REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1785.v1
Online: 25 August 2023 (11:50:54 CEST)
Fractures are the most common large organ trauma in humans. The initial inflammatory re-sponse promotes bone healing during the initial post-fracture phase, but chronic and persistent inflammation due to infection or other factors does not contribute to the healing process. The precise mechanisms by which immune cells and their cytokines are regulated in bone healing remain unclear. The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for cellular therapy of bones injury is a novel clinical treatment approach. Bone progenitor MSCs not only differentiate into bone, but also interact with the immune system to promote the healing process. We review in vitro and in vivo studies on the role of the immune system and bone marrow MSCs in bone healing and their interactions. A deeper understanding of this paradigm may provide clues to potential therapeu-tic targets in the healing process, thereby improving the reliability and safety of clinical applica-tions of MSCs to promote bone healing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1553.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Extracellular Vesicles, immune response, mycosis
Online: 24 July 2023 (10:28:58 CEST)
Like other organisms, fungi produce extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are involved in various biological processes, including intercellular communication and the transport of molecules between cells. These EVs can be applied in fungal pathogenesis, virulence, and interactions with other organisms, including host cells, in the case of fungal infections. While some types of mycoses are relatively common and easily treatable, certain neglected mycoses pose significant public health challenges, such as sporotrichosis, chromoblastomycosis, and paracoccidioidomycosis. These infectious diseases can cause significant morbidity and disability, leading to a reduced quality of life for the patients. So, research about the virulence factor is essential to understand how fungi escape the immune system. In this context, this manuscript reviews the study of fungi EVs, their cargo, their obtaining, and their role during the infectious process, which is extremely important for understanding this neglected mycosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0270.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: RhoA; cardiac inflammation; immune cells; cardiocrine signaling; cardiac diseases
Online: 9 June 2021 (21:49:26 CEST)
Chronic inflammation, the activation of immune cells and their cross-talk with cardiomyocytes in the pathogenesis and progression of heart diseases has long been overlooked. However, with the latest research developments, it is increasingly accepted that a vicious cycle exists where cardiomyocytes release cardiocrine signaling molecules that spirals down to immune cell activation and chronic state of low‐level inflammation. For example, cardiocrine molecules released from injured or stressed cardiomyocytes can stimulate macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils and even T-cells, which then subsequently increase cardiac inflammation by co-stimulation and positive feedback-loops. One of the key proteins involved in stress-mediated cardiomyocyte signal transduction is a small GTPase RhoA. Importantly, the regulation of RhoA activation is critical for effective immune cell response and is being considered as one of the potential therapeutic targets in many immune-cell-mediated inflammatory diseases. In this review we provide an update on the role of RhoA at the juncture of immune cell activation, inflammation and cardiac disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0117.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: footrot; sheep; cell culture; immune respsonse
Online: 10 October 2022 (09:56:09 CEST)
Ovine footrot is a complex multifactorial infectious disease, causing lameness in sheep with major welfare and economic consequences. Dichelobacter nodosus is the main causative bacterium, however, footrot is a polymicrobial disease with Fusobacterium necrophorum, Mycoplasma fermentans and Porphyromonas asaccharolytica also associated. There is limited understanding of the host response involved. Proinflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)-1β and C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 8 (CXCL8) have been shown to play a role in the early response to D. nodosus in dermal fibroblasts and interdigital skin explant models. To further understand the response of ovine skin to bacterial stimulation, and to build the understanding of the role of the cytokines and chemokines identified in transcriptomic data, primary ovine interdigital fibroblasts and keratinocytes were isolated, cultured and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), D. nodosus or F. necrophorum in the presence and absence of M. fermentans, whilst measuring mRNA expression and protein release of CXCL8 and, IL-1β. Stimulation with LPS, D. nodosus or F. necrophorum resulted in increased transcript levels of IL-1β and CXCL8 in M. fermentans free cells, however, only an increase in CXCL8 protein release was observed. No IL-1β protein release was detected despite increases in IL-1β mRNA, suggesting the signal for intracellular pre-IL-1β processing may be lacking when culturing primary cells in isolation. Keratinocytes and fibroblasts naturally infected with M. fermentans showed little response to LPS, a range of D. nodosus preparations or heat-inactivated F. necrophorum. Primary single cell culture models complement ex vivo organ culture models to study different aspects of the host response to D. nodosus. Ovine keratinocytes and fibroblasts infected with M. fermentans had a reduced response to experimental bacterial stimulation. However, in the case of footrot where Mycoplasma spp. are associated with diseased feet, this natural infection gives important insights into the impact of multiple pathogens on the host response.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0489.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: chemotherapy; breast cancer metastasis; stress response; ATF3; seed and soil theory; cancer-host interaction; tumor microenvironment; immune modulation; tumor immune environment
Online: 29 August 2018 (09:05:46 CEST)
An emerging picture in cancer biology is that, paradoxically, chemotherapy can actively induce changes that favor cancer progression. These pro-cancer changes can be either inside (intrinsic) or outside (extrinsic) the cancer cells. In this review, we will discuss the extrinsic pro-cancer effect of chemotherapy; that is, the effect of chemotherapy on the non-cancer host cells to promote cancer progression. We will focus on metastasis, and will first discuss recent data from mouse models of breast cancer. Intriguingly, despite reducing the size of primary tumors, chemotherapy changes the tumor microenvironment, resulting in an increased escape of cancer cells into the blood stream. Furthermore, chemotherapry changes the tissue microenvironment at the distant sites, making it more hospitable to cancer cells upon their arrival. We will then discuss the idea and evidence that these devastating pro-metastatic effects of chemotherapy can be explained in the context of stress response. At the end, we will discuss the potential relevance of these mouse data to human breast cancer and their implication on chemotherapy in the clinic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0217.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, Immune response, Pandemic
Online: 4 October 2023 (07:54:10 CEST)
COVID-19 pandemic outbreak challenged the global public health in last couple of years. Throughout the pandemic period, numbers of mutant strains of SARS- CoV-2 created challenges for the infected patients with diverse pathophysiology and immune response. Variant of Concern (VOC) alpha (B.1.1.7), delta (B.1.617.2) and omicron (B.1.1.529) grew most notable for causing the epidemiological manifestations, which eventually caused elevated infectivity resulting in significant mortality. This review indicates the comparative analysis of the immune-pathophysiological mechanisms in respect to the aforementioned strains of SARS-CoV-2.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0580.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Immune system; Oxidative stress; Nanoparticles; Intracellular Pathogens
Online: 28 October 2020 (10:05:05 CET)
The immune system is a dynamic network of cells and cytokines are the major mediators of immune responses which combat pathogens. Based on the cytokine production, effector T cells differentiate into subsets known as Th1, Th2, Th17 or Treg (T regulatory). This system serves as a barrier to intracellular pathogens, bacterial infections and stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) and nitric oxide (NO), which diffuses across membranes and engulfs intracellular pathogens. Oxidative stress occurs when ROS, reactive nitrogen species (RNS) production and antioxidant defences become imbalanced. Oxidative stress generated by infected cells produces a substantial amount of free radicals which enables killing of intracellular pathogens. Intracellular pathogens are exposed to endogenous ROS as part of normal aerobic respiration, also aexogenous ROS and RNS are generated by the host immune system in response to infection. Nanoparticles which are designed for drug delivery are capable of trapping the desired drug in the particles which protects the drug from enzymatic degradation in a biological system. The small (subcellular) size of nanoparticles enables higher intracellular uptake of the drug which results in the reduction of the concentration of free drugs reducing their toxic effect. Research on the modulation of immune response and oxidative stress using nanoparticles used to encapsulate drugs has yet to be explored fully. In this review we illustrate the immune activation and generation of oxidative stress properties which are mediated by nanoparticle encapsulated drug delivery systems which can make the therapy more effective in case of diseases caused by intracellular pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0426.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 infection; innate immune response; antigen-specific immune response; kinetic coordination; mathematical model; pathogenesis, long COVID-19
Online: 27 July 2022 (15:11:44 CEST)
A calibrated mathematical model of antiviral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is developed. The model considers the innate and antigen-specific responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Recently published data sets from human challenge studies with SARS-CoV-2 were used for parameter estimation. Understanding the regulation of multiple intertwined reaction components of the immune system is necessary for linking the clinical phenotypes of COVID-19 with the kinetics of immune responses. Consideration of multiple immune reaction components in a single calibrated mathematical model allowed us to address some fundamental issues related to pathogenesis of COVID-19, i.e. sensitivity of the peak viral load to parameters characterizing the specific response components, the kinetic coordination of the individual responses, and the factors favoring a prolonged viral persistence. The model provides a tool for predicting the infectivity of patients, i.e. the amount of virus which is transmitted via droplets from the person infected with SARS-CoV-2, depending on the time of infection. The thresholds in the relative unbalance between innate and adaptive response parameters which lead to a prolonged persistence of SARS-CoV-2 due to the loss of a kinetic response synchrony/coordination were identified.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1026.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: insulin resistance; insulin sensitivity; innate immune system, adaptive immune system, inflammatory response; obesity; visceral adipose tissue; insulin; insulin receptor; insulin signaling
Online: 15 May 2023 (10:37:48 CEST)
The comprehensive anabolic effects of insulin throughout the body, in addition to the control of glycemia, also include ensuring lipid homeostasis and anti-inflammatory modulation, especially in adipose tissue (AT). The prevalence of obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2, has been increasing worldwide on a pandemic scale with accompanying syndemic health problems, including glucose intolerance, insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes. Impaired tissue sensitivity to insulin or IR paradoxically leads to diseases with an inflammatory component despite hyperinsulinemia. Therefore, an excess of visceral AT in obesity initiates chronic low-grade inflammatory conditions that interfere with insulin signaling via insulin receptor (INSR). Moreover, in response to IR, hyperglycemia itself stimulates a primarily defensive inflammatory response associated with the subsequent release of numerous inflammatory cytokines and a real threat of organ function deterioration. In this review, all components of this vicious cycle are characterized with particular emphasis on the interplay between insulin signaling and both the innate and adaptive immune responses related to obesity. Increased visceral AT accumulation in obesity should be considered the main environmental factor responsible for the disruption in the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in the immune system, resulting in autoimmunity and inflammation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0372.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: immune checkpoint inhibitors; non-small cell lung carcinoma; PD-1; PD-L1; immune PET; immunotherapy; Radiomics; PET/CT
Online: 18 August 2021 (08:20:43 CEST)
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death and it is usually diagnosed in advanced stages (stage III or IV). Recently, the availability of targeted strategies and of immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) has favorably changed patient prognosis. Treatment outcome is closely related to tumor biology and interaction with the host immune microenvironment (TME). Whether for targeted therapies the response relies on the presence of specific genetic alterations in tumor cells, for ICI accurate biomarkers of response are lacking and clinical outcome likely depends on multiple factors, host and tumor-related. This paper is an overview of the ongoing research on predictive factors both from in-vitro/ex-vivo analysis (ranging from conventional pathology to molecular biology) and in-vivo analysis, where molecular imaging is showing an exponential growth and use due to the technological advancement and to the new bioinformatics approaches applied to image analyses that allow specific features recovery in specific tumor subclones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0297.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Protein Kinase Receptor (PKR); Mammarenavirus; Interferon; Innate immune response; Mx1; ISG15; CCL5
Online: 13 May 2021 (13:27:07 CEST)
The New World (NW) mammarenavirus group includes several zoonotic highly pathogenic viruses, such as Junin (JUNV) or Machupo (MACV). Contrary to Old World mammarenavirus, these viruses are not able to completely suppress the innate immune response, and trigger a robust interferon (IFN)-I response via retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I). Nevertheless, pathogenic NW mammarenaviruses trigger a weaker IFN response than their non-pathogenic relatives do. RIG-I activation leads to upregulation of a plethora of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), which exert a characteristic antiviral effect either as lone effectors, or resulting from the combination with other ISGs or cellular factors. The dsRNA sensor-protein kinase receptor (PKR) is an ISG that plays a pivotal role in the control of the mammarenavirus infection. In addition to its well-known protein synthesis inhibition, PKR further modulates the overall IFN-I response against different viruses, including mammarenaviruses. For this study, we employed Tacaribe virus (TCRV), the closest relative of the human pathogenic JUNV. Our findings indicate that PKR does not only increase IFN-I expression against TCRV infection, but also affects the kinetic expression and the extent of induction of Mx1 and ISG15 at both levels, mRNA and protein expression. Moreover, TCRV fails to prevent the effect of PKR on viral protein translation and its viral titer is inhibited when PKR is pre-stimulated via IFN-I. Here, we provide first evidence of the specific immunomodulatory role of PKR over selected ISGs, altering the dynamic of the innate immune response course against TCRV. IMPORTANCE: The mechanisms for innate immune evasion are key for emergence and adaptation of human pathogenic arenaviruses, and highly pathogenic mammarenaviruses such as JUNV or MACV trigger a weaker IFN response than non-pathogenic mammarenaviruses. Within the innate immune response context, PKR plays an important role in sensing and restricting the infection of TCRV virus. Although the mechanism of PKR for protein synthesis inhibition is well described, its immunomodulatory role is less understood. In this study, we found that TCRV protein expression and viral propagation are inhibited from early times after infection, and when externally activated, PKR inhibits TCRV viral progeny production. Our present findings further characterize the innate immune response in absence of PKR, unveiling the role of PKR in defining the ISG profile after viral infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1896.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; abatacept; CTLA4-Ig; biomarkers; immune cells; Th1; proteomics
Online: 30 October 2023 (10:23:29 CET)
Abatacept (CTLA4-Ig) – a monoclonal antibody which restricts T cell activation – is an effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Herein, we aimed to investigate for biomarkers of response to abatacept. We performed a detailed immunological profiling of CTLA4-treated RA patients’ peripheral blood (PB) cells and sera using flow cytometry and proteomics analysis, respectively. At 6 months of treatment, 34.5% of patients attained clinical response. Notably, baseline levels of Th1 and myeloid cell populations were significantly elevated in PB of responders compared to non-responders (P-value<0.05). Additionally, proteomics analysis revealed 10 amongst 303 molecules which were associated with clinical responses. Should the present data be confirmed in a larger cohort could be of clinical value.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0075.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Probiotics; Bacillus subtilis; growth performance; immune-hematological parameters; stress resistance
