2023 (05:48:23 CEST)
Background: Liquid biopsies are revolutionary tools to detect tumor-specific genetic alterations in body fluids, and cell-free DNA (cfDNA) can be used for molecular diagnosis in cancer patients. In brain tumors cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cfDNA might be more informative than plasma cfDNA. Here, we assess the use of CSF cfDNA in pediatric embryonal brain tumors (EBT) for molecular diagnosis. Methods: CSF cfDNA of pediatric patients with medulloblastoma (n=18), ATRT (n=3), ETMR (n=1), CNS NB FOXR2 (n=2) and pediatric EBT NOS (n=1) (mean cfDNA concentration 48 ng/mL; range 4-442 ng/mL) and matched tumor genomic DNA were sequenced by WES, and/or a targeted sequencing approach, to determine single nucleotide variations (SNVs)/copy number alterations (CNA). A specific capture covering transcription start sites (TSS) of genes of interest was used for nucleosome footprinting in CSF cfDNA. Results: 15/25 CSF cfDNA samples yielded informative results, with informative CNA and SNVs in 11 and 15 cases, respectively. For cases with paired tumor and CSF cfDNA WES (n=15), a mean of 83 (range 1-160) shared SNVs was observed, including SNVs in classical medulloblastoma genes such as SMO and KMT2D. Interestingly, tumor-specific SNVs (mean 18; range 1-62) or CSF-specific SNVs (mean 5; range 0-25) were observed suggesting clonal heterogeneity. The TSS panel resulted in differential coverage profiles across all 112 studied genes in 7 cases, indicating distinct promoter accessibility. Conclusion: CSF cfDNA sequencing yielded informative results in 60% of cases (15/25), with WES feasible in 83% (15/18). These results pave the way for implementation of these novel approaches for molecular diagnosis and minimal residual disease monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0494.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Neonatal Cholestasis; Liver biopsy; Biliary atresia; triangular cord sing
Online: 7 June 2023 (05:46:20 CEST)
Background: Neonatal cholestasis (NC) initiates in the first trimester of a newborn, comprising extra and intrahepatic medical conditions, with a high risk of fatality warranting early diagnosis and treatment to prevent morbimortality. The differential diagnosis of NC is a challenge demanding an accurate diagnosis for disease detection. The current study evaluates NC's clinical symptoms and differential diagnosis using ultrasound, liver biopsy, histopathology, and biochemistry. Methods: Infant registry data from Hevi Pediatric Teaching Hospital (January 2016 - January 2022) were obtained and screened for subject selection. The inclusion criteria include infants with direct hyperbilirubinemia within an onset of 1 to 90 days of birth. As indicated, the recruited subjects underwent liver ultrasound, blood biochemistry, and liver biopsy. Results: Seventy-two children presented with the criteria for inclusion in the study. The study found that ultrasound helped diagnose 43.1% of subjects for BA compared to 34.7% through histopathology. The histopathology confirmed 13 children (18.1%) having neonatal hepatitis. Test sensitivity of the ultrasound method for BA and NH was 60% (40.74, 76.6) and 38.46% (17.71, 64.48), respectively. Conclusion: The study found both ultrasound and liver biopsy to be critical diagnostic methods to differentiate the etiology of NC. Ultrasound has a higher specificity and sensitivity for diagnosing BA than NH. Histopathology and blood biochemistry should be considered, too, for effective diagnosis. In the future, larger sample and multicenter studies should be conducted to develop practically implementable strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0482.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cachexia; pancreatic cancer; ketogenic diet; gemcitabine; cancer-associated cachexia
Online: 7 June 2023 (03:53:16 CEST)
Cancer associated cachexia (CAC) is a critical contributor to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) mortality. Thus, there is an urgent need for new strategies to mitigate PDAC-associated cachexia; and the exploration of dietary interventions is a critical component. We previously observed that a ketogenic diet (KD) combined with gemcitabine enhances overall survival in the autochthonous LSL-KrasG12D/+; LSL-Trp53 R172H/+; Pdx1-Cre (KPC) mouse model. In this study, we investigated the effect and cellular mechanisms of a KD in combination with gemcitabine on the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass in KPC mice. For this purpose, male and female pancreatic tumor-bearing KPC mice were allocated to a control diet (CD), a KD, a CD + gemcitabine (CG), or a KD + gemcitabine (KG) group. We observed that a KD or a KG mitigated muscle strength decline over time and presented higher gastrocnemius weights compared CD-fed mice. Mechanistically, we observed sex-dependent effects of KG treatment, including the inhibition of autophagy, and increased phosphorylation levels of eIF2α in KG-treated KPC mice when compared to CG-treated mice. Our data suggests that a KG results in preservation of skeletal muscle mass. Additional research is warranted to explore whether this diet-treatment combination can be clinically effective in combating CAC in PDAC patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0480.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Breast; lung; cancer; microenvironment; pleural effusion; immunofluorescence
Online: 7 June 2023 (03:49:27 CEST)
Background:Malignant pleural effusion (MPE),a frequent complication of advanced malignancies. This pilot study characterized and compared the immune landscapes of breast carcinoma (BC) and lung adenocarcinoma (LADC) primary tumors(PTs) and their corresponding MPEs and tested the incorporation of multiplexed image technology for the study of malignant fluids. Methods: We studied the immune contexture of 6 BC and 5 LADC PT samples and their MPEs using 3 multiplex immunofluorescence panels. We explored associations between sample characteristics and pleural effusion–free survival. Results: Although we found 3 out of 11 PTs PD-L1 positive more than 1% by malignant cells, no MPE samples reached positive expression by malignant cells. In addition, CD3+ T cells and CD3+CD8+ cytotoxic T cells predominated (median percentages for MPEs vs. PTs: 45.5% vs. 40.7% and 4.7% vs. 6.6%, respectively). In the BC samples, CD68+ macrophages predominated (median percentages for MPEs vs. PTs:61% vs. 57.1%). Generally, CD3+CD8+FOXP3+ T cells in PTs and the distances from the malignant cells to CD3+CD8+Ki67+ and CD3+PD-1+ T cells were correlated in the first event of MPE after diagnosis. Conclusions: The immune cell phenotypes in the MPEs and PTs were similar within each cancer type but were different for LADC vs. BC.MPE analysis could be used as a substitute for PT analysis, but an expanded study on this topic is essential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0477.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; orofacial trauma; maxillofacial trauma; epidemiology; public health
Online: 7 June 2023 (03:35:10 CEST)
The Covid-19 pandemic has produced a change in the way of living, socializing and a modification in Health Systems around the world. A multicentre retrospective study was carried out to study orofacial trauma in one of the regions most affected during the first wave of the pandemic, with the participation of the five main tertiary hospitals in Madrid. The aim of this study is to evaluate the epidemiology of orofacial surgical trauma during the 1 year of COVID pandemic and compared to de prior year. Age, sex, mechanism, localization, and treatment were studied. P-value <0.05 was considered statically significative. Reduction of 39.36% (<0.001) in maxillofacial fractures was observed, without significance change in sex, localization or treatment. Significant increase in age (35,92 vs. 40,26) (p = 0.006) was observed. Significant decline in mechanism was noted (p = 0.025), decreasing personal violence (41% vs 35%) and sports (14% vs 8%); increasing in falls (27% vs 35%), precipitation (2 vs 5%), and traffic accidents (12% vs 13%). The mandible was the most frequent fractured bone. The COVID pandemic has produced epidemiological variations in orofacial trauma, making it necessary to monitor social and legal changes that may require reorganization to adjust to population needs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0474.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Endometriosis; in vitro fertilization; oocytes; embryonic structures
Online: 7 June 2023 (03:25:39 CEST)
Endometriosis is a common finding among women with infertility and women who are diag-nosed with endometriosis are almost twice as likely to experience infertility. Mechanisms by which endometriosis causes infertility remain poorly understood. In this review we evaluate the current literature on the impact of endometriosis on oocyte and embryo quality. The presence of endometriosis evidently reduces ovarian reserve, oocyte quality and embryo quality, however this does not appear to translate to a clear clinical impact. Analysis of data from large assisted reproduction technology registries has shown that women with endometriosis have a lower oo-cyte yield but no reduction in reproductive outcomes. There is a need for future studies in the form of well-designed randomised controlled trials to further evaluate the role of surgical and medi-cal treatment options in women with endometriosis undergoing assisted conception.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0468.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Endometrial cancer (EC); assisted reproduction techniques (ART); miR-based; molecular evaluation; ethical and legal/regulatory implications
Online: 6 June 2023 (14:54:47 CEST)
This review article is aimed at exploring the possibility of developing an integrated approach in the management of the different needs of endometrial cancer (EC) patients seeking to become pregnant. Life preservation of the woman, health preservation of the baby, a precocious and – as much as possible – minimally invasive characterization of the health and fertility parameters of the patient, together with the concerns regarding the obstetric, neonatal, and adult health risks of the children conceived via assisted reproduction techniques (ART) are all essential aspects of the problem to be taken into consideration, yet the possibility to harmonize such needs through a concerted integrated approach is still highly challenging. This article aims to illustrate the main features of EC and how it affects the normal physiology of pre-menopausal women. Then, we focus on the prospect for a miR-based, molecular evaluation of patient health status, including both EC early diagnosis and staging and, similarly, the receptivity of the woman, discussing the possible evaluation of both aspects using a single specific panel of circulating miR in the patient, thus allowing a relatively fast, non-invasive way to perform such testing with a significantly reduced margin of error. Finally, the ethical and legal/regulatory complexities arising from such innovative techniques require not only a risk-benefit analysis; respect for patient autonomy and equitable health care access allocation are fundamental issues as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0467.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: cardiac magnetic resonance; T1 mapping; Late gadolinium enhancement; T2-STIR
