Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: cyanobacteria; heterocyst; regulation of differentiation
Online: 2 November 2020 (15:32:02 CET)
The filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 expresses during the differentiation of heterocysts a short peptide PatS and a protein HetN, both containing an RGSGR pentapeptide essential for activity. Both act on the master regulator HetR to guide heterocyst pattern formation by controlling the binding of HetR to DNA and its turnover. A third small protein, PatX, with an RG(S/T)GR motif is present in all HetR-containing cyanobacteria. In nitrogen-depleted medium, inactivation of patX does not produce a discernible change in phenotype, but its overexpression blocks heterocyst formation. Mutational analysis revealed that PatX is not required for normal intercellular signaling, but it nonetheless is required when PatS is absent to prevent rapid ectopic differentiation. Deprivation of all three negative regulators – PatS, PatX, and HetN – resulted in synchronous differentiation. However, in nitrogen-containing medium, such deprivation leads to extensive fragmentation, cell lysis, and aberrant differentiation, while either PatX or PatS as the sole HetR regulator can establish and maintain a semiregular heterocyst pattern. These results suggest that tight control over HetR by PatS and PatX is needed to sustain vegetative growth and regulated development. The mutational analysis has been interpreted in light of the opposing roles of negative regulators of HetR and the positive regulator HetL. Keywords: cyanobacteria; heterocyst, regulation of differentiation
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0527.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: emdogain; amelogenin; odontoblast; differentiation; mineralization
Online: 30 August 2018 (13:01:52 CEST)
Enamel matrix derivative (EMD) is used for periodontal tissue regeneration therapy. We designed a synthetic amelogenin peptide (SP) derived from EMD, and have previously investigated the biological function of SP. However, it is unknown whether SP affects odontoblastic differentiation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of SP in odontoblast-like cells, KN-3 cells. KN-3 cells were treated with SP (0, 1, 10, 100, or 1000 ng/mL) and then cultured for 3, 8, 24, or 48 hours, in order to determine the effects of SP on cell proliferation and detect its optimum concentration. To investigate the effect of SP on odontogenic differentiation, KN-3 cells were treated with SP in odontogenic differentiation medium cultured for 3 or 7 days. Odontogenic differentiation was performed by measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, the mRNA expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), the formation of calcified nodules, and calcium deposition into the extracellular matrix. The addition of SP significantly promoted KN-3 cell proliferation; a concentration of 100 ng/ml generated the greatest change in cell proliferation. SP also showed increased expression of markers of odontogenic differentiation and mineralization. These results suggest that SP, derived from EMD, could be a potential for applicate to the dental pulp capping.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0241.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: mechanobiology; biophysics; neuronal differentiation; biomaterials; bioengineering
Online: 20 September 2019 (18:59:51 CEST)
Although many details remain still elusive, it became increasingly evident in recent years that mechanosensing of microenvironmental biophysical cues and subsequent mechanotransduction are strongly involved in the regulation of neuronal cell development and functioning. This review gives an overview about the current understanding of brain and neuronal cell mechanobiology and how it impacts on neurogenesis, neuronal migration, differentiation, and maturation. Therein; we are focussing particularly on the events in the cell/microenvironment interface and the decisive extracellular matrix (ECM) parameters (i.e. rigidity and nanometric spatial organisation of adhesion sites) that modulate integrin adhesion complex-based mechanosensing and mechanotransductive signalling. It will also be outlined how biomaterial approaches mimicking essential ECM features help to understand these processes and how they can be used to control and guide neuronal cell behaviour by providing appropriate biophysical cues. In addition, principal biophysical methods will be highlighted that have been crucial for the study of neuronal mechanobiology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0038.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: Fixed point theorem; Differentiation; Metric space
Online: 3 April 2018 (15:30:34 CEST)
The purpose of this article is to characterize the Caristi type mapping by the absolute derivative. The equivalences of the Caristi mapping with contraction mapping is discussed too. In addition, it was shown that the contraction mapping can be characterized by its absolute derivative.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0418.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: circRNA; skeletal muscle satellite cells; proliferation; differentiation
Online: 27 September 2022 (09:57:42 CEST)
The proliferation and differentiation of mammalian skeletal muscle satellite cells (MuSCs) are highly complicated. Apart from the regulatory signaling cascade driven by the protein-coding genes, non-coding RNAs like microRNAs (miRNA) and circular RNAs (circRNAs) play essential roles in this biological process. However, circRNA functions in MuSCs proliferation and differentiation remain largely to be elucidated. Here, we screened for an exonic circTCF4 based on our previous RNA-Seq data, specifically expressed during the development of the longest dorsal muscle in goats. Subsequently, the circular structure and whole sequence of circTCF4 were verified using Sanger sequencing. Besides, circTCF4 was spatiotemporally expressed in multiple tissues from goats but strikingly enriched in muscles. Furthermore, circTCF4 suppressed MuSCs proliferation and differentiation, independent of AGO2 binding. Finally, we conducted Poly(A) RNA-Seq using cells treated with small interfering RNA targeting circTCF4 and found that circTCF4 would affect multiple signaling pathways, including insulin signaling pathway and AMPK signaling pathway related to muscle differentiation. Our results provide additional solid evidence for circRNA regulating skeletal muscle formation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0343.v1
Online: 21 December 2021 (13:57:27 CET)
Abstract The expression patterns of microRNAs (small non-coding RNAs) are altered in many biological processes such as myogenesis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of predicted miR-202, its target genes Akt2 and Rock-1 as a potential regulator of myoblast in the myocyte differentiation process using the C2C12 cell line. After confirmation of the differentiation process induced by 3% horse serum, the expression level of miRNA and its targets were evaluated. In the following, a luciferase assay was conducted to approve the effect of miRNA on its target. Our results indicated that miR-202 and Akt2 were significantly up-regulated during differentiation, while Rock-1 was downregulated. Co-transfection of miRNA with psiCHECK2-Rock-1 significantly presented that Rock-1 was directly targeted by miR-202. On the contrary, miR-202 has failed to enforce its inhibitory effect on Akt2 expression. In particular, miR-202 seems to be a regulator of muscle differentiation pathway thought targeting Rock-1.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0087.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: iPSCs; ESC; differentiation; Cardiovascular disease, Myocardial repair
Online: 6 September 2021 (12:03:49 CEST)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the contributing factors to more than one-third of human mortality and the leading cause of death worldwide. Cardiac myocyte death is a fundamental process in cardiac pathologies caused by various heart diseases, including myocardial infarction. Thus, strategies for replacing fibrotic tissue in the infarcted region with functional myocardium have long been a goal of cardiovascular research. This review focuses primarily on induced-pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which have emerged as perhaps the most promising source of cardiomyocytes for both therapeutic applications and drug testing. We also briefly summarize other stems- and progenitor-cell populations that have been used for regenerative myocardial therapy and attempt to generate cardiomyocytes directly from cardiac fibroblasts (i.e., transdifferentiation), which, if successful, may enable the pool of endogenous cardiac fibroblasts to be used as an in-situ source of cardiomyocytes for myocardial repair.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0421.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Leukemia; NFAT; Myeloid; Cell Cycle; Differentiation; AML
Online: 19 July 2021 (15:48:04 CEST)
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematological cancer with poor outcomes due to a lack of efficacious targeted therapies. The Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors is well characterized as a regulator of the cell cycle and differentiation in the myeloid lineage. Recent evidence has demonstrated that NFAT family members may have roles in regulating AML leukemogenesis and resistance to targeted therapy in myeloid leukemias. Furthermore gene expression data from patient samples show that some NFATs are more highly expressed in poorly differentiated AML and after disease relapse, implying that the NFAT family may have roles in specific types of AML. This review outlines the evidence for the role of NFAT in healthy myeloid tissue and explores how NFAT might regulate AML pathogenesis, highlighting the potential to target specific NFAT proteins therapeutically in AML.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0049.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: γtubulin; nuclear architecture; cytoskeleton; nuclearskeleton; cancer; differentiation
Online: 5 October 2020 (09:16:02 CEST)
The nuclear architecture describes the organization of the various compartments in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, where a plethora of processes such as nucleocytoplasmic transport, gene expression, and assembly of ribosomal subunits occur in a dynamic manner. During the different phases of the cell cycle, in post-mitotic cells and after oncogenic transformation, rearrangements of the nuclear architecture take place, and, among other things, these alterations result in reorganization of the chromatin and changes in gene expression. A member of the tubulin family, tubulin, was first identified as part of a multiprotein complex that allows nucleation of microtubules. However, more than a decade ago, γ tubulin was also characterized as a nuclear protein that modulates several crucial processes that affect the architecture of the nucleus. This review presents the latest knowledge regarding changes that arise in the nuclear architecture of healthy cells and under pathological conditions and, more specifically, considers the particular involvement of tubulin in the modulation of the biology of the nuclear compartment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0135.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Skin; Cell culture; Stem cells; Differentiation; Camel
Online: 10 May 2019 (15:04:59 CEST)
Elite camels often suffer from massive injuries. Thus, there is a pivotal need for a cheap and readily available regenerative medicine source. We isolated novel stem-like cells from camel skin and investigated their multipotency and resistance against various stresses. Skin samples were isolated from ears of five camels. Fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and spheroid progenitors were extracted. After separation of different cell lines by trypsinization, all cell lines were exposed to heat shock. Then, fibroblasts and dermal cyst-forming cells were examined under cryopreservation. Dermal cyst-forming cells were evaluated for resistance against osmotic pressure. The results revealed that resistance periods against trypsin were 1.5, 4, and 7 minutes for fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and spheroid progenitors, respectively. Furthermore, complete recovery of different cell lines after heat shock along with the differentiation of spheroid progenitors into neurons was observed. Fibroblasts and spheroid progenitors retained cell proliferation after cryopreservation. Dermal cyst-forming cells regained their normal structure after collapsing by osmotic pressure. The spheroid progenitors incubated in the adipogenic, osteogenic, and neurogenic media differentiated into the adipocytes, osteoblasts, and neurons, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, we isolated different unique cellular differons and stem-like cells from the camel skin and examined their multipotency for the first time.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0024.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: mitochondria; mitochondrial dynamics; fusion; fission; pluripotency; differentiation
Online: 2 November 2018 (06:05:44 CET)
Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that continuously change their shape. Their main function is ATP production; however, they are additionally involved in a variety of cellular phenomena, such as apoptosis, cell cycle, proliferation, differentiation, reprogramming, and aging. The change in mitochondrial morphology is closely related to the functionality of mitochondria. Normal mitochondrial dynamics are critical for cellular function, embryonic development, and tissue formation. Thus, defect in proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics that control mitochondrial fusion and fission can affect cellular differentiation, proliferation, cellular reprogramming, and aging. Here we review the processes and proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics and its various associated cellular phenomena.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0049.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Cotton; Fiber initiation; Cell differentiation; CYP78A; Endoreduplication; Biomass
Online: 2 March 2022 (12:32:00 CET)
Cytochrome P450 (CYPs) is a functionally diversified third-largest gene family that exploded in the plant kingdom. Their role in different organ development has been illustrated by the intervention of phytohormone. Cotton is a model organism for cell differentiation and cell elongation. To decipher the participation of CYPs in different cotton fiber developmental stages, we identified and characterized 2460 CYPs in three diploids and two allotetraploid cottons. Furthermore, In-silico expression and cluster analysis of cotton CYPs was conducted to distinguish the fiber stage-specific clusters that have the determining role in different stages of fiber development. The subgenome expression of two conserved Gossypium hirsutum CYPs, namely, GhCYP78A197 and GhCYP78A198 contributed to fiber initiation at an early stage of fiber development, governed by the co-occurrence of TATA and MYB TFs binding sites. Coexpression network partners of these two GhCYP78A annotated as auxin, kinases, chromatin remodeler, epigenetic regulator and cyclin-related genes that possibly induce the endoreduplication and cell proliferation for fiber cell initiation to define the high yield and biomass.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0529.v1
Online: 27 August 2021 (16:32:33 CEST)
Relapses and resistance to therapeutic agents are major barriers for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. This unfavorable circumstance emphasizes the need for new strategies targeting drug-resistant cells. As IDH mutation is present in the preleukemic stem cells and systematically conserved at relapse, targeting mutant IDH cells would be essential to achieve a long-term remission in the AML subgroup with IDH mutation. Here, using a panel of human AML cell lines and primary AML patient specimens harboring IDH mutation, we showed that the presence of IDH mutation through the production of an oncometabolite (R)-2-HG induces vitamin D receptor related transcriptional programs, priming these AML cells to differentiate with pharmacological doses of ATRA or/and VD. This activation occurs in a CEBP-dependent manner. Accordingly, our findings illuminate potent and cooperative effects of IDH mutation and vitamin D pathway to differentiate in AML, revealing a novel therapeutic approach easily transferable/immediately applicable in clinics for this subgroup of AML patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0030.v1
Online: 1 June 2021 (11:59:27 CEST)
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an important biological mediator involved in the defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Currently, there are no reports on the mycobacterial components that regulate PGE2 production. Previously, we have reported that RpfE-treated dendritic cells (DCs) effectively expanded the Th1 and Th17 cell responses simultaneously; however, the mechanism underlying Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation is unclear. Here, we show that PGE2 produced by RpfE-activated DCs via the MAPK and cyclooxygenase 2 signaling pathways induces Th1 and Th17 cell responses mainly via the EP4 receptor. Furthermore, mice administered intranasally with PGE2 displayed RpfE-induced antigen-specific Th1 and Th17 responses with a significant reduction in bacterial load in the lungs. Furthermore, the addition of optimal PGE2 amount to IL-2-IL-6-IL-23p19-IL-1β was essential for promoting differentiation into Th1/Th17 cells with strong bactericidal activity. These results suggest that RpfE-matured DCs produce PGE2 that induces Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation with potent anti-mycobacterial activity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0555.v1
Subject: Keywords: Value addition; Functional Foods; Phoenix dactylifera; Innovation; Differentiation
Online: 24 May 2021 (10:25:29 CEST)
The changes in consumer preferences and the increasingly competitive global market have demanded that food entrepreneurs engage in innovative value-added activities. The date is a delicatessen fruit known by its content of active compounds (e.g., dietary fiber and antioxidants) and its biological activity which has a vast potential in the design of new products such as bioactive ingredients, sugar substitutes, dietary supplements, functional foods, among others. In the current paper, innovative approaches to the value addition to date fruits and their processing by-products have been reviewed from recent high-quality scientific works. New processes such as ultrafiltration and hydrothermal treatments are shown as a useful alternative to obtain differentiated date-based ingredients (e.g., fiber concentrates, sap syrups, and date powders). Moreover, the use of date fruits and their byproducts as natural sources of value-added active compounds in the preparation of dairy, meat, and bakery and cereal products is also presented.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0054.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: cell differentiation; DUBs; erythroid; HSCs; leukemia; lymphoma; myeloid
Online: 4 March 2020 (05:39:05 CET)
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are responsible for the production of blood cells throughout the human life span. Single HSCs can give rise to at least eight distinct blood cell lineages. Together, hematopoiesis, erythropoiesis and angiogenesis coordinate several biological processes, such as cellular interactions in development and proliferation, guided migration, lineage programming and reprogramming by transcription factors. Any dysregulation of these processes may result in hematological disorders and/or malignancies. Several studies of the molecular mechanisms governing HSC maintenance have demonstrated that protein regulation by the ubiquitin proteasomal pathway is crucial for normal HSC function. Recent studies have shown that the reversal of ubiquitination by deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) plays an equally important role in hematopoiesis; however, there is only limited additional information regarding the biological function of DUBs. In this review, we focus on recent discoveries that have led to a better understanding of the physiological roles of DUBs in hematopoiesis, erythropoiesis and angiogenesis. In addition, we discuss the DUBs associated with common hematological disorders and malignancies, which may potentially be therapeutic drug targets.