Online: 2 March 2021 (11:06:52 CET)
Aquaculture is one of the fastest-growing animal food-producing agricultural industries in the world and proper performance of fish in morphological, physiological and immunological aspects is important for fish production and sustainable expansion of aquaculture. But several inhibitors like disease, pathogen, and adverse environment can overpower these performances. At present, antibiotics in preventing these inhibitors have been seen as becoming favorable to those inhibitors. So, Bacillus, an important group of probiotic bacteria can be an alternative to these antibiotics in aquaculture. Bacillus has been seen used in different experiments, mainly as a supplement in feed at various concentrations. Bacillus showed effective results like improved growth with minimum cost, improvement in reproduction, hematology, improved immune response and disease, and stress resistance as well as better proximate composition in different fish species. Application of Bacillus strains has proven efficient in improving water quality by reducing ammonia and nitrite toxicity, harmful algal blooms and utilization of H+ ion. Larger application of probiotic Bacillus instead of the hazardous synthetic chemicals would promote eco-friendly low-input sustainable aquaculture for food and nutritional security of the increasing world population. So many more experiments should be conducted in commercially important fishes for better growth and health of fishes which will certainly increase fish
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0314.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: schizophrenia; first episode psychosis; antipsychotic; immune; inflammation; cytokines
Online: 17 September 2018 (14:13:38 CEST)
Background: First episode psychosis (FEP), schizophrenia and affective disorders are accompanied by activation of the immune inflammatory response system (IRS). The compensatory immune-regulatory reflex system (CIRS) is a regulatory immune response that is induced by the IRS but exerts negative feedback through, for example, increased levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-13 and IL-10. Different phenotypes of schizophrenia may exhibit distinct IRS and CIRS immune profiles.Aims: This study aims to examine the IRS and CIRS components, including macrophagic M1, T-helper (Th)-1, Th-2, Th-17 and T-regulatory (Treg) phenotypes, in antipsychotic-naïve FEP patients before and after risperidone treatment.Methods: We included 31 antipsychotic-naïve FEP patients who had measurements of IRS and CIRS biomarkers before and after treatment with risperidone for 10 weeks, and 22 healthy controls.Results: Antipsychotic-naive FEP patients showed interrelated increments in M1, Th-1, Th-2, Th-17 and Treg phenotypes and a relatively greater IRS response (especially granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-12) as compared with the CIRS response (IL-4, IL-13, IL-5 and IL-10). Inflammatory markers, especially IL-6 and IL-8, were significantly correlated with negative, psychotic, affective and excitation symptom dimensions. Treatment with risperidone significantly suppressed the IRS and CIRS. Baseline levels of CIRS biomarkers, especially higher soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 and IL-10 predicted clinical improvement during treatment.Discussion: Our findings indicate that FEP is characterized by robust IRS (M1 + Th-1 + Th-17) and CIRS responses, suggesting that monocytes, macrophages, Th-1, Th-2, Th-17 and Treg cells are activated. The findings indicate that a) FEP patients are prone to the detrimental effects of M1, Th-1, Th-17 and Th-2 cells, which may contribute to long-lasting abnormalities in brain circuitry; and b) in FEP, the CIRS may contribute to recovery from the acute phase of illness. Enhancing the CIRS is a new drug target to treat FEP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0109.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Sporotrichosis; Gene Expression; Invertebrates; Antimicrobial Peptides; Zoonosis; Immune response
Online: 4 September 2023 (07:11:48 CEST)
Sporothrix brasiliensis is the most pathogenic species, responsible for the Brazilian cat-transmitted sporotrichosis hyperendemics. In this scenario, investigation of pathogen-host interaction can provide relevant information for future treatment strategies. To this end, the invertebrate Galleria mellonella has proven to be a suitable alternative to evaluate the virulence of pathogenic fungi since the insect immune system is similar to the mammalian innate immune response. The aim of this work was to investigate phenotypic and molecular aspects of the immune response of G. mellonella throughout the S. brasiliensis infection. Hemocyte density and the evolution of the fungal load were evaluated. In parallel, RT- qPCR expression analysis of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides (Gallerimycin and Galiomycin) and stress management genes (C7 Contig 15362 and C8 Contig 1910) was conducted. Fungal load and hemocyte densities were proportionally increasing simultaneously to the deleterious morphological events and larvae mortality. Gallerimycin, C7 Contig 15362, and C8 Contig 19101 genes were positively regulated (p<0.05) at distinct moments of S. brasiliensis infection, characterizing a time-dependent and alternately modulated profile. Galiomycin gene expression remained unchanged. Our results contribute to the future proposal of potential alternative pathways to treat and, consequently, control S. brasiliensis zoonosis, a major public Health in Latin America.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1204.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: gastric cancer; Nivolumab; immune response; tumor microenvironment; RNA-Seq
Online: 19 October 2023 (03:29:48 CEST)
Background: We investigated the tumor immune response in gastric cancer patients receiving third line nivolumab monotherapy to identify immune-related biomarkers for better patient se-lection. Methods: Nineteen patients (10 males, median age 67 years) who received nivolumab as a third or later line therapy were enrolled. We analyzed the tumor immune response in durable clinical benefit (DCB) and non-DCB patients. Pre-treatment and early-on-treatment tumor transcriptomes were examined, and gene expression profiles, immunograms, and T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire were analyzed. Results: DCB was observed in 15.8% of patients, with comparable secondary endpoints (ORR, OS, PFS) to previous trials. Individual immunograms showed no significant changes before and ear-ly-on-treatment, nor consistent alterations among DCB cases. The intratumoral immune response was suppressed by previous treatments in most third or later line nivolumab recipients. TCR repertoire analysis revealed newly emerged clonotypes in on-treatment tumors, but clonal re-placement did not impact efficacy. High T cells/Tregs ratios and a low UV radiation response gene signature were linked to DCB and treatment response. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the tumor immune response's importance in nivolumab ef-ficacy for gastric cancer. High T cells/Tregs ratios and specific gene expression signatures show promise as potential biomarkers for treatment response. Larger cohort validation is crucial to optimize immune checkpoint inhibitors in gastric cancer treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0432.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Humoral immune response; Persistence; South Africa
Online: 8 May 2023 (03:29:35 CEST)
This study assesses the durability of severe acute respiratory coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) anti-nucleocapsid (anti-N) immunoglobulin G (IgG) after infection, and examines its association with established risk factors among South African healthcare workers (HCWs). Blood samples were obtained from 390 HCWs with diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) for assay of the SARS-CoV-2 anti-N IgG at two time points (Phase 1 & 2) between November 2020 and February 2021. Out of 390 HCWs with COVID-19 diagnosis, 267 (68.5%) had detectable SARS-CoV-2 anti-N IgG antibodies at the end of phase I. These antibodies persisted for 4-5 and 6-7 months in 76.4% and 16.1%, respectively. In the multivariate logistic regression model analysis, black participants were more likely to sustain SARS-CoV-2 anti-N IgG for 4-5 months. However, participants who were HIV positive were less likely to sustain SARS-CoV-2 anti-N IgG antibodies for 4-5 months. In addition, individuals who were <45 years of age were more likely to sustain SARS-CoV-2 anti-N IgG for 6-7 months. Of the 202 HCWs selected for phase 2, 116 participants (57.4%) had persistent SARS-CoV-2 anti-N IgG for an extended mean period of 223 days (7.5 months). Findings support the longevity of vaccine responses against SARS CoV-2 in black Africans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0325.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Immune checkpoint inhibitors; Anti-tumor immunity; Predictive biomarker; Malignant melanoma; NSCLC
Online: 18 January 2023 (08:39:18 CET)
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are currently use in a wide range of tumors, but only 20-40% of patients achieve clinical benefit. Aim of our study was to find predictive biomarkers of ICI treatment. We analyzed by immunohistochemistry various cell subsets, including CD3+ cells, CD8+ cells, CD68+ cells, CD20+ cells, FoxP3+ cells, and molecules as LAG-3, IDO1, TGfβ. Comprehensive genomic profiles were analyzed. Correlation of various biomarkers with efficacy of ICI treatment in patients with advanced solid tumors was evaluated. We evaluated 56 patients treated with ICI monotherapy. Longer median progression-free survival (PFS) was found in tumors negative for nuclear FoxP3 (P = 0.002, HR 0.14) and in TMB-high tumors (P = 0.024, HR 0.38). Longer overall survival (OS) was found in patient with intraepithelial CD8 negativity (P = 0.045, HR 0.47). In malignant melanoma CD68 negativity, FoxP3 negativity and PDL TPS ≥ 1 was associated with longer PFS. In NSCLC FoxP3 was associated with longer PFS and OS. We found that absence of expression of several biomarkers such as CD68 and FoxP3 is associated with better survival. TMB-high and PD-L1 expression not universally but in certain disease could predict response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1494.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: microgravity; chemotherapy; paclitaxel; hydroxyurea; morphometry; drug response; immune dysfunction; space medicine; terrestrial medicine; fluorescence microscopy
Online: 21 June 2023 (07:34:49 CEST)
Unlike plants which have special gravity-sensing cells, such special cells in animals are yet to be discovered. However, microgravity, the condition of apparent weightlessness, causes bone, muscular and immune system dysfunctions in astronauts following spaceflights. Decades of investigations show correlations between these organ and system-level dysfunctions with changes induced at the cellular level both by simulated microgravity as well as microgravity conditions in outer space. Changes in single bone, muscle and immune cells include morphological abnormalities, altered gene expression, protein expression, metabolic pathways and signaling pathways. These suggest that human cells mount some response to microgravity. However, the implications of such adjustments on many cellular functions and responses are not clear. Here, we addressed the question whether microgravity induces alterations to drug response in cancer cells. We used both adherent cancer cells (T98G) and cancer cells in suspension (K562) to confirm known effects of microgravity and then treated the K562 cells with common cancer drugs (hydroxyurea and paclitaxel) following 48 hours of exposure to microgravity via a NASA-developed rotary cell culture system. Fluorescence-guided morphometry revealed microgravity-induced loss of the significant reduction (p < 0.0l) to the nuclear to cytoplasm ratio of cancer cells treated with hydroxyurea. Our results call for more studies on impact of microgravity on cellular drug-response, in view of the growing need for space medicine, as space exploration grows.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0009.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Acanthamoeba keratitis; transcriptome analysis; immune status; differentially expressed genes; SLAMF7/STAT6 pathway
Online: 3 January 2023 (07:33:07 CET)
Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a blinding corneal infection caused by the protozoan Acanthamoeba. The long-term course of AK suggests the host immunity could not kill Acanthamoeba rapidly. The immune status is still unclear in the late stage of AK. The comparative transcriptome analysis was made based on the bulk RNA sequencing of cornea tissues from AK patients and donors. Differentially expressed genes and enriched signaling pathways were calculated. CIBERSORT algorithm was used for Immune infiltration analysis of cornea tissue between AK and normal controls. A total of 2668 differentially expressed genes, including 1477 upregulated genes and 1191 downregulated genes, were detected. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that the pathways were significantly enriched in leukocyte migration, regulation of T cell activation, the external side of plasma membrane, collagen-containing extracellular matrix, immune receptor activity and cytokine binding. KEGG pathway analysis showed that the pathways were significantly enriched in the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, hematopoietic cell lineage and Staphylococcus aureus infection pathway. The immune infiltration profiles varied little between AK and normal controls. Compared with normal tissue, cornea tissue of AK contained a higher proportion of M0 macrophages and CD8 T cells, while resting memory CD4 T cells contributed to a relatively lower portion (P < 0.05). Finally, the expression levels of cell markers and SLAMF7/STAT6 pathway were confirmed by histopathology examinations, RT-qPCR and western blot.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0277.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Huntington’s disease; transgenic Drosophila; immune response; phenoloxidase activity; phagocytosis; reactive oxygen species
Online: 16 September 2021 (11:05:34 CEST)
Huntington’s disease (HD) is a late-onset; progressive, dominantly inherited neurological disorder marked by an abnormal expansion of polyglutamine (poly Q) repeats in Huntingtin (HTT) protein. The pathological effects of mutant Huntingtin (mHTT) are not restricted to the nervous system but systemic abnormalities including immune dysregulation have been evidenced in clinical and experimental settings of HD. Indeed, mutant huntingtin (mHTT) is ubiquitously expressed and could induce cellular toxicity by directly acting on immune cells. However, it is still unclear if selective expression ofmHTT exon1 in neurons could induce immune responses and hemocyte function. In the present study, we intended to monitor perturbations in the hemocytes population and their physiological functions in Drosophila, caused by pan-neuronal expression of mHTT protein. We found that pan-neuronal expression of mHtt significantly alters crystal cells and plasmatocyte count in larvae and adults with disease progression. Interestingly, plasmatocytes isolated from diseased conditions exhibit a gradual decline in phagocytic activity ex vivo at progressive stages of the disease as compared to age-matched control groups. We also observed an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plasmatocytes at advanced stages of the disease. In addition, diseased flies displayed elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in circulating plasmatocytes at the larval stage and in sessile plasmatocytes of hematopoietic pockets at of disease. All the parameters were monitored progressively, targeting the circulation at larvae stage and hematopoietic pockets in adults at different disease stages, and many alterations were documented in the early stage itself. These findings strongly implicate that neuronal expression of mHtt alone is sufficient to induce non-cell-autonomous immune dysregulation in vivo. Based on these findings, we propose that further insight into the mechanisms through which neuronal expression of mHtt might be inflicting the innate immune responses would facilitate therapeutic inventions aimed at amelioration of HD pathology and improving the quality of life of the patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1337.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Sars-Cov-2; COVID-19; Immune response; Cytokine storm; acute infection
Online: 19 June 2023 (10:57:08 CEST)
Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate some mechanisms of the immune response of people infected with SARS-CoV-2 in both acute infection and early and late convalescence phases. Methods: This is a cohort study of 70 cases of COVID-19, confirmed by RT-PCR, followed up to 60 days. Plasma Samples and clinical data were. Viral load, blood count, indicators inflammation were the parameters evaluated. Cellular immune response was evaluated by flow cytometry and Luminex immunoassays. Results: In the severe group, hypertension was the only reported comorbidity. Non severe patients have activated memory naive CD4+ T cells. Critically ill patients have central memory CD4+ T cell activation. Severe COVIS-19 patients have both central memory TCD8+ T cells and activated effector TCD8+ cells. Non-severe COVID-19 cases showed an increase in IL1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF and severely ill patients had higher levels of the cytokines IL-6, IL-10 and CXCL8.Conclusion: The present work showed that different cellular responses are observed according to the COVID-19 severity in patients from Brazil an epicenter the pandemic in South America. Also, we notice that some cytokines can be used as predictive markers for the disease outcome, possibility implementation of strategies effective by health managers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0114.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Immune response; SARS-CoV-2 antibodies response; Covid-19 management; Maglumi; Architect; method comparison.