Online: 6 June 2023 (14:48:58 CEST)
We sought to compare native T1 mapping to conventional Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and T2-STIR techniques in a cohort of consecutive patients undergoing cardiac MRI (CMR).. CMR was performed in 323 patients, 206 males (64%), mean age 54±8 years and in 27 age- and sex- matched healthy controls. At T2-STIR images myocardial hyperintensity suggesting edema was found in 41 patients (27%). LGE images were positive in 206 patients (64%). T1 mapping was abnormal in 171 (49%). In 206 patients (64%) a matching between LGE and native T1 was found. T1 was abnormal in 32 out of 41 (78%) with edema at T2-STIR. Overall, LGE and/or T2-STIR were abnormal in 209 patients, whereas native T1 in 154(52%). Conventional techniques and T1 mapping were concordant in 208 patients (64%). In 39 patients T1 mapping was positive despite negative conventional techniques (12%). T1 mapping was able in conditions with diffuse myocardial damage as cardiac amyloidosis, scleroderma and Fabry disease (additive role in 42%). On contrast, T1 mapping was less effective in cardiac disease with regional distribution of myocardial damage as myocardial infarction, HCM, myocarditis. In conclusion, conventional LGE/T2-STIR and T1 mapping are complementary techniques and should be used together in every CMR examination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0461.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Fat cell size; gluteal fat; inflammation; fibrosis; angiogenesis; metabolic syndrome
Online: 6 June 2023 (12:58:31 CEST)
Background and Aims: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), a global problem, predisposes to an increased risk for Type 2 diabetes and premature cardiovascular disease. While MetS is associated with central obesity, there is scanty data on adipocyte hypertrophy, increased fat cell size (FCS), in MetS. The aim of this study was to investigate FCS status in gluteal adipose tissue biopsy of patients with nascent MetS without the confounding of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, smoking or lipid therapy . Methods and Results: Fasting blood and subcutaneous gluteal adipose tissue (SAT) biopsy were obtained in MetS (n=20) and controls (n=19). Cardio metabolic features, FFA levels, hsCRP and HOMA-IR were significantly increased in patients with MetS. Waist-circumference adjusted-FCS was significantly increased in patients with MetS and increased with increasing severity of MetS. Furthermore, there were significant correlations between FCS with glucose, HDL-C and the ratio of TG: HDL-C. There were significant correlations between FCS and FFA, endotoxin and monocyte TLR4 abundance. Also, FCS correlated with readouts of NLRP3 Inflammasome activity. Most importantly, FCS correlated with markers of fibrosis and angiogenesis. Conclusions: In conclusion, in patients with nascent MetS, we demonstrate WC-adjusted increase in FCS from gluteal AT that correlated with cellular inflammation, fibrosis and angiogenesis. While these preliminary observations were in gluteal fat, future studies are warranted to confirm these findings in visceral and other fat depots.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0456.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: hepatitis e virus; hepatitis e infection; immunocompromised host; organ transplantation; extrahepatic manifestation; chronic hepatitis E; hepatology
Online: 6 June 2023 (11:53:35 CEST)
According to the World Health Organization, approximately 20 million people worldwide are infected annually with the hepatitis E virus (HEV). There are 4 main genotypes of HEV. Genotype 1 and genotype 2 are common in developing countries and are transmitted by contaminated water from a fecal-oral route. Genotype 3 and genotype 4 are common in developed countries and can lead to occasional transmission to humans by undercooked meat. Hepatitis E virus 1 and HEV3 can lead to fulminant hepatitis, and HEV3 can lead to chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis in immunocompromised patients. The majority of patients with HEV infection are asymptomatic and usually have spontaneous viral clearance without treatment. However, infection in immunocompromised individuals can lead to chronic HEV infection. Both acute and chronic HEV infections can have extrahepatic manifestations. No specific treatment is required for acute HEV infection, no treatment has been approved in chronic infection and no HEV vaccine has been approved by the (United States) Food and Drug Administration. This review focuses on the molecular virology (HEV life cycle, genotypes, model systems, zoonosis), pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, and treatment of chronic HEV infection, especially in immunocompromised patients, to provide clinicians a better understanding of the global distribution of these infections and the significant effect they can have on immunocompromised patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0453.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: soldering; dentistry
Online: 6 June 2023 (11:48:06 CEST)
Welding between two or more pieces of metal is a widely used practice in various fields of medicine such as dentistry which also makes use of the support of dental laboratories where complex welding procedures are applied. The welding techniques available today are many and also very different from each other; they often require very different background knowledge, just as the results obtained may differ. Welds can be made at various stages of making a product that will be used on the patient; for example some welds are made directly by the manufacturer during the industrial processing phase. We then move on to the more common welding techniques carried out in dental laboratories and finally we also arrive at the intraoral welding carried out by the clinician inside the patient's oral cavity. This enormous variety of conditions in which those who practice welding can find themselves presupposes the application of the most appropriate technique; this review looks at the different methods and fields of application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0449.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: head and neck neoplasms; electric stimulation; chemoradiotherapy; swallowing; dysphagia
Online: 6 June 2023 (11:37:29 CEST)
Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is the standard treatment for locally advanced head and neck cancer; however, CRT may cause post-treatment dysphagia. Transcutaneous electrical sensory stimulation (TESS), developed in recent years for swallowing rehabilitation, has been used at many medical facilities. Although TESS has been used for dysphagia in several fields, its safety and efficacy in patients with head and neck cancer remain to be clarified. Therefore, this study evaluated the safety of TESS in ten patients with head and neck cancers undergoing CRT. Swallowing rehabilitation intervention and TESS implementation were performed for all patients during CRT. Non-blood toxicity adverse events (AEs), such as dermatitis and mucositis, occurred during CRT; however, the severity was less than Grade 3. No patient experienced pain due to TESS. As survival time analysis using the Kaplan–Meier method for interferential current device implementation rates revealed a feasibility of 100% for up to 60 Gy and a feasibility of 78% for up to 70 Gy, it concludes that TESS was feasible until 70 Gy. This study confirmed the feasibility and safety of TESS in the head and neck region, even during CRT. Although the precise mechanism of TESS on dysphagia is not yet clear, its continued use has great potential for improving sensory disturbance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0446.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Toxocara canis; Toxocara cati; Toxocarosis; Parasitic infection; Visceral larva migrans; albendazole
Online: 6 June 2023 (11:29:49 CEST)
Toxocarosis remains an important neglected parasitic infection representing one of the most common zoonotic infections caused by the parasite Toxocara canis or less frequently by Toxocara cati. The epidemiology of the disease is complex due to its transmission route by accidental ingestion of embryonated Toxocara eggs or larvae from tissues from domestic or wild paratenic hosts. Even though Toxocara infects about 1,4 billion people worldwide, global epidemiological data regarding the relationship between seropositivity and toxocarosis is limited. Although the vast majority of the infected individuals remains asymptomatic or experiences a mild disease, the infection is associated with important health and socioeconomic consequences, particularly in underprivileged, tropical, and subtropical areas. Toxocarosis is a disease with multiple clinical presentations, which are classified into five distinct forms: the classical visceral larva migrans, ocular toxocarosis, common toxocarosis, covert toxocarosis, and cerebral toxocarosis or neurotoxocarosis. Anthelmintic agents as for example albendazole or mebendazole is the recommended treatment, whereas a combination with topical or systemic corticosteroids for specific forms is suggested. Prevention strategies include educational programs, behavioural and hygienic changes, enhancement of the role of veterinarians, and anthelmintic regimens to control active infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0435.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19; Mental Health problems; DASS-21 scale; Depression; Anxiety
Online: 6 June 2023 (09:59:06 CEST)