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: obesity; mesenchymal stromal cells; cell cycle; senescence; differentiation
Online: 27 January 2020 (09:18:05 CET)
White adipose tissue (WAT) is distributed in several depots that have distinct metabolic and inflammatory functions. In our body there are subcutaneous (sWAT), visceral (vWAT) and bone marrow fat depots (BFAT). Obesity affects size, function and inflammatory state of WATs. This process can alter the stem cell niches present in these tissues and affect the functions of stem cells residing within. In particular, obesity may affect the activity of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) present in WAT. MSCs are an heterogenous population containing stromal cells, progenitor cells, fibroblasts and stem cells that are able to differentiate in adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteocytes and other mesodermal derivatives. We performed a comparison of the effects of obesity on MSCs obtained from sWAT, vWAT and BFAT. Our study evidenced that obesity affected mainly the biological functions of MSCs obtained from bone marrow and vWAT with a decrease in proliferation rate, reduced percentage of cells in S phase and trigger of senescence. The onset of senescence was confirmed by expression of genes belonging to RB and P53 pathways. Our study evidenced that negative consequences of obesity on body physiology may be related also to impairment in the functions of stromal compartment present in the several adipose tissues. This finding provides new insights on the targets that should be considered for an effective treatment of obesity-related diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0094.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: hPSCs; ROCK inhibitors; fasudil; cell survival; metabolism; differentiation
Online: 8 November 2019 (10:41:13 CET)
Poor survival of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) following freezing, thawing, or passaging hinders maintenance and differentiation in stem cell research. Rho-associated kinases (ROCKs) play a crucial role in hPSC survival. To date, a typical ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, has been the primary agent used in hPSC research. Here, we report that another ROCK inhibitor, fasudil, can be used as an alternative. Fasudil increased hPSC growth due to survival rather than proliferation following thawing and passaging, similar to Y-27632. It did not affect pluripotency and genetic integrity including mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). Notably, the genes related to metabolism, mTORC1, and TP53 have mainly displayed a faster recovery pattern with ROCK inhibitors than control. Furthermore, fasudil was confirmed as useful for the single dissociation of hPSCs and for aggregation. It also increased retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) differentiation and the survival of neural crest cells during differentiation. These findings suggest that fasudil can replace Y-27632 for use in stem cell research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0305.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: KCNJ12; SNP; myoblast differentiation; stature; Chinese beef cattle
Online: 28 April 2019 (09:38:56 CEST)
Potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 12 (KCNJ12) gene is one promising candidate for economic traits because of its crucial roles in myoblast development. Here, a missense mutation (Cys>Arg), was firstly detected to locate in exon 3 of KCNJ12 from three Chinese cattle breeds by DNA-pool sequencing. Then, we performed the association analysis of this SNP with stature in three Chinese cattle populations (n = 820). Significantly positive correlation was revealed by reduced animal general linear model and the genotype of CC is the most excellent genotype in three breeds. Further, we measured the expression profiling of the KCNJ12 gene in various cattle tissues and primary bovine skeletal muscle cells. Ubiquitous expression with high abundance in muscle was observed. Further, in primary bovine skeletal muscle cells, the KCNJ12 mRNA expression was gradually up-regulated in differentiation medium (DM) compared with that in growth medium (GM), suggesting that KCNJ12 gene is involved in bovine myocyte differentiation. Conclusively, KCNJ12 gene is a functional candidate gene which can be used as molecular marker for beef cattle breeding.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0047.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Graphene oxide; Stem cells; Growth; Cell differentiation; Biomaterials
Online: 3 September 2018 (15:44:08 CEST)
Stem cells are undifferentiated cells which can give rise to any types of cells in our body. Hence, they have been utilized for various applications such as drug testing and disease modeling. However, for the successful of those applications, the survival and differentiation of stem cells into specialized lineages should be well controlled. Growth factors and chemical agents are the most common signals to promote the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. However, those approaches holds several drawbacks such as the negative side effects, degradation or denaturation, and expensive. To address such limitations, nanomaterials have been recently used as a better approach for controlling stem cells behaviors. Graphene oxide is the derivative of graphene, the first 2D materials in the world. Recently, due to its extraordinary properties and great biological effects on stem cells, many scientists around the world have utilized graphene oxide to enhance the differentiation potential of stem cells. In this mini review, we highlight the key advances about the effects of graphene oxide on controlling stem cell growth and various types of stem cell differentiation. We also discuss the possible molecular mechanisms of graphene oxide in controlling stem cell growth and differentiation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0115.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: regenerative medicine; reprogramming; cardiac differentiation; secretoma; tissue engineering
Online: 15 March 2018 (05:02:41 CET)
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are reprogrammed cells that have hallmarks similar to embryonic stem cells including the capacity of self-renewal and differentiation into cardiac myocytes. The improvements in reprogramming and differentiating methods achieved in the past 10 years widened the use of hiPSCs, especially in cardiac research. hiPSC-derived cardiac myocytes (CMs) recapitulate phenotypic differences caused by genetic variations, making them human attractive disease models and useful tools for drug discovery and toxicology testing. In addition, hiPSCs can be used as source cells for cardiac regeneration in animal models. Here, we review the advances in the genetic and epigenetic control of cardiomyogenesis that underlies the significant improvement of the induced reprogramming of somatic cells to CMs. We also cover the phenotypic characteristics of the hiPSCs derived CMs, their ability to rescue injured CMs through paracrine effects, the novel approaches in tissue engineering for hiPSC-derived cardiac tissue generation, and finally, their potential use in biomedical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0327.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: neurogenesis; TrkB; BDNF; meninges; ANA-12; neural cell differentiation
Online: 11 June 2021 (16:55:45 CEST)
Neural precursors (NPs) present in the hippocampus can be modulated by several neurogenic stimuli including environmental enrichment (EE) and antidepressant treatment acting through BDNF-TrkB signaling. We have recently identified NPs in meninges, however menigneal niche response to pro-neurogenic stimuli has never been investigated. To this aim, we analyzed the effects of 4 weeks fluoxetine administration or 1 week EE treatment on NP distribution in mouse brain meninges. Following neurogenic stimuli, although we did not detect modification of meningeal cell number and proliferation, we observed, in meninges, an increased number of β3-Tubulin+ immature neuronal cells. Lineage-tracing experiment confirmed that EE-induced β3-Tubulin+ immature neuronal cells present in meninges originated from GLAST+ radial glia cells. To investigate the molecular mechanism responsible for this response, we studied the BDNF-TrkB interaction. Treatment with ANA-12, a TrkB non-competitive inhibitor, abolished the EE-induced increase of β3-Tubulin+ immature neuronal cells in meninges.Overall these data showed, for the first time, that the meningeal niche responded to neurogenic stimuli by increasing the immature neuronal population through TrkB-mediated signaling. A better understanding of the neurogenic stimuli effects on NPs in meninges may be useful to improve the effectiveness of depression and mood disorders treatments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0307.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: gametogenesis; oocytes; pathways; signaling; stem cells; differentiation; tumor; cancer
Online: 18 January 2021 (09:14:54 CET)
In the present era, infertility is one of the major issues which restricts many couples to have their own kids. Infertility is the inability to achieve a clinical pregnancy after regular unprotected sexual intercourse for the period of one year or more. Various factors including defective male or female germ cell development, unhealthy and improper lifestyles, diseases like cancer and associated chemo-or-radiation therapies, congenital disorders etc. may be responsible for infertility. Therefore, it is highly important to understand the basic concepts of germ cell development including primordial germ cell (PGC) formation, specification, migration, entry to genital ridges and their molecular mechanisms, activated pathways, paracrine and autocrine signaling, along with possible alteration which can hamper germ cell development and can cause adversities like cancer progression and infertility. Knowing all these aspects in a proper way can be very much helpful in improving our understanding about gametogenesis and finding possible ways to cure related disorders. Here in this review, various aspects of gametogenesis especially female gametes and relevant factors causing functional impairment have been thoroughly discussed.