Online: 5 August 2020 (08:09:11 CEST)
The role of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is not yet well known, in particular about the persistence of circulating antibodies. The aim of the study is to compare the results of two automated systems for the determination of IgG antibodies against SARS CoV-2 and to assess the time course of the IgG response after the onset of symptoms for a period longer than that evaluated to date. IgG were measured in 98 specimens of 55 subjects with COVID-19 (time from the onset of symptoms from 3 to 109 days) using the automated tests "Abbott SARS-COV-2 IgG" and the "MAGLUMI 2019-nCoV IgG". The two methods had a concordance of 91.8%, but the quantitative correlation showed very dispersed results. All the specimens resulted positive after 17 days from the onset of the synptoms. However, the median concentrations of IgG, after a rapid increase up to about 20 days, quickly decrease to about 15% of the maximum for Maglumi. The same samples measured by Architect showed a quite constant trend up to 80 day, and then an only moderate decline. The titer of IgG against SARS-CoV-2 in patients exposed to COVID-19 may significantly and rapidly decrease, with a different time-course depending on the method used for the determination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0013.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Aedes aegypti, Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteins, Zika virus, Chikungunya virus, immune responses, gene expression
Online: 3 January 2019 (12:12:05 CET)
Aedes aegypti (L.) is the primary vector of chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever and Zika viruses. The leucine-rich repeats (LRR)-containing domain is evolutionarily conserved in many proteins associated with innate immunity in invertebrates and vertebrates, as well as plants. We focused on the AaeLRIM1 and AaeAPL1 gene expressions in response to Zika virus (ZIKV) and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection using a time course study, as well as the developmental expressions in the eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults. RNA-seq analysis data provided 60 leucine-rich repeat related transcriptions in Ae. aegypti in response to Zika virus (Accession number: GSE118858, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gds/?term=GSE118858). RNA-seq analysis data showed that AaeLRIM1 (AAEL012086-RA) and AaeAPL1 (AAEL009520-RA) were significantly upregulated 2.5 and 3-fold during infection by ZIKV 7-days post infection (dpi) of an Ae. aegypti Key West strain compared to an Orlando strain. The qPCR data showed that LRR-containing proteins AaeLRIM1, AaeAPL1 and five paralogues were expressed 100-fold lower than other nuclear genes, such as defensin, during all developmental stages examined. Together, these data provide insights into transcription profiles of LRR proteins of Ae. aegypti during its development and in response to infection with emergent arboviruses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0180.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: oxidative stress; nitrosative stress; immune response; inflammation; antioxidants; LPS
Online: 10 May 2021 (11:43:52 CEST)
An immune-inflammatory response is accompanied by increased nitro-oxidative stress. The aims of this mechanistic review are to review: a) the role of redox sensitive transcription factors and enzymes, ROS/RNS production and the activity of cellular antioxidants on the activation and performance of macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, T cells, B cells and natural killer cells; b) the involvement of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein (Apo)A1, paraoxonase (PON)-1, and oxidized phospholipids in the regulation of the immune response; and c) the detrimental effects of hypernitrosylation and chronic nitro-oxidative stress on the immune response. The redox changes during immune-inflammatory responses are orchestrated by the actions of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, HIF1alpha, the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTor), the phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K) / protein kinase B (AKT) signalling pathway, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). The performance and survival of individual immune cells is under redox control and sensitive to intracellular and extracellular levels of ROS/RNS and is heavily influenced by cellular anti-oxidants including the glutathione and thioredoxin systems, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2), and the HDL complex. Chronic nitro-oxidative stress and hypernitrosylation inhibit the activity of those antioxidant systems, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, mitochondrial functions, and the metabolism of immune cells. In conclusion, those redox-associated mechanisms modulate metabolic reprogramming of immune cells, macrophage and T helper cell polarization, phagocytosis, production of pro- versus anti-inflammatory cytokines, immune training and tolerance, chemotaxis, pathogen sensing, antiviral and antibacterial effects, Toll-like receptor activity, and endotoxin tolerance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0104.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: C19ORF66; FLJ11286; shiftless; SVA-1; RyDEN; IRAV; ISG; innate immune response; RNA stabil-ity; translation; RNA granules; ribosomal frameshift
Online: 9 May 2022 (05:57:15 CEST)
Since its initial characterization in 2016, the interferon stimulated gene Shiftless (SHFL) has proven to be a critical piece of the innate immune response to viral infection. SHFL expression stringently restricts the replication of multiple DNA, RNA, and retroviruses with an extraordinary diversity of mechanisms that differ from one virus to the next. These inhibitory strategies include the negative regulation of viral RNA stability, translation, and even the manipulation of RNA granule formation during viral infection. Even more surprisingly, SHFL is the first human protein found to directly inhibit the activity of the -1 programmed ribosomal frameshift, a translation recoding strategy utilized across nearly all domains of life and a several human viruses. Recent literature has shown that SHFL expression also significantly impacts viral pathogenesis in mouse models, highlighting its in-vivo efficacy. To help reconcile the many mechanisms by which SHFL restricts viral replication, we provide here a comprehensive review of this complex ISG, its influence over viral RNA fate, and the implications of its functions on the virus-host arms race for control of the cell.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0206.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: helial-mesenchymal transition; EMT spectrum; hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotypes; CTC clusters; stemness; immune suppression; EMT metrics; systems biology
Online: 18 April 2019 (08:02:27 CEST)
Cancer cells can acquire a spectrum of stable hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal (E/M) states during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Cells in these hybrid E/M phenotypes often combine epithelial and mesenchymal features and tend to migrate collectively commonly as small clusters. Such collectively migrating cancer cells play a pivotal role in seeding metastases and their presence in cancer patients indicates an adverse prognostic factor. Moreover, cancer cells in hybrid E/M phenotypes tend to be more associated with stemness which endows them with tumor-initiation ability and therapy resistance. Most recently, cells undergoing EMT have been shown to promote immune suppression for better survival. A systematic understanding of the emergence of hybrid E/M phenotypes and the connection of EMT with stemness and immune suppression would contribute to more effective therapeutic strategies. In this review, we first discuss recent efforts combining theoretical and experimental approaches to elucidate mechanisms underlying EMT multi-stability (i.e. the existence of multiple stable phenotypes during EMT) and the properties of hybrid E/M phenotypes. Following we discuss non-cell-autonomous regulation of EMT by cell cooperation and extracellular matrix. Afterwards, we discuss various metrics that can be used to quantify EMT spectrum. We further describe possible mechanisms underlying the formation of clusters of circulating tumor cells. Last but not least, we summarize recent systems biology analysis of the role of EMT in the acquisition of stemness and immune suppression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1039.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Keywords: sickle cell anaemia, chronic inflammation, immune system, oxidative stress, hemolysis, blood transfusion
Online: 17 July 2023 (09:25:33 CEST)
Abstract Sickle cell anaemia (SCD) is a life-threatening haematological disorder which is predominant in sub-Saharan Africa and is triggered by a genetic mutation of the β-chain haemoglobin gene resulting in the substitution of glutamic acid with valine. This mutation leads to the production of an abnormal haemoglobin molecule called haemoglobin S (HbS). When deoxygenated, haemoglobin S (HbS) polymerizes and results in a sickle-shaped red blood cell which is rigid and has a significantly shortened life span. Various reports have shown a strong link between oxidative stress, inflammation, the immune response, and the pathogenesis of sickle cell disease. The consequence of these processes lead to the development of vasculopathy (disease of the blood vessels) and several other complications. The role of the immune system, particularly the innate immune system, in the pathogenesis of SCD has become increasingly clear in recent years of research, However, little is known about the roles of the adaptive immune system in this disease. This review examines the interaction between the immune system, inflammation, oxidative stress, blood transfusion, and their effects on the pathogenesis of sickle cell anaemia
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0241.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Nipah virus; air-liquid interface culture; respiratory epithelium; mass spectrometry; immune response
Online: 14 March 2023 (02:50:52 CET)
Respiratory tract epithelium infection plays a primary role in Nipah virus (NiV) pathogenesis and transmission. Knowledge about infection dynamics and host responses to NiV infection in respir-atory tract epithelia is scarce. Studies in non-differentiated primary respiratory tract cells or cell lines indicate insufficient interferon (IFN) responses. However, studies are lacking to determin-ing complex host response patterns in differentiated respiratory tract epithelia to understand NiV replication and spread in swine. Here we characterized infection and spread of NiV in differenti-ated primary porcine bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) cultivated at the air-liquid-interface (ALI). After the initial infection of only a few apical cells, lateral spread for 12 days with epithelium disruption was observed without releasing substantial amounts of infectious virus from the api-cal or basal sides. Deep time course proteomics revealed pronounced upregulation of genes re-lated to type I/II- IFN, immunoproteasomal subunits, TAP-mediated peptide transport and MHC I antigen presentation. Spliceosomal factors were downregulated. We propose a model in which NiV replication in PBEC is slowed by a potent and broad type I/II-IFN host response with con-version from 26S proteasomes to immunoproteasomal antigen processing and improved MHC I presentation for adaptive immunity priming. NiV induced cytopathic effects could reflect the focal release of cell-associated NiV, which may contribute to efficient airborne viral spread between pigs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0393.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer; cancer vaccines; immunotherapy; focal therapy; combination immunotherapy; tumor immune microenvironment; in vivo vaccination
Online: 26 July 2022 (08:01:20 CEST)
Due to slow progression and susceptibility to radical forms of treatment low-grade PC is associ-ated with high overall survival (OS). With the clinical progression of PC the therapy is getting more complex. The immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) makes PC a difficult target for most immunotherapeutics. Its general immune resistance is established by i.e. immune evasion through Treg cells, synthesis of immunosuppressive mediators, and defective expression of surface neoantigens. The success of sipuleucel-T in clinical trials initiated several other clinical studies that specifically target the immune escape of the tumor and eliminate the immunosuppres-sive properties of TME. In the settings of PC treatment, this can be commonly achieved with radi-ation therapy (RT). Also, focal therapies usually applied for localized PC, such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy, cryotherapy, photodynamic therapy (PDT), or irreversible electroporation (IRE) were shown to boost anti-cancer response. Nevertheless, the present guide-lines restrict their application to localized and low-grade PC. This review explains how RT and focal therapies enhance the immune response. We also provide data supporting the combination of RT and focal treatments with immune therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0171.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Lysophosphatidylcholine; combined antimicrobial treatment; immune response; peritoneal sepsis model; pneumonia model; Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Online: 13 February 2020 (12:48:49 CET)
Immune response stimulation may be an adjuvant to antimicrobial treatment. Here, we evaluated the impact of immune response modification by lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) combined with imipenem or ceftazidime in murine models of peritoneal sepsis (PS) and pneumonia by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Imipenem and ceftazidime-susceptible strain (Pa39), and imipenem and ceftazidime-resistant strain (Pa238) were used. Ceftazidime pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters were determined. Therapeutic efficacy, and TNF-α and IL-10 levels were determined in murine models of PS and pneumonia by Pa39 and Pa238 treated with LPC, imipenem or ceftazidime, alone or in combination. In PS model, LPC+ceftazidime reduced spleen and lungs Pa238 concentrations (-3.45 and -3.56 log10 CFU/g; P<0.05) than ceftazidime monotherapy, while LPC+imipenem maintained the imipenem efficacy (-1.66 and -1.45 log10 CFU/g; P>0.05). In pneumonia model, LPC+ceftazidime or LPC+imipenem reduced lungs Pa238 concentrations (-2.37 log10 CFU/g, P=0.1, or -1.35 log10 CFU/g, P=0.75). For Pa39 no statistically significant difference has been observed in PS and pneumonia models between combined therapy and monotherapy. Moreover, LPC+imipenem and LPC+ceftazidime decreased and increased significantly TNF-α and IL-10 levels, respectively, in comparison with untreated controls and monotherapies. These results demonstrate the impact of immune response modification by LPC plus antibiotics on the prognosis of infections by ceftazidime-resistant P. aeruginosa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0131.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: pharmacogenomics; immune checkpoint blockade; immunotherapy; drug response prediction; algorithm; mathematical model; precision medicine; personalized medicine
Online: 11 August 2019 (14:51:14 CEST)
Background: Accurate prediction of patients’ response to therapy is clinically indispensable, howbeit challenging. With increased understanding of the human genome and malignancies, there is the renaissance of in silico pharmacogenomics with renewed interest in drug response predictability based on gene-drug interaction. Objective: Evidence-based transcript-proteome profiling is essential for synthesizing clinically applicable algorithms for predicting response to anticancer therapy, including immune checkpoint blockade (ICBT); thus, saving physicians’ time, reducing polypharmacy, and curtailing unnecessary treatment expense. In this study, we tested and validated the hypothesis that a selected proteomic signature in ICBT-naïve patients is sufficient for the prediction of response to ICBT. Methods: Using a multimodal approach consisting of computational pharmacogenomics, transcript-proteome analytics, mathematical modeling, and machine learning systems; we delineated therapy-sensitivity and stratified patients into graduated response groups based on their proteomic profile. Protein expression levels in our cohort tissue specimens were evaluated based on T cell- and non-T cell- inflamed phenotypes by immunohistochemistry. Results: We established β-catenin, PDL1, CD3 and CD8 expression-based ICBT response model. Statistical regression models validated the predictive association between our predefined algorithms and therapeutic outcome. Interestingly, our 4-gene prediction classifier was constitutively independent of tumor tissue origin, correctly stratified patients into high-, low-, and non- responders pre-treatment, with high prediction accuracy, and exhibited good association with patients’ performance status and prognosis (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate the possibility of accurate proteomics based ICBT response prediction and provide a putative basis for drug response prediction based on selective proteome profile in untreated cancer patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2226.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: melanoma; cutaneous melanoma; mucosal melanoma; uveal melanoma; immune-checkpoint inhibitors; metabolomics; tryptophan; kynurenine; spermine
Online: 31 May 2023 (10:45:46 CEST)
Cutaneous melanoma (CM) patients respond better to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) than mucosal and uveal melanoma patients (MM/UM). Aiming to explore these differences and understand the distinct response to ICI, we evaluated the serum metabolome of advanced CM, MM, and UM patients. Levels of 115 metabolites were analyzed in samples collected before ICI, using a targeted metabolomics platform. In our analysis, molecules involved in the tryptophan-kynurenine axis distinguished UM/MM from CM. UM/MM patients had higher levels of 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HKyn), whilst patients with CM were found to have higher levels of kynurenic acid (KA). The KA/3-HKyn ratio was significantly higher in CM versus the other subtypes. UM, the most ICI-resistant subtype, was also associated with higher levels of sphingomyelin-d18:1/22:1 and the polyamine spermine (SPM). Overall survival was prolonged in patients with lower SPM levels. Our study revealed distinct metabolomic profile between the most resistant melanoma subtypes, UM and MM, compared to CM. Alterations within the kynurenine pathway, polyamine metabolism and sphingolipid metabolic pathway may contribute to the poor response to ICI. Understanding the different metabolomic profiles introduces opportunities for novel therapies with potential synergic activity to ICI, to improve responses of UM/MM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0145.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: immune checkpoint inhibitors; PD-1; PD-L1; CTLA-4; immunotherapy; target therapy; BRAF; MET; melanoma; [18F]FDG PET/CT
Online: 8 October 2021 (14:14:14 CEST)
Background/Aim: To evaluate the association between baseline [18F]FDG-PET/CT tumor burden parameters and disease progression rate after first-line target therapy or immunotherapy in advanced melanoma patients. Materials and Methods: 44 melanoma patients who underwent [18F]FDG-PET/CT before first-line target therapy (28/50) or immunotherapy (16/50) were retrospectively analyzed. Whole-body and per-district metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were calculated. Therapy response was assessed according to RECIST 1.1 on CT scan at 3 (early) and 12 (late) months. PET parameters were compared with Mann-Whitney test. Optimal cut-offs for predicting progression were defined using the ROC curve. PFS and OS were studied using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: Median(IQR) MTVwb and TLGwb were 13.1 mL and 72.4 respectively. Non-responders patients were 38/44, 26/28 and 12/16 at early evaluation, and in 33/44, 21/28 and 12/16 at late evaluation in the whole-cohort, target and immunotherapy subgroup respectively. At late evaluation, MTVbone and TLGbone were higher in non-responders compared to responder patients (all p<0.037) in the whole-cohort and target subgroup and also MTVwb and TLGwb (all p<0.022) in target subgroup. No significant differences were found for immunotherapy subgroup. No metabolic parameters were able to predict PFS. Controversy, MTVlfn, TLGlfn, MTVsoft+lfn, TLG-soft+lfn, MTVwb and TLGwb were significantly associated (all p<0.05) with OS in both the whole-cohort and target therapy subgroup. Conclusion: Higher values of whole-body and bone metabolic parameters were correlated with poorer outcome, while higher values of whole-body, lymph node and soft tissue metabolic parameters were correlated with OS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0347.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: psoriasis; neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio; platelet/lymphocyte ratio; neutrophil/monocyte ratio; systemic immune-inflammation index