Background: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection is primarily transmitted through respiratory droplets from an infected person and contact with tainted surfaces or items. Social distancing became the primary measure of preventing the spread of COVID-19, with the principal aim being to reduce the probability of contact with an already infected person. Social distancing can be distressing, as it is against the community's way of life. Saudi Arabia imposed a curfew and suspended all religious, entertainment, sporting, and mass congregations. The daily updates on COVID-19 infection and mortality are upsetting and further, aggravate depression and anxiety. With this background, this study was planned with the following objectives. To determine the sociodemographic profile of the study participants, to find the prevalence of psychological morbidity, and to measure the association between the sociodemographic details, COVID-19 associated factors, and psychological effects among Abha citizens during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in the Abha city population from August 2021 to July 22. This study followed snowball sampling, the data was collected using an online Google form the link was shared in WhatsApp groups and through emails to contacts, asking friends to share it with their friends, until reaching the adequate sample size the responses were accepted. Results: A total of 530 participated, and their age ranged from 19 -70 years. Many of the participants (34.5%, n=183) belonged to 36-45 years old. Most of the responders were 69.8% married and Females (69.2%, n=367). Half of the participants had been quarantined (49.6%), and 51.5% were scared from fear of COVID-19. 64.8% of the participants had depression; 14.2%, 20.8%, 13.6%, and 16.2% had mild, moderate, severe, and extremely severe depression, respectively. Around 58.2% of participants suffered from anxiety; 5.8% experienced mild anxiety, 21.7% moderate anxiety, and 30.7% severe anxiety. The proportion of stress among the participants was 45.0%; 10.8% had mild stress, 9.4% had moderate stress, and 24.5% had severe to extremely severe stress. Conclusions: COVID-19 poses mental health problems among individuals and communities. There is a need to find the more susceptible individuals for mental health issues or other psychological disorders. Mental health and psychological problems can be resolved with health education, counseling, and appropriate interventions to curb the negative health impacts of COVID-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1010.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: kallikrein-kinin system; kininogens; bradykinin; B1 receptor; B2 receptor; hereditary angioedema
Online: 6 June 2023 (09:42:29 CEST)
Abstract: The kallikrein-kinin system consists of the two kininogen substrates, present in blood plasma, and of two serine proteases, the plasma and tissue kallikreins. The action of the latter on kininogens produce small peptides, the kinins, short lived but endowed by powerful pharmacologic actions on blood vessels and other tissues. Many recent and exciting therapeutic developments in the field are briefly summarized. Notably, various novel strategies are being clinically developed to inhibit the formation of bradykinin or block its receptors in the management of hereditary angioedema. The interventions include orally bioavailable drugs, biotechnological proteins, and gene therapy. These approaches are currently explored in a variety of other inflammatory and thrombotic disorders. Harnessing controlled kinin formation is also of potential therapeutic interest as shown by the clinical development of recombinant tissue kallikrein for ischemic stroke and renal disease. Biomarkers of a kinin-mediated disorders, frequently implicating edemas, include the consumption of kininogen(s), plasma kallikrein activity, and the detection of circulating kinin metabolites such as fragments BK1-5 and BK2-9. Novel opportunities to clinically apply the underexploited drugs of the kallikrein-kinin system are briefly reviewed. This personal perspective is offered by an observer of, and a participant in drug characterization during the last 4 decades.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: NRF2; NAFLD; HMOX1; CRISPR, Oxidative Stress; Fatty Liver Disease
Online: 6 June 2023 (08:59:42 CEST)
With the rising prevalence of obesity, Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) now affects 20-25% of the global population. NAFLD, a progressive condition associated with oxidative stress, can result in cirrhosis and liver cancer in 10% and 3% of patients suffering NAFLD, re-spectively. Therapeutic options are currently limited, emphasizing the need for novel treatments. In this study, we examined the potential of activating the transcription factor NRF2, a crucial player in combating oxidative stress, as an innovative approach to treating NAFLD. Utilizing a CRISPR-engineered human cell line, we were able to monitor the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), an NRF2 target, using a Nanoluc luciferase tag. Our model was validated using a known NRF2 activator, after which we screened 1200 FDA-approved drugs, unearthing six compounds (Disulfiram, Thiostrepton, Auranofin, Thimerosal, Halofantrine, and Vorinostat) that enhanced NRF2 activity and antioxidant response. These compounds demonstrated protec-tive effects against oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in vitro. Our study underscores the utility of CRISPR tagging with Nanoluc luciferase in identifying potential NRF2 activators, pav-ing the way for potential NAFLD therapeutics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0407.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Boron neutron capture therapy; BNCT; radiation oncology; medical physics; Canada
Online: 6 June 2023 (08:09:25 CEST)
Background: Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is an emerging radiotherapy. There are ongoing efforts to develop a Canadian accelerator-based BNCT center. However, it remains unclear how Canadian radiation oncologists (RO), medical physicists (MP), and their trainees perceive BNCT and its impact on radiation oncology as a discipline. Methods: A survey was created to explore knowledge of BNCT, its clinical role, and support for Canadian research. It was distributed through the Canadian Association of Radiation Oncology (CARO) and Canadian Organization of Medical Physicists (COMP). Results: We received 118 valid responses from all 10 provinces, from 70 RO (59.3%) and 48 MP (40.7%), including 9 residents. Most knew of BNCT and its indications (60.2%). Although many were unaware of reasons behind early failures (44.1%), common reasons were lack of clinical trials and inaccessibility of neutron sources (42.4%) and reactor unsuitability (34.7%). Additionally, 90.6% showed definite (66.9%) or possible (23.7%) support for Canadian BNCT research, while 89% indicated definite (56.8%) or possible (32.2%) willingness for BNCT referrals. Conclusions: Most RO and MP supported Canadian BNCT research and would refer patients. However, limited awareness and lack of experiences remain a challenge. Educational sessions are needed to realize this innovative cancer treatment in Canada.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0377.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Knee; alignment; radiographs; TKA
Online: 6 June 2023 (04:09:30 CEST)
Background: There is a growing interest in TKA components alignment, especially around the kinematic technique, which aims at reestablishing the alignment of the native knee. However, the practical application of this technique has some limitations; (2) Methods: A series of consecutive full weight-bearing lower limbs radiographs performed in our Hospital without signs of osteoarthritis, post-traumatic deformities, and any previous surgical procedure (e.g. any joint replacement , osteotomy, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction) were included. Several radiological parameters as the bisector line were measured by three members of our orthopedic unit and were then used to assess the inter-observer reliability.; (3) Results: 110 radiographic images belonging to 59 patients (both legs for 51 patients and one leg for 8 patients) were finally included in the present analysis. The bisector of the trochelar groove was perpendicular to the femoral joint line (mean 89.4°).; (4) Conclusions: The main finding of the current study was that the new anatomic landmark investigated, the bisector of the trochlear groove, was perpendicular to the femoral joint line viewed in the AP weight-bearing radiograph of the entire lower limbs of the healthy knee and therefore could potentially simplify the achievement of the kinematic alignment during a TKA procedure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0312.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: BioHPP; surface roughness; AFM; XRD; wetting; ultrasonic scaling; teeth brushing
Online: 6 June 2023 (04:00:54 CEST)
Purpose Professional oral hygiene procedures are recommended by dentists, twice a year. BioHPP is a polyetheretherketone polymer used in prosthetic dentistry as a frame material. The aim was to investigate whether routine dental cleaning procedures such as ultrasonic scaling and brushing affect the surface proprieties of prosthetic BioHPP restorations. To evaluate the surface properties of different restorations based on BioHPP (veneered with composite resin and polished) after brushing and ultrasonic scaling exposure. Materials and Methods The 66 BioHPP specimens were divided into three groups (n=22). The first group was the control group, and no further treatment was applied. The specimens in the second group were veneered with composite resin and in the third group the specimens were veneered with composite resin and polished. Each group of samples was divided into 3 subgroups: 0- no treatment, 1-exposed to tooth brushing, 2-exposed to ultrasonic scaling. The surface morphology was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The structure of samples was analysed using the XRD technique, and the surface wettability was done. Results Control group specimens were significantly rougher compared to other groups (p ≤ 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the contact angle of water analyses between the samples. Conclusion: Composite veneered BioHPP showed the highest surface resistance to brushing and ultrasonic scaling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0362.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: reactive oxygen species; angiotensin II; hypertrophy; psilocybin mushrooms; heart failure
Online: 6 June 2023 (03:07:37 CEST)
Psilocybin-containing mushrooms, commonly known as magic mushrooms have antidepressant effect, however, their safety in cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure is not fully known and needs to be investigated. Cardiac hypertrophy is an independent risk factor for heart failure morbidity and mortality. Angiotensin II (Ang-II) plays a major role in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy. We investigated the cardiovascular safety of extracts of Panaeolus cyanescens, Psilocybe natalensis, Psilocybe cubensis, and Psilocybe cubensis leucistic A+ strain mushrooms, well-known psilocybin-containing mushrooms in the Panaeolus and Psilocybe genus on Ang II-induced hypertrophy oxidative stress. The four mushrooms were grown, dried and extracted with 70% ethanol, cold and hot water. Extracts were tested for cytotoxicity on H9C2 cardiomyoblast cells. The cardiomyocytes were induced with (10 µM) AngII and treated with the three extracts of the four mushrooms over 48 hours. Control cells were serum starved but neither AngII induced nor treated while AngII cells were serum starved and stimulated with AngII but not treated. Losartan, an inhibitor of AngII type 1 receptor was used as positive control. Effects of the extracts on actin-filament labelling and cell surface area, mitochondrial activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and atrial natriuretic peptide levels were determined. Stimulation with AngII lowered cell viability, increased the cell width measurements and intracellular ROS levels significantly compared to control cells. The results indicated that the ethanol and water extracts of the four psilocybin mushrooms did not exacerbate the angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy conditions, but the extracts had cardio-protective activity against angiotensin II-induced oxidative stress. The phytochemical analysis of the extracts confirmed detections of known compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in the water and ethanol extracts of these four psilocybin mushrooms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0359.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: 1) Free tissue transfer; 2) Microsurgical procedures; 3) Reconstructive surgery
