REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0270.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: RhoA; cardiac inflammation; immune cells; cardiocrine signaling; cardiac diseases
Online: 9 June 2021 (21:49:26 CEST)
Chronic inflammation, the activation of immune cells and their cross-talk with cardiomyocytes in the pathogenesis and progression of heart diseases has long been overlooked. However, with the latest research developments, it is increasingly accepted that a vicious cycle exists where cardiomyocytes release cardiocrine signaling molecules that spirals down to immune cell activation and chronic state of low‐level inflammation. For example, cardiocrine molecules released from injured or stressed cardiomyocytes can stimulate macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils and even T-cells, which then subsequently increase cardiac inflammation by co-stimulation and positive feedback-loops. One of the key proteins involved in stress-mediated cardiomyocyte signal transduction is a small GTPase RhoA. Importantly, the regulation of RhoA activation is critical for effective immune cell response and is being considered as one of the potential therapeutic targets in many immune-cell-mediated inflammatory diseases. In this review we provide an update on the role of RhoA at the juncture of immune cell activation, inflammation and cardiac disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0117.v1
Online: 10 October 2022 (09:56:09 CEST)
Ovine footrot is a complex multifactorial infectious disease, causing lameness in sheep with major welfare and economic consequences. Dichelobacter nodosus is the main causative bacterium, however, footrot is a polymicrobial disease with Fusobacterium necrophorum, Mycoplasma fermentans and Porphyromonas asaccharolytica also associated. There is limited understanding of the host response involved. Proinflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)-1β and C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 8 (CXCL8) have been shown to play a role in the early response to D. nodosus in dermal fibroblasts and interdigital skin explant models. To further understand the response of ovine skin to bacterial stimulation, and to build the understanding of the role of the cytokines and chemokines identified in transcriptomic data, primary ovine interdigital fibroblasts and keratinocytes were isolated, cultured and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), D. nodosus or F. necrophorum in the presence and absence of M. fermentans, whilst measuring mRNA expression and protein release of CXCL8 and, IL-1β. Stimulation with LPS, D. nodosus or F. necrophorum resulted in increased transcript levels of IL-1β and CXCL8 in M. fermentans free cells, however, only an increase in CXCL8 protein release was observed. No IL-1β protein release was detected despite increases in IL-1β mRNA, suggesting the signal for intracellular pre-IL-1β processing may be lacking when culturing primary cells in isolation. Keratinocytes and fibroblasts naturally infected with M. fermentans showed little response to LPS, a range of D. nodosus preparations or heat-inactivated F. necrophorum. Primary single cell culture models complement ex vivo organ culture models to study different aspects of the host response to D. nodosus. Ovine keratinocytes and fibroblasts infected with M. fermentans had a reduced response to experimental bacterial stimulation. However, in the case of footrot where Mycoplasma spp. are associated with diseased feet, this natural infection gives important insights into the impact of multiple pathogens on the host response.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0489.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: chemotherapy; breast cancer metastasis; stress response; ATF3; seed and soil theory; cancer-host interaction; tumor microenvironment; immune modulation; tumor immune environment
Online: 29 August 2018 (09:05:46 CEST)
An emerging picture in cancer biology is that, paradoxically, chemotherapy can actively induce changes that favor cancer progression. These pro-cancer changes can be either inside (intrinsic) or outside (extrinsic) the cancer cells. In this review, we will discuss the extrinsic pro-cancer effect of chemotherapy; that is, the effect of chemotherapy on the non-cancer host cells to promote cancer progression. We will focus on metastasis, and will first discuss recent data from mouse models of breast cancer. Intriguingly, despite reducing the size of primary tumors, chemotherapy changes the tumor microenvironment, resulting in an increased escape of cancer cells into the blood stream. Furthermore, chemotherapry changes the tissue microenvironment at the distant sites, making it more hospitable to cancer cells upon their arrival. We will then discuss the idea and evidence that these devastating pro-metastatic effects of chemotherapy can be explained in the context of stress response. At the end, we will discuss the potential relevance of these mouse data to human breast cancer and their implication on chemotherapy in the clinic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0580.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Immune system; Oxidative stress; Nanoparticles; Intracellular Pathogens
Online: 28 October 2020 (10:05:05 CET)
The immune system is a dynamic network of cells and cytokines are the major mediators of immune responses which combat pathogens. Based on the cytokine production, effector T cells differentiate into subsets known as Th1, Th2, Th17 or Treg (T regulatory). This system serves as a barrier to intracellular pathogens, bacterial infections and stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) and nitric oxide (NO), which diffuses across membranes and engulfs intracellular pathogens. Oxidative stress occurs when ROS, reactive nitrogen species (RNS) production and antioxidant defences become imbalanced. Oxidative stress generated by infected cells produces a substantial amount of free radicals which enables killing of intracellular pathogens. Intracellular pathogens are exposed to endogenous ROS as part of normal aerobic respiration, also aexogenous ROS and RNS are generated by the host immune system in response to infection. Nanoparticles which are designed for drug delivery are capable of trapping the desired drug in the particles which protects the drug from enzymatic degradation in a biological system. The small (subcellular) size of nanoparticles enables higher intracellular uptake of the drug which results in the reduction of the concentration of free drugs reducing their toxic effect. Research on the modulation of immune response and oxidative stress using nanoparticles used to encapsulate drugs has yet to be explored fully. In this review we illustrate the immune activation and generation of oxidative stress properties which are mediated by nanoparticle encapsulated drug delivery systems which can make the therapy more effective in case of diseases caused by intracellular pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0426.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 infection; innate immune response; antigen-specific immune response; kinetic coordination; mathematical model; pathogenesis, long COVID-19
Online: 27 July 2022 (15:11:44 CEST)
A calibrated mathematical model of antiviral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is developed. The model considers the innate and antigen-specific responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Recently published data sets from human challenge studies with SARS-CoV-2 were used for parameter estimation. Understanding the regulation of multiple intertwined reaction components of the immune system is necessary for linking the clinical phenotypes of COVID-19 with the kinetics of immune responses. Consideration of multiple immune reaction components in a single calibrated mathematical model allowed us to address some fundamental issues related to pathogenesis of COVID-19, i.e. sensitivity of the peak viral load to parameters characterizing the specific response components, the kinetic coordination of the individual responses, and the factors favoring a prolonged viral persistence. The model provides a tool for predicting the infectivity of patients, i.e. the amount of virus which is transmitted via droplets from the person infected with SARS-CoV-2, depending on the time of infection. The thresholds in the relative unbalance between innate and adaptive response parameters which lead to a prolonged persistence of SARS-CoV-2 due to the loss of a kinetic response synchrony/coordination were identified.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0372.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: immune checkpoint inhibitors; non-small cell lung carcinoma; PD-1; PD-L1; immune PET; immunotherapy; Radiomics; PET/CT
Online: 18 August 2021 (08:20:43 CEST)
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death and it is usually diagnosed in advanced stages (stage III or IV). Recently, the availability of targeted strategies and of immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) has favorably changed patient prognosis. Treatment outcome is closely related to tumor biology and interaction with the host immune microenvironment (TME). Whether for targeted therapies the response relies on the presence of specific genetic alterations in tumor cells, for ICI accurate biomarkers of response are lacking and clinical outcome likely depends on multiple factors, host and tumor-related. This paper is an overview of the ongoing research on predictive factors both from in-vitro/ex-vivo analysis (ranging from conventional pathology to molecular biology) and in-vivo analysis, where molecular imaging is showing an exponential growth and use due to the technological advancement and to the new bioinformatics approaches applied to image analyses that allow specific features recovery in specific tumor subclones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0297.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Protein Kinase Receptor (PKR); Mammarenavirus; Interferon; Innate immune response; Mx1; ISG15; CCL5
Online: 13 May 2021 (13:27:07 CEST)
The New World (NW) mammarenavirus group includes several zoonotic highly pathogenic viruses, such as Junin (JUNV) or Machupo (MACV). Contrary to Old World mammarenavirus, these viruses are not able to completely suppress the innate immune response, and trigger a robust interferon (IFN)-I response via retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I). Nevertheless, pathogenic NW mammarenaviruses trigger a weaker IFN response than their non-pathogenic relatives do. RIG-I activation leads to upregulation of a plethora of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), which exert a characteristic antiviral effect either as lone effectors, or resulting from the combination with other ISGs or cellular factors. The dsRNA sensor-protein kinase receptor (PKR) is an ISG that plays a pivotal role in the control of the mammarenavirus infection. In addition to its well-known protein synthesis inhibition, PKR further modulates the overall IFN-I response against different viruses, including mammarenaviruses. For this study, we employed Tacaribe virus (TCRV), the closest relative of the human pathogenic JUNV. Our findings indicate that PKR does not only increase IFN-I expression against TCRV infection, but also affects the kinetic expression and the extent of induction of Mx1 and ISG15 at both levels, mRNA and protein expression. Moreover, TCRV fails to prevent the effect of PKR on viral protein translation and its viral titer is inhibited when PKR is pre-stimulated via IFN-I. Here, we provide first evidence of the specific immunomodulatory role of PKR over selected ISGs, altering the dynamic of the innate immune response course against TCRV. IMPORTANCE: The mechanisms for innate immune evasion are key for emergence and adaptation of human pathogenic arenaviruses, and highly pathogenic mammarenaviruses such as JUNV or MACV trigger a weaker IFN response than non-pathogenic mammarenaviruses. Within the innate immune response context, PKR plays an important role in sensing and restricting the infection of TCRV virus. Although the mechanism of PKR for protein synthesis inhibition is well described, its immunomodulatory role is less understood. In this study, we found that TCRV protein expression and viral propagation are inhibited from early times after infection, and when externally activated, PKR inhibits TCRV viral progeny production. Our present findings further characterize the innate immune response in absence of PKR, unveiling the role of PKR in defining the ISG profile after viral infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0075.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Probiotics; Bacillus subtilis; growth performance; immune-hematological parameters; stress resistance
Online: 2 March 2021 (11:06:52 CET)
Aquaculture is one of the fastest-growing animal food-producing agricultural industries in the world and proper performance of fish in morphological, physiological and immunological aspects is important for fish production and sustainable expansion of aquaculture. But several inhibitors like disease, pathogen, and adverse environment can overpower these performances. At present, antibiotics in preventing these inhibitors have been seen as becoming favorable to those inhibitors. So, Bacillus, an important group of probiotic bacteria can be an alternative to these antibiotics in aquaculture. Bacillus has been seen used in different experiments, mainly as a supplement in feed at various concentrations. Bacillus showed effective results like improved growth with minimum cost, improvement in reproduction, hematology, improved immune response and disease, and stress resistance as well as better proximate composition in different fish species. Application of Bacillus strains has proven efficient in improving water quality by reducing ammonia and nitrite toxicity, harmful algal blooms and utilization of H+ ion. Larger application of probiotic Bacillus instead of the hazardous synthetic chemicals would promote eco-friendly low-input sustainable aquaculture for food and nutritional security of the increasing world population. So many more experiments should be conducted in commercially important fishes for better growth and health of fishes which will certainly increase fish
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0314.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: schizophrenia; first episode psychosis; antipsychotic; immune; inflammation; cytokines
Online: 17 September 2018 (14:13:38 CEST)
Background: First episode psychosis (FEP), schizophrenia and affective disorders are accompanied by activation of the immune inflammatory response system (IRS). The compensatory immune-regulatory reflex system (CIRS) is a regulatory immune response that is induced by the IRS but exerts negative feedback through, for example, increased levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-13 and IL-10. Different phenotypes of schizophrenia may exhibit distinct IRS and CIRS immune profiles.Aims: This study aims to examine the IRS and CIRS components, including macrophagic M1, T-helper (Th)-1, Th-2, Th-17 and T-regulatory (Treg) phenotypes, in antipsychotic-naïve FEP patients before and after risperidone treatment.Methods: We included 31 antipsychotic-naïve FEP patients who had measurements of IRS and CIRS biomarkers before and after treatment with risperidone for 10 weeks, and 22 healthy controls.Results: Antipsychotic-naive FEP patients showed interrelated increments in M1, Th-1, Th-2, Th-17 and Treg phenotypes and a relatively greater IRS response (especially granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-12) as compared with the CIRS response (IL-4, IL-13, IL-5 and IL-10). Inflammatory markers, especially IL-6 and IL-8, were significantly correlated with negative, psychotic, affective and excitation symptom dimensions. Treatment with risperidone significantly suppressed the IRS and CIRS. Baseline levels of CIRS biomarkers, especially higher soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 and IL-10 predicted clinical improvement during treatment.Discussion: Our findings indicate that FEP is characterized by robust IRS (M1 + Th-1 + Th-17) and CIRS responses, suggesting that monocytes, macrophages, Th-1, Th-2, Th-17 and Treg cells are activated. The findings indicate that a) FEP patients are prone to the detrimental effects of M1, Th-1, Th-17 and Th-2 cells, which may contribute to long-lasting abnormalities in brain circuitry; and b) in FEP, the CIRS may contribute to recovery from the acute phase of illness. Enhancing the CIRS is a new drug target to treat FEP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0277.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Huntington’s disease; transgenic Drosophila; immune response; phenoloxidase activity; phagocytosis; reactive oxygen species
Online: 16 September 2021 (11:05:34 CEST)
Huntington’s disease (HD) is a late-onset; progressive, dominantly inherited neurological disorder marked by an abnormal expansion of polyglutamine (poly Q) repeats in Huntingtin (HTT) protein. The pathological effects of mutant Huntingtin (mHTT) are not restricted to the nervous system but systemic abnormalities including immune dysregulation have been evidenced in clinical and experimental settings of HD. Indeed, mutant huntingtin (mHTT) is ubiquitously expressed and could induce cellular toxicity by directly acting on immune cells. However, it is still unclear if selective expression ofmHTT exon1 in neurons could induce immune responses and hemocyte function. In the present study, we intended to monitor perturbations in the hemocytes population and their physiological functions in Drosophila, caused by pan-neuronal expression of mHTT protein. We found that pan-neuronal expression of mHtt significantly alters crystal cells and plasmatocyte count in larvae and adults with disease progression. Interestingly, plasmatocytes isolated from diseased conditions exhibit a gradual decline in phagocytic activity ex vivo at progressive stages of the disease as compared to age-matched control groups. We also observed an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plasmatocytes at advanced stages of the disease. In addition, diseased flies displayed elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in circulating plasmatocytes at the larval stage and in sessile plasmatocytes of hematopoietic pockets at of disease. All the parameters were monitored progressively, targeting the circulation at larvae stage and hematopoietic pockets in adults at different disease stages, and many alterations were documented in the early stage itself. These findings strongly implicate that neuronal expression of mHtt alone is sufficient to induce non-cell-autonomous immune dysregulation in vivo. Based on these findings, we propose that further insight into the mechanisms through which neuronal expression of mHtt might be inflicting the innate immune responses would facilitate therapeutic inventions aimed at amelioration of HD pathology and improving the quality of life of the patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0114.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Immune response; SARS-CoV-2 antibodies response; Covid-19 management; Maglumi; Architect; method comparison.