Online: 4 August 2023 (07:52:53 CEST)
Background: Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated skin disease in which systemic inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis. In recent years, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), neutrophil-to-monocyte ratio (NMR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) have been shown to be important indicators of inflammation. In this study, our aim is to investigate NLR, NMR, PLR, and SII levels in psoriasis patients treated with biologic agents. Method: Clinical and biochemical data of 209 patients who received systemic therapy for psoriasis were obtained by retrospectively reviewing their medical records. NLR, NMR, PLR, and SII values were calculated from the hemogram values of the patients. Results: In the third month of follow-up, the mean CRP, NLR, NMR, PLR, and SII values were significantly decreased compared to the baseline values. SII values showed strong positive correlations with NLR, NMR and PLR. Adalimumab, etanercept, and infliximab, which are TNF-α blockers, were observed to be more effective on PLR and NLR and especially NMR. Conclusion: NLR, NMR, PLR, and SII, which are data obtained from routine blood tests, can be used in the monitoring of treatment of psoriasis, especially with TNF- α blockers.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Immune cell; DNA CpGs; Bladder cancer; Subtype; mutation; CNV; Immune score; Immune Checkpoints
Online: 5 September 2020 (06:00:06 CEST)
Background: Bladder cancer (BC) development is highly related to immune cell infiltration and inflammation. This study aimed to construct a new classification of bladder cancer (BC) molecular subtypes based on immune cells-associated CpG sites. Methods: The genes of 28 types of immune cells were obtained from previous studies. Then methylation sites corresponding to immune cells-associated genes were acquired. Differentially methylation sites (DMSs) were identified between normal samples and bladder cancer samples. Unsupervised clustering analysis of differentially methylation sites was performed to divide into several subtypes. Then the potential mechanism of different subtypes was exploded. Result: Bladder cancer patients were divided into three groups. Cluster 3 (methylation-L) subtype had the best prognosis. Cluster 1 (methylation-M) had the worst prognosis. The distribution of immune cells, level expression of checkpoints, stromal score, immune score, ESTIMATEScore, tumor purity, APC_co_inhibition, APC_co_stimulation, HLA, MHC_class_I, Type_I_IFN_Reponse, and Type_II_IFN_Reponse were significant difference among three subgroups. The distribution of genomic alterations was different among them. Conclusion: The classification was accurate and stable. BC patients could be divided into three subtypes based on the immune cells-associated CpG sites. Specific biological signaling pathways, immune mechanisms, and genomic alterations were various among three subgroups. High level immune infiltration was a correlation with high level methylation. The lower RNAss score was associated with higher immune infiltration and higher level expression of CD274.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0016.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Immune checkpoint inhibitors; pediatric solid tumor; immune suppression
Online: 1 April 2021 (12:22:35 CEST)
Tumor microenvironment (TME) represents a complex network between tumor cells and a variety of components including immune, stromal and vascular endothelial cells as well as extracellular matrix. A wide panel of signals and interactions here take place, resulting in a bi-directional modulation of cellular functions. Many stimuli, on one hand, induce tumor growth and spread of metastatic cells and, on the other hand, contribute to the establishment of an immunosuppressive environment. The latter feature is achieved by soothing immune effector cells, mainly cytotoxic T lymphocytes, B and NK cells, and/or through expansion of regulatory cell populations, including regulatory T and B cells, tumor-associated macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. In this context, immune checkpoints (IC) are key players in the control of T cell activation and anti-cancer activities, leading to the inhibition of tumor cell lysis and of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Thus, these pathways represent promising targets for the development of effective and innovative therapies both in adults and childhood. Here we address the role of different cell populations homing the TME and of well-known and recently characterized IC in the context of pediatric solid tumors. We also discuss preclinical and clinical data available using IC inhibitors alone, in combination each other or administered with standard therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0422.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Hemocytes; Innate Immune Cells; Phagocytic Activity; Respiratory Burst; White-Shrimp; Microalgae; Immunomodulator; Toxicity; Extracellular Polysaccharide; Vibrio harveyi; Danio rerio
Online: 18 February 2021 (15:56:44 CET)
Exopolysaccharides or extracellular polysaccharides (EPS, sPS) represent valuable metabolite compound synthesized from red microalgae. It is a non toxic natural agent and can be applied as immunostimulant. Toxicity test of exopolysaccharides from Porphyridium has been done in-vivo using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryonic model, or the ZET (Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test). The administration of extracellular polysaccharide or exopolysaccharides (EPS) from microalgae Porphyridium cruentum (synonym: P. purpureum) on shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated to determine the effect of this immunostimulant on their non specific immune response and to test if this compound can be used as a protective agent for shrimp related to Vibrio infection. For immune response, exopolysaccharides was given to shrimps by immersion method on day 1 and booster on day 8. Shrimp hemocytes were taken on day 1 (EPS administration), day 7 (no treatment), day 8 (EPS booster) and day 9 (Vibrio infection) and tested for their immune response on each treatment. Result shows that the EPS is not toxic as represented by the normal embryonic development and the mortality data. In the Pacific whiteshrimps, it show an increase in values of all immune parameters in line with the increasing EPS concentration, except the Differential Haemocyte Count (DHC). In detail, an increase was noted in total hemocytes (THC) value, Phagocytotic Activity (PA), Respiratory Burst (RB) in line with the EPS concentration increase. These results and other previous studies indicate that EPS from Porphyridium is safe and it enhances immune parameters in shrimp rapidly and has the ability as an immunostimulant or an immunomodulator. It is a good modulator for the non-specific immune cells of Pacific white shrimps, and it can be used as a preventive agent against vibriosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1132.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Atlantic salmon; Salmonid alphavirus 3 (SAV3); Pseudobranch; Immune response; Pancreas disease (PD); In situ hybridization; RNAscope®
Online: 18 October 2023 (08:29:28 CEST)
Salmonid alphavirus strain 3 is responsible for outbreaks of pancreas disease in salmon and rainbow trout in Norway. Although the extensive amount of research on SAV3 focused mainly on the heart and pancreas (of clinical importance), tropism and pathogenesis studies of the virus in other salmon tissues are limited. Here, we used a combination of RT-qPCR (Q_nsp1 gene) and in situ hybridization (RNAscope®) to demonstrate the tropism of SAV3 in situ in tissues of Atlantic salmon, employing a challenge model (by cohabitation). In addition, as previous results suggested that pseudobranch may harbor the virus, the change in the expression of different immune genes upon SAV3 infection (RT-qPCR) was focused on the pseudobranch in the current study. In situ hybridization detected SAV3 in the heart, pseudobranch, gills, pyloric caeca, and pancreas after virus infection, with the heart ventricle showing the most extensive infection. Furthermore, the detection of the virus at different adipose tissues associated with the internal organs of the salmon, suggests a specific affinity of SAV3 to adipocyte’s components. The innate immune response to SAV3 in the pseudobranch after infection dominated over the adaptive responses, yet it did not mitigate the infection in that tissue. The early detection of SAV3 in the pseudobranch after infection, along with the persistent low infection over the experimental course, suggests a pivotal role of the pseudobranch in SAV3 pathogenesis in Atlantic salmon.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: pancreatic cancer; immune surveillance; galectins; immunotherapy; immune checkpoints; stroma
Online: 4 December 2017 (05:17:15 CET)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), the most frequent type of pancreatic cancer, is one of the main unfinished businesses in the biomedical and clinical fields, with still discouraging 5 year survival rates and poor therapy efficiency. PDA abundant desmoplasia has for long played the lead in the mechanisms involved in poor drug performance, being the main source of cytokines and chemokines orchestrating rapid and silent tumor progression and guilty of isolating tumor cells into a extense fibrotic reaction resulting in inefficient drug delivery. However, since immunotherapy was proclaimed the breakthrough of the year back to 2013, the focus in the stroma of pancreatic cancer has interestingly moved from activated fibroblasts to the immune compartment, trying to understand the immunosuppressive factors that play part in the strong immune evasion that characterizes PDA. PDA microenvironment is highly immune-suppressive, being basically composed of T regulatory cells (Tregs), tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and myeloid-derived suppressive cells (MDSCs), which boycott CD8+ T-cell duties in tumor recognition and clearance. Interestingly, preclinical data have highlighted the importance of this immune evasion as the source of resistance to single checkpoint immunotherapies and cancer vaccines and point at pathways inhibiting the immune attack as the key to solve the therapy puzzle. Here, we will discuss the molecular mechanisms involved in PDA immune escape as well as the state of the art of the PDA immunotherapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0103.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: plant immune response; reactive oxygen species; salicylic acid; reactive oxygen species-salicylic acid crosstalk; programmed cell death; hypersensitive response-conferred resistance; RBOH NADPH oxidases; chloroplastic redox state; biosensors; precision transcriptomics
Online: 7 March 2022 (14:46:28 CET)
One of the earliest hallmarks of plant immune response is production of reactive oxygen spe-cies (ROS) in different subcellular compartments, which regulate plant immunity. A suitable equilibrium, which is crucial to prevent ROS over-accumulation leading to oxidative stress, is maintained by salicylic acid (SA), a chief regulator of ROS. However, ROS are not only acting downstream of SA signaling, but were also proposed to be a central component of a self-amplifying loop that regulates SA signaling as well as the interaction balance between dif-ferent phytohormones. The exact role of this crosstalk, the position where SA interferes with ROS signaling and ROS interferes with SA signaling and the outcome of this regulation depend on the origin of ROS but also on the pathosystem. The precise spatiotemporal regulation of or-ganelle specific ROS and SA levels determine the effectiveness of pathogen arrest and is there-fore crucial for a successful immune response. However, the regulatory interplay behind still remain poorly understood, as up till now, the role of organelle specific ROS and SA in HR-conferred resistance has mostly been studied by altering the level of a single component. In order to address these aspects, a sophisticated combination of research methods for monitoring the spatiotemporal dynamics of key players and transcriptional activity in plants is needed, and will most probably consist of biosensors and precision transcriptomics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0373.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana; ER α–glucosidase II; glycoprotein folding quality control; plant immune response; UGGT; elf18; flg22; EFR; FLS2; rsw3; uggt1-1; NB-DNJ
Online: 16 November 2018 (05:02:19 CET)
Plants offer a simpler and cheaper alternative to mammalian animal models for the study of Endoplasmic Reticulum glycoprotein folding Quality Control (ERQC). In particular, the Arabidopsis thaliana (At) innate immune response to bacterial peptides provides an easy means of assaying ERQC function in vivo. A number of mutants that are useful to study ERQC in planta have been described in the literature, but only for a subset of these mutants the innate immune response to bacterial elicitors has been measured beyond monitoring plant weight and some physio-pathological parameters related to the plant immune response. In order to probe deeper into the role of ERQC in the plant immune response, we monitored expression levels of the PHI-1 and RET-OX genes in the At ER α-Glu II rsw3 and the At UGGT uggt1-1 mutant plants, in response to bacterial peptides elf18 and flg22. The elf18 response was impaired in the rsw3 but not completely abrogated in the uggt1-1 mutant plants, raising the possibility that the latter enzyme is partly dispensable for ERF signalling. In the rsw3 mutant, seedling growth was impaired only by concomitant application of the At ER α-Glu II NB-DNJ inhibitor at concentrations above 500 nM, suggesting residual activity in this mutant. The study highlights the need for extending plant innate immune response studies to assays sampling EFR signalling at the molecular level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0502.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: mushroom; immune checkpoints; Axl receptor; lung cancer; dendritic cells; immune response.
Online: 21 July 2021 (15:43:11 CEST)
Agaricus blazei Murrill or Himematsutake is an edible and medicinal mushroom. Agaricus blazei Murrill's fruiting body extracts have anticancer properties, although the mechanism is unknown. Basic or organic solvents, which are hazardous for human health, are generally used to prepare Agaricus blazei Murrill's extracts. Inhibition of immune checkpoint molecules and Axl receptor is an effective therapy in cancer. This study assessed whether subcritical water extracts of the Agaricus blazei Murrill's fruiting body or mycelium affect the expression of Axl and immune checkpoint molecules in lung cancer cells. We used A549 cells and mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in the experiments. We prepared subcritical water extracts from the Agaricus blazei Murrill's fruiting body or mycelium. The subcritical water extracts from the Agaricus blazei Murrill's fruiting body or mycelium significantly inhibited the expression of immune checkpoint molecules and Axl compared to saline-treated cells. Also, the hot water extract, subcritical water extract, and the hot water extraction residue subcritical water extract from the Agaricus blazei Murrill's mycelium significantly enhanced the expression of maturation markers in dendritic cells. These observations suggest that the subcritical water extract from Agaricus blazei Murrill's mycelium is a promising therapeutic tool for stimulating the immune response in cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0772.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Immune checkpoint inhibitors; immune-related endocrine dysfunction; hypothyroidism; targeted therapy; malignancy
Online: 31 May 2021 (12:49:40 CEST)
Abstract Background The number of immune-related endocrine dysfunctions (irEDs) has concurrently increased with the widespread use of immunotherapy in clinical practice and further expansion of the approved indications for immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) combinations using different modalities of anti-cancer treatment. Method A retrospective analysis was conducted on consecutive patients >18 years of age with advanced solid malignancies who had received at least one dose of anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD-1) and/or anti-CTLA4 antibodies between January 2014 and December 2019 at a Hong Kong university hospital. Patients were reviewed for up to two months after the last administration of an ICI. The types, onset times and grades of irEDs, including hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, adrenal insufficiency and immune-related diabetes mellitus, were recorded. Factors associated with irEDs were identified using multivariate analysis. Result A total of 953 patients (male: 603, 64.0%; median age: 62.0 years) received ICIs during the study period. Of these, 580 patients (60.9%) used ICI-alone, 132 (13.9%) used dual-ICI, 187 (19.6%) used an ICI combined with chemotherapy (chemo+ICI), and 54 (5.70%) used immunotherapy with a targeted agent (targeted+ICI). A significantly higher proportion of patients using targeted+ICI had irEDs and hypothyroidism; in contrast, a higher proportion of patients using dual-ICI had adrenal insufficiency. There was no significant difference in the incidence of irED between the younger (<65 years) and older (>65 years) patients. Using logistic regression, only treatment type was significantly associated with irEDs. Notably, older patients had a higher risk of having immune-related diabetes mellitus. Conclusions This large, real-world cohort demonstrates that combining ICI with targeted therapy has a higher risk of overall irED and hypothyroidism. Immunotherapy is safe and well-tolerated regardless of age, but close monitoring of fasting glucose is needed in older populations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0289.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: schizophrenia, immune system, inflammation, cytokines, immune regulatory, CIRS, psychiatry, immunology, psychosis
Online: 17 September 2018 (08:57:53 CEST)
In this paper we propose a novel theoretical framework, which was previously developed for major depression and bipolar disorder, namely the compensatory immune-regulatory reflex system (CIRS), as applied to the neuro-immune pathophysiology of schizophrenia and its phenotypes, including first episode psychosis (FEP), acute relapses, chronic and treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS), comorbid depression, and deficit schizophrenia. These schizophrenia phenotypes and manifestations are accompanied by increased production of positive acute phase proteins, including haptoglobin and α2-macroglobulin, complement factors, and macrophagic M1 (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α), T helper (Th)-1 (interferon-γ and IL-2R), Th-2 (IL-4, IL-5), Th-17 (IL-17) and T regulatory (Treg; IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1) cytokines, cytokine-induced activation of the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway as well as chemokines, including CCL-11 (eotaxin), CCL-2, CCL-3 and CXCL-8. While the immune profiles in the different schizophrenia phenotypes indicate activation of the immune-inflammatory response system (IRS), there are simultaneous signs of CIRS activation, including increased levels of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1RA), sIL-2R and tumor necrosis factor-a receptors, Th-2 and Treg phenotypes with increased IL-4 and IL-10 production, and increased levels of TRYCATs and haptoglobin, α2-macroglobulin and other acute phase reactants, which have immune-regulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Signs of activated IRS and CIRS pathways are also detected in TRS, chronic and deficit schizophrenia indicating that these conditions are accompanied by a new homeostatic setpoint between upregulated IRS and CIRS components. In FEP, increased baseline CIRS activity is a protective factor which may predict favorable clinical outcomes. Moreover, impairments in the CIRS are associated with deficit schizophrenia and greater impairments in semantic and episodic memory. It is concluded that CIRS plays a key role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia by negatively regulating the primary IRS and contributing to recovery from the acute phase of illness. Components of the CIRS may offer promising therapeutic targets for schizophrenia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0140.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; immune checkpoint inhibitors; HCC; pembrolizumab; nivolumab; immune microenvironment; targeted therapies
Online: 14 September 2019 (18:37:29 CEST)
Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. A total of 70-80% of patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage with a dismal prognosis. Sorafenib has been the standard of care for almost a decade until 2018 when FDA approved an alternative first-line agent namely lenvatinib. Whereas FOLFOX4 results an alternative first-line treatment for the chinese clinical oncology guidelines. In addition to cabozantinib, regorafenib, and ramucirumab, two therapeutics against the PD-L1/PD1 axis have been recently approved for subsequent-line therapy, as nivolumab and pembrolizumab. However, similar to other solid tumors, the response rate of single-agent targeting PD-L1/PD1 axis is low. Therefore a lot of combinatory approaches are under investigation, including the combination of different immune checkpoint inhibitors, the addition of immune checkpoint inhibitors after resection or during locoregional therapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors in addition to kinase inhibitors, anti-angiogenic therapeutics, and others. This review focuses on the use of ICIs for the hepatocellular carcinoma with an attent evaluation of new ICIs based combinatory approaches.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0359.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: oncolytic virus; in situ autovaccination; cytokine; immune checkpoint inhibitor; immune co-stimulator
Online: 27 April 2018 (09:18:37 CEST)
With the progress of immunotherapy in cancer, oncolytic viruses (OVs) are getting more and more attention during the past decade. Due to their cancer-selective and immunogenic property, OVs are considered ideal candidates to be combined with immunotherapy to increase both specificity and efficacy in cancer treatment. OVs preferentially replicate in and lyse cancer cells, generating pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and danger (damage)-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). These signals trigger innate immune response to modulate the solid tumor microenvironment, resulting in in situ autovaccination leading to adaptive anti-virus and anti-tumor immunity. Here, we summarize the conceptual updates of oncolytic virotherapy, immunotherapy, and the strategies to enhance the virus-mediated anti-tumor immune response, including: 1. Arm OVs with cytokines to modulated innate and adaptive immunity; 2. Combine OVs with immune checkpoint inhibitors to release T cell inhibition; 3. Combine OVs with immune co-stimulators to enhance T cell activation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0262.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: immune checkpoint inhibitors; immune checkpoint radiolabeled antibodies; PD-1; PD-L1; immune PET; immunotherapy; AI; Radiomics; Deep learning; CAR-T cells
Online: 9 March 2021 (11:12:55 CET)
Immunotherapy is an effective therapeutic option for several cancers. In the last years, the introduction of checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has shifted the therapeutic landscape in oncology and improved patient prognosis in a variety of neoplastic diseases. However, to date, the selection of the best patients eligible for these therapies, as well as the response assessment is still challenging. Patients are mainly stratified using immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of anti-gens on biopsy specimens, such as PD-L1 and PD-1, on tumor cells, on peritumoral immune cells, and/or in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Recently, the use and development of imaging biomarkers able to assess in-vivo cancer-related processes are becoming more important. Today, positron emission tomography (PET) with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) is used routinely to evaluate tumor metabolism, and also to predict and monitor response to immunotherapy. Although highly sensitive, FDG-PET, in general, is rather unspecific. Novel radiopharmaceuticals (immuno-PET radiotracers) able to identify specific immune system targets are under investigation in pre-clinical and clinical settings. In this review, we will provide an overview of the main new immuno-PET radiotracers in development. We will also review the main players (immune cells, tumor cells, and molecular targets) involved in immunotherapy. Furthermore, we report current applications and the evidence of using [18F]FDG PET in immunotherapy, including the use of artificial intelligence (AI).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0208.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Plasma PD-L1; liquid biopsy; cfRNA; immune checkpoint inhibitor; predictive immune biomarker; NSCLC
Online: 11 August 2022 (06:10:34 CEST)
Tissue programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) protein expression is predictive of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) benefit. However, tissue PD-L1 can be fraught with tissue acquisition and heterogeneity limitations. Plasma testing can overcome these limitations. However, the overall survival (OS) predictive benefit of plasma PD-L1 assays have not been well characterized. Patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and plasma cfRNA PD-L1 by PCR expression were identified and assessed for OS. 16 patients treated with front-line ICI-based regimens were assessed and represented a real-world patient population with over half with a performance status of 2 or greater. 10 contemporaneous patients at the same institution treated with chemotherapy alone were also identified and assessed. With a median follow-up of 33 months, median OS was 13 months with a 30% 3-year OS for the ICI treated patients compared to a median OS of 3 months and a 10% 3-year OS for those treated with chemotherapy alone. Comparative log-rank test p-value = 0.014 and a hazard ratio 0.376 (95%-CI 0.134-1.057). Plasma cfRNA PD-L1 was associated with a statistically significant survival benefit from ICI-based treatment compared to chemotherapy in the first line treatment of a real-world patient population of advanced NSCLC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0171.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: microgravity; spaceflight; immunology; pathogens; macrophages; bacteria; viruses; innate immune response; adaptive immune response
Online: 11 January 2021 (09:44:52 CET)
Immune dysfunction has long been reported by medical professionals regarding astronauts suffering from opportunistic infections both during their time in space and a short time period afterwards once back on Earth. Various species of prokaryotes on board these space missions or cultured in a microgravity analogue exhibit increased virulence, enhanced formation of biofilms, and in some cases develop specific resistance for specific antibiotics. This poses a substantial health hazard to the astronauts confined in constant proximity to any present bacterial pathogens on long space missions with a finite number of resources including antibiotics. Furthermore, some bacteria cultured in microgravity develop phenotypes not seen in Earth gravity conditions, providing novel insights into bacterial evolution and research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0490.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; immune escape; tumor microenvironment; immune responses; immunotherapy
Online: 31 August 2020 (04:32:48 CEST)
β2-m, β2-microglobulin; CAF, cancer associated fibroblast; CSC, cancer stem cell; CTL, cytotoxic T lymphocyte; DC, dendritic cell; ECM, extracellular matrix; EGF-R, epidermal growth factor receptor; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; FDA, Food and Drug Administration; HLA, human leukocyte antigen; HNSCC, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; HPV, human papilloma virus; ICP immune checkpoint; ICPi, immune checkpoint inhibitor; IFN, interferon; LMP, low molecular weight protein; mAb, monoclonal antibody; MDSC, myeloid-derived suppressor cell; mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin; MSI, multispectral imaging; NK, natural killer; OS, overall survival; PBL, peripheral blood lymphocytes; PBMNC, peripheral blood mononuclear cells; PD1, programmed death receptor 1; PD-L1, programmed death ligand 1; PFS, progression-free survival; PI3K, phosphatidyl-linositol-3-kinase; R/M, recurrence and or metastatic; STAT, signal transducer and activator of transcription; TAA, tumor-associated antigen; TAM, tumor associated macrophages; TAP, transporter associated with antigen processing; TCR, T cell receptor; TIL, tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte; TLS, tertiary lymphoid structure; TME, tumor microenvironment; Treg, regulatory T cell; TSA, tumor-specific antigen; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; VEGF-R, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0795.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: HER2; colorectal cancer; immune cell
Online: 13 October 2023 (07:08:38 CEST)
(1) Background: This study aimed to investigate the effect of increased HER-2 expression on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and determine its impact on the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients; (2) Methods: HER-2, CD4, CD8, CD19, LY6G, CD56, CD68, CD11b, and EpCam expression in CRC tissues and adjacent paracancerous tissues were assessed using multiplex fluorescence immunohistochemical staining. The correlation between HER-2 expression and the number of TILs in CRC tissues was analyzed. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze survival outcomes; (3) Results: The expression of HER-2 in tumor tissues was higher than that in paracancerous tissues (1.31 ± 0.45 vs. 0.86 ± 0.20, P < 0.05). Additionally, there was an increase in the numbers of CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, and CD68+ cells in CRC tissues (14.11 ± 1.10 vs. 3.40 ± 0.18, P < 0.005; 0.16 ± 0.12 vs. 0.04 ± 0.04, P < 0.005; 0.71 ± 0.46 vs. 0.25 ± 0.13, P < 0.0005; 0.27 ± 0.24 vs. 0.03 ± 0.11, P < 0.05). The increase in HER-2 expression was positively correlated with an increase in CD4, CD8, and CD19 (p < 0.0001). In HER-2-positive CRC tissues, CD68 expression was increased (0.80 ± 0.55 vs. 0.25 ± 0.22, P < 0.05). In HER-2-upregulated CRC tissues, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD68, CD11b, Ly6G, and CD56 expressions were elevated (0.70 ± 0.37 vs. 0.32 ± 0.17, P = 0.03; 0.22 ± 0.13 vs. 0.09 ± 0.06, P = 0.03; 0.31 ± 0.19 vs. 0.12 ± 0.08, P = 0.02; 1.05 ± 0.62 vs. 0.43 ± 0.21, P < 0.01; 1.34 ± 0.81 vs. 0.53 ± 0.23, P < 0.01; 0.50 ± 0.31 vs. 0.19 ± 0.10, P < 0.01; 1.26 ± 0.74 vs. 0.52 ± 0.24, P < 0.01). Furthermore, increased HER-2 expression is an independent risk factor for recurrence-free survival (RFS) in patients (P < 0.01, HR = 3.421); (4) Conclusions: The increased expression of HER-2 and its relationship with immune cells will provide new insights for immunotherapy in CRC patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1028.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Microbiota; probiotics; formulations; immune system
Online: 14 July 2023 (16:49:09 CEST)
Probiotics have become a potential way to change the microbiota, which allows for more personalized ways to improve health results. This abstract gives an outline of the most important parts of personalized microbiota regulation through probiotics. It focuses on effectiveness and mechanisms, clinical applications, safety and tolerability, formulations and delivery methods, and customized approaches. Many studies have looked into how and why probiotics change the microbiome. These studies show that probiotics can change the makeup and function of microbial communities. Probiotics have been shown to help treat a number of health problems, such as digestive problems, immune system problems, metabolic problems, and mental health problems. It is important for the success of probiotics to find out if they are safe and can be tolerated. Studies have shown that probiotics are usually safe for most people, but there are some things that need to be taken into account to make sure they are safe, especially for people who are weak. Formulations and transport methods are very important for making sure that probiotics are alive, stable, and delivered to the right places in the GI tract. Probiotic strains work better in the gut because of improvements in how probiotic preparation technologies protect and control the release of probiotic strains. Personalized methods take into account how each person's microbiome and health are different. By using individual microbiota profiling, custom probiotic approaches can be made to address specific microbial imbalances and promote a healthier microbial environment, which could improve treatment results. Even though individual methods show promise, there are still problems, such as the need to standardize microbiota profiling techniques, figure out how to understand data, and keep track of people over time. For personalized probiotics to reach their full potential and change the way patients are cared for based on the microbiota-host relationship, more study, technological advances, and teamwork are needed. In conclusion, probiotics can be used to change your microbiome in a way that is specific to you and your health goals. By using the power of individualized microbiota profiling, personalized probiotic treatments might be able to help with certain health problems and make the microbial environment better. Putting personalized probiotics into clinical practice and changing the way patients are cared for will require more study and partnerships between different fields.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0261.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Immune; Metabolic; Inflammation; Kidney Disease
Online: 4 May 2023 (10:47:27 CEST)
Kidney disease is a significant health problem worldwide, affecting an estimated 10% of the global population. Kidney disease encompasses a diverse group of disorders that vary in their underlying pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and outcomes. These disorders include acute kidney injury (AKI), chronic kidney disease (CKD), glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome, polycystic kidney disease, diabetic kidney disease, and many others. Despite their distinct etiologies, these disorders share a common feature of immune system dysregulation and metabolic disturbances. The immune system and metabolic pathways are intimately connected and interact to modulate the pathogenesis of kidney diseases. The dysregulation of immune responses in kidney diseases includes a complex interplay between various immune cell types, including resident and infiltrating immune cells, cytokines, chemokines, and complement factors. These immune factors can trigger and perpetuate kidney inflammation, causing renal tissue injury and progressive fibrosis. In addition, metabolic pathways play critical roles in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases, including glucose and lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and altered nutrient sensing. Dysregulation of these metabolic pathways contributes to the progression of kidney disease by inducing renal tubular injury, apoptosis, and fibrosis. Recent studies have provided insights into the intricate interplay between immune and metabolic pathways in kidney diseases, revealing novel therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of kidney diseases. Potential therapeutic strategies include modulating immune responses through targeting key immune factors or inhibiting pro-inflammatory signaling pathways, improving mitochondrial function, and targeting nutrient-sensing pathways such as mTOR, AMPK, and SIRT1. This review highlights the importance of the interplay between immune and metabolic pathways in kidney diseases and the potential therapeutic implications of targeting these pathways.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0903.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: leishmaniasis; immune response; macrophage phenotype
Online: 25 April 2023 (08:36:54 CEST)
Leishmaniasis is a complex infectious parasitic disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, belonging to a group of neglected tropical diseases. It poses significant global health challenges, particularly in socio-economically disadvantaged regions. Macrophages, as innate immune cells, play a crucial role in initiating the inflammatory response against the pathogens responsible for this disease. Macrophage polarization, the process of differentiating macrophages into pro-inflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotypes, is essential for the immune response in leishmaniasis. The M1 phenotype is associated with resistance to Leishmania infection, while the M2 phenotype is predominant in susceptible environments. Notably, various immune cells, including T cells, play a significant role in modulating macrophage polarization by releasing cytokines that influence macrophage maturation and function. Furthermore, other immune cells can also impact macrophage polarization in a T-cell-dependent manner. Therefore, this review comprehensively examines macrophage polarization's role in leishmaniasis and other immune cells' potential involvement in this intricate process.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0101.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: COVID-19; ATP; Immune dysfunction
Online: 7 April 2020 (12:07:22 CEST)
On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared the coronavirus outbreak a pandemic. Since December 2019, the world has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but the factors affecting the immune system against COVID-19 have not been well described. In this article, we provide a novel hypothesis to describe how an increase in cellular adenosine triphosphate (c-ATP) can potentially improve the efficiency of innate and adaptive immune systems to either prevent and fight off COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0148.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: chronic hepatitis C; chronic hepatitis B; innate immune response; adaptive immune response; cytokine; chemokine
Online: 12 April 2019 (10:59:21 CEST)
Background: Cytokines and chemokines are critical regulators of innate and adaptive immunities during viral infection. We examined innate and adaptive immune responses to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) at baseline and against controls. Methods: Twenty-seven cytokines were evaluated before treatment in 27 patients with chronic hepatitis C(CHC) [genotype1 (n=20), genotype2 (n=7), HCVRNA 5.72IU/ml] and 12 chronic hepatitis B(CHB) [e-antigen (Ag) (+) (n=5), e-Ag (-) (n=7), HBVDNA 6.191.31Logcopies/ml] and against controls(n=5). Results: Th1 and Th2 cytokines were significantly higher (p<0.05) in CHB than in CHC. The levels of IL-IL10 in CHC and CHB, and IL15 in CHC(genotype2) and CHB were significantly lower (p<0.05) than in controls. The levels of CXCL8 in CHC and CHB, IL12 in CHC and CHB [e-Ag (-)] and CXCL10 in CHC and CHB were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in controls. IFN-γwas higher in CHB than in controls. Conclusion: Cytokines levels differed between CHB and CHC before treatment. Innate immune responses were impaired in CHB with HBeAg(-) and CHC, but not in CHB with HBeAg(+) with high viral loads. Adaptive immune responses were impaired in CHB and CHC and appear to reflect the distinct state of virus-host immune interactions between CHB and CHC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1597.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: immune function; Neptunea cumingi; temperatur; transcriptome
Online: 25 October 2023 (09:25:26 CEST)
Neptunea cumingii is an economically important marine shellfish found in the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea areas of China. However, due to environmental factors, such as global warming, Neptunea cumingii resources are in decline along the coast of China. In this study, samples of Neptunea cumingii were collected in Zhangzidao and Yantai during spring, summer， autumn, and winter to clarify the gene expression patterns and regulatory mechanisms in the gills in different seasons. Transcriptome analysis was conducted using Neptunea cumingii gill tissues and genes with significantly different expression levels were extracted for functional verification. The most genes with differences in expression（DEGs） were found in comparisons of the winter and summer samples. Gene enrichment analysis based on Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes terms showed that these DEGs were mainly involved in immune and metabolic pathways, and they had significant effects on oxidative stress, body metabolism, and protein synthesis in Neptunea cumingii. Further screening of DEGs identified 34 genes related to temperature regulation comprising 13 genes with roles in innate immunity in shellfish, 12 genes related to oxidative stress, and nine genes related to protein synthesis and energy metabolism. Eleven DEGs were randomly selected for qPCR verification and the results were consistent with the transcriptome analysis results. In summary, the transcriptome results differed significantly between seasons in the gill tissues of Neptunea cumingii. The expression levels of immune regulatory genes could be promoted in Neptunea cumingii during the high temperature season, whereas the expression of these genes may be inhibited in the low temperature season. The results obtained in this study provide insights into the molecular defense mechanisms that might allow Neptunea cumingii to adapt to climate change.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0675.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Endocannabinoid System; Palmitoylethanolamide; Inflammation; Immune system
Online: 11 October 2023 (04:46:34 CEST)