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: beauty; life; scaling law; adaptation; differentiation; organic world view
Online: 19 September 2019 (04:12:01 CEST)
As Christopher Alexander conceived and defined through his life’s work – The Nature of Order – wholeness is a recursive structure that recurs in space and matter and is reflected in human minds and cognition. Based on the definition of wholeness, a mathematical model of wholeness, together with its topological representation, has been developed, and it is able to address not only why a structure is beautiful, but also how much beauty the structure has. Given the circumstance, this paper is attempted to argue for the wholeness as the scientific foundation of sustainable urban design and planning, with the help of the mathematical model and topological representation. We start by introducing the wholeness as a mathematical structure of physical space that pervasively exists in our surroundings, along with two fundamental laws – scaling law and Tobler’s law – that underlie the 15 properties for characterizing and making living structures. We argue that urban design and planning can be considered to be wholeness-extending processes, guided by two design principles of differentiation and adaptation, to transform a space – in a piecemeal fashion – into a living or more living structure. We further discuss several other urban design theories and how they can be justified by and placed within the theory of wholeness. With the wholeness as the scientific foundation, urban design can turn into a rigorous science with creation of living structures as the primary aim.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0226.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: religion; culture; politics; differentiation; historical process; Western European countries
Online: 24 January 2018 (10:27:11 CET)
The societies of Western Europe, following the territorial delimitation of the corresponding State, have gone through different historical processes of internal homogenization. After the Peace of Westphalia (1648) the application of the principle cuius regio eius religio induced the religious homogenization of the population. Then, due to the ethnic diversity of its population, the State tried to homogenize it from the cultural point of view; it was the process of nationalization and democratization of the State. This process lead to the separation of religion from politics and from culture. After the two world wars, national reconstruction needed a foreign population: this need for labor was filled in the most developed countries by population of the countries that were least (Portuguese, Spanish, Italian ...) and also by population flows coming from the old colonies. The cultural and religious homogeneity of these countries began to lose force. With the oil crisis of the 1970s, a period of major economic fluctuations began in Europe. In those years, the second generation of the population of immigrant origin began to go to a job market that was not in good health. The religion and culture of their predecessors became autonomous resources for the reconstruction of their identity and to achieve a personal and social esteem. This process is necessarily leading States to rethink the relations between politics, culture and religion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0384.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: nanoparticles; thermal stimulation; neuronal differentiation; neurite outgrowth; electrical activity; electrophysiology
Online: 27 May 2022 (12:00:51 CEST)
Heating has been recently used as an alternative application to electrical stimulation to modulate excitability and to induce neuritogenesis and the expression of neuronal markers, but a long-term functional differentiation has not been described so far. Here we present the results obtained by a new approach for scalable thermal stimulation on the behavior of a model of dorsal root ganglion neurons, the F-11 cell line. Initially, we performed experiments of bulk stimulation in incubator for different time intervals and temperatures, and significant differences in neurite elongation and in electrophysiological properties were observed in cultures exposed at 41,5°C for 30 minutes. Thus, we exposed the cultures to the same temperature increase by irradiating, with a near infrared laser, a disc of Prussian Blue nanoparticles and poly-vinyl alcohol, that we stuck on the outer surface of the petri dish. In irradiated cells neurites were significantly longer and the electrophysiological properties (action potential firing frequency and spontaneous activity) were significantly increased compared to the control. These results suggest that a targeted thermal stimulation could be a promising technique to induce differentiation and support the future application of this method as a strategy to modify neuronal behavior in vivo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0192.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: genetic differentiation; leaf beetle; mitochondrial DNA; microsatellites; haplotype; gene flow
Online: 14 March 2022 (16:48:57 CET)
leaf beetle (BLB) (Ootheca mutabilis) has emerged as an important bean pest in Uganda, leading to devastating crop losses. There is limited information on the population genetic structure of BLB despite their importance. In this study, novel microsatellite markers and the partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) gene sequences were used to analyze the spatial population genetic structure, genetic differentiation, gene flow and haplotype diversity of 87 O. mutabilis samples from five populations. We identified 19,356 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) (mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, and hexa-nucleotides) of which 81 di, tri and tetra-nucleotides were selected for primer synthesis. Five highly polymorphic SSR markers (4-21 alleles, heterozygosi-ty 0.59-0.84, polymorphic information content (PIC) 50.13-83.14%) were used for this study. Analyses of the five O. mutabilis populations with these five novel SSRs found 89% of genetic variation occurring within individuals, 9% among individuals and 2% among populations. Genetic differentiation was low but significant for SSR and insignificant for mtCOI partial sequence data while gene flow was high across the populations. There was no evidence of isolation by distance between geographical and genetic distances. Bayesian clustering identified signature of admixture that suggests genetic contributions from two ancestral genetic lineages, and the median-joining haplotype network showed low differentiation of many different haplotypes from the most common haplotype. Low genetic differentiation and high gene flow indicates unrestricted migrations between populations. This information will contribute to the design of BLB control strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0009.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: choline transporter; neural stem cells; self-renewal; differentiation; choline deficiency
Online: 1 February 2021 (11:20:53 CET)
Choline and choline metabolites are essential for all cellular functions. They have also been reported to be crucial for neural development. In this work, we studied the functional characteristics of the choline uptake system in human neural stem cells (hNSCs). Additionally, we investigated the effect of extracellular choline uptake inhibition on the cellular activities in hNSCs. We found that the mRNAs and proteins of choline transporter-like protein 1 (CTL1) and CTL2 were expressed at high levels. Immunostaining showed that CTL1 and CTL2 were localized in the cell membrane and partly in the mitochondria, respectively. The uptake of extracellular choline was saturable and performed by a single uptake mechanism, which was Na+-independent and pH-dependent. We conclude that CTL1 is responsible for extracellular choline uptake, and CTL2 may uptake choline in the mitochondria and be involved in DNA methylation via choline oxidation. Extracellular choline uptake inhibition caused intracellular choline deficiency in hNSCs, which suppressed cell proliferation, cell viability, and neurite outgrowth. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the role of choline in neural development as well as the pathogenesis of various neurological diseases caused by choline deficiency or choline uptake impairment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0028.v1
Subject: Keywords: Differentiation, germinal center, antibody-secreting cells, phosphorylated STATs, NF-κB1
Online: 2 December 2020 (14:17:41 CET)
Flow cytometric detection of intracellular (IC) signaling proteins and transcription factors (TFs) will help elucidate the regulation of B cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. However, simultaneous detection of signaling proteins or TFs, with membrane markers (MM) can be challenging as required fixation and permeabilization procedures can affect functionality of conjugated antibodies. Here, a phosphoflow method is presented for detection of activated NF-κB p65 and phosphorylated STAT1, STAT3, STAT5 and STAT6 together with B cell differentiation MM CD19, CD27 and CD38. Additionally, a TF-flow method is presented that allows detection of B cell TFs; PAX5, c-MYC, BCL6, AID and antibody-secreting cell (ASC) TFs BLIMP1 and XBP-1s together with MM. Applying these methods on in vitro induced human B cell differentiation cultures showed significantly different steady-state levels, and responses to stimulation, of phosphorylated signaling proteins in CD27-expressing B cell and ASC populations. The TF-flow protocol and UMAP analysis revealed heterogeneity in TF-expression within stimulated CD27 or CD38-expressing B cell subsets. The methods presented here allow for sensitive analysis of STAT and NF-κB p65 signaling and TFs together with B cell differentiation MM at single-cell resolution. This will aid further investigation of B cell responses in both health and disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0188.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Plant biomechanics; turgor pressure; micro-compression; AFM; Arabidopsis thaliana; differentiation
Online: 4 November 2020 (10:42:19 CET)
Individual plant cells are the building blocks for all plantae and artificially constructed plant biomaterials, like biocomposites. Secondary cell walls (SCWs) are a key component for mediating mechanical strength and stiffness in both living vascular plants and biocomposite materials. In this paper, we study the structure and biomechanics of cultured plant cells during the cellular developmental stages associated with SCW formation. We use a model culture system that induces transdifferentiation of Arabidopsis thaliana cells to xylem vessel elements, upon treatment with dexamethasone (DEX). We group the transdifferentiation process into three distinct stages, based on morphological observations of the cell walls. The first stage includes cells with only a primary cell wall (PCW), the second covers cells that have formed a SCW, and the third stage includes cells with a ruptured tonoplast and partially or fully degraded PCW. We adopt a multi-scale approach to study the mechanical properties of cells in these three stages. We perform large-scale indentations with a micro-compression system and nanoscale indentations through atomic force microscopy (AFM), in three different osmotic conditions. We introduce a spring-based model to deconvolve the competing stiffness contributions from turgor pressure, PCW, SCW and cytoplasm in the stiffness of differentiating cells. Prior to triggering differentiation, cells in hypotonic pressure conditions are significantly stiffer than cells in isotonic or hypertonic conditions, highlighting the dominant role of turgor pressure. Plasmolyzed cells with a SCW reach similar levels of stiffness as cells with maximum turgor pressure. The stiffness of the PCW in all of these conditions is lower than the stiffness of the fully-formed SCW. Our results provide the first experimental characterization of the mechanics of SCW formation at single cell level.
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: embryogenesis; blastocyst; trophoblast; stem cell; differentiation; placenta; Ovo-like 2
Online: 8 March 2020 (04:11:35 CET)
Trophoblasts are the first cell-type to be specified during embryogenesis, and they are essential for placental morphogenesis and function. Trophoblast stem (TS) cells are the progenitor cells for all trophoblast lineages; control of TS cell differentiation into distinct trophoblast subtypes is not well understood. Mice lacking the transcription factor OVO-like 2 (OVOL2) fail to produce a functioning placenta, and die around embryonic day 10.5, suggesting that OVOL2 may be critical for trophoblast development. Therefore, our objective was to determine the role of OVOL2 in mouse TS cell fate. We found that OVOL2 was highly expressed in mouse placenta and differentiating TS cells. Placentas and TS cells lacking OVOL2 showed poor trophoblast differentiation potential, including increased expression of stem-state associated genes (Eomes, Esrrb, Id2) and decreased levels of differentiation-associated transcripts (Gcm1, Tpbpa, Prl3b1, Syna). Ectopic OVOL2 expression in TS cells elicited precocious differentiation. OVOL2 bound proximate to the gene encoding inhibitor of differentiation 2 (ID2), a dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein, and directly repressed its activity. Overexpression of ID2 was sufficient to reinforce the TS cell stem state. Our findings reveal a critical role of OVOL2 as a regulator of TS cell differentiation and placental development, in-part by coordinating repression of ID2.
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: neural differentiation; regulatory motif; feedback regulation; signaling pathway; mathematical models
Online: 24 December 2019 (11:20:25 CET)
Computational simulation using mathematical models is a useful method for understanding the complex behavior of a living system. The majority of studies using mathematical models to reveal biological mechanisms uses one of the two main approaches: the bottom-up or the top-down approach. When we aim to analyze a large-scale network, such as a comprehensive knowledge-integrated model of a target phenomenon, for example a whole-cell model, the variation of analyses is limited to particular kind of analysis because of the size and complexity of the model. To analyze a large-scale regulatory network of neural differentiation, we developed a hybrid method that combines both approaches. To construct a mathematical model, we extracted network motifs, subgraph structures that recur more often in a metabolic network or gene regulatory network than in a random network, from a large-scale regulatory network, detected regulatory motifs among them, and combined these motifs. We confirmed that the model reproduced the known dynamics of HES1 and ASCL1 before and after differentiation, including oscillation and equilibrium of their concentrations. The model also reproduced the effects of overexpression and knockdown of the Id2 gene. Our model suggests that the characteristic change in HES1 and ASCL1 expression in the large-scale regulatory network is controlled by a combination of four feedback loops, including a large loop which has not been focused on. The model extracted by our hybrid method has the potential to reveal the critical mechanisms of neural differentiation. The hybrid method is applicable to other biological events.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0077.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: integrated information theory; differentiation; integration; complexity; consciousness; computational; IIT; Phi
Online: 8 April 2019 (08:58:29 CEST)