Online: 5 August 2020 (08:09:11 CEST)
The role of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is not yet well known, in particular about the persistence of circulating antibodies. The aim of the study is to compare the results of two automated systems for the determination of IgG antibodies against SARS CoV-2 and to assess the time course of the IgG response after the onset of symptoms for a period longer than that evaluated to date. IgG were measured in 98 specimens of 55 subjects with COVID-19 (time from the onset of symptoms from 3 to 109 days) using the automated tests "Abbott SARS-COV-2 IgG" and the "MAGLUMI 2019-nCoV IgG". The two methods had a concordance of 91.8%, but the quantitative correlation showed very dispersed results. All the specimens resulted positive after 17 days from the onset of the synptoms. However, the median concentrations of IgG, after a rapid increase up to about 20 days, quickly decrease to about 15% of the maximum for Maglumi. The same samples measured by Architect showed a quite constant trend up to 80 day, and then an only moderate decline. The titer of IgG against SARS-CoV-2 in patients exposed to COVID-19 may significantly and rapidly decrease, with a different time-course depending on the method used for the determination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0013.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Aedes aegypti, Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteins, Zika virus, Chikungunya virus, immune responses, gene expression
Online: 3 January 2019 (12:12:05 CET)
Aedes aegypti (L.) is the primary vector of chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever and Zika viruses. The leucine-rich repeats (LRR)-containing domain is evolutionarily conserved in many proteins associated with innate immunity in invertebrates and vertebrates, as well as plants. We focused on the AaeLRIM1 and AaeAPL1 gene expressions in response to Zika virus (ZIKV) and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection using a time course study, as well as the developmental expressions in the eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults. RNA-seq analysis data provided 60 leucine-rich repeat related transcriptions in Ae. aegypti in response to Zika virus (Accession number: GSE118858, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gds/?term=GSE118858). RNA-seq analysis data showed that AaeLRIM1 (AAEL012086-RA) and AaeAPL1 (AAEL009520-RA) were significantly upregulated 2.5 and 3-fold during infection by ZIKV 7-days post infection (dpi) of an Ae. aegypti Key West strain compared to an Orlando strain. The qPCR data showed that LRR-containing proteins AaeLRIM1, AaeAPL1 and five paralogues were expressed 100-fold lower than other nuclear genes, such as defensin, during all developmental stages examined. Together, these data provide insights into transcription profiles of LRR proteins of Ae. aegypti during its development and in response to infection with emergent arboviruses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0180.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: oxidative stress; nitrosative stress; immune response; inflammation; antioxidants; LPS
Online: 10 May 2021 (11:43:52 CEST)
An immune-inflammatory response is accompanied by increased nitro-oxidative stress. The aims of this mechanistic review are to review: a) the role of redox sensitive transcription factors and enzymes, ROS/RNS production and the activity of cellular antioxidants on the activation and performance of macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, T cells, B cells and natural killer cells; b) the involvement of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein (Apo)A1, paraoxonase (PON)-1, and oxidized phospholipids in the regulation of the immune response; and c) the detrimental effects of hypernitrosylation and chronic nitro-oxidative stress on the immune response. The redox changes during immune-inflammatory responses are orchestrated by the actions of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, HIF1alpha, the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTor), the phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K) / protein kinase B (AKT) signalling pathway, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). The performance and survival of individual immune cells is under redox control and sensitive to intracellular and extracellular levels of ROS/RNS and is heavily influenced by cellular anti-oxidants including the glutathione and thioredoxin systems, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2), and the HDL complex. Chronic nitro-oxidative stress and hypernitrosylation inhibit the activity of those antioxidant systems, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, mitochondrial functions, and the metabolism of immune cells. In conclusion, those redox-associated mechanisms modulate metabolic reprogramming of immune cells, macrophage and T helper cell polarization, phagocytosis, production of pro- versus anti-inflammatory cytokines, immune training and tolerance, chemotaxis, pathogen sensing, antiviral and antibacterial effects, Toll-like receptor activity, and endotoxin tolerance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0104.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: C19ORF66; FLJ11286; shiftless; SVA-1; RyDEN; IRAV; ISG; innate immune response; RNA stabil-ity; translation; RNA granules; ribosomal frameshift
Online: 9 May 2022 (05:57:15 CEST)
Since its initial characterization in 2016, the interferon stimulated gene Shiftless (SHFL) has proven to be a critical piece of the innate immune response to viral infection. SHFL expression stringently restricts the replication of multiple DNA, RNA, and retroviruses with an extraordinary diversity of mechanisms that differ from one virus to the next. These inhibitory strategies include the negative regulation of viral RNA stability, translation, and even the manipulation of RNA granule formation during viral infection. Even more surprisingly, SHFL is the first human protein found to directly inhibit the activity of the -1 programmed ribosomal frameshift, a translation recoding strategy utilized across nearly all domains of life and a several human viruses. Recent literature has shown that SHFL expression also significantly impacts viral pathogenesis in mouse models, highlighting its in-vivo efficacy. To help reconcile the many mechanisms by which SHFL restricts viral replication, we provide here a comprehensive review of this complex ISG, its influence over viral RNA fate, and the implications of its functions on the virus-host arms race for control of the cell.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0206.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: helial-mesenchymal transition; EMT spectrum; hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotypes; CTC clusters; stemness; immune suppression; EMT metrics; systems biology
Online: 18 April 2019 (08:02:27 CEST)
Cancer cells can acquire a spectrum of stable hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal (E/M) states during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Cells in these hybrid E/M phenotypes often combine epithelial and mesenchymal features and tend to migrate collectively commonly as small clusters. Such collectively migrating cancer cells play a pivotal role in seeding metastases and their presence in cancer patients indicates an adverse prognostic factor. Moreover, cancer cells in hybrid E/M phenotypes tend to be more associated with stemness which endows them with tumor-initiation ability and therapy resistance. Most recently, cells undergoing EMT have been shown to promote immune suppression for better survival. A systematic understanding of the emergence of hybrid E/M phenotypes and the connection of EMT with stemness and immune suppression would contribute to more effective therapeutic strategies. In this review, we first discuss recent efforts combining theoretical and experimental approaches to elucidate mechanisms underlying EMT multi-stability (i.e. the existence of multiple stable phenotypes during EMT) and the properties of hybrid E/M phenotypes. Following we discuss non-cell-autonomous regulation of EMT by cell cooperation and extracellular matrix. Afterwards, we discuss various metrics that can be used to quantify EMT spectrum. We further describe possible mechanisms underlying the formation of clusters of circulating tumor cells. Last but not least, we summarize recent systems biology analysis of the role of EMT in the acquisition of stemness and immune suppression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0393.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer; cancer vaccines; immunotherapy; focal therapy; combination immunotherapy; tumor immune microenvironment; in vivo vaccination
Online: 26 July 2022 (08:01:20 CEST)
Due to slow progression and susceptibility to radical forms of treatment low-grade PC is associ-ated with high overall survival (OS). With the clinical progression of PC the therapy is getting more complex. The immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) makes PC a difficult target for most immunotherapeutics. Its general immune resistance is established by i.e. immune evasion through Treg cells, synthesis of immunosuppressive mediators, and defective expression of surface neoantigens. The success of sipuleucel-T in clinical trials initiated several other clinical studies that specifically target the immune escape of the tumor and eliminate the immunosuppres-sive properties of TME. In the settings of PC treatment, this can be commonly achieved with radi-ation therapy (RT). Also, focal therapies usually applied for localized PC, such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy, cryotherapy, photodynamic therapy (PDT), or irreversible electroporation (IRE) were shown to boost anti-cancer response. Nevertheless, the present guide-lines restrict their application to localized and low-grade PC. This review explains how RT and focal therapies enhance the immune response. We also provide data supporting the combination of RT and focal treatments with immune therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0171.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Lysophosphatidylcholine; combined antimicrobial treatment; immune response; peritoneal sepsis model; pneumonia model; Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Online: 13 February 2020 (12:48:49 CET)
Immune response stimulation may be an adjuvant to antimicrobial treatment. Here, we evaluated the impact of immune response modification by lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) combined with imipenem or ceftazidime in murine models of peritoneal sepsis (PS) and pneumonia by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Imipenem and ceftazidime-susceptible strain (Pa39), and imipenem and ceftazidime-resistant strain (Pa238) were used. Ceftazidime pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters were determined. Therapeutic efficacy, and TNF-α and IL-10 levels were determined in murine models of PS and pneumonia by Pa39 and Pa238 treated with LPC, imipenem or ceftazidime, alone or in combination. In PS model, LPC+ceftazidime reduced spleen and lungs Pa238 concentrations (-3.45 and -3.56 log10 CFU/g; P<0.05) than ceftazidime monotherapy, while LPC+imipenem maintained the imipenem efficacy (-1.66 and -1.45 log10 CFU/g; P>0.05). In pneumonia model, LPC+ceftazidime or LPC+imipenem reduced lungs Pa238 concentrations (-2.37 log10 CFU/g, P=0.1, or -1.35 log10 CFU/g, P=0.75). For Pa39 no statistically significant difference has been observed in PS and pneumonia models between combined therapy and monotherapy. Moreover, LPC+imipenem and LPC+ceftazidime decreased and increased significantly TNF-α and IL-10 levels, respectively, in comparison with untreated controls and monotherapies. These results demonstrate the impact of immune response modification by LPC plus antibiotics on the prognosis of infections by ceftazidime-resistant P. aeruginosa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0131.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: pharmacogenomics; immune checkpoint blockade; immunotherapy; drug response prediction; algorithm; mathematical model; precision medicine; personalized medicine
Online: 11 August 2019 (14:51:14 CEST)
Background: Accurate prediction of patients’ response to therapy is clinically indispensable, howbeit challenging. With increased understanding of the human genome and malignancies, there is the renaissance of in silico pharmacogenomics with renewed interest in drug response predictability based on gene-drug interaction. Objective: Evidence-based transcript-proteome profiling is essential for synthesizing clinically applicable algorithms for predicting response to anticancer therapy, including immune checkpoint blockade (ICBT); thus, saving physicians’ time, reducing polypharmacy, and curtailing unnecessary treatment expense. In this study, we tested and validated the hypothesis that a selected proteomic signature in ICBT-naïve patients is sufficient for the prediction of response to ICBT. Methods: Using a multimodal approach consisting of computational pharmacogenomics, transcript-proteome analytics, mathematical modeling, and machine learning systems; we delineated therapy-sensitivity and stratified patients into graduated response groups based on their proteomic profile. Protein expression levels in our cohort tissue specimens were evaluated based on T cell- and non-T cell- inflamed phenotypes by immunohistochemistry. Results: We established β-catenin, PDL1, CD3 and CD8 expression-based ICBT response model. Statistical regression models validated the predictive association between our predefined algorithms and therapeutic outcome. Interestingly, our 4-gene prediction classifier was constitutively independent of tumor tissue origin, correctly stratified patients into high-, low-, and non- responders pre-treatment, with high prediction accuracy, and exhibited good association with patients’ performance status and prognosis (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate the possibility of accurate proteomics based ICBT response prediction and provide a putative basis for drug response prediction based on selective proteome profile in untreated cancer patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0145.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: immune checkpoint inhibitors; PD-1; PD-L1; CTLA-4; immunotherapy; target therapy; BRAF; MET; melanoma; [18F]FDG PET/CT