Online: 6 June 2023 (02:35:28 CEST)
Background The main aim of reconstructive surgery (RS) is to restore the integrity of soft tissues damaged by trauma, surgery, congenital deformity, burns or infection. Microsurgical techniques consist of harvesting tissues that are separated from the vascular sources of the donor site and anastomosed to the vessels of the recipient site. In these procedures, there are some preoperative modifiable factors that have the potential to influence the outcome of the flap transfer and its anastomosis. Methods Chronic inflammatory anaemia (ACD) is a constant condition in patients who have undergone RS and correlates with the perfusion of the free flap. In RS, it is important to maintain good tissue oxyporesis, avoiding blood hyperviscosity. From January 2017 to September 2019, we studied 16 patients (16 males, mean age 38 years) who underwent microsurgical procedures for RS. Haemoglobin (Hb) levels, Corpuscular Indexes, Transferring saturation (TSAT) ferritin concentrations and creatinine clearance have been measured the first day after surgery (T0), after the first week (T1) and after five weeks (T2). At T0 all patients showed low hemoglobin levels (average 7.4 g/dl, STD 0,71range 6,2-7,4 g dL-1), with an MCV of 72, MCH 28, MCHC 33, RDW 16, Sideremy 35, Ferritin 28, Ret% 1,36, TRF 277 and Creatinine Clearance 119. . We assessed all patients for clinical status, medical history and comorbidities before starting therapy. Results. In collaboration between the two departments, we started a therapeutic protocol with erythropoietic stimulating agents (ESAs) (Binocrit 6000 UI/week) and intravenous iron every other day, on the second day after surgery. Thirteen patients received ESAs and FCM (500-1000 mg per session), three patients received ESAs and iron gluconate (1 vial every other day). No patients received blood transfusions. No side effects were observed and, most importantly, no limb or flap rejection. Conclusions Preliminary data from our protocol show an optimal therapeutic response in a surgical setting with limited data in the scientific literature. The enrolment of further patients will allow us to validate this therapeutic protocol with statistically significant data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0358.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: SIRS; cardiac surgery; cytokines; extracorporeal circulation
Online: 6 June 2023 (02:27:43 CEST)
Revascularization of the myocardium under conditions of extracorporeal circulation cause clinical problems related to the effects of the intervention itself on the immune system and inflammatory response, especially systemic inflammatory response (Engl. Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, SIRS). This prospective study included 100 patients who underwent single, double and triple surgical revascularization of the myocardium, at the Clinic for Cardiac Surgery of CC Niš, in the period from January 15., 2020. until January 15., 2021. 22 female persons - 22.0% and 78 male persons - 78.0%) were included. Preoperatively, as well as 8 hours after the surgical intervention, the following parameters were determined for the subjects: blood count (erythrocyte count - Rbc, hemoglobin - Hgb, hematocrit - Hct, leukocyte count - Wbc, platelet count - Plt) and CRP, soluble CD14 molecule (sCD 14) - presepsin, levels of the following cytokines: TNFα, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 p70 and IFN γ. Patients in whom the extracorporeal circulation method was applied had, postoperatively, a higher concentration of CRP (p<0.001), as well as a concentration of presepsin (p<0.05) - a greater number of patients had a concentration of presepsin above the limit of 600 pg/ mL (p<0.01). Four patients out of 51 (7.84%) in the ECB group had elevated presepsin values over 1000 pg/ml and high risk according to clinical criteria for the development of systemic bacterial infection and sepsis. No such patients were recorded in the off pump group. Also, in the group where the extracorporeal blood flow system was applied, 17.64% of patients (9/51) met the clinical criteria for SIRS with elevated presepsin values over 600 pg/mL, while in the other group of patients, 2 out of 49 (4.08%) met the clinical criteria and laboratory criteria for SIRS. Except for TNFa, the levels of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 showed an increase after the intervention in all groups compared to the preoperative period (p<0.01). However, comparing the degree of cytokine increase in the postoperative period between the control (off pump) and the extracorporeal blood flow group did not show a statistical difference (IL-2; p=0.881, IL-1; p=0.709, IL-6; p=0.911, IL- 10, p=0.179). In the postoperative period, a higher incidence rate of SIRS was noted in patients in whom the ECB system was used, which also indicates its importance in the development of systemic inflammation and immune dysregulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0356.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: NSCLC; JAC4; DNA repair; radiotherapy; bidirectional effect
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:38:38 CEST)
More than 50% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are treated with radiotherapy (RT) during different phases of treatment. However, radiation pneu-monitis (RP) and resistance often lead to RT failure in NSCLC patients. JWA, a tumor suppressor gene, is known to enhance DNA damage in gastric cancer cells while protect normal cells from DNA damage induced by cisplatin. Recently, we have re-ported that JWA agonist compound 4 (JAC4) effectively protects intestinal epithelium from RT triggered damage in mice. However, the potential synergistic and attenuated effects of JAC4 in chest RT of lung cancer are not been illuminated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of JAC4 on the radiotoxicities of both NSCLC and normal lung tissue. CCK-8 and colony formation assays showed that JAC4 played a bidirectional role in radiation-treated SPCA-1 and BEAS-2B cells. Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays showed that JAC4 in combination with RT increased DNA damage and apoptosis in SPCA-1 cells, while the opposite effect was observed in BEAS-2B cells. Mechanistically, JAC4 inhibited homologous recombination repair (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) in SPCA-1 cells, but not in normal cells. JAC4 increased antioxidant capacity, and reduced oxidative stress and inhibited nu-clear factor Kappa-B (NF-κB, P65) translocation to the nucleus in BEAS-2B cells. Im-portantly, the bidirectional roles of JAC4 on RT were reversed by siJWA in both SPCA-1 and BEAS-2B cells. Finally, the bidirectional effects of JAC4 in combination with RT were further validated in NSCLC xenograft model mice. In conclusion, JAC4 enhanced effect of RT on tumor growth while alleviated RP and lung injury. Our re-sults may provide new strategy for optimizing RT regimen for NSCLC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0353.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: radiomics; radiotherapy; artificial intelligence (AI; prognosis prediction; clinical factors; machine learning; non-small cell lung cancer
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:32:52 CEST)
In this study, we propose a radiomics-clinical probability weighted model for the prediction of prognosis for NSCLC. The model combines radiomics features extracted from RT planning images with clinical factors such as age, gender, histology, and tumor stage. CT images with radiotherapy structures of 422 NSCLC patients were retrieved from The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA). Radiomic features were extracted from gross tumor volume (GTV). Five machine learning algorithms, namely decision trees (DT), random forests (RF), extreme boost (EB), support vector machine (SVM) and generalized linear model (GLM), were optimized by a voted ensemble machine learning (VEML) model. A probabilistic weighted approach is used to incorporate the uncertainty associated with both radiomic and clinical features and to generate a probabilistic risk score for each patient. The performance of the model is evaluated using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC). Radiomic model, clinical factors model and combined radiomic-clinical probability weighted model demonstrated good performance in predicting NSCLC survival with AUC of 0.941, 0.856 and 0.949 respectively. The combined radiomics-clinical probability weighted enhanced model achieved significantly better performance than radiomic model in 1-year survival prediction (chi-square test, p<0.05). The proposed model has the potential to improve NSCLC prognosis and facilitate personalized treatment decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0348.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Tissue biopsy guidance; Optical coherence tomography imaging; Artificial intelligence
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:17:17 CEST)
This paper presents a combined optical imaging/artificial intelligence (OI/AI) technique for real-time analysis of tissue morphology at the tip of the biopsy needle, prior collecting a biopsy specimen. This is an important clinical problem as up to 40% of the collected biopsy cores provide low diagnostic value due to high adipose or necrotic content. Micron-scale resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) images can be collected with a minimally invasive needle probe and automatically analyzed by a computer neural network (CNN)-based AI software. The results can be conveyed to the clinician in real-time and used to select the biopsy location more adequately. This technology was evaluated on a rabbit model of cancer. OCT images were collected with a hand-held custom-made OCT probe. Annotated OCT images were used as ground truth for AI algorithm training. The overall performance of the AI model was very close to that of the humans performing the same classification tasks. Specifically, tissue segmentation was excellent (~99% accuracy) and provided segmentation that closely mimicked ground truth provided by the human annotations, while over 83% correlation accuracy was obtained for tumor and non-tumor classification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: chromone derivatives; oral squamous cell carcinoma; tumor-specificity; keratinocyte toxicity; neurotoxicity; signaling pathway