N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) is an endocannabinoid-like compound first encountered within lipid fractions of specific foods and has intrigued researchers since the 1950s due to its therapeutic effects. This study aims to explore the therapeutic promise held by PEA as an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agent. Therapeutic impact of PEA reverberates across diverse physiological systems, as the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, vascular network, digestive and respiratory system. Additionally, it was effective in pain management, reduction of inflammation and immune responses. These attributes have fostered collaborations targeting conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, cerebral ischemia, neuroinflammation, general inflammation, pain, coagulopathy, steatohepatitis, and acute lung injury. PEA operates both independently and in synergy with other compounds, like paracetamol, luteolin, and oxymetazoline. This efficacy stems from its interactions with pivotal targets including PPARα, PPAR-δ, PPAR-γ, CB1, CB2, GPR55, and TRPV1. Additionally, PEA exerts a direct influence on the inflammatory cascade, orchestrating precise adjustments in immune responses. Numerous animal studies have elucidated the inherent potential of PEA. Nevertheless, the imperative of reinforcing clinical investigation is evident. This review notably underscores the pivotal necessity for methodologically rigorous clinical trials to definitively establish the translational efficacy of PEA in ameliorating diverse inflammatory pathologies within the human milieu.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0487.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: immune system; dynamics; infectious process; cancer
Online: 10 October 2023 (03:16:01 CEST)
The innate immune system is the first line of defense against pathogens. It’s composition includes barriers, mucus and other substances as well as phagocytic and other cells. The purpose of the paper is to analyze in general grounds the immune system and the body immunity to cancer. Simple ideas and the qualitative theory of differential equations are used along with general principles such as the minimization of the pathogen load and economy of resources. In the simplest linear model, the annihilation rate of pathogens in any tissue should be greater than the pathogen’s average rate of growth. When nonlinearities are added, a reference value for the number of pathogens is set, and a stability condition emerges, which relates strength of regular threats, barrier height and annihilation rate. On the other hand, in cancer immunity, the linear model leads to an expression for the lifetime risk, which accounts for both the effects of carcinogens (endogenous or external) and the immune response. The stability condition allows a comparison of immunity in different tissues. The way the tissue responds to an infection shows a correlation with the way it responds to cancer. These statements are formulated at the qualitative level, but may and deserve to be quantitatively checked.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0005.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Mitochondria; immune response; activation; secretion; phagocytic
Online: 1 October 2023 (07:55:51 CEST)
Salmonella is the intracellular pathogen and etiological known for the cause of asymptomatic carriage, gastroenteritis, systemic disease (typhoid fever), in severe cases death may also occur. Altered function of mitochondria due to Salmonella infection impacts the immune response. Mitochondria which are recognized as the “powerhouse” of the cells are also know to play central role in the immune metabolism. Mitochondrial dynamics such as fusion, fission, signaling, transport and mitophagy influences the immune system and also maintains the cellular integrity. Mitochondrial DNA and Reactive oxygen species formation also elicits the inflammatory responses. This review discusses the immune metabolism and effect of altered mitochondrial dynamics in case of Salmonella infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1748.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Glioma; peroxisome; PEX5; prognosis; immune microenvironment
Online: 26 September 2023 (07:16:44 CEST)
Gliomas, the most prevalent and lethal form of brain cancer, are known to exhibit metabolic alterations that facilitate tumor growth, invasion, and resistance to therapies. Peroxisomes, essential organelles responsible for fatty acid oxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis, rely on the receptor PEX5 for the import of metabolic enzymes into their matrix. However, the prognostic significance of PEX5 for glioma patients remains unclear. We developed a robust prognosis model based on PEX5-dependent signature. This signature not only serves as a robust prognosis model capable of accurately predicting outcomes for glioma patients but also effectively distinguishes several clinicopathological features, including the grade, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation, and 1p19q codeletion status. Furthermore, we developed a nomogram that integrates the prognostic model with other clinicopathological factors, demonstrating highly accurate performance in estimating patient survival. Patients classified into the high-risk group based on our prognostic model exhibit an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Finally, we validated that the peroxisomal localization of the signature genes depends on PEX5 and demonstrated that PEX5 is required for cell growth, migration and invasion of glioma cells. These findings identify the PEX5-dependent signature as a promising prognostic tool for gliomas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1831.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Nutrition; epidemiology; sheep; eosinophils; immune response
Online: 28 August 2023 (07:17:00 CEST)
The influence of four levels of dietary supplementation on the development of the immune response and on the biology of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis was evaluated in Dorper lambs under serial artificial mixed-infections with 1000 infective larvae (L3) of each species, given every three days for 12 weeks. For each of the four diets formulated, one infected group (n=7) and one control group (n=4) were set up. Diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 contained 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% of concentrate, respectively. There was an evident immune response to infection in all groups, manifested through eosinophilia and production of anti-L3 immunoglobulins. There was a significant inverse relationship between the levels of nutrients in the diets and the numbers of late fourth-stage larvae, early fifth-stage larvae and adults of H. contortus. Most of the H. contortus parasite population was in hypobiosis at the early-fourth stage, representing 59.5%, 75.8%, 83.3% and 86.3% of the total Haemonchus worm burden, respectively, in the Diets 1, 2, 3 and 4. In the case of T. colubriformis, hypobiosis was not observed and the diet had no influence on establishment of the parasite.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1892.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Oncolytic virus; immune checkpoint inhibitors; immunotherapy
Online: 28 July 2023 (10:58:30 CEST)
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized cancer care and shown remarkable efficacy clinically. This efficacy is, however, limited to subsets of patients with significant infiltration of lymphocytes into the tumor microenvironment. To extend their efficacy to patients who fail to respond or achieve durable responses, it is now becoming evident that complex combinations of immunomodulatory agents may be required to extend efficacy to patients with immunologically “cold” tumours. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) have the capacity to selectively replicate within and kill tumour cells resulting in the induction of immunogenic cell death and the augmentation of anti-tumour immunity and have emerged as a promising modality for combination therapy to overcome the limitations seen with ICIs. Pre-clinical and clinical data has demonstrated that OVs can increase immune cell infiltration into the tumour and induce anti-tumour immunity, thus changing a “cold” tumour microenvironment that is commonly associated with poor response to ICIs, to a “hot” microenvironment which can render patients more susceptible to ICIs. Here, we review the major viral vector platforms used in OV clinical trials, their success when used as a monotherapy and when combined with adjuvant ICIs, as well as pre-clinical studies looking at the effectiveness of encoding OVs to deliver ICIs locally to the tumour microenvironment through transgene expression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0389.v1
Online: 17 April 2023 (03:54:31 CEST)
Members of the Ebolavirus genus demonstrate a marked differences in pathogenicity in humans with Ebola (EBOV) being the most pathogenic, Bundibugyo (BDBV) less pathogenic and Reston (RESTV) causing no severe disease in humans. The VP24 protein encoded by members of the Ebolavirus genus blocks type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling through interaction with host karyopherin alpha nuclear transporters, potentially contributing to virulence. Previously we demonstrated that BDBV VP24 (bVP24) binds with lower affinities to karyopherin alpha proteins relative to EBOV VP24 (eVP24), and this correlated with reduced inhibition of IFN-I signaling. We hypothesized that modification of eVP24-karyopherin alpha interface to make it similar to bVP24 would attenuate the ability to antagonize IFN-I response. We generated a panel of recombinant EBOVs containing single or combinations of point mutations in the eVP24-karyopherin alpha interface. Most of the viruses appeared to be attenuated in both IFN-I-competent 769-P and IFN-I-deficient Vero-E6 cells in the presence of IFNs. However, the R140A mutant grew at reduced levels even in the absence of IFNs in both cell lines, as well as in U3A STAT1 knockout cells. Both the R140A mutation and its combination with the N135A mutation caused almost complete inhibition of genome replication and transcription suggesting the role of these mutations in an IFN-I-independent attenuation. Additionally, we found that unlike eVP24, bVP24 does not inhibit interferon lambda 1 (IFN-λ1), which potentially explains the lower pathogenicity of BDBV relative to EBOV. Thus, the VP24 residues binding karyopherin alpha affect ebolavirus pathogenicity by IFN-I-dependent and independent mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0222.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: PEDOT:PSS; Neural recording; Immune response; BMI
Online: 15 September 2022 (08:04:38 CEST)
One of the significant challenges today in the brain-machine interface using invasive methods is the stability of the chronic record. In recent years, polymer-based electrodes have gained notoriety for achieving mechanical strength values close to that of brain tissue, promoting a lower immune response to the implant. In this work, we fabricated fully polymeric electrodes based on PEDOT:PSS for neural recording in Wistar rats. We characterized the electrical properties and both in-vitro and in-vivo functionality of the electrodes. Also, we employed histological processing and microscopical visualization to evaluate tecidual immune response in 7, 14, and 21 days post-implant days. Electrodes with 400-micrometer channels showed a 12dB signal-to-noise ratio. Local field potentials were characterized under two conditions: anesthetized and free-moving. There was a proliferation of microglia to the tissue-electrode interface in the first days, with a decrease after 14 days. Astrocytes also migrated to the interface, but there was no continuous recruitment of these cells in the tissue, showing inflammatory stability at 21 days. The signal was not affected by this inflammatory action, demonstrating that fully polymeric electrodes can be an alternative to prolong the valuable time of neural recordings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0050.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: bunyavirus; structure; genomics; immune response; review
Online: 5 September 2022 (07:49:30 CEST)
Bunyaviruses represent the largest group of RNA viruses, and are the causative agent of a variety of febrile and hemorrhagic illnesses. Originally characterized as a single serotype in Africa, the number of described bunyaviruses now exceeds over 500, with its presence detected around the world. These predominantly tri-segmented, single-stranded RNA viruses are transmitted primarily through arthropod and rodent vectors, and can infect a wide variety of animal and plants. Although encoding for a small number of proteins, these viruses can inflict potentially fatal disease outcomes, and have even developed strategies to suppress the innate antiviral immune mechanisms of the infected host. This short review will attempt to provide an overall description of the order Bunyavirales, describing the mechanisms behind their infection, replication and their evasion of the host immune response. Furthermore, the historical context of these virus will be presented, starting from their original discovery almost 80 years ago, to the most recent research pertaining to viral replication and host immune response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0009.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: neutrophils; priming; innate immunity; immune-memory
Online: 1 December 2021 (11:00:01 CET)
Neutrophils as innate immune cells primarily act as first responders in acute infection and directly maintain inflammatory responses. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that neutrophils also bear the potential to mediate chronic inflammation by exhibiting memory-like features. We recently showed that priming by serial doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from gram-negative bacteria can trigger opposing memory-like responses (exaggerated inflammation, i.e. trained sensitivity or suppression of inflammation, i.e. tolerance) depending on the LPS-dose. We now asked whether this observation could also hold true for lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from gram-positive S. aureus. We found comparable effects of LTA on neutrophil priming as seen for LPS. Low-dose (1 ng/mL) LTA-priming promoted increased production of pro-inflammatory mediators (i.e., TNF-α, IL-6, ROS), whereas high-dose (10 µg/mL) results in contrary reactions supporting anti-inflammatory responses by increased IL-10 and declined pro-inflammatory capacity. In vitro neutrophil recruitment was similarly regulated by LTA -priming. Investigation of signalling patterns revealed TLR2/MyD88-mediated regulation of NFκB-p65 through intermediate PI3Ks/MAPK. Collectively, our data suggest a previously unknown capacity of neutrophils to be differentially primed by varying doses of LTA, endorsing memory-like features in neutrophils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0170.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: molecular iodine; immune response; breast cancer
Online: 9 September 2021 (10:45:34 CEST)
Molecular iodine (I2) induces apoptotic, antiangiogenic, and antiproliferative effects in breast cancer cells. Little is known about its effects on the tumor immune microenvironment. We studied the effect of oral (5 mg/day) I2 supplementation alone (I2) or together with conventional chemotherapy (Cht+I2) on the im-mune component of breast cancer tumors from a previously published pilot study conducted in Mexico. RNA-seq, I2 and Cht+I2 samples showed significant increases in expression of Th1 and Th17 pathways. Tumor immune composition determined by deconvolution analysis revealed significant increases in M0 macrophages and B lymphocytes in both I2 groups. Real-time RT-PCR showed that I2 tumors overexpress T-BET (p = 0.019) and interferon-gamma (IFNγ; p = 0.020) and silence tumor growth factor-beta (TGFβ; p = 0.049); whereas in Cht+I2 tumors, GATA3 is silenced (p = 0.014). Preliminary methylation analysis shows that I2 activates IFNγ gene promoter (by increasing its unmethylated form) and silences TGFβ in Cht+I2. In conclusion, our data showed that I2 supplements induce the activation of the immune response and that when combined with Cht, the Th1 pathways are stimulated. The molecular mechanisms involved in these responses are being analyzed, but preliminary data suggest that methylation/demethylation mechanisms could also participate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0301.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: immune response; nutritional supplement; cancer; oncoxin
Online: 15 January 2021 (15:45:55 CET)
Purpose: This study aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of Oncoxin as an antitumoral supplement, and to describe its mechanism of action. Methods: We performed this scoping review according to the recommendations of the Joanna Briggs Institute and included patients older than 18 years-old who have any kind of tumor and receive Oncoxin as a supplement. We focused on the efficacy in terms of antitumoral properties, quality of life and survival, safety in terms of adverse events, and the mechanism of action. We did not limit for language or setting. We searched MEDLINE (Pubmed), EMBASE (Scopus), LILACS, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) from inception to nowadays. Results: We found a promising increment of survival when taking Oncoxin as a supplementary treatment. Additionally, the quality of life increased in terms of Karnofsky and EORTC scales. Regarding the mechanism of action, studies suggest it modifies inflammatory mediators’ expression, as evidenced by the reduction of COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-12, and IFN-γ. Besides, it promotes an arrest in the progression of cells from G1 into S, along with an increase in p27 and a decrease in cyclin D1 and pRb. Conclusions: We found promising complementary effects of Oncoxin to the standard treatment of cancer patients in diverse scenarios, with putative robust mechanisms of action. In addition to clinically relevant impacts verified in clinical trials, as well as it decreases the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, it can also decrease cytokines with antitumor activity such as IFN-γ, which should be further explored in larger trials and the long term.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0250.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: β-glucan; intestinal absorption; immune system
Online: 10 December 2020 (11:30:57 CET)
β-glucan is a generic term for insoluble dietary fibers exerting various effects on the immune system. As a group, β-glucans are non-cellulose polysaccharides composed of a glucopyranose as the main constituent sugar with β configuration, having a β- (1,3)-linked glucopyranose main chain as a common feature. β-glucans are absorbed through the intestine. Since the 1980s, there have been many studies reporting various effects of β-glucans on the immune system, including reports on receptors, that have slowly clarified their recognition system and action mechanisms. However, these studies focused mostly on treatments of infectious diseases and tumors; thus, the effects of β-glucans ingested in food as dietary fiber and their mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. The uptake of β-glucan into the body may be resemble that of proteins, which are soluble polymers, and insoluble material such as dietary fiber. Dietary fibers have varied structures, with wide-ranging solubility and physiological effects. Understanding whether these substances are actually taken up, how they exert their effects, and their metabolism after being taken up are important issues when considering the functionality and safety of dietary fibers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0037.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: FFAR2; FFAR3; microbiota; gut; immune; SCFA
Online: 3 May 2020 (08:32:51 CEST)
Abstract: Role of gut microbiome in human health is becoming apparent. The major functional impact of gut microbiome is transmitted through the microbial metabolites that are produced in the gut and interact with host cells either in the local gut environment or get absorbed in the circulation to impact distant cells/organs. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the major microbial metabolites that are produced in the gut through fermentation of non-digestible fibers. SCFAs are known to function through various mechanism, however, their signaling through free-fatty acid receptor 2 and 3 (FFAR2/3; type of G-coupled protein receptors) is new therapeutic approach. FFAR2/3 are widely expression in diverse cell types in human and mice, and functions as sensors of SCFAs to change several physiological and cellular functions. FFAR2/3 modulates neurological signaling, energy metabolism, intestinal cellular homeostasis, immune response and hormone synthesis. FFAR2/3 functions through Gi and/or Gq signaling, that is mediated through specific structural features of SCFAs-FFAR2/3 bindings and modulating specific signaling pathway. In this review, we discussed the wide-spread expression and structural homologies between human and mice FFAR2/3, and their role in different human health conditions. This information can unlock opportunities to weigh the potential of FFAR2/3 as drug target to prevent human diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0282.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: liver fibrosis; NASH; innate immune cells.