Online: 8 October 2021 (14:14:14 CEST)
Background/Aim: To evaluate the association between baseline [18F]FDG-PET/CT tumor burden parameters and disease progression rate after first-line target therapy or immunotherapy in advanced melanoma patients. Materials and Methods: 44 melanoma patients who underwent [18F]FDG-PET/CT before first-line target therapy (28/50) or immunotherapy (16/50) were retrospectively analyzed. Whole-body and per-district metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were calculated. Therapy response was assessed according to RECIST 1.1 on CT scan at 3 (early) and 12 (late) months. PET parameters were compared with Mann-Whitney test. Optimal cut-offs for predicting progression were defined using the ROC curve. PFS and OS were studied using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: Median(IQR) MTVwb and TLGwb were 13.1 mL and 72.4 respectively. Non-responders patients were 38/44, 26/28 and 12/16 at early evaluation, and in 33/44, 21/28 and 12/16 at late evaluation in the whole-cohort, target and immunotherapy subgroup respectively. At late evaluation, MTVbone and TLGbone were higher in non-responders compared to responder patients (all p<0.037) in the whole-cohort and target subgroup and also MTVwb and TLGwb (all p<0.022) in target subgroup. No significant differences were found for immunotherapy subgroup. No metabolic parameters were able to predict PFS. Controversy, MTVlfn, TLGlfn, MTVsoft+lfn, TLG-soft+lfn, MTVwb and TLGwb were significantly associated (all p<0.05) with OS in both the whole-cohort and target therapy subgroup. Conclusion: Higher values of whole-body and bone metabolic parameters were correlated with poorer outcome, while higher values of whole-body, lymph node and soft tissue metabolic parameters were correlated with OS.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: Immune cell; DNA CpGs; Bladder cancer; Subtype; mutation; CNV; Immune score; Immune Checkpoints
Online: 5 September 2020 (06:00:06 CEST)
Background: Bladder cancer (BC) development is highly related to immune cell infiltration and inflammation. This study aimed to construct a new classification of bladder cancer (BC) molecular subtypes based on immune cells-associated CpG sites. Methods: The genes of 28 types of immune cells were obtained from previous studies. Then methylation sites corresponding to immune cells-associated genes were acquired. Differentially methylation sites (DMSs) were identified between normal samples and bladder cancer samples. Unsupervised clustering analysis of differentially methylation sites was performed to divide into several subtypes. Then the potential mechanism of different subtypes was exploded. Result: Bladder cancer patients were divided into three groups. Cluster 3 (methylation-L) subtype had the best prognosis. Cluster 1 (methylation-M) had the worst prognosis. The distribution of immune cells, level expression of checkpoints, stromal score, immune score, ESTIMATEScore, tumor purity, APC_co_inhibition, APC_co_stimulation, HLA, MHC_class_I, Type_I_IFN_Reponse, and Type_II_IFN_Reponse were significant difference among three subgroups. The distribution of genomic alterations was different among them. Conclusion: The classification was accurate and stable. BC patients could be divided into three subtypes based on the immune cells-associated CpG sites. Specific biological signaling pathways, immune mechanisms, and genomic alterations were various among three subgroups. High level immune infiltration was a correlation with high level methylation. The lower RNAss score was associated with higher immune infiltration and higher level expression of CD274.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0016.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Immune checkpoint inhibitors; pediatric solid tumor; immune suppression
Online: 1 April 2021 (12:22:35 CEST)
Tumor microenvironment (TME) represents a complex network between tumor cells and a variety of components including immune, stromal and vascular endothelial cells as well as extracellular matrix. A wide panel of signals and interactions here take place, resulting in a bi-directional modulation of cellular functions. Many stimuli, on one hand, induce tumor growth and spread of metastatic cells and, on the other hand, contribute to the establishment of an immunosuppressive environment. The latter feature is achieved by soothing immune effector cells, mainly cytotoxic T lymphocytes, B and NK cells, and/or through expansion of regulatory cell populations, including regulatory T and B cells, tumor-associated macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. In this context, immune checkpoints (IC) are key players in the control of T cell activation and anti-cancer activities, leading to the inhibition of tumor cell lysis and of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Thus, these pathways represent promising targets for the development of effective and innovative therapies both in adults and childhood. Here we address the role of different cell populations homing the TME and of well-known and recently characterized IC in the context of pediatric solid tumors. We also discuss preclinical and clinical data available using IC inhibitors alone, in combination each other or administered with standard therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0422.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Hemocytes; Innate Immune Cells; Phagocytic Activity; Respiratory Burst; White-Shrimp; Microalgae; Immunomodulator; Toxicity; Extracellular Polysaccharide; Vibrio harveyi; Danio rerio
Online: 18 February 2021 (15:56:44 CET)
Exopolysaccharides or extracellular polysaccharides (EPS, sPS) represent valuable metabolite compound synthesized from red microalgae. It is a non toxic natural agent and can be applied as immunostimulant. Toxicity test of exopolysaccharides from Porphyridium has been done in-vivo using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryonic model, or the ZET (Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test). The administration of extracellular polysaccharide or exopolysaccharides (EPS) from microalgae Porphyridium cruentum (synonym: P. purpureum) on shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated to determine the effect of this immunostimulant on their non specific immune response and to test if this compound can be used as a protective agent for shrimp related to Vibrio infection. For immune response, exopolysaccharides was given to shrimps by immersion method on day 1 and booster on day 8. Shrimp hemocytes were taken on day 1 (EPS administration), day 7 (no treatment), day 8 (EPS booster) and day 9 (Vibrio infection) and tested for their immune response on each treatment. Result shows that the EPS is not toxic as represented by the normal embryonic development and the mortality data. In the Pacific whiteshrimps, it show an increase in values of all immune parameters in line with the increasing EPS concentration, except the Differential Haemocyte Count (DHC). In detail, an increase was noted in total hemocytes (THC) value, Phagocytotic Activity (PA), Respiratory Burst (RB) in line with the EPS concentration increase. These results and other previous studies indicate that EPS from Porphyridium is safe and it enhances immune parameters in shrimp rapidly and has the ability as an immunostimulant or an immunomodulator. It is a good modulator for the non-specific immune cells of Pacific white shrimps, and it can be used as a preventive agent against vibriosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: pancreatic cancer; immune surveillance; galectins; immunotherapy; immune checkpoints; stroma
Online: 4 December 2017 (05:17:15 CET)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), the most frequent type of pancreatic cancer, is one of the main unfinished businesses in the biomedical and clinical fields, with still discouraging 5 year survival rates and poor therapy efficiency. PDA abundant desmoplasia has for long played the lead in the mechanisms involved in poor drug performance, being the main source of cytokines and chemokines orchestrating rapid and silent tumor progression and guilty of isolating tumor cells into a extense fibrotic reaction resulting in inefficient drug delivery. However, since immunotherapy was proclaimed the breakthrough of the year back to 2013, the focus in the stroma of pancreatic cancer has interestingly moved from activated fibroblasts to the immune compartment, trying to understand the immunosuppressive factors that play part in the strong immune evasion that characterizes PDA. PDA microenvironment is highly immune-suppressive, being basically composed of T regulatory cells (Tregs), tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and myeloid-derived suppressive cells (MDSCs), which boycott CD8+ T-cell duties in tumor recognition and clearance. Interestingly, preclinical data have highlighted the importance of this immune evasion as the source of resistance to single checkpoint immunotherapies and cancer vaccines and point at pathways inhibiting the immune attack as the key to solve the therapy puzzle. Here, we will discuss the molecular mechanisms involved in PDA immune escape as well as the state of the art of the PDA immunotherapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0103.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: plant immune response; reactive oxygen species; salicylic acid; reactive oxygen species-salicylic acid crosstalk; programmed cell death; hypersensitive response-conferred resistance; RBOH NADPH oxidases; chloroplastic redox state; biosensors; precision transcriptomics
Online: 7 March 2022 (14:46:28 CET)
One of the earliest hallmarks of plant immune response is production of reactive oxygen spe-cies (ROS) in different subcellular compartments, which regulate plant immunity. A suitable equilibrium, which is crucial to prevent ROS over-accumulation leading to oxidative stress, is maintained by salicylic acid (SA), a chief regulator of ROS. However, ROS are not only acting downstream of SA signaling, but were also proposed to be a central component of a self-amplifying loop that regulates SA signaling as well as the interaction balance between dif-ferent phytohormones. The exact role of this crosstalk, the position where SA interferes with ROS signaling and ROS interferes with SA signaling and the outcome of this regulation depend on the origin of ROS but also on the pathosystem. The precise spatiotemporal regulation of or-ganelle specific ROS and SA levels determine the effectiveness of pathogen arrest and is there-fore crucial for a successful immune response. However, the regulatory interplay behind still remain poorly understood, as up till now, the role of organelle specific ROS and SA in HR-conferred resistance has mostly been studied by altering the level of a single component. In order to address these aspects, a sophisticated combination of research methods for monitoring the spatiotemporal dynamics of key players and transcriptional activity in plants is needed, and will most probably consist of biosensors and precision transcriptomics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0373.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana; ER α–glucosidase II; glycoprotein folding quality control; plant immune response; UGGT; elf18; flg22; EFR; FLS2; rsw3; uggt1-1; NB-DNJ
Online: 16 November 2018 (05:02:19 CET)
Plants offer a simpler and cheaper alternative to mammalian animal models for the study of Endoplasmic Reticulum glycoprotein folding Quality Control (ERQC). In particular, the Arabidopsis thaliana (At) innate immune response to bacterial peptides provides an easy means of assaying ERQC function in vivo. A number of mutants that are useful to study ERQC in planta have been described in the literature, but only for a subset of these mutants the innate immune response to bacterial elicitors has been measured beyond monitoring plant weight and some physio-pathological parameters related to the plant immune response. In order to probe deeper into the role of ERQC in the plant immune response, we monitored expression levels of the PHI-1 and RET-OX genes in the At ER α-Glu II rsw3 and the At UGGT uggt1-1 mutant plants, in response to bacterial peptides elf18 and flg22. The elf18 response was impaired in the rsw3 but not completely abrogated in the uggt1-1 mutant plants, raising the possibility that the latter enzyme is partly dispensable for ERF signalling. In the rsw3 mutant, seedling growth was impaired only by concomitant application of the At ER α-Glu II NB-DNJ inhibitor at concentrations above 500 nM, suggesting residual activity in this mutant. The study highlights the need for extending plant innate immune response studies to assays sampling EFR signalling at the molecular level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0502.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: mushroom; immune checkpoints; Axl receptor; lung cancer; dendritic cells; immune response.