Integrated information theory (IIT) proposes a measure of integrated information (Φ) to capture the level of consciousness for a physical system in a given state. Unfortunately, calculating Φ itself is currently only possible for very small model systems, and far from computable for the kinds of systems typically associated with consciousness (brains). Here, we consider several proposed measures and computational approximations, some of which can be applied to larger systems, and test if they correlate well with Φ. While these measures and approximations capture intuitions underlying IIT and some have had success in practical applications, it has not been shown that they actually quantify the type of integrated information specified by the latest version of IIT. In this study, we evaluated these approximations and heuristic measures, based not on practical or clinical considerations, but rather based on how well they estimate the Φ values of model systems. To do this, we simulated networks consisting of 3–6 binary linear threshold nodes randomly connected with excitatory and inhibitory connections. For each system, we then constructed the system’s state transition probability matrix (TPM), as well as its state transition matrix (STM) over time for all possible initial states. From these matrices, we calculated, approximations to Φ, and measures based on state differentiation, state entropy, state uniqueness, and integrated information. All measures were correlated with Φ in a state dependent and state independent manner. Our findings suggest that Φ can be approximated closely in small binary systems by using one or more of the readily available approximations (r > 0.95), but without major reductions in computational demands. Furthermore, Φ correlated strongly with measures of signal complexity (LZ, rs = 0.722), decoder based integrated information (Φ*, rs = 0.816), and state differentiation (D1, rs = 0.827), on the system level (state independent). These measures could allow for efficient estimation of Φ on a group level, or as accurate predictors of low, but not high, Φ systems. While it’s uncertain whether the results extend to larger systems or systems with other dynamics, we stress the importance that measures aimed at being practical alternatives to Φ are at a minimum rigorously tested in an environment where the ground truth can be established.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0503.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: microdevice; tensile stimulation; adipose-derived stem cells; self-renewal; differentiation
Online: 26 September 2018 (08:33:37 CEST)
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were suggested for treating degenerative osteoarthritis, suppressing inflammatory responses, and repairing damaged soft tissues. Moreover, the ADSCs have the potential to undergo self-renewal and differentiate into bone, tendon, cartilage, and ligament. Recently, investigation of the self-renewal and differentiation of the ADSCs becomes an attractive area. In this work, a pneumatic microdevice has been developed to study the gene expression of the ADSCs after the stimulation of multi-axial tensile strain. The ADSCs were cultured on the microdevice and experienced multi-axial tensile strain during a 3-day culture course. Self-renewal and differentiation abilities were investigated by mRNA expressions of NANOG, SOX2, OCT4, SOX9, PPAR-γ, and RUNX2. The result showed that the genes related self-renewal were significantly up-regulated after the tensile stimulation. Higher proliferation ratio of the ADSCs was also shown by cell viability assay. The microdevice provides a promising platform for cell-based study under mechanical tensile stimulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0037.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Emdogain; amelogenin; dental pulp cells; cell differentiation; cell migration; mineralization
Online: 7 January 2018 (11:00:15 CET)
Enamel matrix derivative (EMD) is used for periodontal tissue regeneration therapy, and can induce mineralization in dental pulp cells (DPCs). We designed a synthetic peptide (SP) derived from the response of cells to EMD, and investigated the effect of the SP on potentiating osteogenesis in DPCs, which have a critical role of dental pulp homeostasis. DPCs were treated with 0, 10, 100, or 1000 ng/mL SP to determine its effect on cell proliferation, cell migration, cell differentiation, and mineralization. We then examined the molecular effects of the SP, focusing on changes in the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway in these cells. The SP significantly promoted DPC proliferation and migration. Cultures treated with the SP also showed an enhanced expression of markers of osteogenic differentiation and mineralization. The SP also induced the activation of MAPK signaling pathway components. These results suggest that our SP could promote the dental pulp tissue repair by hard tissue formation and the mineralization through activating MAPK signaling pathway. This study provides the first evidence that SP might be a new material for dental pulp tissue treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0204.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: alcohol; liver cirrhosis; selenium; interleukin-6; growth differentiation factor-15
Online: 27 March 2017 (16:12:33 CEST)
According to some authors, the serum selenium level is strongly associated with the severity of liver diseases including liver cirrhosis. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the concentration of selenium and pro-inflammatory and profibrotic cytokines – interleukin-6 (IL-6) and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The parameters studied were determined in serum of 99 alcoholic liver cirrhosis patients divided based on the severity of disease according to the Child-Turcotte-Pugh criteria. In patients with liver cirrhosis, the serum selenium concentration was statistically lower whereas serum IL-6 and GDF-15 concentrations were higher than those in the control group. Moreover, the concentration of selenium negatively correlated with the levels of GDF-15 and IL-6. The above results may indicate a role of selenium deficiency in the pathogenesis and progression of alcoholic liver disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0263.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Neural stem cells; Reprogramming; Neurons; MicroRNA; Somatic cells; Trans-Differentiation; miRNA
Online: 15 August 2022 (12:00:33 CEST)
Brain stem cells (neural stem cells or NSCs) and neurons of a chosen kind reprogramming is a potential technique for cell therapy. It is possible to reprogram non-neuronal cells, for example, by using a predetermined group of factors, nuclear transfer, and the induced transcriptional factors (TFs) expression in a related lineage of cells, and non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs). Researchers have additionally been attempting to improve reprogramming methods, whether it is by employing unique sets of biomolecules and particular TFs or by delivering relevant miRNA and Biomolecules. The technique of miRNA mediated is intriguing for its capability to quickly create a range of biologically desirable cell types for therapy from different lineages of cells. Current findings have made significant advancements towards changing the somatic cells to diverse particular neuronal subgroups with greater efficiency, using reprogramming of miRNA-mediated neural cells, despite the fact that the precise processes need to be discovered. To further understand how miRNAs might direct somatic cells to become neural, we need to look at the latest research on their function in neural reprogramming over the differentiated cells. Recent findings on the role of miRNAs in the initiation of cell reprogramming and the determination of the neuronal subtype's destiny are the primary focus of this comprehensive overview. Furthermore, we cover the far more latest results concerning certain miRNAs' activity in controlling different phases of neuronal differentiation, which contributes in comprehending the interaction network of miRNAs and their receptors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0457.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: graft rejection; iPSC; differentiation; cardiomyocytes; electrospinning; CD28; CTLA-4; immune response
Online: 28 December 2021 (17:37:34 CET)
Different types of engineered cardiac constructs are being developed nowadays by many research groups. However, the immunological properties of such artificial tissues are not yet clearly understood. Previously, we have studied microfiber scaffolds carrying iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes. In this work, we evaluated the ability of these tissue-engineered constructs to activate the expression of CD28 and CTLA-4 proteins in T-lymphocytes which are early markers of the immune response. For this purpose electrospun PLA nanofibrous scaffolds were seeded with human iPSCs-CM and cultivated for 2 weeks. After, allogeneic mononuclear cells were co-cultured during 48 hours with 3 groups of samples that were tissue-engineered constructs, pure culture of cardiomyocytes and bare scaffolds followed by analysis of CD28/CTLA-4 expression on T-lymphocytes via flow cytometry. PLA scaffolds and concanavalin A (positive control) stimulation statistically significantly increased CD28 expression on CD4+ cells (up to 61.3% and 66.3%) and on CD8+ cells (up to 17.8% and 21.7%). CD28/CTLA-4 expression didn’t increase during co-cultivation of T-lymphocytes with cardiac engineered constructs and iPSC-CM monolayers. Thus, iPSCs-CM in monolayers and on PLA nanofibrous scaffolds didn’t cause T-cell activation, which allows us to expect that such cardiac constructs are not a cause of rejection after implantation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0251.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: pluripotent; embryo; stem cells; genomic stability; cell cycle; apoptosis; differentiation; cancer
Online: 18 October 2021 (15:12:11 CEST)
Abstract: Remarkably, the p53 transcription factor, referred to as “the guardian of the genome”, is not essential for mammalian development. Moreover, efforts to identify p53‑dependent developmental events have produced contradictory conclusions. Given the importance of pluripotent stem cells as models of mammalian development, and their applications in regenerative medicine and disease, resolving these conflicts is essential. Here we attempt to reconcile disparate data into justifiable conclusions predicated on reports that p53‑dependent transcription is first detected in late mouse blastocysts, that p53 activity first becomes potentially lethal during gastrulation, and that apoptosis does not depend on p53. Furthermore, p53 does not regulate expression of genes required for pluripotency in embryonic stem cells (ESCs); it contributes to ESC genomic stability and differentiation. Depending on conditions, p53 accelerates initiation of apoptosis in ESCs in response to DNA damage, but cell cycle arrest as well as the rate and extent of apoptosis in ESCs are p53-independent. In embryonic fibroblasts, p53 induces cell cycle arrest to allow repair of DNA damage, and cell senescence to prevent proliferation of cells with extensive damage.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0260.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: COPD; muco-obstructive lung diseases; airway mucus hypersecretion; MUC5AC; cell differentiation
Online: 11 August 2020 (09:20:57 CEST)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with high morbidity and mortality globally. Studies show that airway mucus hypersecretion strongly compromises lung function, leading to frequent hospitalization and mortality, highlighting an urgent need for effective COPD treatments. MUC5AC is known to contribute to severe muco-obstructive lung diseases, worsening COPD pathogenesis. Various pathways are implicated in the aberrant MUC5AC production and secretion MUC5AC. These include signaling pathways associated with mucus-secreting cell differentiation [ nuclear factor-κB (NF-кB)and IL-13-STAT6- SAM pointed domain containing E26 transformation-specific transcription factor (SPDEF), as well as epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)], and signaling pathways related to mucus transport and excretion-ciliary beat frequency (CBF). Various inhibitors of mucus hypersecretion are in clinical use but have had limited benefits against COPD. Thus, novel therapies targeting airway mucus hypersecretion should be developed for effective management of muco-obstructive lung disease. Here, we systematically review the mechanisms and pathogenesis of airway mucus hypersecretion, with emphasis on multi-target and multi-link intervention strategies for the elucidation of novel inhibitors of airway mucus hypersecretion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0348.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: LA-ICP-MS dating; zircon; felsic dykes; corundum megacryst; magmatic differentiation
Online: 16 July 2020 (12:49:25 CEST)
Corundum-rich (up to 55 vol.%) felsic dykes formed by albite, ±K-feldspar, ±hercynite and ±biotite-siderophyllite cut the lower crustal rocks exposed in the Ivrea-Verbano Zone (NW Italy). Zircon is an abundant accessory mineral and its investigation through LA-ICP-(MC)MS has allowed to directly constrain the timing of emplacement, as well as petrology and geochemistry of parental melts. Zircons are characterised by very large concentration in REE, Th, U, Nb and Ta, and negative Eu anomaly. U–Pb analysis points to Norian emplacement ages (223±7 Ma and 224±6 Ma), whereas large positive εHf(t) values (+13 on average) indicate a derivation from depleted to mildly enriched mantle source. The mantle signature and the corundum oversaturation were preserved thanks to limited crustal contamination of the host, HT refractory granulites and mafic intrusives. According to the geochemical data and to the evidence of the development of violent explosions into the conduits, it is proposed that dykes segregated from peraluminous melts produced by exsolution processes affecting volatile-rich differentiates during alkaline magmatism. This work provides robust evidence about the transition of the geochemical affinity of Southern Alps magmatism from orogenic-like to anorogenic during Norian, linked to a regional uprising of the asthenosphere and change of tectonic regime.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0172.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: Wolbachia; Drosophila; Symbiosis; Cellular microbiology; Cellular differentiation; Epigenetics; Transcription; Translation; Proteolysis
Online: 28 April 2020 (09:18:03 CEST)
Bacteria participate in a wide diversity of symbiotic associations with eukaryotic hosts that require precise interactions for bacterial recognition and persistence. Most commonly, host-associated bacteria interfere with host gene expression to modulate the immune response to the infection. However, many of these bacteria also interfere with host cellular differentiation pathways to create a hospitable niche, resulting in the formation of novel cell types, tissues, and organs. In both of these situations, bacterial symbionts must interact with eukaryotic regulatory pathways. Here, we detail what is known about how bacterial symbionts, from pathogens to mutualists, control host cellular differentiation across the central dogma, from epigenetic chromatin modifications, to transcription and mRNA processing, to translation and protein modifications. We identify four main trends from this survey. First, mechanisms for controlling host gene expression appear to evolve from symbionts co-opting cross-talk between host signalling pathways. Second, symbiont regulatory capacity is constrained by the processes that drive reductive genome evolution in host-associated bacteria. Third, the regulatory mechanisms symbionts exhibit correlate with the cost/benefit nature of the association. And, fourth symbiont mechanisms for interacting with host genetic regulatory elements are not bound by native bacterial capabilities. Using this knowledge, we explore how the ubiquitous intracellular Wolbachia symbiont of arthropods and nematodes may modulate host cellular differentiation to manipulate host reproduction. Our survey of the literature on how infection alters gene expression in Wolbachia and its hosts revealed that, despite their intermediate-sized genomes, different strains appear capable of a wide diversity of regulatory manipulations. Given this and Wolbachia’s diversity of phenotypes and eukaryotic-like proteins, we expect that many symbiont-induced host differentiation mechanisms will be discovered in this system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0002.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: p53; irradiation; medaka; developing brain; testis; apoptosis; embyogenesis; regeneration, mis-differentiation