Online: 24 October 2019 (15:48:02 CEST)
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is characterized by liver steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis, is the most severe variation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This disease is a consequence of several metabolic alterations such as type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia that trigger different pathways of cell dysfunction and systemic inflammation which ultimately affect the liver. Furthermore, those mechanisms activate a complex cascade of immune response after repeated cell aggression. In the liver cytokines and interleukins interact with network of innate immune cells, including Kupffer cells (KCs), dendritic cells (DCs), lymphocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSC). These cells translate those signals into immune responses and pathologic hepatic changes during the development of NASH. In this scenario the development of fibrosis is the most important change since it is an adaptive mechanism that in the short time has the objective of repair the damaged tissue but after prolonged injury it progresses to parenchymal scarring, cellular dysfunction and finally to organ failure. Finally, since NASH is an important cause of liver cirrhosis; this review addresses the cellular pathways of fibrosis in the setting of NASH explained by the interaction between immune and hepatic cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0057.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: DENV; tropism; receptors; entry; immune cells
Online: 5 August 2019 (08:14:40 CEST)
Dengue virus (DENV), being one of the lethal pathogens in the hot climatic regions of the world, have been extensively studied to decipher its mechanism of pathogenesis and missing links of its life cycle. With respect to the entry of DENV, multiple receptors have been recognised in different cells of the human body. However, scientists still argue whether these identified receptors are the exclusive entry mediators for the virus. Adding to the complexity, DENV has been reported to be infecting multiple organ types in its human host. Also, more than one receptor in a particular cell has been discerned to take part in mediating the ingress of DENV. In this review, we aim to discuss about the different cells of the human immune system that support DENV infection and their corresponding receptors that DENV deploy to gain access to the cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0346.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Exosomes, extracellular vesicles, immune regulation, autoimmunity
Online: 28 December 2018 (12:28:28 CET)
T-cell mediated immune responses should be regulated to avoid the development of autoimmune or chronic inflammation diseases. Several mechanisms have been described to regulate this process, namely death of overactivated T cells by cytokine deprivation, suppression by T regulatory cells (Treg), induction of expression of immune checkpoint molecules such as CTLA-4 and PD-1, or activation-induced cell death (AICD). In addition, activated T cells release membrane microvesicles called exosomes during these regulatory processes. In this review, we revise the role of exosome secretion in the different pathways of immune regulation described to date and its importance in the prevention of autoinmune disease. Expression of membrane-bound death ligands on the surface of exosomes during AICD, or the more recently described transfer of miRNA or even DNA inside T-cell exosomes are molecular mechanisms that will be analyzed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0014.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: HBV/HDV coinfection; Evolving antiviral drugs; innovative immune therapeutic agents; combination of antiviral and immune therapy
Online: 1 May 2023 (04:18:06 CEST)
Coinfection of B virus (HBV) and hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) lead to severe forms of progressive liver diseases. However, commercially available antiviral drugs have shown considerable adverse effects and low efficacy in managing these patients. Thus, there is a pressing need to develop new, innovative, and evidence-based therapies for these pathological entities. In line with this, some investigators have attempted to develop anti-viral drugs targeting HBV/HDV coinfection. In another development, investigators have also attempted to establish immune therapy targeting for HBV infection as recovery or effective control of HBV infection also lead to efficient control of HDV infection. This review has discussed an account of the evolving antiviral and immune therapeutic drugs for HBV/HDV infection. Also, based on current scientific knowledge how we have described the pros and cons of these drugs as no suitable drug has been developed during the last forty years for treating HBV infection except the availability of two” repurposed drugs”; interferons and its derivatives and nucleoside analogs, for managing HBV or HBV/HDV coinfection. It seems that an evolving and innovative therapeutic regimen that combines both antiviral drugs and immune modulators may be the best and realistic option for management of HBV/HDV coinfection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0179.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: oral squamous cell carcinoma; HLA class I; antigen processing machinery; immune cell infiltration; immune escape; prognosis
Online: 11 January 2021 (10:47:25 CET)
Progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been associated with an escape of tumor cells from the host immune surveillance due to an increased knowledge of its underlying molecular mechanisms and its modulation by the tumor microenvironment and immune cell repertoire. In this study the expression of HLA class I (HLA-I) antigens and of components of the antigen processing machinery (APM) was analyzed in 160 pathologically classified human papilloma virus (HPV)-negative OSCC lesions and correlated to the intra-tumoral immune cell response, IFN- signaling and to the patients outcome. A heterogeneous, but predominantly lower constitutive protein expression of HLA-I APM components was found in OSCC sections when compared to non-neoplastic cells. Tumoral HLA-I APM component expression was further categorized into the three major phenotypes HLA-Ihigh/APMhigh, HLA-Ilow/APMlow and HLA-Idiscordant high/low/APMhigh. In the HLA-Ihigh/APMhigh group, the highest frequency of intra-tumoral CD8+ T cells and lowest number of CD8+ T cells close to FoxP3+ cells was found. Patients within this group presented the most unfavorable survival, which was significantly evident in stage T2 tumors. Despite a correlation with the number of intra-tumoral CD8+ T cells, tumoral JAK1 expression as a surrogate marker for IFN- signaling was not associated with HLA-I/APM expression. Thus, the presented findings strongly indicate the presence of additional factors involved in the immunomodulatory process of HPV-negative OSCC with a possible tumor-burden-dependent complex network of immune escape mechanisms beyond HLA-I/APM components and T cell infiltration in this tumor entity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0238.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: oral squamous cell carcinoma; HLA class I; antigen processing machinery; immune cell infiltration; immune escape; prognosis
Online: 10 September 2020 (11:37:28 CEST)
Progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been associated with an escape of tumor cells from the host immune surveillance with growing evidence of its underlying molecular mechanisms and its interaction with the immune cell control. In this study the expression of HLA class I (HLA-I) antigens and of components of the antigen processing machinery (APM) was analyzed in 160 consecutive human papilloma virus (HPV)-negative OSCC lesions and correlated to tumor specific parameters, the intratumoral immune cell response and to the patients outcome. A heterogeneous, but predominantly lower constitutive protein expression of HLA-I APM components was seen in OSCC sections when compared to non-neoplastic cells. Based on the expression levels of HLA-I APM components three main OSCC subgroups were detected and categorized into HLA-Ihigh/APMhigh, HLA-Ilow/APMlow and HLA-Idiscordant high/low/APMhigh phenotypes. In the HLA-Ihigh/APMhigh group, the highest frequency of intratumoral CD8+ T cells and lowest number of CD8+ T cells close to FoxP3 cells was found. Despite being associated with the highest T cell infiltration, patients within this group presented the most unfavorable survival, which was most evident in stage T2 tumors. Thus, the presented findings strongly indicate the presence of additional factors involved in the immunomodulatory process of HPV-negative OSCC with a possible tumor-burden-dependent complex network of immune escape mechanisms beyond HLA-I/APM components and T cell infiltration in this tumor entity.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0319.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; respiratory illness; pneumonia; I4R approach; immune system; inflammation; immune boosting interventions
Online: 23 March 2020 (00:33:02 CET)
The current global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has already had a major adverse impact on the world due to the exponentially increasing deaths due to the disease and the extreme actions taken by the world community to prevent its spread. It is important to explore novel methods of reducing the illnesses and fatality rates of the coronavirus-infected patients. Since the weakness of the immune system is one of the major contributing factors for the illnesses caused by such viruses, and since inflammation is a major contributing factor for the mortality of COVID-19 patients, interventions that boost the immune system and/or are anti-inflammatory may reduce the COVID-19 incidence and the mortality due to the disease. A large variety of interventions are known to improve the immune response and/or reduce inflammation. However, all the interventions would not be applicable or acceptable to everyone and so the interventions would need to be individualized based on individual circumstances and preferences. This approach, known as “Individualized Interventions to Improve the Immune Response”, or the I4R approach, should be studied in pilot clinical trials urgently, in order to potentially reduce the harm caused by the current coronavirus pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0133.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Pancreatic cancer; PDAC (Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma); immune microenvironment; immune biomarkers; personalized cancer care; inflammation; PD1; CTLA-4
Online: 12 March 2019 (03:15:16 CET)
It is estimated that pancreatic cancer will be the 2nd leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally by 2030, highlighting the ongoing lack of effective treatment options in this devastating condition. There is a lack of reliable prognostic or predictive markers in pancreatic cancer to guide management decisions, whether for systemic chemotherapy, molecularly targeted therapies, or immunotherapies. To date, the results for targeted agents and immunotherapies in unselected populations of chemo-refractory pancreatic cancer have not met expectations. The reasons for this lack of efficacy of immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer are incompletely understood. The challenges in pancreatic cancer include the physical barrier created by the dense desmoplastic stroma surrounding the tumor, chemokine-mediated exclusion of T cells, poor antigenicity, paucity of infiltrating T cells within the tumor, ultimately leading to an immunosuppressive microenvironment. A better understanding of the role of inflammation in pancreatic cancer, its tumor microenvironment and individualized patient-related features, be they molecular, clinical or histopathological would enable a more effective tailored approach to the management of pancreatic cancer. In this review, the role of inflammation, the immune tumor microenvironment and potential immune biomarkers in pancreatic cancer are explored.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1701.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Ceramics And Composites Keywords: hydroxyapatite; bone grafting; nanoparticles; immune response; mitochondria
Online: 28 November 2023 (06:56:44 CET)
Abstract: The centrepiece of this analytical review is the metabolism of hydroxyapatite in its natural, bone, and synthetic forms, where the mitochondria-mediated mechanism may serve as the leading mechanism. The possibility that osteoblast mitochondria play an important role in the initial stages of bone mineralisation is discussed. Furthermore, the paper highlights the key role of mitochondria in the metabolism of synthetic hydroxyapatite.Differences between the results of in vivo and in vitro studies using synthetic hydroxyapatite of different morphologies are also detailed. It is noted that long-term infiltration with immune cells and in vivo studies are necessary to adequately evaluate hydroxyapatite as a bone-plastic material.Particular attention is given to the interaction of hydroxyapatite with immune cells and its ability to affect the ribosomes and mitochondria of cells. Due to its mechanical properties, scalability and potential use for the treatment of extensive bone defects of tumor origin, hydroxyapatite is a promising material.This study also highlights the importance of further development of in vitro research methods in the context of their biomimeticity. Overall, this work offers a theoretical direction for future studies of hydroxyapatite as a bone grafting material and emphasises the value of in vivo studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0767.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: CD147; glycolysis; malignant tumor; psoriasis; immune disorder
Online: 13 November 2023 (08:39:03 CET)
CD147/Basigin, a transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin super family, is a multifunctional molecule with various binding partners. CD147 binds to monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) and supports their expression on plasma membranes. MCTs play an important role in glycolysis, the enzymatic conversion of glucose to pyruvate and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Pyruvate is further converted to lactic acid which is exported from the cytoplasm by MTC-1 and MCT-4 to maintain intracellular pH and a stable metabolic state. Under physiological conditions, cellular energy production is induced by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis usually occurs under anaerobic conditions, whereas cancer cells depend on glycolysis under aerobic conditions. T cells also require glycolysis for differentiation, proliferation, and activation. Human malignant melanoma cells expressed higher levels of MCT-1 and MCT-4, co-localized with CD147 on the plasma membrane and showed an increased glycolysis rate compared to normal human melanocytes. Silencing of CD147 by siRNA abrogated the membrane expression of MCT-1 and MCT-4 and disrupted glycolysis, inhibiting cancer cell activity. The differentiation of CD4+ T cells into Th17 cells is a pivotal process in the development of various immune disorders, including psoriasis. Studies using CD147-deficient mice demonstrated the involvement of CD147 in psoriasis. MCT-1 was absent on CD4+ T cells in CD147-deficient mice. Naïve CD4+ T-cells from CD147-deficient mice show low potential for differentiation into Th17 cells. Imiquimod-induced skin inflammation was significantly milder in CD147-deficient mice than in wild-type mice. These findings indicate that CD147/Basigin is involved in the development of malignant tumors and T cell mediated immunological disorders via regulation of glycolysis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2105.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: radiotherapy; CD8+ T cells; immune checkpoint inhibitors
Online: 31 October 2023 (17:22:30 CET)
Radiotherapy for cancer has been known to affect the responses of immune cells, especially those of CD8+ T cells that play a pivotal role in anti-tumor immunity. Clinical success of immune checkpoint inhibitors led to an increasing interest into the ability of radiation to modulate CD8+ T cell responses. Recent studies that carefully analyzed the CD8+ T cell responses following radiotherapy suggest the beneficial roles of radiotherapy on anti-tumor immunity. In addition, numerous clinical trials that evaluate the efficacy of combining radiotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors are undergoing. In this review, we summarize the current status of knowledge regarding the changes of CD8+ T cells following radiotherapy from various preclinical and clinical studies. Furthermore, key biologic mechanisms that underlie such modulation, including both direct and indirect effects, are described. Lastly, we discuss the current evidence and essential considerations for harnessing radiotherapy as a combination partner for immune checkpoint inhibitors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Epstein Barr Virus, HL microenvironment, Immune suppression
Online: 2 August 2023 (05:14:23 CEST)
Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) has been recognized for its ability to transform B lymphocytes and for its association with different types of cancers including Hodgkin lymphoma. In addition, EBV may also modulate the microenvironment of HL. In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of EBV among HL cases in Ethiopia and to assess the tissue cellular composition of EBV-related and EBV-unrelated cases. We constructed a tissue microarray (TMA) of 126 consecutive cases of classical HL (cHL) and nodular lymphocyte predominant HL (NLPHL) from a tertiary cancer centre, Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and evaluated a panel of immunohistochemical markers. The quantification of immune cells was performed using HALO 2.3, a platform for image analysis from Indica Lab Inc. A total of 77/126 (61.1%) of HL cases expressed LMP1/EBER. Infiltration of CD8+, T-bet+ and FOXP3+ cells was higher in the microenvironment of EBV-related HL, with P values of <0.001, 0.006 and <0.001, respectively. In contrast, the expression of PD1 was higher in the microenvironment of EBV-unrelated HL cases (P = 0.001). Unlike in Western countries, the majority of HL cases in Ethiopia were associated with EBV. As FoxP3+ and PD1-expressing cells are thought to participate in down regulation of the immune response by different mechanisms, this finding highlights the previously unrecognized possibility that distinct immunosuppressive mechanisms may be ongoing within EBV positive and negative HL types. This may have important prognostic and therapeutic implications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0447.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Cancer; ncRNA; LncRNA; immune response; biomarkers; immunotherapy
Online: 7 July 2023 (08:39:42 CEST)
The noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are small transcript sequences that do not encode proteins but participate in the regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level playing important biological roles such as proliferation and differentiation. In the tumor microenvironment, the dysregulated immunological response can participate in the progression and negative phenotype of cancer, the variability of switch cell differentiation and activation of the different immune cell lineages showed differential regulation by the type of cancer. Recent evidence showed that the upregulation of lncRNA can be used as a biomarker and predictive indicator for cancer progression. The use of lncRNA to turn off the tumor immune response and activate the anti-tumoral immune response is day by day a promising reality for the control of cancer. However, is imperatively elucidated the role of each ncRNA identified as well as its respective molecular pathways regulated, including the immune checkpoints, before its application at the clinical level. The correct delivery of lncRNA or mimics to inhibit its expression using the most efficient carriers to the cell or cellular organelle is a science that should continue to be developed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2179.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Colorectal neoplasm; Biomarkers; Bioplex; Immune checkpoint proteins
Online: 30 June 2023 (07:18:45 CEST)
The tumor microenvironment of colorectal cancer (CRC) is heterogenous; thus, it is likely that multiple immune-related and inflammatory markers are simultaneously expressed in the tumor. The aim of this study was to identify immune-related and inflammatory markers expressed in freshly frozen CRC tissues and to investigate whether they are related to the clinicopathological features and prognosis of CRC. Seventy patients with CRC who underwent curative surgical resection between December 2014 and January 2017 were included in this study. Tissue samples were obtained from tumor and non-tumor areas in the patients’ colons. The concentrations of immune-related markers (APRIL/TNFSF13, BAFF, LAG-3, PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4) and inflammatory markers (CHIT, MMP-3, osteocalcin, pentraxin-3, sTNF-R1, and sTNF-R2) in the samples were measured using the Bio-plex Multiplex Immunoassay system. The concentrations of APRIL/TNFSF13, BAFF, and MMP-3 in the samples were significantly high; thus, we conducted analyses based on the cutoff values for these three markers. The high APRIL/TNFSH13 expression group showed a significantly higher rate of metastatic lesions than the low expression group, whereas the high MMP-3 expression group had higher CEA levels, more lymph node metastases, and more advanced disease stages than the low expression group. The five-year disease-free survival of the high MMP-3 expression group was significantly shorter than that of the low expression group (65.1% vs. 90.2%, p=0.033). This study provides evidence that the APRIL/TNFSF13, BAFF, and MMP-3 pathway is overexpressed CRC tissues and is associated with unfavorable clinicopathological features and poor prognosis in CRC patients. These markers could serve as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers for CRC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0956.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: NSCLC,; Immunotherapy; Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors; Special populations