Online: 21 July 2021 (15:43:11 CEST)
Agaricus blazei Murrill or Himematsutake is an edible and medicinal mushroom. Agaricus blazei Murrill's fruiting body extracts have anticancer properties, although the mechanism is unknown. Basic or organic solvents, which are hazardous for human health, are generally used to prepare Agaricus blazei Murrill's extracts. Inhibition of immune checkpoint molecules and Axl receptor is an effective therapy in cancer. This study assessed whether subcritical water extracts of the Agaricus blazei Murrill's fruiting body or mycelium affect the expression of Axl and immune checkpoint molecules in lung cancer cells. We used A549 cells and mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in the experiments. We prepared subcritical water extracts from the Agaricus blazei Murrill's fruiting body or mycelium. The subcritical water extracts from the Agaricus blazei Murrill's fruiting body or mycelium significantly inhibited the expression of immune checkpoint molecules and Axl compared to saline-treated cells. Also, the hot water extract, subcritical water extract, and the hot water extraction residue subcritical water extract from the Agaricus blazei Murrill's mycelium significantly enhanced the expression of maturation markers in dendritic cells. These observations suggest that the subcritical water extract from Agaricus blazei Murrill's mycelium is a promising therapeutic tool for stimulating the immune response in cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0772.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Immune checkpoint inhibitors; immune-related endocrine dysfunction; hypothyroidism; targeted therapy; malignancy
Online: 31 May 2021 (12:49:40 CEST)
Abstract Background The number of immune-related endocrine dysfunctions (irEDs) has concurrently increased with the widespread use of immunotherapy in clinical practice and further expansion of the approved indications for immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) combinations using different modalities of anti-cancer treatment. Method A retrospective analysis was conducted on consecutive patients >18 years of age with advanced solid malignancies who had received at least one dose of anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD-1) and/or anti-CTLA4 antibodies between January 2014 and December 2019 at a Hong Kong university hospital. Patients were reviewed for up to two months after the last administration of an ICI. The types, onset times and grades of irEDs, including hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, adrenal insufficiency and immune-related diabetes mellitus, were recorded. Factors associated with irEDs were identified using multivariate analysis. Result A total of 953 patients (male: 603, 64.0%; median age: 62.0 years) received ICIs during the study period. Of these, 580 patients (60.9%) used ICI-alone, 132 (13.9%) used dual-ICI, 187 (19.6%) used an ICI combined with chemotherapy (chemo+ICI), and 54 (5.70%) used immunotherapy with a targeted agent (targeted+ICI). A significantly higher proportion of patients using targeted+ICI had irEDs and hypothyroidism; in contrast, a higher proportion of patients using dual-ICI had adrenal insufficiency. There was no significant difference in the incidence of irED between the younger (<65 years) and older (>65 years) patients. Using logistic regression, only treatment type was significantly associated with irEDs. Notably, older patients had a higher risk of having immune-related diabetes mellitus. Conclusions This large, real-world cohort demonstrates that combining ICI with targeted therapy has a higher risk of overall irED and hypothyroidism. Immunotherapy is safe and well-tolerated regardless of age, but close monitoring of fasting glucose is needed in older populations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0289.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: schizophrenia, immune system, inflammation, cytokines, immune regulatory, CIRS, psychiatry, immunology, psychosis
Online: 17 September 2018 (08:57:53 CEST)
In this paper we propose a novel theoretical framework, which was previously developed for major depression and bipolar disorder, namely the compensatory immune-regulatory reflex system (CIRS), as applied to the neuro-immune pathophysiology of schizophrenia and its phenotypes, including first episode psychosis (FEP), acute relapses, chronic and treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS), comorbid depression, and deficit schizophrenia. These schizophrenia phenotypes and manifestations are accompanied by increased production of positive acute phase proteins, including haptoglobin and α2-macroglobulin, complement factors, and macrophagic M1 (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α), T helper (Th)-1 (interferon-γ and IL-2R), Th-2 (IL-4, IL-5), Th-17 (IL-17) and T regulatory (Treg; IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1) cytokines, cytokine-induced activation of the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway as well as chemokines, including CCL-11 (eotaxin), CCL-2, CCL-3 and CXCL-8. While the immune profiles in the different schizophrenia phenotypes indicate activation of the immune-inflammatory response system (IRS), there are simultaneous signs of CIRS activation, including increased levels of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1RA), sIL-2R and tumor necrosis factor-a receptors, Th-2 and Treg phenotypes with increased IL-4 and IL-10 production, and increased levels of TRYCATs and haptoglobin, α2-macroglobulin and other acute phase reactants, which have immune-regulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Signs of activated IRS and CIRS pathways are also detected in TRS, chronic and deficit schizophrenia indicating that these conditions are accompanied by a new homeostatic setpoint between upregulated IRS and CIRS components. In FEP, increased baseline CIRS activity is a protective factor which may predict favorable clinical outcomes. Moreover, impairments in the CIRS are associated with deficit schizophrenia and greater impairments in semantic and episodic memory. It is concluded that CIRS plays a key role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia by negatively regulating the primary IRS and contributing to recovery from the acute phase of illness. Components of the CIRS may offer promising therapeutic targets for schizophrenia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0140.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; immune checkpoint inhibitors; HCC; pembrolizumab; nivolumab; immune microenvironment; targeted therapies
Online: 14 September 2019 (18:37:29 CEST)
Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. A total of 70-80% of patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage with a dismal prognosis. Sorafenib has been the standard of care for almost a decade until 2018 when FDA approved an alternative first-line agent namely lenvatinib. Whereas FOLFOX4 results an alternative first-line treatment for the chinese clinical oncology guidelines. In addition to cabozantinib, regorafenib, and ramucirumab, two therapeutics against the PD-L1/PD1 axis have been recently approved for subsequent-line therapy, as nivolumab and pembrolizumab. However, similar to other solid tumors, the response rate of single-agent targeting PD-L1/PD1 axis is low. Therefore a lot of combinatory approaches are under investigation, including the combination of different immune checkpoint inhibitors, the addition of immune checkpoint inhibitors after resection or during locoregional therapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors in addition to kinase inhibitors, anti-angiogenic therapeutics, and others. This review focuses on the use of ICIs for the hepatocellular carcinoma with an attent evaluation of new ICIs based combinatory approaches.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0359.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: oncolytic virus; in situ autovaccination; cytokine; immune checkpoint inhibitor; immune co-stimulator
Online: 27 April 2018 (09:18:37 CEST)
With the progress of immunotherapy in cancer, oncolytic viruses (OVs) are getting more and more attention during the past decade. Due to their cancer-selective and immunogenic property, OVs are considered ideal candidates to be combined with immunotherapy to increase both specificity and efficacy in cancer treatment. OVs preferentially replicate in and lyse cancer cells, generating pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and danger (damage)-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). These signals trigger innate immune response to modulate the solid tumor microenvironment, resulting in in situ autovaccination leading to adaptive anti-virus and anti-tumor immunity. Here, we summarize the conceptual updates of oncolytic virotherapy, immunotherapy, and the strategies to enhance the virus-mediated anti-tumor immune response, including: 1. Arm OVs with cytokines to modulated innate and adaptive immunity; 2. Combine OVs with immune checkpoint inhibitors to release T cell inhibition; 3. Combine OVs with immune co-stimulators to enhance T cell activation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0262.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: immune checkpoint inhibitors; immune checkpoint radiolabeled antibodies; PD-1; PD-L1; immune PET; immunotherapy; AI; Radiomics; Deep learning; CAR-T cells
Online: 9 March 2021 (11:12:55 CET)
Immunotherapy is an effective therapeutic option for several cancers. In the last years, the introduction of checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has shifted the therapeutic landscape in oncology and improved patient prognosis in a variety of neoplastic diseases. However, to date, the selection of the best patients eligible for these therapies, as well as the response assessment is still challenging. Patients are mainly stratified using immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of anti-gens on biopsy specimens, such as PD-L1 and PD-1, on tumor cells, on peritumoral immune cells, and/or in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Recently, the use and development of imaging biomarkers able to assess in-vivo cancer-related processes are becoming more important. Today, positron emission tomography (PET) with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) is used routinely to evaluate tumor metabolism, and also to predict and monitor response to immunotherapy. Although highly sensitive, FDG-PET, in general, is rather unspecific. Novel radiopharmaceuticals (immuno-PET radiotracers) able to identify specific immune system targets are under investigation in pre-clinical and clinical settings. In this review, we will provide an overview of the main new immuno-PET radiotracers in development. We will also review the main players (immune cells, tumor cells, and molecular targets) involved in immunotherapy. Furthermore, we report current applications and the evidence of using [18F]FDG PET in immunotherapy, including the use of artificial intelligence (AI).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0208.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Plasma PD-L1; liquid biopsy; cfRNA; immune checkpoint inhibitor; predictive immune biomarker; NSCLC
Online: 11 August 2022 (06:10:34 CEST)
Tissue programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) protein expression is predictive of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) benefit. However, tissue PD-L1 can be fraught with tissue acquisition and heterogeneity limitations. Plasma testing can overcome these limitations. However, the overall survival (OS) predictive benefit of plasma PD-L1 assays have not been well characterized. Patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and plasma cfRNA PD-L1 by PCR expression were identified and assessed for OS. 16 patients treated with front-line ICI-based regimens were assessed and represented a real-world patient population with over half with a performance status of 2 or greater. 10 contemporaneous patients at the same institution treated with chemotherapy alone were also identified and assessed. With a median follow-up of 33 months, median OS was 13 months with a 30% 3-year OS for the ICI treated patients compared to a median OS of 3 months and a 10% 3-year OS for those treated with chemotherapy alone. Comparative log-rank test p-value = 0.014 and a hazard ratio 0.376 (95%-CI 0.134-1.057). Plasma cfRNA PD-L1 was associated with a statistically significant survival benefit from ICI-based treatment compared to chemotherapy in the first line treatment of a real-world patient population of advanced NSCLC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0171.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: microgravity; spaceflight; immunology; pathogens; macrophages; bacteria; viruses; innate immune response; adaptive immune response
Online: 11 January 2021 (09:44:52 CET)
Immune dysfunction has long been reported by medical professionals regarding astronauts suffering from opportunistic infections both during their time in space and a short time period afterwards once back on Earth. Various species of prokaryotes on board these space missions or cultured in a microgravity analogue exhibit increased virulence, enhanced formation of biofilms, and in some cases develop specific resistance for specific antibiotics. This poses a substantial health hazard to the astronauts confined in constant proximity to any present bacterial pathogens on long space missions with a finite number of resources including antibiotics. Furthermore, some bacteria cultured in microgravity develop phenotypes not seen in Earth gravity conditions, providing novel insights into bacterial evolution and research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0490.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; immune escape; tumor microenvironment; immune responses; immunotherapy
Online: 31 August 2020 (04:32:48 CEST)
β2-m, β2-microglobulin; CAF, cancer associated fibroblast; CSC, cancer stem cell; CTL, cytotoxic T lymphocyte; DC, dendritic cell; ECM, extracellular matrix; EGF-R, epidermal growth factor receptor; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; FDA, Food and Drug Administration; HLA, human leukocyte antigen; HNSCC, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; HPV, human papilloma virus; ICP immune checkpoint; ICPi, immune checkpoint inhibitor; IFN, interferon; LMP, low molecular weight protein; mAb, monoclonal antibody; MDSC, myeloid-derived suppressor cell; mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin; MSI, multispectral imaging; NK, natural killer; OS, overall survival; PBL, peripheral blood lymphocytes; PBMNC, peripheral blood mononuclear cells; PD1, programmed death receptor 1; PD-L1, programmed death ligand 1; PFS, progression-free survival; PI3K, phosphatidyl-linositol-3-kinase; R/M, recurrence and or metastatic; STAT, signal transducer and activator of transcription; TAA, tumor-associated antigen; TAM, tumor associated macrophages; TAP, transporter associated with antigen processing; TCR, T cell receptor; TIL, tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte; TLS, tertiary lymphoid structure; TME, tumor microenvironment; Treg, regulatory T cell; TSA, tumor-specific antigen; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; VEGF-R, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0101.v1
Online: 7 April 2020 (12:07:22 CEST)
On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared the coronavirus outbreak a pandemic. Since December 2019, the world has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but the factors affecting the immune system against COVID-19 have not been well described. In this article, we provide a novel hypothesis to describe how an increase in cellular adenosine triphosphate (c-ATP) can potentially improve the efficiency of innate and adaptive immune systems to either prevent and fight off COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0148.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: chronic hepatitis C; chronic hepatitis B; innate immune response; adaptive immune response; cytokine; chemokine
Online: 12 April 2019 (10:59:21 CEST)