Online: 5 June 2023 (15:45:48 CEST)
Background. Many anticancer drugs used in clinical practice cause adverse events such as oral mucositis, neurotoxicity, and extravascular leakage. We have reported that two 3-styrylchromone derivatives, 7-methoxy-3-[(1E)-2-phenylethenyl]-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (compound A) and 3-[(1E)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7-methoxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (compound B) showed the highest tumor-specificity against human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines among 291 related compounds. After confirming their superiority by comparing their tumor specificity with newly synthesized 65 derivatives, we investigated the neurotoxicity of these compounds, in comparison with 4 popular anticancer drugs. Methods: Tumor-specificity (TSM, TSE, TSN) was evaluated as the ratio of mean CC50 for human normal oral mesenchymal (gingival fibroblast, pulp cell), oral epithelial cells (gingival epithelial progenitor), and neuronal cells (PC-12, SH-SY5Y, LY-PPB6, differentiated PC-12) to OSCC cells (Ca9-22, HSC-2), respectively. Results: Compounds A and B showed one-order of magnitude higher TSM as compared with newly synthesized derivatives, confirming its prominent tumor-specificity. Docetaxel showed one order of magnitude higher TSM, but two order of magnitude lower TSE than compounds A and B. Compounds A and B showed higher TSM, TSE and TSN values than doxorubicin, 5-FU and cisplatin, damaging OSCC cells at concentrations that do not affect the viability of normal epithelial and neuronal cells. QSAR prediction based on the Tox21 database suggested that compounds A and B may inhibit the signaling pathway of estrogen-related receptors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0341.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: tuberculosis infection; tuberculosis disease; tuberculosis preventive treatment; latent tuberculosis infection; diabetes mellitus; adverse events; isoniazid; rifampicin; randomized controlled trial
Online: 5 June 2023 (15:01:24 CEST)
Tuberculosis (TB) associated with diabetes (DM) is a growing problem, particularly in low and medium-resource countries. We conducted an open-label, parallel-group, randomized, and controlled trial in a tertiary care center in Mexico City to assess TB preventive treatment with isoniazid (INH) or rifampicin (RIF) in people with DM. Participants were assigned six months of INH 300mg/day plus pyridoxine 75mg or three months of RIF 600mg/day. The primary outcomes were adverse events resulting in permanent treatment cessation and considered possibly or probably related to study drugs. We included 130 subjects, 68 randomized to INH and 62 to RIF. We prematurely halted the study based on recommendations of the Adverse Event Safety Panel. There was no difference between arms in the overall frequency of adverse events. However, the INH group had significantly more permanent treatment interruptions due to grade 2 recurrent or grade 3 or 4 hepatoxicity. In comparison, the RIF arm had more treatment interruptions due to grade 3 or 4 gastrointestinal intolerance. TB preventive treatment is not safe enough to be considered a universal indication to patients with DM and LTBI. These results underline the need to search for alternative TB prevention in DM patients with better safety profiles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0339.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Chronic Pain; Hypermobile Ehlers–Danlos syndrome; Linguistic content analysis; Metaphors; Pain; Symbolizing process
Online: 5 June 2023 (14:36:19 CEST)
Ehlers–Danlos syndromes (EDS) are a heterogeneous group of heritable connective tissue disorders (HCTDs) characterized by joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility, and tissue fragility. Among the different types, the hypermobile EDS (hEDS) is the most frequent, and includes generalized joint hypermobility as the major diagnostic criterion. Joint hypermobility in hEDS is often associated with pain that not always allow the use of effective pain-reducing treatments. Patients with hEDS always talk about pain using a lot of descriptions. Eighty-nine patients with diagnosis of hEDS were recruited and evaluated. They were asked to write down what grief was to them. The texts were analyzed through LIWC. Correlational analyses were conducted between pain perception and language. A comparison of high/low pain perception and quality of metaphors was carried out. The results showed, depending on the level of pain perception, different language quality is evidenced. The greater the pain the lesser the positive effects and the greater the negative effects and dehumanizing metaphors. Moreover, greater pain seems to be related to a verbal experience of greater isolation and less self-care. In conclusion, the use of metaphors is a useful tool for exploring illness experience and may help clinicians in the rehabilitation program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0338.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: COVID-19; ACE2; severity; post-COVID-19 patients; comorbidity.
Online: 5 June 2023 (14:36:06 CEST)
ACE2 impact on the severity of COVID-19 is widely discussed but still controversial. To estimate its role in aspects of the main risk factors and comorbidities, we involved post-COVID-19 patients in Ternopil region (Ukraine). Recruitment period was July 2020 to December 2021. Medical records, treatment modalities and outcomes were recorded and analyzed. Serum human ACE2 protein was measured with Cusabio ELISA kits (Houston, TX, USA). Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS21.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The level of ACE2 serum protein was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in patients with mild symptoms compared to more severe course of disease, and inversely had changed from 1 to 90 days after recovery. In patients with mild COVID-19, ACE2 level significantly decreased over time, while among critical patients, it increased by 34.1percent. Such results could be explained by ACE2 shedding from tissues into circulation. Loss of the membrane-bound form of the enzyme decreases the virus entry into cells. Our studies did not identify any sex-related ACE2 serum levels correlation. The most common comorbidities were hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases and diabetes mellitus. All comorbidities except respiratory diseases contribute to the severity of disease and correlate with ACE2 blood serum level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0335.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma; Aggressive; Malignant; Prognosis; Risk stratification; Lymph node
Online: 5 June 2023 (14:26:22 CEST)
Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is an extremely rare vascular sarcoma with variable aggressive clinical behavior. In this retrospective study we aimed to investigate prognostic factors based on clinicopathologic findings in a molecular/immunohistochemical confirmed nationwide multicenter cohort of 57 EHE. Patients had unifocal disease (n=29), multifocal disease (n=5), lymph node metastasis (n=8) and/or distant metastasis (n=15) at the time of diagnosis. The overall survival rate was 69.6% at 1 year and 50.5% at 5 years. Survival did not correlate with sex, age or histo-pathological parameters. No survival differences were observed between multifocal and metastatic disease suggesting that multifocality represents early metastases and treatment options are limited in comparison to unifocal disease. In unifocal tumors, survival could be predicted using the risk stratification model of Shibayama et al. dividing the cases into low (n=4), intermediate (n=15) and high (n=3) risk-groups. Larger tumor size (>3cm) and higher mitotic count (>1/10HPF) was asso-ciated with progressive unifocal disease course. Lymph node metastases at time of diagnosis oc-curred in 14.0% of the cases and was mainly associated with tumor localization in the head and neck area proposing lymph node dissection. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the aggressive behavior of EHE, emphasize the prognostic value of a previous described risk stratification model and may provide new insights regarding tumor focality, therapeutic strategies and prognosis.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0330.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Laser sintered metal grid; Digitally printed orthodontic grid; Interceptive treatment; Anchorage area
Online: 5 June 2023 (13:52:42 CEST)
In interceptive treatments in which impacted teeth (incisor or first permanent molar) should be included into the dental arch, the main clinical problem is the provision of an anchorage area and a suitable appliance. The use of laser sintered metal orthodontic grids, designed and printed digitally, has expanded the boundaries of orthodontic treatment, especially in its interceptive phase. Our aim is to describe a digital model for providing anchorage during orthodontic-surgical traction of impacted teeth in the mixed dentition period. We present the treatment of three clinical cases with digitally projected and printed metal grids used for anchorage. In the described clinical cases, individually designed anchorage systems were used. They were created through design software and after that the metal grids were printed. The devices are placed in the oral area and don’t disturb the aesthetics of the patient in any way. The advantages of individual designed metal support grids allow to accommodate the features of relief of the hard palate and alveolar bone. This makes the grids comfortable for the patient and rigid enough to perform orthodontic tractions at the same time. The printed additional grids are applicable in mixed dentition and in complicated clinical cases in permanent dentition. Their individuality allows segmental treatments or treatments in cases requiring additional anchorage further from the active force.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0329.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 vaccine side effect; vaccines and Heart rhythm disorders; Spike Protein and cardiac arrhythmias; ACE system and heart conduction; Angiotensin II and cardiac arrhythmias
Online: 5 June 2023 (13:40:58 CEST)