Online: 1 August 2019 (03:46:42 CEST)
The tumor suppressor protein p53 is considered a guardian of genome integrity, regulating the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in response to irradiation to block the transmission of teratogenic mutations to progeny cells. We examined the function of p53 in highly radiosensitive tissues, the developing brain and mature testis, using a small fish model, medaka (Oryzias latipes). Medaka offer advantages as a vertebrate model system, as the transparency and small size of the embryos enables clear detection of apoptotic cells in the developing brain. In addition, the simple architecture of medaka testes enables more precise identification of the differentiating spermatogenic stages compared with mammals. We found that in irradiated p53-deficient embryonic brain, diminished induction of apoptosis facilitated tissue regeneration earlier compared to irradiated wild-type embryos, which remained structural abnormalities in the retina at hatching. Moreover, the prominent delay in apoptotic induction in irradiated p53-deficient testes could induce transient mis-differentiation during spermatogenesis, such as the formation of ovum-like cells (testis-ova). However, all testis-ova cells were eliminated via p53-independent apoptosis, and spermatogenesis was completely restored within 1 month after irradiation. Collectively, these data indicate that p53 is not indispensable for the restoration of irradiation-induced damaged tissues.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0732.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: depression; estrogenic endocrine disruptor; environmental factor; inhibitor of differentiation; mental disorder
Online: 31 October 2018 (04:51:16 CET)
The ongoing growth of international occurrence of depression and its ability to co-occur with other serious medical disorders such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and Parkinson’s disease is a current public health problem. Inhibitor of DNA-Binding/Differentiation (ID) proteins are part of a group of transcriptional factors that have been seen to be involved in neurocognitive disorders and therefore, may have influence on depressive disorders. Previously, it has been established that environmental estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EEDs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) & bisphenol A (BPA) have played an important role in the impact of depressive disorders. Hence, based on many studies, we consider the impact of these environmental pollutants on the group of ID proteins. Improved understanding of how the interaction of ID proteins by EED exposure can influence depressive disorders will contribute essential evidence that can further benefit our public health community with innovative knowledge to prevent these types of mental illnesses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0070.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Chromatin and transcription dynamics; reproductive development; differentiation; ChIP-seq; RNA-seq
Online: 8 May 2017 (18:25:10 CEST)
Plant life-long organogenesis involves sequential, time and tissue specific expression of developmental genes. This requires activities of Polycomb Group (PcG) and trithorax Group complexes, respectively responsible for repressive Histone 3 trimethylation at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) and activation-related H3K4me3. However, the genome-wide dynamics in histone modifications that occur during developmental processes have remained elusive. Here, we report the distributions of H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 along with transcriptional changes, in a developmental series including Arabidopsis leaf and three stages of flower development. We found that chromatin mark levels are highly dynamic over the time series on nearly half of all Arabidopsis genes. Moreover, during early flower morphogenesis, changes in H3K4me3 prime over changes in H3K27me3 and quantitatively correlate with transcription changes, while H3K27me3 changes occur after prolonged expression changes. Notably, early activation of PcG target genes is dominated by increases in H3K4me3 while H3K27me3 remains present at the locus. Our results reveal H3K4me3 as greater predictor over H3K27me3 for transcription dynamics, unveil unexpected chromatin mechanisms at gene activation and underline the relevance of tissue-specific temporal epigenomics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0108.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Dendrimer; biomaterial; cell scaffold; hydrogel; wound repair; adhesion; differentiation; osseointegration.; hydroxyapatite; scaffold
Online: 7 December 2022 (01:57:27 CET)
The capability of radially polymerized bio-dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers for medical applications is well established. Among them, perhaps the most important are those that involve interactions with the regenerative mechanisms of cells. Dendritic polymers due to their distinctive architecture may play a multitude of roles such as protein biomimicry (collagen, elastin, hydroxy apatite production), gene and drug delivery (cell differentiation, antimicrobial protection), surface chemistry and charge modulation (adhesion to cells and tissues), polymer cross-linking (eye, skin and internal organ wound healing). The review highlights all the different categories of hard and soft tissues that may be remediated with their contribution. The reader will be also exposed to the incorporation methods to established biomaterials such as scaffolds, the functionalization strategies, and the synthetic paths for the assembly from biocompatible building blocks and natural metabolites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0490.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: cardiovascular 0-D model; pulmonary arterial pressure; gradient-based optimization; automatic differentiation
Online: 29 August 2022 (10:57:18 CEST)
Reliable quantification of pulmonary arterial pressure is essential in the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of a range of cardiovascular pathologies including rheumatic heart disease, yet an accurate and routinely available method for its quantification remains elusive. This work proposes an approach to infer pulmonary arterial pressure based on scientific machine learning techniques and non-invasive, clinically available measurements. A 0-D multicompartment model of the cardiovascular system was optimized using several optimization algorithms, subject to forward-mode automatic differentiation. Measurement data were synthesized from known parameters to represent the healthy, mitral regurgitant, aortic stenosed and combined valvular disease situations with and without pulmonary hypertension. Eleven model parameters were selected for optimization based on 95 % explained variation in mean pulmonary arterial pressure. A hybrid Adam and limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno optimizer yielded the best results with input data including valvular flow rates, heart chamber volume changes and systematic arterial pressure. Mean absolute percentage errors ranged from 1.8 % to 3.78 % over the simulated test cases. The model was able to capture pressure dynamics under hypertensive conditions with pulmonary arterial systole, diastole, and mean pressure average percentage errors of 1.12 %, 2.49 % and 2.14 %, respectively. The relatively low errors highlight the potential of the proposed model to recover pulmonary pressures for diseased heart valve and pulmonary hypertensive conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0302.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Development economics; China’s fishery industry; development quality; spatio-temporal differentiation; panel data
Online: 20 January 2022 (11:14:26 CET)
By reviewing the research of development economics in recent years, five key terms of ‘innovation, coordination, green, openness and sharing’ are extracted, corresponding to the five dimensions of the New Development Concept advocated by China. Based on this, an evaluation index system of the development quality of China's fishery industry is constructed. The spatio-temporal characteristics of China's fishery industry development quality were analyzed by using the provincial panel data from 2007 to 2017. The results show that: i) China's fishery industry overall development quality continues to grow, while the variation of provincial quality is also increasing, and the contribution of innovation quality and sharing quality is increasing, becoming an important sub-dimension leading the overall development quality.ii) there is a significant spatial dependence among provincial quality, and the significance is further strengthening. The Hangzhou Bay area and Bohai Bay area have gradually become a dual-core area where the high-quality development of China's fishery industry agglomeration, and the radiation from the dual-core area to the peripheral areas may still be in the process of enhancement. The spatial and temporal distribution of China’s fishery industry development quality keeps the trend of ‘from northeast to southwest’, which is almost parallel to Hu Huanyong line. The gravity center of its distribution is close to the gravity center of Chinese population and economy, and the development quality experienced a process from relatively concentrated to dispersed and then returned to concentrated, and the development speed in the later period was higher than that in the earlier period. iii) Capital accumulation level is the dominant positive influencing factors, while government support level is the dominant negative influencing factors respectively, and both have significant spatial differentiation among provinces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0729.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Gastric cancer; Cyclin-dependent protein kinase; Cluster of differentiation (CD) 47; Prognosis
Online: 31 May 2021 (10:13:20 CEST)
Objective: To investigate the protein expression levels of cyclin‑dependent kinase subunit 2 (CKS2) and cluster of differentiation (CD) 47 in gastric cancer (GC) and their clinical significances. Methods: A total of 126 GC patients who underwent radical resection were selected as study subjects. Additionally, 32 patients with benign gastric tumor, 42 patients with low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LGIEN), and 49 patients with high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIEN) who underwent surgery were selected as the control groups. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of CKS2 and CD47 in surgical specimens. We statistically analyzed the clinical significance of the expression of the two factors. Results: (1) The positivity rates for CKS2 in benign gastric tumor tissue, LGIEN tissue, HGIEN tissue, and GC tissue gradually increased, i.e., 6.3% (2/32), 30.9% (13/42), 38.8% (19/49), and 60.3% (76/126), respectively, and the positivity rates for CD47 were 18.8% (6/32), 38.1% (16/42), 46.9% (23/49), and 65.9% (83/126), respectively. (2) High expression of CKS2 and CD47 were associated with tumor diameter, Lauren classification, number of lymph node metastases, and TNM stage. In addition, the immunohistochemical scores for CKS2 and CD47 were positively correlated (r=0.625, P=0.000). (3) The median follow-up time of 126 patients was 46.5 months, and the overall survival rate was 40.5% (51/126). Survival analysis showed that compared with that in the CKS2 (-) group, the overall survival rate for patients in the CKS2 (+) group was significantly worse (25.0% vs 64.0%, 2=15.67, P=0.000) and that compared with the CD47 (-) group, the CD47 (+) group had significantly worse overall survival (30.1% vs 60.5%, 2=15.67, P=0.000). (4) The overall survival rates of CKS2(+)CD47(+) group, CKS2(+)CD47(-) group, CKS2(-)CD47(+) group, and CKS2 (-)CD47 (-) group were 20.0%(13/65), 58.3%(7/12), 57.1%(8/14), 65.7% (23/35), respectively, the prognosis of patients in CKS2(+)CD47(+) group was significantly poor. Conclusion: High expression levels of CKS2 and CD47 were closely related to the occurrence of GC and can be used as independent risk factors to assess the prognosis of patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0614.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Mesenchymal stem cells; Camelus dromedaries; skeletal muscle; dermal skin; adipose tissue; differentiation
Online: 1 March 2021 (17:40:43 CET)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) showed in vitro mesoderm-lineage differentiation and self-renew capacity. However, no comparative study was reported on the biological characteristics of stem cells derived from skeletal muscle (SM-MSCs), dermal skin (DS-MSCs), and adipose tissues (A-MSCs) from a single donor in camels. The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of MSCs source on stem cell characteristics. We evaluated proliferation capacity and mesoderm-lineage differentiation potential from SM-MSCs, DS-MSCs, and A-MSCs. They showed spindle-like morphology after homogenization. The proliferation ability was no significant difference in all groups. Furthermore, the portion of the cell cycle and expression of pluripotent markers (Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog) were similar in all cell lines at passage 3. The differentiation capacity of A-MSCs into adipocytes was significantly higher than that of SM-MSCs and DS-MSCs. However, the osteoblast differentiation capacity of A-MSCs was significantly lower than that of SM-MSCs and DS-MSCs. Additionally, after osteoblast differentiation, the ALP activity and calcium content was significantly decreased in A-MSCs as compared to SM-MSCs and DS-MSCs. To the best of our knowledge, we primally established MSCs from the single camel and demonstrated their comparative characteristics including expression of pluripotent factors and proliferation, and in vitro differentiation capacity into adipocytes and osteoblasts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0179.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: human parvovirus B19; nonstructural protein NS1; erythroid progenitor cells; differentiation; GATA; anemia
Online: 16 October 2019 (05:37:39 CEST)
Background Human parvovirus B19, a human pathogen of the erythroparvovirus genus, is responsible for a variety of diseases. Despite less symptoms caused by B19 infection in healthy individuals, this pathogen can not be neglected in specific groups who exhibit severe anemia. Main body of abstract Transient aplastic crisis and pure red cell aplasia are two kinds of anemic hemogram respectively in acute phase and chronic B19 infection, especially occur in individuals with a shortened red cell survival or immunocompromised patients. In addition, B19 infected pregnant women may suffer risks of hydrops fetalis secondary to severe anemia and fetal loss. B19 possesses high affinity to bone marrow and fetal liver due to its extremely restricted cytotoxicity to erythroid progenitor cells mediated by viral proteins. The nonstructural protein NS1 is considered to be the major pathogenic factor, which takes parts in differentiational inhibition and apoptosis of erythroid progenitor cells through inducing viral DNA damage responses and cell cycle arrest. The time phase property of NS1 activity during DNA replication and conformity to transient change of hemogram are suggestive of its role in regulating differentiation of hematopoietic cells, which is not completely understood. Conclusion In this review, we set up a hypothetic bridge between B19 NS1 and Notch signaling pathway or transcriptional factors GATA which are essential in hematopoiesis, to provide a new insight of the potential mechanism of B19-induced differentiational inhibition of erythroid progenitor cells.