Background: Cytokines and chemokines are critical regulators of innate and adaptive immunities during viral infection. We examined innate and adaptive immune responses to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) at baseline and against controls. Methods: Twenty-seven cytokines were evaluated before treatment in 27 patients with chronic hepatitis C(CHC) [genotype1 (n=20), genotype2 (n=7), HCVRNA 5.72IU/ml] and 12 chronic hepatitis B(CHB) [e-antigen (Ag) (+) (n=5), e-Ag (-) (n=7), HBVDNA 6.191.31Logcopies/ml] and against controls(n=5). Results: Th1 and Th2 cytokines were significantly higher (p<0.05) in CHB than in CHC. The levels of IL-IL10 in CHC and CHB, and IL15 in CHC(genotype2) and CHB were significantly lower (p<0.05) than in controls. The levels of CXCL8 in CHC and CHB, IL12 in CHC and CHB [e-Ag (-)] and CXCL10 in CHC and CHB were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in controls. IFN-γwas higher in CHB than in controls. Conclusion: Cytokines levels differed between CHB and CHC before treatment. Innate immune responses were impaired in CHB with HBeAg(-) and CHC, but not in CHB with HBeAg(+) with high viral loads. Adaptive immune responses were impaired in CHB and CHC and appear to reflect the distinct state of virus-host immune interactions between CHB and CHC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0222.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: PEDOT:PSS; Neural recording; Immune response; BMI
Online: 15 September 2022 (08:04:38 CEST)
One of the significant challenges today in the brain-machine interface using invasive methods is the stability of the chronic record. In recent years, polymer-based electrodes have gained notoriety for achieving mechanical strength values close to that of brain tissue, promoting a lower immune response to the implant. In this work, we fabricated fully polymeric electrodes based on PEDOT:PSS for neural recording in Wistar rats. We characterized the electrical properties and both in-vitro and in-vivo functionality of the electrodes. Also, we employed histological processing and microscopical visualization to evaluate tecidual immune response in 7, 14, and 21 days post-implant days. Electrodes with 400-micrometer channels showed a 12dB signal-to-noise ratio. Local field potentials were characterized under two conditions: anesthetized and free-moving. There was a proliferation of microglia to the tissue-electrode interface in the first days, with a decrease after 14 days. Astrocytes also migrated to the interface, but there was no continuous recruitment of these cells in the tissue, showing inflammatory stability at 21 days. The signal was not affected by this inflammatory action, demonstrating that fully polymeric electrodes can be an alternative to prolong the valuable time of neural recordings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0050.v1
Online: 5 September 2022 (07:49:30 CEST)
Bunyaviruses represent the largest group of RNA viruses, and are the causative agent of a variety of febrile and hemorrhagic illnesses. Originally characterized as a single serotype in Africa, the number of described bunyaviruses now exceeds over 500, with its presence detected around the world. These predominantly tri-segmented, single-stranded RNA viruses are transmitted primarily through arthropod and rodent vectors, and can infect a wide variety of animal and plants. Although encoding for a small number of proteins, these viruses can inflict potentially fatal disease outcomes, and have even developed strategies to suppress the innate antiviral immune mechanisms of the infected host. This short review will attempt to provide an overall description of the order Bunyavirales, describing the mechanisms behind their infection, replication and their evasion of the host immune response. Furthermore, the historical context of these virus will be presented, starting from their original discovery almost 80 years ago, to the most recent research pertaining to viral replication and host immune response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0009.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: neutrophils; priming; innate immunity; immune-memory
Online: 1 December 2021 (11:00:01 CET)
Neutrophils as innate immune cells primarily act as first responders in acute infection and directly maintain inflammatory responses. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that neutrophils also bear the potential to mediate chronic inflammation by exhibiting memory-like features. We recently showed that priming by serial doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from gram-negative bacteria can trigger opposing memory-like responses (exaggerated inflammation, i.e. trained sensitivity or suppression of inflammation, i.e. tolerance) depending on the LPS-dose. We now asked whether this observation could also hold true for lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from gram-positive S. aureus. We found comparable effects of LTA on neutrophil priming as seen for LPS. Low-dose (1 ng/mL) LTA-priming promoted increased production of pro-inflammatory mediators (i.e., TNF-α, IL-6, ROS), whereas high-dose (10 µg/mL) results in contrary reactions supporting anti-inflammatory responses by increased IL-10 and declined pro-inflammatory capacity. In vitro neutrophil recruitment was similarly regulated by LTA -priming. Investigation of signalling patterns revealed TLR2/MyD88-mediated regulation of NFκB-p65 through intermediate PI3Ks/MAPK. Collectively, our data suggest a previously unknown capacity of neutrophils to be differentially primed by varying doses of LTA, endorsing memory-like features in neutrophils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0170.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: molecular iodine; immune response; breast cancer
Online: 9 September 2021 (10:45:34 CEST)
Molecular iodine (I2) induces apoptotic, antiangiogenic, and antiproliferative effects in breast cancer cells. Little is known about its effects on the tumor immune microenvironment. We studied the effect of oral (5 mg/day) I2 supplementation alone (I2) or together with conventional chemotherapy (Cht+I2) on the im-mune component of breast cancer tumors from a previously published pilot study conducted in Mexico. RNA-seq, I2 and Cht+I2 samples showed significant increases in expression of Th1 and Th17 pathways. Tumor immune composition determined by deconvolution analysis revealed significant increases in M0 macrophages and B lymphocytes in both I2 groups. Real-time RT-PCR showed that I2 tumors overexpress T-BET (p = 0.019) and interferon-gamma (IFNγ; p = 0.020) and silence tumor growth factor-beta (TGFβ; p = 0.049); whereas in Cht+I2 tumors, GATA3 is silenced (p = 0.014). Preliminary methylation analysis shows that I2 activates IFNγ gene promoter (by increasing its unmethylated form) and silences TGFβ in Cht+I2. In conclusion, our data showed that I2 supplements induce the activation of the immune response and that when combined with Cht, the Th1 pathways are stimulated. The molecular mechanisms involved in these responses are being analyzed, but preliminary data suggest that methylation/demethylation mechanisms could also participate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0301.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: immune response; nutritional supplement; cancer; oncoxin
Online: 15 January 2021 (15:45:55 CET)
Purpose: This study aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of Oncoxin as an antitumoral supplement, and to describe its mechanism of action. Methods: We performed this scoping review according to the recommendations of the Joanna Briggs Institute and included patients older than 18 years-old who have any kind of tumor and receive Oncoxin as a supplement. We focused on the efficacy in terms of antitumoral properties, quality of life and survival, safety in terms of adverse events, and the mechanism of action. We did not limit for language or setting. We searched MEDLINE (Pubmed), EMBASE (Scopus), LILACS, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) from inception to nowadays. Results: We found a promising increment of survival when taking Oncoxin as a supplementary treatment. Additionally, the quality of life increased in terms of Karnofsky and EORTC scales. Regarding the mechanism of action, studies suggest it modifies inflammatory mediators’ expression, as evidenced by the reduction of COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-12, and IFN-γ. Besides, it promotes an arrest in the progression of cells from G1 into S, along with an increase in p27 and a decrease in cyclin D1 and pRb. Conclusions: We found promising complementary effects of Oncoxin to the standard treatment of cancer patients in diverse scenarios, with putative robust mechanisms of action. In addition to clinically relevant impacts verified in clinical trials, as well as it decreases the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, it can also decrease cytokines with antitumor activity such as IFN-γ, which should be further explored in larger trials and the long term.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0250.v1
Online: 10 December 2020 (11:30:57 CET)
β-glucan is a generic term for insoluble dietary fibers exerting various effects on the immune system. As a group, β-glucans are non-cellulose polysaccharides composed of a glucopyranose as the main constituent sugar with β configuration, having a β- (1,3)-linked glucopyranose main chain as a common feature. β-glucans are absorbed through the intestine. Since the 1980s, there have been many studies reporting various effects of β-glucans on the immune system, including reports on receptors, that have slowly clarified their recognition system and action mechanisms. However, these studies focused mostly on treatments of infectious diseases and tumors; thus, the effects of β-glucans ingested in food as dietary fiber and their mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. The uptake of β-glucan into the body may be resemble that of proteins, which are soluble polymers, and insoluble material such as dietary fiber. Dietary fibers have varied structures, with wide-ranging solubility and physiological effects. Understanding whether these substances are actually taken up, how they exert their effects, and their metabolism after being taken up are important issues when considering the functionality and safety of dietary fibers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0037.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: FFAR2; FFAR3; microbiota; gut; immune; SCFA
Online: 3 May 2020 (08:32:51 CEST)
Abstract: Role of gut microbiome in human health is becoming apparent. The major functional impact of gut microbiome is transmitted through the microbial metabolites that are produced in the gut and interact with host cells either in the local gut environment or get absorbed in the circulation to impact distant cells/organs. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the major microbial metabolites that are produced in the gut through fermentation of non-digestible fibers. SCFAs are known to function through various mechanism, however, their signaling through free-fatty acid receptor 2 and 3 (FFAR2/3; type of G-coupled protein receptors) is new therapeutic approach. FFAR2/3 are widely expression in diverse cell types in human and mice, and functions as sensors of SCFAs to change several physiological and cellular functions. FFAR2/3 modulates neurological signaling, energy metabolism, intestinal cellular homeostasis, immune response and hormone synthesis. FFAR2/3 functions through Gi and/or Gq signaling, that is mediated through specific structural features of SCFAs-FFAR2/3 bindings and modulating specific signaling pathway. In this review, we discussed the wide-spread expression and structural homologies between human and mice FFAR2/3, and their role in different human health conditions. This information can unlock opportunities to weigh the potential of FFAR2/3 as drug target to prevent human diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0282.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: liver fibrosis; NASH; innate immune cells.
Online: 24 October 2019 (15:48:02 CEST)
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is characterized by liver steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis, is the most severe variation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This disease is a consequence of several metabolic alterations such as type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia that trigger different pathways of cell dysfunction and systemic inflammation which ultimately affect the liver. Furthermore, those mechanisms activate a complex cascade of immune response after repeated cell aggression. In the liver cytokines and interleukins interact with network of innate immune cells, including Kupffer cells (KCs), dendritic cells (DCs), lymphocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSC). These cells translate those signals into immune responses and pathologic hepatic changes during the development of NASH. In this scenario the development of fibrosis is the most important change since it is an adaptive mechanism that in the short time has the objective of repair the damaged tissue but after prolonged injury it progresses to parenchymal scarring, cellular dysfunction and finally to organ failure. Finally, since NASH is an important cause of liver cirrhosis; this review addresses the cellular pathways of fibrosis in the setting of NASH explained by the interaction between immune and hepatic cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0057.v1
Online: 5 August 2019 (08:14:40 CEST)
Dengue virus (DENV), being one of the lethal pathogens in the hot climatic regions of the world, have been extensively studied to decipher its mechanism of pathogenesis and missing links of its life cycle. With respect to the entry of DENV, multiple receptors have been recognised in different cells of the human body. However, scientists still argue whether these identified receptors are the exclusive entry mediators for the virus. Adding to the complexity, DENV has been reported to be infecting multiple organ types in its human host. Also, more than one receptor in a particular cell has been discerned to take part in mediating the ingress of DENV. In this review, we aim to discuss about the different cells of the human immune system that support DENV infection and their corresponding receptors that DENV deploy to gain access to the cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0346.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: Exosomes, extracellular vesicles, immune regulation, autoimmunity
Online: 28 December 2018 (12:28:28 CET)
T-cell mediated immune responses should be regulated to avoid the development of autoimmune or chronic inflammation diseases. Several mechanisms have been described to regulate this process, namely death of overactivated T cells by cytokine deprivation, suppression by T regulatory cells (Treg), induction of expression of immune checkpoint molecules such as CTLA-4 and PD-1, or activation-induced cell death (AICD). In addition, activated T cells release membrane microvesicles called exosomes during these regulatory processes. In this review, we revise the role of exosome secretion in the different pathways of immune regulation described to date and its importance in the prevention of autoinmune disease. Expression of membrane-bound death ligands on the surface of exosomes during AICD, or the more recently described transfer of miRNA or even DNA inside T-cell exosomes are molecular mechanisms that will be analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0179.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: oral squamous cell carcinoma; HLA class I; antigen processing machinery; immune cell infiltration; immune escape; prognosis
Online: 11 January 2021 (10:47:25 CET)
Progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been associated with an escape of tumor cells from the host immune surveillance due to an increased knowledge of its underlying molecular mechanisms and its modulation by the tumor microenvironment and immune cell repertoire. In this study the expression of HLA class I (HLA-I) antigens and of components of the antigen processing machinery (APM) was analyzed in 160 pathologically classified human papilloma virus (HPV)-negative OSCC lesions and correlated to the intra-tumoral immune cell response, IFN- signaling and to the patients outcome. A heterogeneous, but predominantly lower constitutive protein expression of HLA-I APM components was found in OSCC sections when compared to non-neoplastic cells. Tumoral HLA-I APM component expression was further categorized into the three major phenotypes HLA-Ihigh/APMhigh, HLA-Ilow/APMlow and HLA-Idiscordant high/low/APMhigh. In the HLA-Ihigh/APMhigh group, the highest frequency of intra-tumoral CD8+ T cells and lowest number of CD8+ T cells close to FoxP3+ cells was found. Patients within this group presented the most unfavorable survival, which was significantly evident in stage T2 tumors. Despite a correlation with the number of intra-tumoral CD8+ T cells, tumoral JAK1 expression as a surrogate marker for IFN- signaling was not associated with HLA-I/APM expression. Thus, the presented findings strongly indicate the presence of additional factors involved in the immunomodulatory process of HPV-negative OSCC with a possible tumor-burden-dependent complex network of immune escape mechanisms beyond HLA-I/APM components and T cell infiltration in this tumor entity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0238.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: oral squamous cell carcinoma; HLA class I; antigen processing machinery; immune cell infiltration; immune escape; prognosis