-529391451442Citation: To be added by editorial staff during production. Academic Editor: Firstname Lastname Received: date Revised: date Accepted: date Published: date Copyright: © 2023 by the authors. Submitted for possible open access publication under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).0Citation: To be added by editorial staff during production. Academic Editor: Firstname Lastname Received: date Revised: date Accepted: date Published: date Copyright: © 2023 by the authors. Submitted for possible open access publication under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 vaccination offered the opportunity to get out of the pandemic and thereby worldwide health, social, and economic disasters. However, in addition to efficacy, safety is an important issue for any vaccine. The mRNA-based vaccine platform is considered to be safe but side effects are being reported more frequently as more and more people around the world become treated. Myo-pericarditis is the major, but not the only cardiovascular complication of this vaccine, hence it is important not to underestimate other side effects. We report a case series of patients affected by cardiac arrhythmias post mRNA vaccine from our clinical practice and the literature. Reviewing the official vigilance database emerged that heart rhythm disorders after Covid vaccination are not uncommon and deserve more clinical and scientific attention. Since Covid vaccine is the only vaccination to have been related to this side effect questions arose about whether these vaccines could affect heart conduction. Although the risk-benefit is clearly in favor of vaccination heart rhythm disorders are not a negligible issue and there are red flags in the literature about the risk of post-vaccination malignant arrhythmias in some predisposed patients. In light of these findings, we investigated the potential mechanism for the Covid vaccine to impact on cardiac electrophysiology and cause heart rhythm disorders.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0325.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Streptococcus intermedius; brain abscess; lung abscess; endocarditis
Online: 5 June 2023 (13:24:39 CEST)
Streptococcus intermedius is frequently associated with brain and liver abscesses, while pleuropulmonary infections are considered rarer. Even less frequent is the association of lung and brain abscess due to this agent with left heart endocarditis. We describe the case of a 40-year-old man with a brain abscess due to S. intermedius and concomitant lung abscess and aortic native valve endocarditis. He was treated with surgical drainage of the brain abscess and a 4-week course of intravenous ceftriaxone, followed by oral amoxicillin/clavulanate, obtaining healing of the lesions without relapse of the infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0322.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: phosphohistone H3; vitamin D; vitamin D receptor; progesterone; endometriosis; immunohistochemistry
Online: 5 June 2023 (13:14:21 CEST)
(1) Background: To investigate the effect of phosphohistone H3 (PHH3) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the risk assessment of endometriosis, in two cohorts of women with this pathology, those receiving hormonal treatment, and those without treatment; (2) Methods: In 60 cases of women with endometriosis, the paraffin-embedded endometriosis tissue samples, retrieved after surgery, were immunohistochemically (IHC) analyzed aiming to determine the expression status of PHH3 and VDR; (3) Results: The IHC positive index of PHH3 and VDR of these two groups were compared. PHH3 levels were positively correlated with vitamin D levels, both being increased in patients without treatment. Within the group without treatment, PHH3 and VDR expressions were positively associated; (4) Conclusions: IHC analysis of PHH3 and VDR can be used as an additional tool for risk stratification and prognostic assessment in patients with endometriosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0321.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: right ventricular; tricuspid valve; tricuspid regurgitation; right ventricular remodeling
Online: 5 June 2023 (13:10:08 CEST)
In new Guideline for the Management of Patients with Valvular Heart Disease for tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is focused the importance of measurement of right-sided diastolic pressures and right ventriculography, pulmonary artery pressures, and pulmonary vascular resistance. Assessment of right ventricular (RV) dimensions and function is pivotal to select patients with severe tricuspid regurgitation who may benefit from tricuspid valve intervention. However, with the exception of tricuspid valve annulus diameter, there is no other cut-off value that defines severe RV dysfunction or dilation for this specific group of patients. It may be difficult, if not impossible, to establish a cut-off value of RV dysfunction since the RV may be exposed to pressure and volume overload, myocardial ischemia, intrinsic myocardial disease or pericardial constraint. Furthermore, the response of the RV to tricuspid valve intervention may vary according to each aetiology and the time course of the disease (acute or chronic). Comprehensive assessment of RV function should address in shape remodelling; functional remodelling; tissue remodelling. This assessment should be performed in optimal loading conditions and after euvolemia has been achieved. It’s now that there is no other cut-off value that defines severe RV dysfunction or dilation for patients with severe TR with the exception of tricuspid valve annulus diameter. It may be difficult, if not impossible, to establish a cut-off value of RV dysfunction since the RV may be exposed to pressure and volume overload, myocardial ischemia, intrinsic myocardial disease or pericardial constraint. In this review we analyze the relationship between right ventricular (RV) and TR in term of outcomes and mortality predictor in patients undergoing percutaneous or invasive treatment for severe TR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0318.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: nutraceutic; dendritic cells; T lymphocytes; anti-inflammatory response; autophagy; apoptosis
Online: 5 June 2023 (12:50:29 CEST)
Background: Sulforaphane (SFN) is an isothiocyanate of vegetables origin with potent antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. The pleiotropic activities characterization in human dendritic cells (DCs) is poorly summarized. The aim of this work was the study of the immunomodulatory power of SFN in response to an inflammatory microenvironment on human monocyte derived DCs (moDCs). Methods: The immunological response induced by SFN was studied, evaluating apoptosis and autophagy assays by flow cytometry in moDCs and cancer cell line (THP-1), including moDCs maturation, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokines production under different experimental conditions associated or not with an inflammatory microenvironment, which was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Results: Our results demonstrated that SFN can interact with moDCs, significantly reducing autophagy process and enhancing apoptosis, such as THP-1 cells, in chronic inflammatory microenvironment. Under this chronic inflammation, SFN modulated the phenotypical characteristics of moDCs, which reduction the expression of all markers (CD80, CD83, CD86, HLA-DR and PD-L1), and significantly reduced the Th2 proliferative response together with the reduction of the IL-9 and IL-13 levels. Although we did not find changes in the regulatory proliferative response, we observed an increase in IL-10 levels. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that SFN exerts protective effects against LPS-induced inflammation through moDCs/T-cells modulation towards a regulatory profile. Therefore, SFN may be a potential candidate for use in the treatment of pathologies with an inflammatory profile.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0313.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Liquid biopsy; EGFR; NSCLC; T790M mutation; NGS; PCR
Online: 5 June 2023 (11:06:11 CEST)
Background: The detection of the EGFR T790M (T790M) mutation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who progressed under treatment with first- or second-generation EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is important to offer a subsequent therapy with a third-generation EGFR-TKI. Liquid biopsy is a powerful tool to determine the T790M mutation status. Several liquid biopsy platforms with varying degrees of accuracy are available to test for T790M mutations and sensitivities may differ among these methods. Methods: As no standard exists for the testing of T790M mutation in liquid biopsy, we performed a collaborative study to describe and compare the sensitivity of different in-house liquid biopsy platforms for the detection of the T790M mutation, EGFR exon 19 deletion (del19) and EGFR L858R mutation (L858R) across multiple participating laboratories in seven Central and Eastern European countries. Results: Of the 25 invited laboratories across Central and Eastern Europe, 21 centers participated and received 10 plasma samples spiked with cell-line DNA containing the T790M, del19, or L858R mutation in different concentrations. In-house PCR-based and NGS-based methods were used accordingly, and results reported as in routine clinical practice. Two laboratories, which used the AmoyDx® EGFR 29 Mutations Detection Kit (AmoyDx) with Cobas® cfDNA Sample Preparation Kit and QX200 Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) with the QIAamp Circulating Nucleic Acid Kit identified all ten samples correctly. Cobas® EGFR Mutation Test v2 (Cobas), the NGS methods, and the IdyllaTM detection method used in this study performed within the known sensitivity range of each detection method. Conclusions: If a negative result was obtained from methods with lower sensitivity (e.g. Cobas), repeated liquid biopsy testing and/or tissue biopsy analysis should be performed whenever possible, with the aim of identifying T790M-positive patients to allow them to receive the optimal second-line treatment with a third-generation EGFR TKI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0301.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: pruritus; 3D-accellerometer; monitoring; allergic skin disease; canine atopic dermatitis
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:13:20 CEST)