Online: 13 June 2023 (16:01:04 CEST)
Over the last decade, the therapeutic scenario for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has undergone a major paradigm shift. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have shown a meaningful clinical and survival improvement in different settings of the disease. However, the real benefit of this therapeutic approach remains controversial in selected NSCLC subsets, such as those of the elderly with active brain metastases or oncogene-addicted mutations. This is mainly due to the exclusion or underrepresentation of these patient subpopulations in most of the pivotal phase III studies; this precludes the generalization of the ICI efficacy in this context. Moreover, no predictive biomarkers of ICI response exist that can help with patient selection for this therapeutic approach. Here, we critically summarize the current state of ICI efficacy in the most common “special” NSCLC subpopulations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0128.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: PD-L1; CTCs; immunotherapy; immune checkpoint inhibitors
Online: 2 June 2023 (04:28:01 CEST)
The approval of monoclonal antibodies against programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and programmed cell death protein (PD1), has changed the landscape of cancer treatment. To date, many Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors (ICIs) have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of metastatic cancer as well as locally recurrent advanced cancer. However, immune-related adverse events (irAEs) of ICIs highlight the need for biomarker analysis with strong predictive value. Liquid biopsy is an important tool for clinical oncologists to monitor cancer patients and administer or change appropriate therapy. CTCs frequently express PD-L1 and this constitutes a clinically useful and non-invasive method to assess PD-L1 status in real time. This review summarizes all the latest findings about the clinical significance of CTC for the management of cancer patients during administration of immunotherapy and mainly focuses on the assessment of PD-L1 expression in CTCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1823.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: Plasmodium falciparum; polyclonal infection; adaptive immune responses
Online: 26 May 2023 (03:12:17 CEST)
Malaria remains a major public health problem worldwide, with eradication efforts thwarted by drug and insecticide resistance and the lack of a broadly effective malaria vaccine. In continuously exposed communities, polyclonal infections are thought to reduce the risk of severe disease and promote the establishment of asymptomatic infections. We sought to investigate the relationship between the complexity of P. falciparum infection and underlying host adaptive immune responses in an area with high prevalence of asymptomatic parasitaemia in Cameroon. A cross-sectional study of 353 individuals aged 2 to 86 years (median age = 16 years) was conducted in five villages in the Centre Region of Cameroon. Plasmodium falciparum infection was detected by multiplex nested PCR in 316 samples, of which 278 were successfully genotyped. Of these, 60.1% (167/278) were polyclonal infections, the majority (80.2%) of which were from asymptomatic carriers. Host-parasite factors associated with polyclonal infection in the study population included peripheral blood parasite density, participant age and village of residence. The number of parasite clones per infected sample increased significantly with parasite density (r = 0.3912, p<0.0001) but decreased with participant age (r = -0.4860, p<0.0001). Parasitaemia and number of clones per sample correlated negatively with total plasma levels of IgG antibodies to three highly reactive P. falciparum antigens (MSP-1p19, MSP-3 and EBA175) and two soluble antigen extracts (merozoite and mixed stage antigens). Surprisingly, we observed no association between the frequency of polyclonal infection and susceptibility to clinical disease as assessed by the recent occurrence of malarial symptoms or duration since the previous fever episode. Overall, the data indicate that in areas with high perennial transmission of P. falciparum, parasite polyclonality is dependent on underlying host adaptive immune responses, with the majority of polyclonal infections occurring in persons with low levels of protective anti-plasmodial antibodies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1476.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: psoriasis; systemic treatment; biologic treatment; immune checkpoint
Online: 22 May 2023 (08:42:21 CEST)
Programmed-death-1 (PD-1) receptor plays a major physiological role in maintainance of im-mune tolerance, and, by interaction with its ligands (PD-L1 and PD-L2), prevents the develop-ment of multiple immune-mediated diseases. There is growing evidence of an important role of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in pathogenesis of psoriasis. 84 subjects with psoriasis were included into the study, together with 29 healthy subjects as a control group. 28 of psoriatic patients were treated with biologice therapy (TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL)-12/23 or IL-17 inhibitors). Amounts of PD1 and PD-L1 positive T-cells in peripheral blood were evaluated using flow cytometry. Significantly lower levels of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 were found in psoriatic patients when compared to healthy individuals, i.e. CD3/PD1, CD3/PDL1, CD4/PD1, CD4/PDL1, CD8/PDL1, CD19/PD1, CD19/PDL1 positive cells. Biologic treatment resulted in elevation of CD3/PDL1, CD8/PDL1 and decrease of CD8/PD1 posi-tive PBMCs. Our results confirm previous observations of disrupted PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in psoriasis, and that this disturbances may play an important role in development of the disease. Biologic drugs may reverse several abnormalities observed within this pathway, which may ex-plain their excellent efficacy in the treatment of psoriasis. Further research should be conducted to fully explain the results obtained.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Osteosarcoma; Tumorigenesis; Metastasis; Immune Evasion; Chemoresistance; Mutation
Online: 7 February 2023 (06:12:43 CET)
There has been no significant efficacy in treatment for osteosarcoma (OS) metastasis after nearly four decades of trials. This motivates us to elucidate OS therapies according to their four bidirectional mutation stages. To refresh the OS therapy status quo, the historical developments and clinical advancements are briefly described. However, the main issue of metastasis remains unresolved, accounting for 90% of pulmonary metastasis deaths. Thus, this metastasis problem is related to immune evasion and chemoresistance that are being induced after long-term treatment by the use of immunotherapy for tumorigenesis. Therefore, it is rationale to discuss the relationship cycles of mutation stages including tumorigenesis, metastasis, immune evasion, and chemoresistance. Even though many combinational and targeted therapies have been developed to intensify these mutation treatments, successful clinical translations with higher cure rates are still rare. Through this review, an in-depth understanding of the bidirectional relationship between the four OS mutation stages and their respective therapies is provided. Herein, we summarise the medicines used to treat tumorigenesis, including COLGALT2 inhibitors, Tra2B, and AGAP1, miR-148a and miR-21-5p EVs, and the lncRNA LIFR-AS1. Following the medicines used to treat metastasis are AXL, miR-135a-5p, mRNA BCL6, TGFβ1, Tim-3, SOCS5, CASC15, KLF3-AS1, PDCD4, ATG5, and Rab22a-NeoF1. Then the medicines used to treat immune evasion are N-cadherin, anti-IL-9, USP12 inhibitor, IgG-4+ B-cells, LAP inhibitor, anti-Wnt2 mAb, anti-αvβ8 integrin, HK2-mediated IκBα, IDO inhibitor with NO, and TGF-βRII with anti-IgG1. Finally, the medicines used to treat chemoresistance are DHFR, FPGS, HSP-90AA1, XCT-790, ATKI, and IGF1. As a result, this contribution is expected to serve as a reference and guide for scientists and clinicians.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0171.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: TIGIT; Immune checkpoint; FoxP3; Human Glioma; Immunotherapy
Online: 10 January 2023 (03:21:32 CET)
Background: Diffuse glioma is a malignant human brain cancer that is hard to overcome. This represents a high risk of mortality. The current challenge is limited to the control of tumor progression and survival improvement. Immunotherapy consists of stimulating the immune system in order to eliminate the non-self-elements that damage the human body, including cancer cells. However, in human glioma, the current immunotherapeutic targets did not show significant benefit. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the expression and potential role of a new immunosuppressive molecule, TIGIT in glioma patients. Methods: A cohort of 667 patients from the TCGA database along with a cohort of 53 Moroccan patients, were analyzed in order to assess the role of TIGIT in human glioma progression and to estimate whether blocking this immune checkpoint molecule would be of a potential therapeutic benefit. Real time RT-PCR from fresh human biopsies and RNAseq data analysis were performed in this study. Results: Our results showed that high expression of TIGIT had prognostic value with some known clinical glioma risk factors such as sex, age and IDH mutation status. High expression of TIGIT was positively associated with advanced grades of glioma. Interestingly, elevated rates of TIGIT were significantly associated to elevated levels of other inhibitory immune checkpoint molecules (PD-1, VISTA and Tim-3) in human glioma patients, also TIGIT showed strong association with Treg cell-secreted cytokines (TGF-beta and IL-10), indicating the high potential involvement of TIGIT in immunosuppression in human glioma. Moreover, we reported that high TIGIT expressing CD8 T-cells displayed more surface inhibitory molecules and, elevated levels of Treg cells and FoxP3 were linked to higher rates of TIGIT, supporting the likely involvement of TIGIT in the suppression of the intra-tumoral immune cells. Finally, high expression of TIGIT was significantly linked to advanced histological subtypes of glioma and was associated with poor overall survival in human glioma. Conclusion: TIGIT blockade might be of valuable therapeutic benefit in patients with advanced glioma.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0154.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Epstein–Barr virus; gastric cancer; immune microenvironment
Online: 11 October 2022 (10:43:36 CEST)
We have previously discussed the pathological characteristics, clinical characteristics, detection methods, pathogenesis, and treatment of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-positive gastric cancer, but we have not discussed the unique immune microenvironment in EBV-positive gastric cancer. Here, we reviewed studies on the immune microenvironment in EBV-positive gastric cancer and found that CD8+ T lymphocytes and a small number of CD204+ macrophages infiltrate the immune microenvironment in EBV-positive gastric cancer. Moreover, immune checkpoints, such as IDO1 and PD-L1, are expressed at high levels in EBV-positive gastric cancer. Lastly, we also analyzed the mechanisms underlying the formation of the immune microenvironment in EBV-positive gastric cancer. Our findings and conclusions have significance in clinical guidance and provide research direction for basic experiments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0009.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: microbiome; melanoma; immune checkpoint inhibitor; diet; immunotherapy
Online: 3 October 2022 (12:19:54 CEST)
Gut microbiota is considered a key player modulating the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. The study investigated the association between response to the anti-PD-1 therapy and the baseline gut microbiome in the Polish cohort of melanoma patients, alongside selected agents modifying the microbiome. Sixty-four melanoma patients enrolled for the anti-PD-1 therapy and 10 healthy subjects were recruited. Response to the treatment was assessed according to the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors, and patients were classified as responders or non-responders. The association between selected extrinsic factors and response was investigated using questionnaire-based analysis, and metataxonomics of the microbiota. The Bacteroidota to Firmicutes ratio was higher, and the richness was decreased in the responders. The abundance of Prevotella copri and Bacteroides uniformis was related to the response, whereas non-responder gut microbiota was enriched with Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Desulfovibrio intestinalis, and some unclassified Firmicutes. Dietary patterns, including plant, dairy, and fat consumption, but also gastrointestinal tract functioning were significantly associated with the therapeutic effects of the therapy. The specific gut microbiota alongside diet were found associated with response to the therapy in the Polish population of melanoma patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0542.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Noni juice; Morinda citrifolia; immune system; immunomodulation
Online: 31 August 2022 (09:02:28 CEST)
Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit juice has the potential to influence immune system function. This review discusses results from several human and animal studies that provide insight into the potential mechanisms of action by which noni juice exerts its immunomodulatory effects. Increased natural killer cell activity is a likely a major contributor to the improved health outcomes and increased survival times described in case reports and as observed in LLC and S180 tumor bearing mice. Increased interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production is also an important mechanism of action through which noni improves immune function. IFN-γ promotes natural killer cell activity and phagocytosis, activities both seen in human and bovine studies as well as in rodents. Noni promotes regulatory cytokine expression, such as IL-2 which stimulates CD4+ T cell differentiation. Noni juice appears to influence this process via kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) protein kinase B (Akt) and nuclear factor-kappa-beta signaling. As oxidative status is known to influence immune function, this review also discusses the notable antioxidant properties of noni juice that have been demonstrated in human trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0346.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: pyroptosis; ovarian cancer; prognosic; immune microenvironment; signature
Online: 24 January 2022 (11:19:53 CET)
Background: LncRNA and pyroptosis play important roles in cancer development and tumor immune microenviroment. However, pyroptosis-related lncRNAs (PRLs) in ovarian cancer have not been identified and its impact on prognosis and immune response are not fully understood. Methods: Using pearson correlation analysis, PRLs were screened. Subsequently, we constructed a prognosis signature by using LASSO cox regression. In addition, the association between risk score and cancer immune environment was analyzed. Results: In TCGA-RNA-seq cohort (n=377), 32 prognostic PRLs were selected and a 7-gene signature were developed and had high accuracy in predicting the OS of ovarian cancer patients. Stratification analysis suggested that it might serve as an independent prognostic indicator. Except to clinical outcome, the signature was significantly associated with tumor immune microenvironment. Patients with high risk score exhibited lower infiltration abundance of MHC class Ⅰ cells, Type Ⅰ IFN response and immunotherapy response. In ovarian cancer, TYMSOS was highly expressed and its high expression was associated with worse OS. TYMSOS deletion in ovarian cancer cell lines inhibited the cell proliferation, invasion and migration, indicating that it might serve as a novel biomarker in ovarian cancer. Conclusions: The prognostic PRLs signature constructed in this work is available for prognostic prediction and immune microenvironment infiltration in ovarian cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0256.v1
Online: 9 June 2021 (10:58:20 CEST)
Abstract: Oxidative metabolism is crucial for leukemic stem cell (LSC) function and drug resistance in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Mitochondrial metabolism also affects the immune system and therefore the antitumor response. Modulation of oxidative phosphorylation (OxPHOS) has emerged as a promising approach to improve therapy outcome for AML patients. However, the effect of mitochondrial inhibitors on the immune compartment in the context of AML is yet to be explored. Immune checkpoints such as the ecto-nucleotidase CD39 and programmed dead ligand 1 (PD-L1) have been reported to be expressed in AML and linked to chemoresistance and poor prognosis. In the present study, we first demonstrated that a novel selective electron transfer chain complex (ETC) I inhibitor, EVT-701, decreased OxPHOS metabolism of murine and human cytarabine (AraC)-resistant leukemic cell lines. Furthermore, we showed that, while AraC induced immune response regulation by increasing CD39 expression and by reinforcing interferon-γ/PD-L1 axis, EVT-701 reduced CD39 and PD-L1 expression in vitro in a panel of both murine and human AML cell lines, especially upon AraC treatment. Altogether, this work uncovers a non-canonical function of ETCI in controlling CD39 and PD-L1 immune checkpoints, thereby improving the anti-tumor response in AML.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: delirium; inflammation; neuro-immune; biomarkers; oxidative stress
Online: 4 January 2021 (11:26:34 CET)
Background: Post-operative delirium in elderly with hip fracture is associated with various adverse clinical outcomes. Nevertheless, the pathophysiological processes underpinning delirium have remained elusive. The aim of this study is to explore the associations between delirium and its features and immune-inflammatory and blood gas biomarkers.Methods: In this prospective study we examined 65 patients who underwent a hip fracture surgery and assessed the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU), Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS), and Delirium Rating Scale Revised-98 (DRS-R-98) before and during 4 days after the surgery. Complete Blood Count (CBC) and venous blood gas markers were obtained at the same time points.Results: Delirium was observed in 19 patients and was accompanied by significantly increased pO2, number of white blood cells, neutrophil percentage, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, and lower mean platelet volume (MPV) (after adjusting for age, central nervous system (CNS) disease, blood loss during surgery, sleep disorders, and body mass index. The severity of delirium was associated with lowered number of platelets and MPV. Psychomotor disorders were associated with lower bicarbonate levels. The requirement of physical restraint of the patients was predicted by increased percentages of neutrophils and lymphocytes. Prior CNS disease was together with these biomarkers a significant predictor of delirium and severity of delirium. Conclusion: Delirium and psychomotor disorders following hip fracture and surgery may be caused by immune-inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways probably attributable to an aseptic inflammatory process. Oxygen administration may aggravate these pathways.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0339.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: DNA repair; lymphocyte; immune system; DNA breaks
Online: 18 November 2020 (10:51:18 CET)
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) form the basis of tumor microenvironment and possess immunomodulatory functions by interacting with other cells surrounding tumor, including T lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and natural killer cells. Ionizing radiation is a broadly-used method in radiotherapy to target tumors. In mammalian cells, ionizing radiation induces various types of DNA damages and DNA damage response. Being unspecific, radiotherapy affects all the cells in tumor microenvironment, including the tumor itself, CAFs and immune cells. CAFs are extremely radio-resistant and do not initiate apoptosis even at high doses of radiation. However, following radiation, CAFs become senescent and produce a distinct combination of immunoregulatory molecules. Radiosensitivity of immune cells varies depending on the cell type due to inefficient DNA repair in, for example, monocytes and granulocytes. In this minireview, we are summarizing recent findings on the interaction between CAF, ionizing radiation and immune cells in the tumor microenvironment.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0009.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: COVID-19; immune cycles; weekend-weekday; stress
Online: 2 July 2020 (13:36:14 CEST)
Coronavirus and COVID-19 infections continue to wreak havoc across the world. Interestingly, the COVID-19 infections and deaths display a clear seven-day cycles. Mathematical analysis using linear mixed-effects models show that this periodicity is not due to reporting errors. We hypothesize that these COVID-19 cycles are related to natural immune cycles which also oscillate every seven days. These immune cycles are regulated by stress and mediated through the endocrine and the central nervous systems. Our routine activities and lifestyle of more stressful weekdays flanked by less stressful, relaxing weekends define the seven-day immune cycles. The synchronized low immunity levels in the population is responsible for repeated seven-day waves of pathogenic infections such as COVID-19. The new understanding of the role of immune oscillations will help in developing strategies to enhance our immunity through modified lifestyle and better, innovative prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against infectious diseases.