Online: 10 September 2020 (11:37:28 CEST)
Progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been associated with an escape of tumor cells from the host immune surveillance with growing evidence of its underlying molecular mechanisms and its interaction with the immune cell control. In this study the expression of HLA class I (HLA-I) antigens and of components of the antigen processing machinery (APM) was analyzed in 160 consecutive human papilloma virus (HPV)-negative OSCC lesions and correlated to tumor specific parameters, the intratumoral immune cell response and to the patients outcome. A heterogeneous, but predominantly lower constitutive protein expression of HLA-I APM components was seen in OSCC sections when compared to non-neoplastic cells. Based on the expression levels of HLA-I APM components three main OSCC subgroups were detected and categorized into HLA-Ihigh/APMhigh, HLA-Ilow/APMlow and HLA-Idiscordant high/low/APMhigh phenotypes. In the HLA-Ihigh/APMhigh group, the highest frequency of intratumoral CD8+ T cells and lowest number of CD8+ T cells close to FoxP3 cells was found. Despite being associated with the highest T cell infiltration, patients within this group presented the most unfavorable survival, which was most evident in stage T2 tumors. Thus, the presented findings strongly indicate the presence of additional factors involved in the immunomodulatory process of HPV-negative OSCC with a possible tumor-burden-dependent complex network of immune escape mechanisms beyond HLA-I/APM components and T cell infiltration in this tumor entity.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0319.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; respiratory illness; pneumonia; I4R approach; immune system; inflammation; immune boosting interventions
Online: 23 March 2020 (00:33:02 CET)
The current global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has already had a major adverse impact on the world due to the exponentially increasing deaths due to the disease and the extreme actions taken by the world community to prevent its spread. It is important to explore novel methods of reducing the illnesses and fatality rates of the coronavirus-infected patients. Since the weakness of the immune system is one of the major contributing factors for the illnesses caused by such viruses, and since inflammation is a major contributing factor for the mortality of COVID-19 patients, interventions that boost the immune system and/or are anti-inflammatory may reduce the COVID-19 incidence and the mortality due to the disease. A large variety of interventions are known to improve the immune response and/or reduce inflammation. However, all the interventions would not be applicable or acceptable to everyone and so the interventions would need to be individualized based on individual circumstances and preferences. This approach, known as “Individualized Interventions to Improve the Immune Response”, or the I4R approach, should be studied in pilot clinical trials urgently, in order to potentially reduce the harm caused by the current coronavirus pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0133.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Pancreatic cancer; PDAC (Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma); immune microenvironment; immune biomarkers; personalized cancer care; inflammation; PD1; CTLA-4
Online: 12 March 2019 (03:15:16 CET)
It is estimated that pancreatic cancer will be the 2nd leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally by 2030, highlighting the ongoing lack of effective treatment options in this devastating condition. There is a lack of reliable prognostic or predictive markers in pancreatic cancer to guide management decisions, whether for systemic chemotherapy, molecularly targeted therapies, or immunotherapies. To date, the results for targeted agents and immunotherapies in unselected populations of chemo-refractory pancreatic cancer have not met expectations. The reasons for this lack of efficacy of immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer are incompletely understood. The challenges in pancreatic cancer include the physical barrier created by the dense desmoplastic stroma surrounding the tumor, chemokine-mediated exclusion of T cells, poor antigenicity, paucity of infiltrating T cells within the tumor, ultimately leading to an immunosuppressive microenvironment. A better understanding of the role of inflammation in pancreatic cancer, its tumor microenvironment and individualized patient-related features, be they molecular, clinical or histopathological would enable a more effective tailored approach to the management of pancreatic cancer. In this review, the role of inflammation, the immune tumor microenvironment and potential immune biomarkers in pancreatic cancer are explored.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0154.v1
Online: 11 October 2022 (10:43:36 CEST)
We have previously discussed the pathological characteristics, clinical characteristics, detection methods, pathogenesis, and treatment of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-positive gastric cancer, but we have not discussed the unique immune microenvironment in EBV-positive gastric cancer. Here, we reviewed studies on the immune microenvironment in EBV-positive gastric cancer and found that CD8+ T lymphocytes and a small number of CD204+ macrophages infiltrate the immune microenvironment in EBV-positive gastric cancer. Moreover, immune checkpoints, such as IDO1 and PD-L1, are expressed at high levels in EBV-positive gastric cancer. Lastly, we also analyzed the mechanisms underlying the formation of the immune microenvironment in EBV-positive gastric cancer. Our findings and conclusions have significance in clinical guidance and provide research direction for basic experiments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0009.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: microbiome; melanoma; immune checkpoint inhibitor; diet; immunotherapy
Online: 3 October 2022 (12:19:54 CEST)
Gut microbiota is considered a key player modulating the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. The study investigated the association between response to the anti-PD-1 therapy and the baseline gut microbiome in the Polish cohort of melanoma patients, alongside selected agents modifying the microbiome. Sixty-four melanoma patients enrolled for the anti-PD-1 therapy and 10 healthy subjects were recruited. Response to the treatment was assessed according to the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors, and patients were classified as responders or non-responders. The association between selected extrinsic factors and response was investigated using questionnaire-based analysis, and metataxonomics of the microbiota. The Bacteroidota to Firmicutes ratio was higher, and the richness was decreased in the responders. The abundance of Prevotella copri and Bacteroides uniformis was related to the response, whereas non-responder gut microbiota was enriched with Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Desulfovibrio intestinalis, and some unclassified Firmicutes. Dietary patterns, including plant, dairy, and fat consumption, but also gastrointestinal tract functioning were significantly associated with the therapeutic effects of the therapy. The specific gut microbiota alongside diet were found associated with response to the therapy in the Polish population of melanoma patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0542.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Noni juice; Morinda citrifolia; immune system; immunomodulation
Online: 31 August 2022 (09:02:28 CEST)
Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit juice has the potential to influence immune system function. This review discusses results from several human and animal studies that provide insight into the potential mechanisms of action by which noni juice exerts its immunomodulatory effects. Increased natural killer cell activity is a likely a major contributor to the improved health outcomes and increased survival times described in case reports and as observed in LLC and S180 tumor bearing mice. Increased interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production is also an important mechanism of action through which noni improves immune function. IFN-γ promotes natural killer cell activity and phagocytosis, activities both seen in human and bovine studies as well as in rodents. Noni promotes regulatory cytokine expression, such as IL-2 which stimulates CD4+ T cell differentiation. Noni juice appears to influence this process via kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) protein kinase B (Akt) and nuclear factor-kappa-beta signaling. As oxidative status is known to influence immune function, this review also discusses the notable antioxidant properties of noni juice that have been demonstrated in human trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0346.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: pyroptosis; ovarian cancer; prognosic; immune microenvironment; signature
Online: 24 January 2022 (11:19:53 CET)
Background: LncRNA and pyroptosis play important roles in cancer development and tumor immune microenviroment. However, pyroptosis-related lncRNAs (PRLs) in ovarian cancer have not been identified and its impact on prognosis and immune response are not fully understood. Methods: Using pearson correlation analysis, PRLs were screened. Subsequently, we constructed a prognosis signature by using LASSO cox regression. In addition, the association between risk score and cancer immune environment was analyzed. Results: In TCGA-RNA-seq cohort (n=377), 32 prognostic PRLs were selected and a 7-gene signature were developed and had high accuracy in predicting the OS of ovarian cancer patients. Stratification analysis suggested that it might serve as an independent prognostic indicator. Except to clinical outcome, the signature was significantly associated with tumor immune microenvironment. Patients with high risk score exhibited lower infiltration abundance of MHC class Ⅰ cells, Type Ⅰ IFN response and immunotherapy response. In ovarian cancer, TYMSOS was highly expressed and its high expression was associated with worse OS. TYMSOS deletion in ovarian cancer cell lines inhibited the cell proliferation, invasion and migration, indicating that it might serve as a novel biomarker in ovarian cancer. Conclusions: The prognostic PRLs signature constructed in this work is available for prognostic prediction and immune microenvironment infiltration in ovarian cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0256.v1
Online: 9 June 2021 (10:58:20 CEST)
Abstract: Oxidative metabolism is crucial for leukemic stem cell (LSC) function and drug resistance in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Mitochondrial metabolism also affects the immune system and therefore the antitumor response. Modulation of oxidative phosphorylation (OxPHOS) has emerged as a promising approach to improve therapy outcome for AML patients. However, the effect of mitochondrial inhibitors on the immune compartment in the context of AML is yet to be explored. Immune checkpoints such as the ecto-nucleotidase CD39 and programmed dead ligand 1 (PD-L1) have been reported to be expressed in AML and linked to chemoresistance and poor prognosis. In the present study, we first demonstrated that a novel selective electron transfer chain complex (ETC) I inhibitor, EVT-701, decreased OxPHOS metabolism of murine and human cytarabine (AraC)-resistant leukemic cell lines. Furthermore, we showed that, while AraC induced immune response regulation by increasing CD39 expression and by reinforcing interferon-γ/PD-L1 axis, EVT-701 reduced CD39 and PD-L1 expression in vitro in a panel of both murine and human AML cell lines, especially upon AraC treatment. Altogether, this work uncovers a non-canonical function of ETCI in controlling CD39 and PD-L1 immune checkpoints, thereby improving the anti-tumor response in AML.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: delirium; inflammation; neuro-immune; biomarkers; oxidative stress
Online: 4 January 2021 (11:26:34 CET)
Background: Post-operative delirium in elderly with hip fracture is associated with various adverse clinical outcomes. Nevertheless, the pathophysiological processes underpinning delirium have remained elusive. The aim of this study is to explore the associations between delirium and its features and immune-inflammatory and blood gas biomarkers.Methods: In this prospective study we examined 65 patients who underwent a hip fracture surgery and assessed the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU), Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS), and Delirium Rating Scale Revised-98 (DRS-R-98) before and during 4 days after the surgery. Complete Blood Count (CBC) and venous blood gas markers were obtained at the same time points.Results: Delirium was observed in 19 patients and was accompanied by significantly increased pO2, number of white blood cells, neutrophil percentage, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, and lower mean platelet volume (MPV) (after adjusting for age, central nervous system (CNS) disease, blood loss during surgery, sleep disorders, and body mass index. The severity of delirium was associated with lowered number of platelets and MPV. Psychomotor disorders were associated with lower bicarbonate levels. The requirement of physical restraint of the patients was predicted by increased percentages of neutrophils and lymphocytes. Prior CNS disease was together with these biomarkers a significant predictor of delirium and severity of delirium. Conclusion: Delirium and psychomotor disorders following hip fracture and surgery may be caused by immune-inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways probably attributable to an aseptic inflammatory process. Oxygen administration may aggravate these pathways.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0339.v2
Online: 18 November 2020 (10:51:18 CET)
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) form the basis of tumor microenvironment and possess immunomodulatory functions by interacting with other cells surrounding tumor, including T lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and natural killer cells. Ionizing radiation is a broadly-used method in radiotherapy to target tumors. In mammalian cells, ionizing radiation induces various types of DNA damages and DNA damage response. Being unspecific, radiotherapy affects all the cells in tumor microenvironment, including the tumor itself, CAFs and immune cells. CAFs are extremely radio-resistant and do not initiate apoptosis even at high doses of radiation. However, following radiation, CAFs become senescent and produce a distinct combination of immunoregulatory molecules. Radiosensitivity of immune cells varies depending on the cell type due to inefficient DNA repair in, for example, monocytes and granulocytes. In this minireview, we are summarizing recent findings on the interaction between CAF, ionizing radiation and immune cells in the tumor microenvironment.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0009.v1
Online: 2 July 2020 (13:36:14 CEST)
Coronavirus and COVID-19 infections continue to wreak havoc across the world. Interestingly, the COVID-19 infections and deaths display a clear seven-day cycles. Mathematical analysis using linear mixed-effects models show that this periodicity is not due to reporting errors. We hypothesize that these COVID-19 cycles are related to natural immune cycles which also oscillate every seven days. These immune cycles are regulated by stress and mediated through the endocrine and the central nervous systems. Our routine activities and lifestyle of more stressful weekdays flanked by less stressful, relaxing weekends define the seven-day immune cycles. The synchronized low immunity levels in the population is responsible for repeated seven-day waves of pathogenic infections such as COVID-19. The new understanding of the role of immune oscillations will help in developing strategies to enhance our immunity through modified lifestyle and better, innovative prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against infectious diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0329.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: premenstrual syndrome; chemokines; inflammation; neuro-immune; depression