Medical management of chronic canine pruritic dermatologic conditions is challenging and often frustrating. This is a report that shows one way of aiding the management of pruritic dogs using a remote monitoring device. It is often difficult for veterinarians to get dog owners to return to the clinic once a dog is treated. It is possible that a 3-D accelerometer device could provide information to the clinic staff on the success or failure of a pruritus treatment plan while the dog was cared for at home. Eighty-seven dogs and their owners came to a Florida dermatology specialty clinic or its general practice hospital to be evaluated and treated for pruritus. An ANIMO® 3-D accelerometer was placed on the collar of dogs diagnosed and treated for pruritus. Dogs that completed the study were monitored for 120 days (4 months). The ANIMO app monitored a dog’s daily scratching, shaking, sleeping, activity, resting, barking and calories consumed and summarized this information in a daily report visible on the pet owner’s smart phone. An additional variable (grooming minutes per day) could be seen by the Sure Petcare R&D Team that was not yet available in the app. The use of a 3-D accelerometer enabled veterinarians to continuously monitor dogs at home when they were being treated for itching. Clinic staff kept in touch with the owners by phone and could change therapy or bring the dog back for a recheck if problems were seen. Daily reports were combined into line charts that showed plots of scratching, shaking, grooming and sleeping over four months. Veterinarians were able to remotely monitor dogs that had been treated for pruritus for up to four months through the use of a collar-borne monitoring device. Dog owners and clinic staff used the daily summaries which were accessible through a smart phone app. Dogs seemed to tolerate the device well because of its small size and unobtrusive nature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0291.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: obesity NASH
Online: 5 June 2023 (09:38:13 CEST)
A high prevalence of childhood obesity has been observed in the last years. Ultrasound of adi-pose tissue is technique validated in adults in order to detect risk of comorbidity as NAFLD and NASH, but no studies at pediatric population. The main objective is to assess measurement of preperitoneal fat by nutritional ultrasound as a screening method for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese children. Patients and methods: Prospective longitudinal study. A study of somatometry, bioelectrical impedancemetry and nutritional ultrasound has been car-ried out. Results : 102 patients were included, with a mean BMI (SDS) of 2.58. A linear and direct correlation was observed between the fat mass measured by bioelectrical impedancemetry and the total subcutaneous abdominal fat measured by nutritional ultrasound. We also observed a correlation between preperitoneal fat measured by nutritional ultrasound and NASH, with a cut-off point of 0.93 cm of preperitoneal fat (sensitivity 96% and specificity 94%).Conclusions: Measurement of preperitoneal fat by nutritional ultrasound is a good screening method for NASH in obese children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0290.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Posture; Athletic performance; Athletes; Cardiopulmonary performance
Online: 5 June 2023 (09:37:32 CEST)
This study assessed the relationship between body posture displacements and cardiopulmonary function test (CPET) and skill related physical fitness tests. One hundred male (60%) and female collegiate athletes (22.2 ± 4yrs) with a normal body mass index (BMI up to 24.9) were assessed via the PostureScreen Mobile app to quantify postural displacements as head, thorax and pelvis rotations and translations. CPET and physical performance tests including the agility T-test, the vertical jump test, the stork static balance test (SSBT) and the dynamic Y-balance test (YBT) were performed. Spearman correlation (r) and p-values are reported. Postural parameters were found to have moderate-to-high associations with CPET and the agility test, moderate correlations with the vertical jump test and the SSBT (head and pelvic postures only), and weak correlations with the YBT. As postural parameters were more asymmetric, both CPET and performance skills scores were worse. For examples: 1) a medium positive correlation was found between cranio-vertebral angle (CVA) and vertical jump test (r = 0.54; p-value < 0.001) and SSBT (r = 0.57; p-value < 0.001), while a strong negative correlation was found between CVA and agility test (r = -0.86; p-value < 0.001). 2) A strong positive correlation was found between CVA and oxygen uptake efficiency slope, load watts VO2 at VT, VO2 / kg, load watts at respiratory compensation point (RCP), (r = 0.65 and r = 0.71; p < 0.001). Conversely, a significant negative correlation was found between CVA and VE / VO2 at VT (r = -0.61; p < 0.001). Postural rotations and translations of the head, thorax and pelvis were statistically correlated with physical performance skills and CPET in young collegiate athletes. There were moderate-to-high associations with cardiopulmonary functions and agility tests, moderate correlations with the vertical jump test, and weak correlations with the YBT. Postural alignment may be important for optimal physical performance and optimal cardiopulmonary function. Further research is necessary to elucidate reasons for these correlations as found in our sample of young and healthy athletes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0286.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV); Long-Term Non-Progressor (LTNP), Elite Controllers (EC); Viremic Controllers (VC); IFN-γ T cell responses; Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA)
Online: 5 June 2023 (09:10:18 CEST)
We report the characterization of phenotype, genotype, and functional parameters such as CD4+ T cell, viral load, HIV-1 genotype, class I HLA genotype, CCR5 polymorphism, and IFN-γ producing cells from a cohort of 37 people living with HIV-1 (PLWH) (viremic controllers, were compared those on antiretroviral therapy (ART) from two sites in São Paulo, Brazil. Half the PLWH (51.4%) were classified as viremic controllers (Controller group - CG), compared to 48.6% were on ART. As expected, controllers showed baseline higher levels of CD4+ T cells and nadir compared to those under ART, confirming the ability of HIV-1 controllers to preserve these cells even in the absence of ART. IFN-γ-producing cells showed greater magnitude to the HIV peptides Gag in controllers (p<0.03). Our results demonstrated that HLA protective alleles are associated with strong production of IFN-γ to Gag, Nef and RT epitopes in people living with HIV controllers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0278.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: erectile dysfunction; social stress; ketamine; sexual dysfunction
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:41:13 CEST)
We aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying social stress (SS)-induced erectile dysfunction (ED) and evaluate the effects of a single sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine on SS-related ED. Male FVB mice were exposed to retired male C57BL/6 mice for 60 minutes daily over a 4-week period. In the third week, SS mice received intraperitoneal injections of either saline (SSS group) or ketamine (SSK group). Erectile function was assessed by measuring intra-cavernosal pressure (ICP) during electrical stimulation at the major pelvic ganglia. Corpus cavernosum (CC) strips were utilized for wire myography to assess their reactivity. Both SSS and SSK mice exhibited significantly lower ICP in response to electrical stimulation than control. SS mice showed increased contractility of CC induced by phenylephrine. Acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly reduced in SSS and SSK mice. Sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxation was higher in SSS mice compared to control and SSK mice. Nicotine-induced neurogenic and nitric oxide (NO)-dependent relaxation was significantly impaired in both SSS and SSK mice. Immunohistochemically analysis revealed co-localization of tyrosine hydroxylase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-immunoreactive fibers in the CC. These findings highlight the complex nature of SS-related ED and suggest the limited efficacy of ketamine as a therapeutic intervention in this condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0275.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: day-case angioplasty; critical limb ischaemia; peripheral artery disease
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:37:51 CEST)
We evaluated the impact of COVID-19 restriction on the angioplasty service and outcome of critical limb ischaemia (CLI) patients undergoing lower limb angioplasty in a UK secondary care setting. Consecutive patients were analysed retrospectively. Pre-COVID-19 (08/2018-02/2020), 106 CLI-patients (91% Fontaine 4; 60% diabetes mellitus) and during COVID-19 (03/2020-07/2021) 94 patients were treated (86% Fontaine 4; 66% diabetes mellitus). While the average monthly number of patients treated did not change, the proportion of day cases significantly increased (53% to 80%) and hospitalised patients decreased. Patients treated in <=14/5 days after referral significantly increased to 64/63%. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (30-day/1-year) showed that neither wound healing nor mortality were significantly changed during COVID-19. In day cases, 1-year but not 30-day major amputations significantly increased, and clinically driven target lesion revascularisation decreased during COVID-19. 1-year mortality was significantly worse in hospitalised as compared to day cases (14% vs 43%) at similar wound healing rates (83% vs 84%). The most frequent known-causes-of-death were infectious disease (64%) and cardiovascular (21%) was less frequent. Despite COVID-19 restriction a safe and effective angioplasty service was maintained while shortening waiting times. Very high mortality rates in hospitalised patients may indicate that CLI should be treated more aggressively and earlier.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0269.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: Schistosoma mekongi; LAMP; Reservoir Animal; Domestic animal; Lao PDR; Mekong River;
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:25:55 CEST)
The prevalence of Schistosoma mekongi in humans in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) has been relatively well monitored and has decreased due to effective interventions such as preventative chemotherapy with mass drug administration of praziquantel and community awareness programs. However, the prevalence among potential domestic reservoir animals remains broadly unclear, except for a few villages in the endemic area. Therefore, we conducted S. mekongi surveys for the domestic animals that had contact with Mekong River water. We conducted a cross-sectional study of the domestic animals in the seven sentinel villages in the Khong and Mounlapamok Districts of Champasak Province in southern Lao PDR in 2018 by random sampling with a statistically reliable sample size. Stool samples of the five predominant domestic animal species, cattle (n = 160), pig (n = 154), buffalo (n = 149), dog (n = 143), and goat (n = 85), were collected and examined by experienced laboratory technicians using parasitological FECT method and the LAMP technique. The microscopic analysis did not detect any eggs of S. mekongi in the stool samples of any animal species. However, S. mekongi DNA was detected by the LAMP test in dog stool samples (0.7%; 1/143). Other helminth eggs were found during our microscopic analysis. These findings suggested that an intervention for S. mekongi infection should focus solely on human populations. However, periodic surveillance for S. mekongi infection among dogs should be conducted to monitor a possible resurgence of S. mekongi infection in the domestic animal population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0264.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: COVID 19; coagulation; viscoelastic tests; thrombosis; mortality