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: transforming growth factor β3; chitosan sponge; human periodontal ligament cells; osteogenic differentiation
Online: 11 September 2019 (13:42:18 CEST)
Abstract: Periodontal disease is the main reason for tooth loss in adults. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are the advanced technologies used to manage soft and hard tissue defects caused by periodontal disease. We developed a transforming growth factor-β3 chitosan sponge (TGF-β3/CS) to repair periodontal soft and hard tissue defects. We investigated the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation behaviors of primary human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) to discuss the bioactivity and application of TGF-β3 in periodontal disease. We separately used Calcein-AM/PI double-labeling or CM-Dil-labeling coupled with fluorescence microscopy to trace the survival and function of the cells after implantation in vitro or in vivo. The mineralization of osteogenic differentiated hPDLSCs was confirmed by measuring ALP activity and calcium content. The levels of COL I, ALPL, TGF-βRI, TGF-βRII, and Pp38/t-p38 were tested using Western blot to explore the mechanism of bone repair prompted by TGF-β3. When hPDLSCs were inoculated with different concentrations of TGF-β3/CS (62.5–500 ng/mL), ALP activity was the highest in TGF-β3 (250 ng/mL) group after seven days (P < 0.05 vs. control); the calcium content in each group increased significantly after 21 and 28 days (P < 0.001 vs. control). The best result was achieved in the TGF-β3 (500 ng/mL) group. All results showed that TGF-β3/CS can promote osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSC and may be involved in the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. TGF-β3/CS has the potential for application in the repair of incomplete alveolar bone defects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0254.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: endocrine disruptor, environmental health sciences, gene-environment, inhibitor of differentiation, neurocognitive disorders
Online: 14 July 2018 (23:30:36 CEST)
The devastating growth in the worldwide frequency of neurocognitive disorders and its allied difficulties such as decline in memory, spatial competency, and ability to focus poses a significant psychological public health problem. Inhibitor of Differentiation (ID) proteins are members of a family of helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factors. ID proteins have been demonstrated to be involved in neurodevelopmental & depressive diseases and thus may influence neurocognitive deficiencies due to environmental exposure. Previously, it has been demonstrated that environmental factors such as estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EEDs) have played an essential role in the influence of various neurocognitive disorders such as Alzheimer’s, Dementia, and Parkinson’s disease. Based on this increasing number of reports, we consider the impact of these environmental pollutants on ID proteins. Better understanding of how these ID proteins by which EED exposure can affect neurocognitive disorders in populations will prospectively deliver valuable information in the impediment and regulation of these diseases linked with environmental factor exposure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0147.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Sentinel-3; SAIL; PROSPECT; TARTES; PROSAIL; LAI; fAPAR; fPAR; leaf pigments; Automatic Differentiation
Online: 8 September 2021 (11:59:24 CEST)
Multi- and hyper-spectral, multi-angular top-of-canopy reflectance data call for an efficient retrieval system which can improve the retrieval of standard canopy parameters (as albedo, LAI, fAPAR), and exploit the information to retrieve additional parameters (e.g. leaf pigments). Furthermore consistency between the retrieved parameters and quantification of uncertainties are required for many applications. % (2) methods We present a retrieval system for canopy and sub-canopy parameters (OptiSAIL), which is based on a model comprising SAIL, PROSPECT-D (leaf properties), TARTES (snow properties), a soil model (BRDF, moisture), and a cloud contamination model. The inversion is gradient based and uses codes % created by Automatic Differentiation. The full per pixel covariance-matrix of the retrieved parameters is computed. For this demonstration, single observation data from the Sentinel-3 SY_2_SYN (synergy) product is used. The results are compared with the MODIS 4-day LAI/fPAR product and PhenoCam site photography. OptiSAIL produces generally consistent and credible results, at least matching the quality of the technically quite different MODIS product. For most of the sites, the PhenoCam images support the OptiSAIL retrievals. The system is computationally efficient with a rate of 150 pixel per second (7 millisecond per pixel) for a single thread on a current desktop CPU using observations on 26 bands. Not all of the model parameters are well determined in all situations. Significant correlations between the parameters are found, which can change sign and magnitude over time. OptiSAIL appears to meet the design goals, puts real-time processing with this kind of system into reach, seamlessly extends to hyper-spectral and multi-sensor retrievals, and promises to be a good platform for sensitivity studies. The incorporated cloud and snow detection adds to the robustness of the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0686.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Rhus verniciflua Stokes; in vivo; inflammation; macrophage; monocyte differentiation; MHC II; IL-12
Online: 29 October 2018 (13:26:02 CET)
The bark of Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) is used as a food additive and herbal medicine for various inflammatory disorders and cancer in Eastern Asia. RVS exerted anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, but whether this effect occurs in macrophages after oral administration has not been determined. We used a thioglycollate-induced peritonitis model to obtain macrophages from mice given RVS. We examined the systemic inflammatory response to intraperitoneal LPS. RVS-treated mice had an increased population of peritoneal exudate cells expressing CD11b and SRA. Increased uptake of Alexa Fluor 488-labeled acetylated lipoprotein was observed in monocyte-derived macrophages from RVS-treated mice. When these cells from the RVS group were stimulated with LPS, the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- and interleukin (IL)-6 in the supernatant decreased, but the level of IL-12 increased. The surface expression of CD86 was reduced, but surface expression of class II MHC molecules was increased. RVS suppressed the serum levels of LPS-induced TNF- and IL-6. RVS enhanced monocyte differentiation in thioglycollate-induced peritonitis by increasing scavenger receptor expression and activity. Macrophages isolated from mice given RVS responded differently to LPS. These findings demonstrate that RVS confers selective anti-inflammatory activity without causing the overall inhibitory effects on immune cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0398.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Allantoin; Chinese Yam; C2C12 cells; Dioscorea batatas; Dioscoreae Rhizoma; Myoblast differentiation; Mitochondrial biogenesis
Online: 25 June 2018 (16:32:43 CEST)
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of rhizome extract of Dioscorea batatas (Dioscoreae Rhizoma, Chinese Yam) and its bioactive compound, allantoin, on myoblast differentiation and mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle cells. Yams were extracted in water and the extract was analyzed by HPLC. The expression of C2C12 myotubes differentiation and mitochondrial biogenesis regulators were determined by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR or Western blot. The glucose levels and total ATP contents were determined by glucose consumption, glucose uptake and ATP assays, respectively. Treatment with yam extract (1 mg/mL) and allantoin (0.2 and 0.5 mM) significantly increased of MyHC expression compared with non-treated myotubes. Yam extract and allantoin significantly increased the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis regulating proteins, PGC1?, Sirt-1, NRF-1, and TFAM, as well as the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC in C2C12 myotubes. Furthermore, yam extract and allantoin significantly increased the glucose uptake levels and the ATP contents. Finally, HPLC analysis revealed that the yam extract contained 1.53% of allantoin. Yam extract and allantoin, stimulated myoblast differentiation into myotubes and increased energy production through upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis regulators. These findings indicate that yam extract and allantoin can help to prevent the skeletal muscle dysfunction through stimulation of energy metabolism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0312.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: cancer-associated fibroblasts; tumor microenvironment; pancreatic cancer; intracellular metabolism; glycolysis; oxidative phosphorylation; cell differentiation
Online: 20 January 2022 (19:42:29 CET)
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the tumor microenvironment perform glycolysis to produce energy, i.e., ATP. Since the origin of CAFs is unidentified, it is not determined whether the intracellular metabolism transitions from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to glycolysis when normal tissue fibroblasts differentiate into CAFs. In this study, we established an experimental system and induced the in vitro differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to CAFs. Additionally, we performed metabolomic and RNA-sequencing analyses before and after differentiation to investigate changes in the intracellular metabolism. Consequently, we discovered that OXPHOS, which was the primary intracellular metabolism in MSCs, was reprogrammed to glycolysis. In addition, we identified CAF-specific metabolites that were expressed during this reprogramming and determined their presence in the pancreatic tumor tissues of mouse models. Thus, we conclude that normal tissue fibroblasts that differentiate into CAFs undergo a metabolic reprogramming from OXPHOS to glycolysis. Moreover, we identified the CAF-specific metabolites expressed during metabolic reprogramming as potential future biomarkers for pancreatic cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0365.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: B cell activation; B cell differentiation; plasma cells; CD40L; IL-21; CpG; IL-2
Online: 22 November 2021 (14:10:02 CET)
Background/methods: For mechanistic studies, in vitro human B cell differentiation and generation of plasma cells are invaluable techniques. However, the heterogeneity of both T cell-dependent (TD) and T cell-independent (TI) stimuli and the disparity of culture conditions used in existing protocols makes interpretation of results challenging. The aim of the present study was to achieve the most optimal B cell differentiation conditions using isolated CD19+ B cells and PBMC cultures. We addressed multiple seeding densities, different durations of culturing and various combinations of TD stimuli and TI stimuli including B cell receptor (BCR) triggering. B cell expansion, proliferation and differentiation was analyzed after 6 and 9 days by measuring B cell proliferation and expansion, plasmablast and plasma cell formation and immunoglobulin (Ig) secretion. In addition, these conditions were extrapolated using cryopreserved cells and differentiation potential was compared. Results: This study demonstrates improved differentiation efficiency after 9 days of culturing for both B cell and PBMC cultures using CD40L and IL-21 as TD stimuli and 6 days for CpG and IL-2 as TI stimuli. We arrived at optimized protocols requiring 2500 and 25.000 B cells per culture well for TD and TI assays, respectively. The results of the PBMC cultures were highly comparable to the B cell cultures, which allows dismissal of additional B cell isolation steps prior to culturing. In these optimized TD conditions, the addition of anti-BCR showed little effect on phenotypic B cell differentiation, however it interferes with Ig secretion measurements. Addition of IL-4 to the TD stimuli showed significantly lower Ig secretion. The addition of BAFF to optimized TI conditions showed enhanced B cell differentiation and Ig secretion in B cell but not in PBMC cultures. With this approach, efficient B cell differentiation and Ig secretion was accomplished when starting from fresh or cryopreserved samples. Conclusion: Our methodology demonstrates optimized TD and TI stimulation protocols for more indepth analysis of B cell differentiation in primary human B cell and PBMC cultures while requiring low amounts of B cells, making them ideally suited for future clinical and research studies on B cell differentiation of patient samples from different cohorts of B cell-mediated diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0091.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: induced pluripotent stem cells; disease modelling; neuronal differentiation; cholinergic neurons; Alzheimer’s disease; frontotemporal dementia
Online: 4 August 2020 (11:17:44 CEST)
The study of neurodegenerative diseases using pluripotent stem cells requires new methods to assess neurodevelopment and neurodegeneration of specific neuronal subtypes. The cholinergic system, characterized by its use of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, is one of the first to degenerate in Alzheimer’s disease and is also affected in frontotemporal dementia. We developed a differentiation protocol to generate basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) aided by the use of small molecule inhibitors and growth factors. Ten iPSC lines were successfully differentiated into BFCNs using this protocol. The neuronal cultures were characterised through RNA and protein expression, and functional analysis of neurons was confirmed by whole-cell patch clamp. We have developed a reliable protocol using only small molecule inhibitors and growth factors, while avoiding transfection or cell sorting methods, to achieve a BFCN culture that expresses the characteristic markers of cholinergic neurons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0394.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Ireland; beef farms; Producer Organisations (POs), product differentiation; co-operatives; values-based supply chain
Online: 20 September 2018 (04:16:57 CEST)
Irish beef farms have experienced poor viability longitudinally, with officially acknowledged ‘crisis’ levels in 2013. In response, beef Producer Organisation (PO) legislation was introduced. Through the lens of international evidence in the literature about how POs function, this paper presents an analysis of Irish stakeholders’ views in the context of a public consultation process. While stakeholders indicate the need for individual POs to collaborate, little emphasis is placed on other factors necessary for success: collaboration with other chain actors; and market differentiation of products. Stakeholders identified primary threats as poor engagement on the part of both farmers and processors/purchasers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0151.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: time interval; measurement event; Noether charge; structure constants; differentiation properties; star source radiation propagation; gravitation
Online: 20 September 2022 (11:21:14 CEST)
The time interval description is a natural way to introduce finite intervals, like finite time intervals. This approach depends on results for radiation propagation from star sources, where properties relate to a propagation surface, which is finite for every realistic event and measurement. In contrast the usual vector approach like for Newton’s laws depends on introducing an infinite coordinate system. A time interval only approach necessarily has to start from scratch. Properties for time intervals have to be defined with time intervals. Where the first parts of this paper are devoted to time interval set properties, in the discussion part these are applied to quantities and measurements within astronomy. The introduction provides a survey of results.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0270.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: T helper differentiation; T helper polarization; Cross-reactivity; Regulatory T cells; Microbiota; Original Antigenic Sin
Online: 12 August 2021 (08:46:55 CEST)
Naive CD4+ T cells engage cognate peptide MHC-II complexes (pMHC-IIs) to differentiate and acquire one of several T helper (Th) fates whose specific trajectories are guided by a dynamic cytokine milieu that develops in response to antigenic entity. This physiological process is often erroneously conflated with a pathological one termed Th polarization. Using the SPIRAL model, we argue here that unlike Th fate choice, innate signaling alone is insufficient to initiate Th polarization in naive CD4+ T cells, that it instead develops from pre-existing memory CD4+ T cells that express cross-reactive TCRs, and that it inevitably leads to immunopathology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0304.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D; vitamin D receptor; vitamin D receptor; fibroblast growth factor receptor; signal transduction; differentiation
Online: 21 October 2021 (10:52:39 CEST)
(1) Background: Many malignancies are driven by mutations which affect the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 1. Previously we have documented that signal transduction from FOP2–FGFR1 fusion protein in KG1 cells downregulated the expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene. In this paper we investigated if also other FGFRs were responsible for the regulation of the VDR expression. (2) Methods: We used human myeloid leukemia cells U937, and bone cancer cell line U2OS, and cell transfection methods in order to address the above questions. (3) Results: In myeloid leukemia cells overexpression of FGFR 1-4 caused shift to granulocytic differentiation, upregulated expression of VDR, and sensitized these cells to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D)-induced monocytic differentiation, while in bone cells, signal transduction activated by FGF1 was not responsible for regulation of VDR expression and activity. (4) Conclusions: Since the overexpression of FGFRs occurs in many neoplasms, it may be reasonable to use 1,25D analogs in these cancers, in which overexpression of FGFRs leads to VDR upregulation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0176.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Polymeric Biomaterials; Natural Cellulose; Tissue Engineering; Differentiation; Bone Regeneration; Skin Regeneration; Cardiac Regeneration; Vascular Regeneration; Neural Regeneration
Online: 14 February 2022 (14:02:16 CET)
In the recent years, tissue engineering researchers have exploited a variety of biomaterials that can potentially mimic extracellular matrix (ECM) for tissue regeneration. Natural cellulose, mainly obtained from bacterial (BC) and plant-based (PC) sources, can serve as a high potential scaffold material for different regenerative purposes. Natural cellulose has drawn the attention of researchers due to its advantage over synthetic cellulose in terms of availability, cost-effectiveness, perfusablility, biocompatibility, negligible toxicity, mild immune response and due to imitating native tissues. In this article, we will review the recent in vivo and in vitro studies aimed to assess the potentials of natural cellulose for the purpose of soft (skin, heart, veins, nerve, among others) and hard (bone and tooth) tissue engineering.