Online: 29 September 2019 (06:29:54 CEST)
Objective: To examine associations between chemokines and menstrual cycle associated symptoms (MCAS). Methods: Forty-one women completed the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP) rating scale during 28 consecutive days of the menstrual cycle. MCAS is diagnosed when the total daily DRSP score during the menstrual cycle is > 0.666 percentile. We assayed plasma CCL2, CCL5, CCL11, CXCL8, CXCL10, EGF, IGF-1, and PAI-1 at days 7, 14, 21 and 28 of the menstrual cycle. Results: CCL2, CCL5, CCL11 and EGF are significantly higher in women with MCAS than in those without. Increased CCL2, CXCL10, CXCL8, CCL11 and CCL5 levels are significantly associated with DRSP scores while CCL2 is the most significant predictor explaining 39.6% of the variance. The sum of the neurotoxic chemokines CCL2, CCL11 and CCL5 is significantly associated with the DRSP score and depression, physiosomatic, breast-craving and anxiety symptoms. The impact of chemokines on MCAS symptoms may differ between consecutive weeks of the menstrual cycle with CCL2 being the most important predictor of increased DRSP levels during the first two weeks, and CXCL10 or a combination of CCL2, CCL11 and CCL5 being the best predictors during week 3 and 4, respectively. Discussion: The novel case definition “MCAS” is externally validated by increased levels of uterus-associated chemokines and EGF. Those chemokines are involved in MCAS and are regulated by sex hormones and modulate endometrium functions and brain neuro-immune responses, which may underpin MCAS symptoms. As such, uterine-related chemokines may link the uterus with brain functions via a putative uterine-chemokine-brain axis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0076.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Lassa fever; immunoinformatics; peptide vaccine; immune simulation
Online: 9 September 2019 (08:46:04 CEST)
Lassa virus (LASV) is responsible for a type of acute viral haemorrhagic fever referred to as Lassa fever. Lack of adequate treatment and preventive measures against LASV resulted in a high mortality rate in its endemic regions. In this study, a multi-epitope vaccine was designed using immunoinformatics as a prophylactic agent against the virus. Following a rigorous assessment, the vaccine was built using T-cell (NCTL=8 and NHTL=6) and B-cell (NLBL=4) epitopes from each LASV-derived protein with suitable linkers and adjuvant. The physicochemistry, immunogenic potency and safeness of the designed vaccine (~68 kDa) were assessed. In addition, chosen CTL and HTL epitopes of our vaccine showed 97.37% worldwide population coverage. Besides, disulphide engineering also improved the stability of the chimeric vaccine. Molecular docking of our vaccine protein with toll-like receptor (TLR2) showed binding efficiency followed by dynamic simulation for stable interaction. Furthermore, higher levels of cell-mediated immunity and rapid antigen clearance were suggested by immune simulation and repeated-exposure simulation, respectively. Finally, the optimized codons were used in in silico cloning to ensure higher expression within E. coli K12 bacterium. With further assessment both in vitro and in vivo, we believe that our proposed peptide-vaccine would be potential immunogen against Lassa fever.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Depression, inflammation, neuro-immune, interleukins, ketoprofen, zinc
Online: 14 January 2019 (11:47:42 CET)
There is now evidence that major depression is accompanied by lowered serum zinc, an immune-inflammatory biomarker. However, the effect of anti-inflammatory drugs as adjuvant to antidepressants on serum zinc and copper in relation to pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines are not studied. The aim of the present work is to examine the effects of treatment with sertraline with and without ketoprofen on serum levels of zinc and copper in association with immune-inflammatory biomarkers in drug-naïve major depressed patients. We measured serum zinc and copper, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-18, interferon (IFN)-γ, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in 40 controls and 133 depressed patients. The clinical efficacy of the treatment was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) at baseline and 8 weeks later. In drug-naïve major depressed patients we found significantly reduced baseline levels of serum zinc and copper in association with upregulation of all cytokines, indicating activation of the immune-inflammatory responses system (IRS) as well as the compensatory immune regulatory system (CIRS). Treatment with sertraline significantly increased zinc and decreased copper levels, while ketoprofen did not have a significant add-on effect on zinc but attenuated the suppressant effects of sertraline on copper levels. During treatment, there was a significant inverse association between serum zinc and activation of the IRS/CIRS. The improvement in the BDI-II during treatment was significantly associated with increments in serum zinc coupled with attenuation of the IRS/CIRS. In conclusion, lower serum zinc is a hallmark of depression, while increments in serum zinc and attenuation of the immune-inflammatory response during treatment appear to play a role in the clinical efficacy of sertraline. Intertwined changes in zinc levels and the immune response play a role in the pathophysiology of major depression and participate in the mechanisms underpinning the clinical efficacy of antidepressants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0018.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: astragalus membranaceus; panax ginseng; metabonomics; biomarkers; immune
Online: 2 April 2018 (10:20:59 CEST)
Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Panax ginseng (PG) are two herbal products with a long history of clinical usage in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), used in treating a variety of diseases especially in stimulating or inhibiting the immune system. To elucidate the immunity effect of these two traditional Chinese medicine on animal model, four pharmacodynamic indexes (spleen index, thymus index, splenic lymphocyte proliferation and cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells) were observed on mice. Furthermore, metabolic profiles of plasma were also analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS, LC-MS) method. All mice were intragastric administrated at three doses (low dose, moderate dose and high dose) once daily for 30 days. Principal components analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structure discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were performed on LC-MS spectra of plasma, showing that all administration groups developed the disturbance of internal milieu, compared to the blank control (BC) group. Besides, correlation analysis was conducted between pharmacodynamic index and metabolic index. It indicated that uracil, lysoPC(18:3(6Z,9Z,12Z)), sphinganine, LPA(0:0/16:0), UDP-glucuronate, PC(14:0/18:0) were five main endogenous substances, much closely related to four immunological indexes. Glycerophospholipid metabolism was found in both AM and PG groups. Pyrimidine metabolism and sphingolipid metabolism were closely regulated in AM groups. Energy metabolism (starch and sucrose metabolism, Pentose and glucuronate interconversions, together with glycerolipid metabolism) and glycerolipid metabolism were found in PG groups. These findings could contribute to the understanding of mice plasmatic metabolic profiling after long-term administration. Comparative immune-related metabolomic analysis of AM and PG was obtained on the base of pathway analysis of immune-related biomarkers. PG groups trended to have effect on cytotoxic activity of NK cells. AM groups trended to effect thymus index. Our work provides a detailed interpretation of immunological characteristics in different traditional Chinese medicine on metabonomic level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0609.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: immune checkpoint inhibitors; immune-related adverse events (irAEs); tolerance; ipilimumab; nivolumab; interleukin-2; hyperthermia; low-dose-combination therapy
Online: 28 November 2018 (10:23:31 CET)
As a result of the cancer immunotherapy revolution hundreds of clinical trials of the newly approved immunotherapies are now under way to improve responses. Not unexpectedly, the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo for their development of cancer therapy by blockade of co-inhibitory signals. While success stories of terminal cancer patients achieving complete remissions are accumulating, not enough research has been done into the risks of the new therapies. Since the use of immunotherapy is becoming more common, and is expected to develop into first- and second-line treatments, immunotoxicity and autoimmunity are emerging as the nemesis of immunotherapy. Immune-related adverse events (IrAEs) could affect any tissue, their incidence may reach up to 90% of patients and toxicity is dose-dependent. While the combination of two immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) increased efficacy, the incidence of severe adverse events was also increased. Apparently, ICIs cannot be restricted to the targeted anti-tumor T cell population. The long lasting objective of cancer regression can only be achieved by paying a price: tolerance to healthy self tissues is compromised. In the face of an ipilimumab induced pan-lymphocytic activation, a therapeutic paradigm shift is required. The task is not desperately trying to put the genie back in the bottle by immune suppressive treatments, but instead harnessing the autoimmune forces by an off label low-dose combined anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD1 antibody blockade, which is supplemented with conventional interleukin-2 stimulation and hyperthermia. The proof-of-principle of the low-dose-combination therapy was demonstrated in a heavily pre-treated triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patient with far advanced pulmonary metastases and severe shortness of breath, who had exhausted all conventional treatment. Her pulmonary metastases went into complete remission with transient WHO I-II diarrhea and skin rash. She lived for 27 months after starting the low-dose-combination therapy. She had recurrence as a sternal mass and pleural metastases up to 3 cm. Since the low-dose-combination protocol consists only of approved drugs and treatments, this exceptional response should instigate further research efforts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: anoikis; Low-grade glioma; signature; prognosis; immune microenvironment
Online: 22 September 2022 (10:38:43 CEST)
Low-grade glioma (LGG) is a highly aggressive disease in the skull. On the other hand, anoikis, a specific form of cell death induced by the loss of cell contact with the extracellular matrix, plays a key role in cancer metastasis. In this study，anoikis-related genes (ANRGs) were used to identify LGG subtypes and to construct a prognostic model for LGG patients. In addition, we explored the immune microenvironment and enrichment pathways between different subtypes. We constructed an anoikis-related gene signature using the TCGA cohort and investigated the differences in clinical features, mutational landscape, immune cell infiltration, etc. between different risk groups. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the characteristics of ANRGs in the high-risk group were associated with poor prognosis in LGG patients. The risk score was identified as an independent prognostic factor. The high-risk group had higher immune cell infiltration, tumor mutation load, immune checkpoint gene expression, and ICB treatment response. Functional analysis showed that these high- and low-risk groups had different immune statuses and drug sensitivity. Risk scores were used together with LGG clinicopathological features to construct a nomogram, and DCA analysis showed that the model could enable patients to benefit from clinical treatment strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0113.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Cancer; Immunotherapy; Microbiome; Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor; Immunology; Therapy
Online: 7 September 2022 (12:42:28 CEST)
Abstract: The gut microbiome refers to microorganisms and their genetic material influencing local and systemic inflammation. Inflammation is known to contribute to cancer development, progression, and treatment. Evidence suggests that modulating the gut microbiome may affect responses to various cancer therapies. The gut microbiota has been suggested to have an impact on immunotherapy efficacy, especially the currently widely used immune checkpoint inhibitors in various malignancies. Microbial Interventions like fecal microbiota transplantation, various probiotics, or even antibiotics can increase or de-crease the tumor's sensitivity to immunotherapy. However, not all tumors react in the same manner, highlighting the tumor microenvironment heterogeneity across tumor types and the influence this has on the crosstalk between the microbiome and therapy outcomes. In this study, we intend to review the association between the gut microbiota and immunotherapy response in cancer patients and the factors regulating this interaction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0126.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Infective Endocarditis; Staphylococcus Aureus; Biofilm; Immune response; Fibronectin
Online: 7 July 2022 (10:00:18 CEST)
Infective endocarditis remains an illness that carries a significant burden to healthcare resources. In recent times, there has been a shift from Streptococcus sp to Staphylococcus sp as the primary organism of interest. This has significant consequences given the virulence of Staphylococcus and its propensity to form a biofilm, rendering non-surgical therapy ineffective. In addition, antibiotic resistance has affected treatment of this organism. The cohorts at most risk for Staphylococcal endocarditis are the elderly patients with multiple comorbidities. The innovation of transcatheter technologies alongside other cardiac interventions such as implantable devices have contributed to the increased risk attributable to this cohort. We examine the role of the heart team for diagnosis and treatment of this condition. In addition, we examine the determinants of virulence of Staphylococcus aureus, the interaction with hosts immunity and the discovery and emergence of a potential vaccine. We also examine the potential role of prophylactic antibiotics during dental procedures. With increasing rates of transcatheter device implantations, there is a projected increment of endocarditis especially in this high-risk group. A high index of suspicion is needed alongside early initiation of therapy and referral to the heart time to improve outcomes.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0266.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: PARP inhibitor; angiogenesis; immune suppression; recurrent ovarian cancer
Online: 20 June 2022 (10:02:09 CEST)
In the post-PARP inhibitor era, potential changes in tumor biology after maintenance therapy have not been well investigated in recurrent ovarian cancer. We reported a case with alterations in the clinical and histological features of multiple relapsed disease associated with PARP inhibitor maintenance therapy. The patient with high-grade serous carcinoma exhibited BRCA wildtype and homologous recombination proficiency status, and suffered from three recurrences and surgeries accordingly. Olaparib maintenance had been used during the second-line therapy. We compared the differences in clinics and pathology among three recurrences and relapsed lesions. Disease-free survivals were dramatically decreased after the exposure to olaparib. At exploration of quaternary cytoreduction, the relapsed tumor was characterized by a carcinomatosis-like metastasis pattern and an easy tendency of bleeding. Tumor cytopathological changes and alterations were observed in both the tumoral and non-tumoral stroma, among relapsed tumor tissues derived from secondary, tertiary and quaternary cytoreduction. Histopathology indicated hemorrhage, necrosis, atypical tumor cells, massive angiogenesis, and decreased CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, particularly in the third relapsed disease. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show a unique metastatic pattern of angiogenic burst after PARP inhibitor maintenance therapy in ovarian cancer, which seemed to trigger invasive tumor growth and immune suppression. Further prospective studies and translational research focusing cytoreductive surgery after PARP inhibitor could progressively lead to an understanding of the biological behavior and metastatic patterns.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Organoids; IBD; Inflammation; Target therapy; microbiota; immune system