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:15:17 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Coagulation disorders during COVID-19 infection are associated with poor prognosis and disease severity, because two processes that interfere each other are thrombosis and inflammation. Very important issue for clinicians is timely and adequate hemostasis and inflammation monitoring in order to prevent and treat potentially lethal consequences. Materials and Methods: The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Clinical center Nis, Serbia. One hundered fourty two patients presented with COVID-19 ARDS were admitted to the ICU in Clinic for anesthesiology Clinical Center Nis, from 14th April 2020 to 25 th May 2020. On admission blood was collected for biochemical and coagulation testing. The data obtained was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS v. 25, Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Among all parameters assessed, mortality was associated with higher age (p<0.05), higher factor I (p<0.05), INR (p<0.001), D-Dimer (p<0.001), ADP (p<0.001), ASPI (p<0.001), TRAP (p<0.001), PSEP (p<0.001), A5 extest (p<0.01), A10 ex test (p<0.01), A5 fib (p<0.001), A10fib (p<0.001) and MCF fib (p<0.001) values, but lower CT extest values (p<0.05). Mortality was associated with extreme values of D-Dimer above 1000 (p<0.001), ADP above 590 (p<0.001), ASPI above 800 (p<0.001), TRAP above 1500 (p<0.001) and PSEP above 1000 (p<0.05). Conclusions: The key to success in the treatment of COVID 19 infection is timely and adequate therapy and patient monitoring, which is impossible without early risk stratification and mortality prediction. Sophisticated hemostasis parameters can contribute to early risk assessment, which was initially performed only on the basis of the patient's clinical status.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0263.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Colorectal cancer; tumor stroma; gut microbiome; gut-associated lymphoid tissue; Wnt signaling pathway; tumor budding; Conserved Oncogenic Signatures; metastasis
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:09:47 CEST)
This review systematically examines the multifaceted relationship between the tumor microenvironment, stromal interactions, and colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and metastasis. The analysis begins by assessing the gut microbiome's influence on CRC development, emphasizing its association with gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). The role of the Wnt signaling pathway in CRC tumor stroma is scrutinized, elucidating its impact on disease progression. Tumor budding, its effect on tumor stroma, and implications for patient prognosis are investigated. The review also identifies conserved oncogenic signatures (COS) within CRC stroma and explores their potential as therapeutic targets. Lastly, the seed and soil hypothesis is employed to contextualize metastasis, accentuating the significance of both tumor cells and the surrounding stroma in metastatic propensity. In summary, this review highlights the intricate interdependence between CRC cells and their microenvironment, providing valuable insights into prospective therapeutic approaches targeting tumor-stroma interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0257.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: wound dressing; drug delivery; organ culture, infection models, ciprofloxacin, infected wounds
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:09:29 CEST)
Bacterial infections are a constant challenge in the management of acute and chronic wounds. Chronic wounds, like diabetic foot ulcers, have increased significantly in the last years due to the rise of an aging population. A better understanding of the infectious pathophysiological mechanisms is urgently needed along with new options for the treatment of wound infections and wound healing disorders. New advances in the preparation of biocompatible dressing materials that can be loaded with antimicrobial drugs may improve the topical treatment of infected wounds. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial activity of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) foils loaded with ciprofloxacin (Cipro-foils) in the presence of acetic acid as co-solvent. We used ex vivo human wounds that were infected with two bacterial strains: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1). The effectiveness of the treatment was demonstrated by the quantification of the living bacteria extracted from the wound and the detection of released immunological mediators in skin extracts and in the skin culture media. We found that Cipro-foils effectively treated the infection with both PAO1 and MRSA. Other than PAO1, MRSA had not proteolytic effects. MRSA infections increased cytokines expression and release. Interestingly, treatment with Cipro-foils could partially counteract these effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0261.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; early rehabilitation; computed tomography; physical exercises; chest massage in an electrostatic field.
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:06:38 CEST)
Background: Early rehabilitation is an important strategy for the treatment of severe diseases. The study aimed to assess the efficacy of early rehabilitation of patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19. Methods: The retrospective single-center study with propensity score matching. Results: 180 patients (54 (44 - 62.3) yo) divided into three equal groups: 1 - physical exercises; 2 - physical exercises and chest massage in an electrostatic field; 3 - no rehabilitation. The length of stay (LOS) in the hospital in group 1 was 14 (11-15) days, group 2 - 13 (11-15) days, group 3 - 15 (13-18) days, p=0.0026. Physical exercises for patients with CT-1 improved the quality of life, assessed by the EQ-5D questionnaire, by reducing the level of anxiety and depression. The Hazard Ratio (HR) for desaturation (<93%) was 2.34 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.18-4.63) for group 2, p=0.001. The HR for C-reactive protein level above 50 mg/l in patients with CT-2 was 2.33 (95% CI 1.56-3.47), p=0.0001. Conclusions: Rehabilitation programs are safe for СOVID-19-patients; reduce hospital LOS; improve the quality of life. Continuous monitoring of a patient's condition during rehabilitation is essential. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT0580836
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0252.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: BCG; hepatitis B; vaccination; allergy; atopic eczema
Online: 5 June 2023 (07:57:17 CEST)
Previous studies have shown that immunization within the first hours/days after birth promotes the shift from the intrauterine Th2 immune response toward the Th1 immunity resulting in lower risk of developing allergic diseases. We are currently conducting a prospective cohort study among 307 participants divided into groups based on their TB and hepatitis B vaccination status (vaccinated at birth, within the first 12 months of life or unvaccinated) and also based on whether the participants had factors contributing to the development of allergic diseases. In each group we assessed the fact of primary diagnosis of atopic dermatitis at 12 and 18 months of age. It was demonstrated that atopic dermatitis (AD) was diagnosed from birth to 12 months of age much less frequently in those infants who had received the tuberculosis (TB) vaccine from day 3 to day 7 and hepatitis B vaccine within the first 24 hours of birth, including newborns with a high risk of developing allergic diseases. The probability of onset of AD at 12 and 18 months was also lower in timely vaccinated children, even though a burdened allergic anamnesis starts playing a more central role in development of AD at this age. Our findings testify to the fact that timely BCG-M and hepatitis B vaccination can produce a protective effect against the onset of AD, yet this effect diminishes with aging.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0244.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: antibiotics; antibiotic therapy; antibiotic resistance; evolutionary medicine; ethics
Online: 5 June 2023 (05:32:00 CEST)
The first half of the 20th century was noteworthy for the introduction of a unique group of drugs – antibiotics. It drastically changed concepts of infectious diseases treatment, which for centuries remained a scourge of the human population. With improvement of the antibiotic treatment efficacy, humanity has faced the problem of a dramatic increase in antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The COVID-19 pandemic has only exacerbated the problem and posed a new challenge to the medical community in finding solutions, both clinical and organizational and methodological, to fight antibiotic resistance widespread all over the globe. This publication covers some aspects of evolutionary processes in either pathogens or diseases, including ethical perspective.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0178.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: 3D bioprinting; cardiovascular disease; cells; tissues; 3D printing
Online: 5 June 2023 (05:05:36 CEST)
3D printing is playing an important role in cardiovascular disease by use of personalised models with replication of normal anatomy and pathology with high accuracy and reliability. While 3D printed heart and vascular models are shown to improve medical education, preoperative planning and simulation of cardiac procedures, and enhance communication with patients, 3D bioprinting however, represents a potential advancement of 3D printing technology by printing cellular or biological components, functional tissues and organs that can be used in a variety of applications in cardiovascular disease. Recent advances in bioprinting technology have shown the ability to support vascularisation of large scale constructs with enhanced biocompatibility and structural stability, thus creating opportunities to replace damaged tissues or organs. In this review, we provide an overview of the use of 3D bioprinting in cardiovascular disease with a focus on technologies and applications in cardiac tissues, vascular constructs and grafts, heart valves and myocardium. Limitations and future research directions are highlighted.