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: stem cells; luminal progenitors; mammary; breast; cell hierarchy; differentiation; single cell RNA-sequencing; lineage tracing; c-Kit
Online: 31 July 2020 (02:56:15 CEST)
The identification and molecular characterization of cellular hierarchies in complex tissues is key to understanding both normal cellular homeostasis and tumorigenesis. The mammary epithelium is a heterogeneous tissue consisting of two main cellular compartments, an outer basal layer containing myoepithelial cells and an inner luminal layer consisting of estrogen receptor-negative (ER−) ductal cells and secretory alveolar cells (in the fully functional differentiated tissue) and hormone-responsive estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) cells. Recent publications have used single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) analysis to decipher epithelial cell differentiation hierarchies in human and murine mammary glands, and reported the identification of new cell types and states based on the expression of the luminal progenitor cell marker KIT (c-Kit). These studies allow for comprehensive and unbiased analysis of the different cell types that constitute a heterogeneous tissue. Here we discuss scRNA-seq studies in the context of previous research in which mammary epithelial cell populations were molecularly and functionally characterized, and identified c-Kit+ progenitors and cell states analogous to those reported in the recent scRNA-seq studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0017.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: LC-MS; mesenchymal stem cells; stromal cells; fat differentiation; lipidomics; metabolomics; proteomics; multiomics; network analysis; mathematical modelling
Online: 2 September 2019 (06:07:17 CEST)
The molecular study of fat cell development in the human body is essential for our understanding of obesity and related diseases. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are the ideal source to study fat formation as they are the progenitors of adipocytes. In this work, we used human MSCs, received from surgery waste, and differentiate them into fat adipocytes. The combination of several layers of information coming from lipidomics, metabolomics and proteomics enabled comprehensive analysis of the biochemical pathways in adipogenesis. Simultaneous analysis of metabolites, lipids and proteins in cell culture is challenging due to the compound’s chemical difference so that most studies involve separate analysis with unimolecular strategies. In this study, we employed a multimolecular approach using a two–phase extraction to monitor the crosstalk between lipid metabolism and protein-based signaling in a single sample (~105 cells). We developed an innovative analytical workflow including standardization with in-house produced 13C-isotopically labeled compounds, hyphenated high-end mass spectrometry (high-resolution Orbitrap MS) and chromatography (HILIC, RP) for simultaneous untargeted screening and targeted quantification. Metabolite and lipid concentrations ranged over 3-4 orders of magnitude and were detected down to the low fmol (absolute on column) level. Biological validation and data interpretation of the multiomics workflow was performed based on proteomics network reconstruction, metabolic modelling (MetaboAnalyst 4.0) and pathway analysis (OmicsNet). Comparing MSCs and adipocytes, we observed significant regulation of different metabolites and lipids such as triglycerides, gangliosides and carnitine with 113 fully reprogrammed pathways. The observed changes are in accordance with literature findings dealing with adipogenic differentiation of MSC. These results are a proof of principle for the power of multimolecular extraction combined with orthogonal LC-MS assays and network construction. Considering the analytical and biological validation performed in this study, we conclude that the proposed multiomics workflow is ideally suited for comprehensive follow-up studies on adipogenesis and is fit for purpose for different applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0659.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Chondrogenesis; chondrocyte; cell differentiation; C3H10T1/2; high density culture; mouse em-bryo; epigenetic signals; DNA methylation; 5-azacytidine
Online: 26 March 2021 (11:24:08 CET)
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of DNA methylation in the regulation of in vitro and in vivo cartilage formation. Based on the data of an RNA chip-assay performed on chondrifying BMP2-overexpressing C3H10T1/2 cells, the relative expression of Tet1 (tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 1), Dnmt3a (DNA methyltransferase 3) and Ogt (O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase) genes was examined with RT-qPCR in mouse cell-line based and primary micromass cultures. RNA probes for in situ hybridization were used on frozen sections of 15-day-old mouse embryos. DNA methylation was inhibited with 5-azacytidine during culturing. We found very strong but gradually decreasing expression of Tet1 throughout the entire course of in vitro cartilage differentiation along with strong signals in the cartilaginous embryonic skeleton. Dnmt3a and Ogt expressions did not show significant changes with RT-qPCR and gave weak in situ hybridization signals. Inhibition of DNA methylation applied during early stages of differentiation reduced cartilage-specific gene expression and cartilage formation. In contrast, it had stimulatory effect when added to differentiated chondrocytes. Our results indicate that the DNA demethylation-inducing Tet1 is a significant epigenetic factor of chondrogenesis, and inhibition of DNA methylation exerts distinct effects in different phases of in vitro cartilage formation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0157.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: blood cells; differentiation; myeloid leukemia; monocytes; lymphocytes; transcription factors; all-trans-retinoic acid; interleukin 2; transforming growth factor β
Online: 12 December 2018 (15:51:17 CET)
FoxP3 is a transcription factor essential for the differentiation and function of T regulatory cells (Tregs). There are two major subsets of Tregs: natural Tregs (nTregs) generated in thymus and inducible Tregs (iTregs) produced in peripheral immune system. It has been documented that iTreg development is dependent on soluble mediators including interleukin 2 (IL2), transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA). In our experiments we performed a gene expression array, followed by Real-time PCR experiments, to study the expression of genes regulated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) or ATRA in cells of myeloid origin. Our experiments revealed that ATRA alone, but also a cocktail of mediators consisting of IL2, TGFβ and ATRA, upregulate the expression of FOXP3 gene in lymphoid cells, but also in normal and leukemic myeloid cells. The FoxP3 expression is followed by a phenotypic changes in cells of myeloid origin. Our results indicate that signaling pathways which are used in the late stages of T cell differentiation, are also active in the cells of myeloid lineage
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0151.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: time-dependent order of differentiation; fractional calculus; fractional derivative; differential equations; complex systems; Volterra integral equation; VODE; DODE; dynamical evolution
Online: 7 November 2018 (09:15:19 CET)
A new type of ordinary differential equation is introduced and discussed, namely, the time-dependent order ordinary differential equations. These equations can be solved via fractional calculus and are mapped into Volterra integral equations of second kind with singular integrable kernel. The solutions of the time-dependent order differential equations smoothly deforms solutions of the classical integer order ordinary differential equations into one-another, and can generate or remove singularities. An interesting symmetry of the solution in relation to the Riemann zeta function and Harmonic numbers was also proved.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0120.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: pNENs; 2010 WHO classification; Ki-67 index; mitotic count; pNEC; tumor differentiation; whole-exome sequence data; everolimus; sunitinib; platinum regimen
Online: 24 November 2016 (10:59:33 CET)
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNENs) are rare tumors accounting for only 1-2% of all pancreatic tumors. pNENs are pathologically heterogeneous and are categorized into three groups (neuroendocrine tumor: NET G1, NET G2 and neuroendocrine carcinoma: NEC) on the basis of Ki-67 proliferation index and mitotic count according to the 2010 WHO classification of gastroenteropancreatic NENs. NEC in this classification includes both histologically well-differentiated and poorly differentiated subtypes, and modification of the WHO 2010 classification is under discussion based on genetic and clinical data. Genomic analysis has revealed NETs G1/G2 have genetic alterations in chromatin remodeling genes such as MEN1, DAXX and ATRX, whereas NECs have an inactivation of TP53 and RB1, and these data suggest that different treatment approaches would be required for NET G1/G2 and NEC. While there are promising molecular targeted drugs, such as everolimus or sunitinib, for advanced NET G1/G2, treatment stratification based on appropriate predictive and prognostic biomarkers is becoming an important issue. The clinical outcome of NEC is still dismal, and a more detailed understanding of the genetic backround together with preclinical studies to develop new agents, including those already under investigation for SCLC, will be needed to improve the prognosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0360.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: 3D printing; polymer derived ceramics; osteogenic differentiation; human mesenchymal stem cells; Fused Filament Fabrication; SiOC(N); cellular structure; scaffolds; Bone regeneration
Online: 19 November 2021 (14:33:05 CET)
Bone tissue engineering has developed significantly in recent years as the increasing demand for bone substitutes due to trauma, cancer, arthritis, and infections. The scaffolds for bone regeneration need to be mechanically stable and have a 3D architecture with interconnected pores. With the advances in additive manufacturing technology, these requirements can be fulfilled by 3D printing scaffolds with controlled geometry and porosity using a low-cost multistep process. The scaffolds, however, must also be bioactive to promote the environment for the cells to regenerate into bone tissue. To determine if a low-cost 3D printing method for bespoke SiOC(N) porous structures can regenerate bone these structures were tested for osteointegration potential by using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). This includes checking the general biocompatibilities under the osteogenic differentiation environment (cell proliferation and metabolism). Moreover, cell morphology was observed by confocal microscopy and gene expressions on typical osteogenic markers at different stages for bone formation were determined by real-time PCR. The results of the study showed the pore size of the scaffolds had a significant impact on differentiation. A certain range of pore size could stimulate osteogenic differentiation, thus promoting bone regrowth and regeneration.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0795.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: T cells; chimeric antigen receptor; transgenic T-cell receptor; tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes; exhaustion; terminal differentiation; senescence; apoptosis; adoptive cell transfer; immunotherapy
Online: 31 December 2020 (12:16:55 CET)
Over the last decades, cellular immunotherapy has revealed its curative potential. However, the inherent physiological characteristics of immune cells can limit the potency of this approach. Best defined in T cells, dysfunction associated with terminal differentiation, exhaustion, senescence, and activation-induced cell death undermine adoptive cell therapies. In this review, we concentrate on how the multiple mechanisms that articulate the various forms of immune dysfunction impact cellular therapies primarily involving conventional T cells, but also other lymphoid subtypes, in addition to the various strategies put in place to circumvent these effects. The repercussions of immune cell dysfunction across the full life cycle of cell therapy, from the source material, during manufacturing, and after adoptive transfer are discussed. Applicable to cellular products prepared from native and unmodified immune cells, as well as genetically engineered therapeutics, the understanding and potential modulation of dysfunctional features is key to the development of improved cellular immunotherapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0122.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: neural stemness; neural stem/progenitor cell; tumor-initiating cell; neural ground state; neural default model; differentiation potential; tumorigenicity; tumorigenesis; evo-devo
Online: 7 December 2020 (07:02:34 CET)
Tumorigenesis is a complex biological phenomenon that includes extensive genetic and phenotypic heterogeneities and complicated regulatory mechanisms. In the recent few years, our studies demonstrate that tumor-initiating cells are similar to neural stem/progenitor cells in regulatory networks, tumorigenicity and pluripotent differentiation potential. In the review, I will make further discussion on these observations and propose a rule of cell biology by integrating these findings with evidence from developmental biology, tumor biology and evolution, which suggests that neural stemness underlies two coupled cell properties, tumorigenicity and pluripotent differentiation potential. Tumorigenicity and phenotypic heterogeneity in tumor is a result of acquirement of neural stemness in cells. The neural stemness property of tumor-initiating cells can hopefully integrate different concepts/hypotheses underlying tumorigenesis. Neural stem cells/neural progenitors and tumor-initiating cells share regulatory networks; both exhibit neural stemness, tumorigenicity and differentiation potential; both are dependent on expression or activation of ancestral genes (the atavistic effect); both rely primarily on aerobic glycolytic metabolism; both can differentiate into various cells or tissues that are derived from three germ layers, resembling severely disorganized or more severely degenerated process of embryonic development; both are enriched in long genes with more splice variants that provide more plastic scaffolds for cell differentiation, etc. The property of neural stemness might be a key point to understand tumorigenesis and pluripotent differentiation potential, and possibly explain certain pathological observations in tumors that have been inexplicable. Therefore, behind the complexity of tumorigenesis might be a general rule of cell biology, i.e., neural stemness represents the ground state of cell tumorigenicity and pluripotent differentiation potential.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0138.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: extracellular signal-regulated kinase; MAPK/ERK signaling; intracellular signaling; kidney development; ureteric bud branching morphogenesis; nephrogenesis; progenitor cells; self-renewal; differentiation
Online: 13 March 2019 (09:00:32 CET)
Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are common birth defects deriving from abnormalities in renal differentiation during embryogenesis. CAKUT is the major cause of end-stage renal disease and chronic kidney diseases in children, but its genetic causes remain largely unresolved. Here we discuss advances in the understanding of how MAPK/ERK activity contributes to the regulation of ureteric bud branching morphogenesis, which dictates the final size, shape, and nephron number of the kidney. Recent studies also demonstrate that MAPK/ERK pathway is directly involved in nephrogenesis, regulating both the maintenance and differentiation of the nephrogenic mesenchyme. Interestingly, aberrant MAPK/ERK signaling is linked to many cancers, and recent studies suggest it also plays a role in the most common pediatric renal cancer, Wilms’ tumor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0541.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Sinc methods; inverse Laplace transform; indefinite integrals; fractional calculus; Mittag−Leffler function; Prabhakar function; variable fractional order differentiation; variable fractional order integration
Online: 20 April 2021 (12:45:42 CEST)
We shall discuss three methods of inverse Laplace transforms. A Sinc-Thiele approxi- mation, a pure Sinc, and a Sinc-Gaussian based method. The two last Sinc related methods are exact methods of inverse Laplace transforms which allow us a numerical approximation using Sinc methods. The inverse Laplace transform converges exponentially and does not use Bromwich contours for computations. We apply the three methods to Mittag-Leffler functions incorporating one, two, and three parameters. The three parameter Mittag-Leffler function represents Prabhakar’s function. The exact Sinc methods are used to solve fractional differential equations of constant and variable differentiation order.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: fisetin; psoriasis; normal human epidermal keratinocyte; cell signaling; cell differentiation; proliferation; inflammatory cytokine; PBMC; CD4+ T lymphocyte; 3D psoriasis-like skin disease model
Online: 9 September 2019 (07:48:26 CEST)
Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated skin disease that involves interaction of both immune and skin cells, and is characterized by cytokine-driven epidermal hyperplasia, deviant differentiation, inflammation and angiogenesis. Because available treatments for psoriasis have significant limitations, dietary products are potential natural sources of therapeutic molecules, which can rescind molecular defects associated with psoriasis and could be developed for its management. Fisetin (3,7,3′,4′- tetrahydroxyflavone), a phytochemical naturally found in pigmented fruits and vegetables has demonstrated pro-apoptotic and antioxidant effects in several malignancies. This study utilized biochemical, cellular, pharmacological and tissue-engineering tools to characterize the effects of fisetin on normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs), peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and CD4+ T lymphocytes in 2D and 3D psoriasis-like disease models. Fisetin treatment of NHEKs dose and time-dependently induced differentiation and inhibited interleukin-22-induced proliferation, as well as activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Fisetin treatment of TNF-α-stimulated NHEKs significantly inhibited the activation of p38 and JNK, but had no effect on ERK1/2. In addition, fisetin treatment significantly decreased the secretion of Th1/Th-17 pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly IFNγ and IL-17A by 12-O- tetradecanolylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-stimulated NHEKs and anti-CD3/CD28-activated human PBMCs. Furthermore, we established the in-vivo relevance of fisetin functions, using a 3D full-thickness human skin model of psoriasis (FTRHSP) that closely mimics in-vivo human psoriatic skin-lesions. Herein, fisetin significantly ameliorated psoriasis-like disease features, and decreased the production of IL-17 by CD4+ T lymphocytes co-cultured with FTRHSP. Collectively, our data identify pro-differentiative, anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of fisetin, via modulation of PI3K-Akt-mTOR and p38/JNK pathways and the production of cytokines in 2D and 3D human skin model of psoriasis. These results suggest that fisetin has a great potential to be developed as an effective and inexpensive agent for the treatment of psoriasis and other related inflammatory skin disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: adipose-derived; bone regeneration; cartilage regeneration; clinical application; clinical studies; differentiation; hair loss; induced pluripotent stem cells; maxillary sinus augmentation; osteoarthritis; pluripotency; regenerative
Online: 17 April 2019 (11:25:14 CEST)
Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving attention from basic scientists and clinicians as they hold certain promise for regenerative medicine. This paper is intended to clarify and facilitate the understanding, development and adoption of regenerative medicine in general and specifically of therapies based on unmodified, autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells (UA-ADRCs). To this end, results of landmark experiments on stem cells and stem cell therapy performed in the labs of the authors are summarized, the most intriguing of which are the following: (i) vascular associated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from different organs (adipose tissue, heart, skin, bone marrow and skeletal muscle) and differentiated into ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm, providing significant support for the hypothesis of the existence of a small, ubiquitously distributed, universal vascular associated stem cell with full pluripotency; (ii) the orientation and differentiation of MSCs are driven by signals of the respective microenvironment; and (iii) these stem cells irrespective of the tissue origin exhibit full pluripotent differentiation potential without any prior genetic modification or the need for culturing. They can be obtained from a small amount of adipose tissue when using the appropriate technology for isolating the cells, and can be harvested from and re-applied to the same patient at the point of care without the need for complicated processing, manipulation, culturing, expensive equipment, or repeat interventions. These findings demonstrate the potential of UA-ADRCs for triggering the development of an entire new generation of medicine for the benefit of patients and of healthcare systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0016.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: prostate cancer; castrate-resistant growth; metastases; androgen receptor; glucocorticoid receptor; cytokines; transmembrane receptors; cell signaling; pharmacological targeting; neuroendocrine differentiation; lineage plasticity; prostate cancer stem cells
Online: 1 October 2021 (12:19:03 CEST)
Understanding of the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer has led to development of therapeutic strategies targeting androgen receptor (AR). These androgen-receptor signaling inhibitors (ARSI) include androgen synthesis inhibitor- abiraterone and androgen receptor antagonists- enzalutamide, apalutamide, and darolutamide. Although these medications provide significant improvement in survival among men with prostate cancer, drug resistance develops in nearly all patients with time. This could be through androgen-dependent or androgen-independent mechanisms. Even weaker signals and non-canonical steroid ligands can activate AR in the presence of truncated AR-splice variants, AR overexpression, or activating mutations in AR. AR splice variant, AR-V7 is the most studied among these and is not targeted by available ARSIs. Non-androgen receptor dependent resistance mechanisms are mediated by activation of an alternative signaling pathway when AR is inhibited. DNA repair pathway, PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, BRAF-MAPK and Wnt signaling pathway and activation by glucocorticoid receptors can restore downstream signaling in prostate cancer by alternative proteins. Multiple clinical trials are underway exploring therapeutic strategies to overcome these resistance mechanisms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0373.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells; regenerative medicine; tissue engineering; Clinical Application; Differentiation Capacity; Cellular Immunomodulation; Inflammation; Signaling Cells; Transplantation; International Society for Cell and Gene Therapy
Online: 15 March 2021 (11:51:28 CET)
Early reports demonstrated the presence of cells with stem-like properties in bone marrow, with these cells having both hematopoietic and mesenchymal lineages. Over the years, various investigations have purified and characterized mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) from different human tissues as cells with multi-lineage differentiation potential under the appropriate conditions. Due to their appealing characteristics and potential, MSCs are leveraged in many applications including medicine, oncology, bioprinting and as recent as treatment of COVID-19. To date, reports indicate mesenchymal stromal/stem cells have varied differentiation capabilities into different cell types and demonstrate immunomodulating and anti-inflammatory properties. Reports indicate that different MSCs microenvironments or niche and the resulting heterogeneity may influence their behavior and differentiation capacity. The potential clinical applications of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells have led to an avalanche of research reports on their properties and hundreds of clinical trials being undertaken. The future looks bright and promising for mesenchymal stem cell research with many clinical trials under way to prove their utility in many applications and in the clinic. This report provides an update on the potential broader use of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells, review early observations of the presence of these cells in the bone marrow and their magnificent differentiation capabilities and immunomodulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0248.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: cancer; differentiation commitment; acridine-orange-DNA test; pericentromere-associated domains (PADs); power law of PAD number vs. size; critical self-organisation; unravelling of PADs; silencing threshold
Online: 15 May 2020 (08:01:08 CEST)
Finding out how cells with the same genome change fates in differentiation commitment is a challenge of biology. We used MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with the ErbB2 ligand heregulin (HRG), which induces differentiation, to address if and how the constitutive pericentromere-associated domains (PADs) may be involved in this process. PAD-specific repressive heterochromatin (H3K9me3) and active euchromatin (H3K4me3) marking, centromere (CENPA) labelling, qPCR, acridine-orange-DNA structural test, and microscopic image analysis were applied. We found a two-step DNA unfolding, at 15-20 min and 60 min after HRG treatment, coinciding with bi-phasic activation of the early response genes (c-FOS family) and two steps of critical phase transition which were revealed in transcriptome studies. In control, the distribution of PAD number and size displays a power-law scaling with a boundary at the nucleolus. PADs’ clustering correlates with centromere numbers. 15 min after HRG treatment, the unravelling of PADs occurs, coinciding with the first step of euchromatin unfolding. The second step is associated with transcription of long-non-coding-RNA from satellite III DNA. We hypothesize that splitting of the PAD clusters under the critical size threshold of the silencing domain abrupts position effect variegation. It allows the first genome transcription avalanche to occur, starting differentiation commitment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0408.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Wharton’s Jelly human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hWJ-MSCs); Growth Differentiation Factor-5; human bone marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hBM-MSCs); tenogenic commitment; gene expression; immunofluorescence assay
Online: 19 July 2020 (11:02:01 CEST)
Mesenchymal Stem Cells derived from bone marrow (hBM-MSCs) are utilized in tendon tissue‐engineering protocols while extra-embryonic cord-derived, including from Wharton’s Jelly (hWJ-MSC), are emerging as useful alternatives. To explore the tenogenic responsiveness of hBM-MSCs and hWJ-MSCs to hGDF-5 we supplemented each at doses of 1, 10, and 100 ng/mL and determined proliferation, morphology and time-dependent expression of tenogenic markers. We evaluated expression of Collagen types 1 (COL1A1) and 3 (COL3A1), Decorin (DCN), Scleraxis A (SCX-A), Tenascin-C (TNC) and Tenomodulin (TNMD) noting the earliest and largest increase with 100 ng/mL. With 100 ng/mL, hBM-MSCs showed upregulation of SCX-A (1.7-fold) at day 1, TNC (1.3-fold) and TNMD (12-fold) at Day 8. hWJ-MSCs, at the same dose, showed up-regulation of COL1A1 (3-fold), DCN (2.7-fold), SCX (3.8-fold) and TNC (2.3-fold) after 3 days of culture. hWJ-MSCs also showed larger proliferation rate and marked aggregation into a tubular shaped system at Day 7 (with 100 ng/mL of hGDF-5). Simultaneous to this we explored expression of pro-inflammatory (IL-6, TNF, IL-12A, IL-1β) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10, TGF-β1) cytokines across for both cell types. hBM-MSCs exhibited a better balance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines upregulating IL-1β (11-fold) and IL-10 (10-fold) at Day 8; hWJ-MSCs, had a slight expression of IL-12A (1.5-fold) but a greater up-regulation of IL-10 (2.5-fold). Collagen type I and tenomodulin proteins, detected by immunofluorescence, confirming the greater protein expression when 100 ng/mL were supplemented. In the same conditions, both cell types showed specific alignment and shape modification (fibroblast-like) with a Lenght/Width ratio increase at value higher than 1, suggesting their response in activating tenogenic commitment events, and they both potential use in 3D in vitro tissue engineering protocols.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0143.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: human pluripotent stem cells; human embryonic stem cells; human induced pluripotent stem cells; cellular metabolism; oxygen; self-renewal; pluripotency; differentiation; volatile organic compounds; Selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry
Online: 10 March 2022 (10:23:46 CET)
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have widespread potential biomedical applications. There is a need for large-scale in vitro production of hPSCs, and optimal culture methods are vital in achieving this. Physiological oxygen (2% O2) improves key hPSCs attributes, including genomic integrity, viability, and clonogenicity, however, its impact on hPSC metabolism remains un-clear. Here, Selected Ion Flow Tube-Mass Spectrometry (SIFT-MS) was used to detect and quantify metabolic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the headspace of hPSCs and their differentiated progeny. hPSCs were cultured in either 2% O2 or 21% O2. Media was collected from cell cultures and transferred into glass bottles for SIFT-MS measurement. The VOCs acetaldehyde and dimethyl sulfide (DMS)/ethanethiol were significantly increased in undifferentiated hPSCs compared to their differentiating counterparts, and these observations were more apparent in 2% O2. Pluripotent marker expression was consistent across both O2 concentrations tested. Transcript levels of ADH4, ADH5, and CYP2E1, encoding enzymes involved in converting ethanol to acetaldehyde, were upregulated in 2% O2, and chemical inhibition of ADH and CYP2E1 decreased acetaldehyde levels in hPSCs. Acetaldehyde and DMS/ethanethiol may be indicators of altered metabolism pathways in physiological oxygen culture conditions. The identification of non-destructive biomarkers for hPSC characterization has the potential to facilitate large-scale in vitro manufacture for future biomedical application.