Online: 4 April 2022 (10:35:01 CEST)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and relapsing disease caused by a dysregulated immune response to host intestinal microbiota that occurs in genetically predisposed individuals. IBD encompasses two major clinical entities: ulcerative colitis (UC), which is limited to the colonic mucosa, and Crohn disease (CD), which might affect any segment of the gastrointestinal tract. Despite the prevalence of IBD is increasing worldwide, therapy remains suboptimal, largely because the variability of causative mechanisms, raising the need to develop individualized therapeutic approaches targeted to each individual patient. In this context, patients-derived intestinal organoids represent an effective tool for advancing our understanding on IBD’ s pathogenesis. Organoid 3D culture systems offer a unique model for dissecting epithelial mechanisms involved IBDs and test individualized therapy, although the lack of a functional immune system and a microbiota, two driving components of the IBD pathogenesis, represent a major barrier for their exploitation in clinical medicine. In this review we have examined how to improve the translational utility of intestinal organoids in IBD and how co-coltures of 3D or 2D organoids and immune cells and/or intestinal microbiota might help to overcome these limitations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0136.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: structural MRI; MRS; maternal immune activation; altered trajectories
Online: 10 March 2022 (03:06:59 CET)
Serological human birth cohort studies have identified maternal infection during pregnancy as a risk factor for development of disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorder and schizophrenia in offspring. Similarly, in experiments using animal models, maternal immune activation (MIA) has been shown to alter neuroanatomical and behavioral development in offspring. This study employs magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in conjunction with behavioral assays to refine our understanding of the impact of MIA on neurobiological development in exposed animals. On gestational day nine, pregnant dams were injected with either polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (POL) to induce MIA or saline (SAL) as a control. Whole-brain MRI, localized proton MRS, and behavioral tests (open field, three chambered social approach, and prepulse inhibition) were acquired at two timepoints, during adolescence (postnatal day [PND] 35) and adulthood (PND 60). Whole-brain voxel-wise volumetric analyses revealed that MIA offspring exhibited altered volume in the hippocampus and caudate putamen (CPu) between adolescence and early adulthood. MRS data were assessed at each timepoint separately; MIA offspring during early adulthood but not adolescence exhibited trending reductions in γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) (p = 0.06) and myo-inositol (Ins) (p = 0.08) compared to saline controls. However, these metabolite differences did not reach levels of significance, even before multiple comparison corrections. Open field testing revealed that during adolescence, MIA offspring displayed a more anxious phenotype than controls wherein they spent less time in the anxiogenic center zone of the open field arena (p < 0.007), but this difference normalized by adulthood. There were no significant differences in sociability preference, novelty preference, or prepulse inhibition comparing the groups. Results suggest that early gestational exposure to MIA results in subtle neuroanatomical changes in the trajectories of development, trending behavioral changes in adolescent offspring, and slight neurochemical changes in young adult offspring. Maternal infection alone may not be enough; additional genetic or environmental risk factors may be required to elicit the more typical symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0148.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Cancer related Inflammation; miRNA; LncRNA; Epigenetics, immune polarization
Online: 8 September 2021 (12:07:58 CEST)
Accumulating evidences demonstrate that the host genome's epigenetic modificationsare essential for living organisms to adapt extreme conditions.DNA methylation, covalent modifications of histone, andinter-association of non-coding RNAs facilitate the cellular manifestation ofepigenetic changes in the genome. Out of various factors involved in the epigenetic programming of the host, miRNA (microRNA) and LncRNA (Long non-coding RNA) are new generationnon-coding molecules that influence a variety of cellular processes like immunity, cellular differentiation, and tumor development. During tumor development, temporal changes in miRNA/LncRNA rheostat influence sterile inflammatory responses accompanied by the changes in the carcinogenic signalling in the host. At the cellular level, this is manifested by the up-regulation of Inflammasome and inflammatory pathways, which promotes cancer-related inflammation. In view of this, we discuss the potential of lncRNA and miRNA directed interventions in regulating inflammation and tumor development in the host.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Cancer; Cancer Prevention; Cancer Therapy; Immune Boosting Interventions
Online: 30 April 2021 (15:52:40 CEST)
Cancer risk is known to increase tremendously when the immune system is suppressed, e.g., as observed in young organ-transplant recipients and AIDS patients. Based on such data, it may be hypothesized that the main reason for the development of clinical cancer is the weakening or suppression of the immune system, and that uncontrolled multiplication of cancer cells occurs when some aspects of the immune system fall below certain critical levels. Therefore, cancer may be prevented and treated by boosting these critical aspects of the immune system so that they are maintained above the critical levels. If multiple immune system boosting interventions are utilized, more aspects of the immune system would be boosted, increasing the likelihood of enhancing the critical aspects of the immune system and generating a cancer preventive and/or therapeutic effect. Clinical trials are needed to validate this approach for cancer prevention and treatment. If validated, the proposed approach could result in a major reduction of the death and suffering caused by cancer in the world.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: lncRNA; melanoma; prognosis; immune checkpoint inhibit; WGCNA; NMF
Online: 11 July 2020 (04:35:06 CEST)
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have been widely used in melanoma, but to identify melanoma patients with survival benefit from ICI is still a big challenge. There is an urgent need for prognostic signatures improving the prediction of immunotherapy responses of cancer patients. We used data from EMBL-EBI database and analyzed RNA-seq information and clinical profiles in melanoma. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was used to identify the key module, then nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) was conducted to cluster patients into two different cluster and compared them regarding overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Subsequently, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between different clusters were identified, and their function and pathway annotation were performed. 91 melanoma biopsies with complete survival information were included in our analyses and we first identified the key module (magenta) by WGCNA, then identified nine prognostic lncRNAs (ENSG00000258869, ENSG00000179840, ENSG00000206344, ENSG00000226777, ENSG00000205018, ENSG00000204261, ENSG00000163597, ENSG00000197536, and ENSG00000263069) signature that predicted for OS and PFS in patients treated with ICI by NMF. Finally, enrichment analysis showed that the functions of DEGs between two consensus clusters were mainly related to the immune process and treatment. In summary, the nine lncRNAs signature is a novel effective predictor for OS and PFS in melanoma patients treated with ICI.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0068.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Microbiome; Plant Immunity; Priming; Transgenerational Immune Priming (TGIP)
Online: 5 July 2020 (11:35:04 CEST)
One of the biggest demanding situations for food security in the 21st century is to enhance crop yield stability through the improvement of diseases-resistant crops. Managing plant health is a major challenge for modern food production and compounded by the lack of common ground among the many disease control disciplines involved. All plants simultaneously engage with billions of microbes which can be collectively referred to as the plant microbiome. Most microbes inside the plant microbiome are harmless or even beneficial to the plant as they promote plant growth or provide protection in opposition to diseases. However, some of these microbes also cause disease with devastating effects on crop yields. To prevent pathogen infection, plants have evolved an advanced innate immune system that recognizes conserved cell surface molecules that most pathogen possesses. Activation of the plant immune system stops the invading pathogen, however this comes with fitness cost that significantly reduces plant growth and leads to yield penalty. Apart from their innate immune system controlling pre-programmed defense reactions, plants can also increase the responsiveness of their immune system in response to selected environmental signals. This phenomenon is known as “defense priming”. Although defense priming rarely provides full protection, its broad-spectrum effectiveness, low-fitness cost, long‐lasting durability and inherited to future generations make it attractive for sustainable crop protection.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: SARS; CoV-2; COVID-19; immune system; cytokine
Online: 18 May 2020 (12:46:48 CEST)
Objectives: In December 2019 a novel human-infecting coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has emerged. The WHO has stated the epidemic as a “public health emergency of international concern”. A drammatic situation has emerged with thousands of deaths, occurring mainly in the aged and very ill people. Epidemiological studies suggest that immune system function is impaired in elderly individuals and these subjects often present a severe deficiency in nutrients as fatsoluble and hydrosoluble vitamins. Design: In this first part of the review about Cov2 in aged people, we searched for reviews describing the characteristics of autoimmune diseases and the available therapeutic protocols for their treatment. We sed them as a paradigm with the purpose to retrieve pathogenetic mechanisms in common among these pathological conditions and SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as the alteration induced in immune system function by this virus, or by its homologous SARS-CoV. Results: SARS-CoV-2 infection induces an important immune system dysfunction with the development of an exhuberant proinflammatory response in the host, and with the development of a life-threatening condition defined as Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS). This leads to the Acute Respiratory Syndrome (ARDS), mainly in the aged people. High mortality and lethality rates have been observed in the elderly subjects with CoV-2-related infection. Conclusion: These diseases may serve as a paradigm for the study of CRS emerging in the course of SARS CoV-2 infection. This review discusses about the possible activity of Vitamin A, D, E and C in restoring normal antiviral Immune System function or the potential therapeutic role of these micronutrients as a part of a multi-treatment strategy against SARS- CoV-2 infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0489.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: mathematical model; delay differential equations; HIV; immune system
Online: 28 April 2020 (08:43:56 CEST)
A mathematical model, composed of two non-linear differential equations that describe the population dynamics of CD4 T cells in the human immune system, as well as viral HIV particles, is proposed. The invariance region is determined, classical equilibria stability analysis is performed using the basic reproduction number, and numerical simulations are carried out, in order to illustrate stability results. Later, the model is modified with a delay term, which describes the time that cells require for immunological activation. This generates a two-dimensional integro-differential system, which is transformed into a system with three ordinary differential equations, via auxiliary variable use. For the new model, equilibrium points are determined, their local stability is examined, and results are studied by way of numerical simulation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0377.v1
Online: 21 April 2020 (06:56:12 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus that is the causative agent of Coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVD-19). As of the 17th April 2020, it has infected 2 114 269 people resulting in 145 144 deaths. The timing, magnitude and longevity of humoral immunity is not yet understood for SARS-CoV-2. Nevertheless, understanding this is urgently required to inform the likely future dynamics of the pandemic, to guide strategies to allow relaxation of social distancing measures and to understand how to deploy limiting vaccine doses when they become available to achieve maximum impact. SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh human coronavirus to be described. Four human coronaviruses circulate seasonally and cause common colds. Two other coronaviruses, SARS and MERS, have crossed from animal sources into humans but have not become endemic. Here we review what is known about the human humoral immune response to epidemic SARS CoV and MERS CoV and to the seasonal, endemic coronaviruses. Then we summarize recent, mostly non-peer reviewed studies into SARS-CoV-2 serology and reinfection in humans and non-human primates and summarize current pressing research needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0425.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cancer; immune checkpoint inhibitors; survival; antibiotic; meta-analysis
Online: 29 March 2020 (06:43:23 CEST)
Antibiotics (ABs) are common medications used for treating infections. In cancer patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), concomitant exposure to ABs may impair the efficacy of ICIs and lead to a poorer outcome compared to AB non-users. We report here the results of a meta-analysis evaluating the effects of ABs on the outcome of patients with solid tumors treated with ICIs. PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Embase were searched from inception until September 2019 for observational or prospective studies reporting prognosis of adult patients with cancer treated with ICIs and with or without ABs. Overall survival (OS) was the primary endpoint, and progression-free survival (PFS) was the secondary endpoint. The effect size was reported as hazard ratios (HRs) with a 95% confidence interval (CI), and an HR > 1 associated with a worse outcome in ABs users compared to no-ABs users. Fifteen publications were retrieved for a total of 2363 patients. In the main analysis (n = 15 studies reporting data), OS was reduced in patients exposed to ABs before or during treatment with ICIs (HR = 2.07, 95%CI 1.51–2.84; P<.01). Similarly, PFS was inferior in ABs users in n = 13 studies with data available (HR = 1.53, 95%CI 1.22–1.93; p<.01). In cancer patients treated with ICIs, AB use significantly reduces OS and PFS. Short duration/course of ABs may be considered in clinical situations in which they are strictly needed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0370.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: eotaxin; immune marker; neuroinflammation; ageing; neuro-psychiatric disorder
Online: 30 January 2020 (14:42:45 CET)
Background: CCL11 (eotaxin) is a chemokine with an important role in allergic conditions. Recent evidence indicates that CCL11 plays a role in brain disorders as well. Aims: This paper reviews the associations between CCL11 and aging, neurodegenerative, neuroinflammatory and neuropsychiatric disorders.Methods: Electronic databases were searched for original articles examining CCL11 in neuropsychiatric disorders.Results: CCL11 is rapidly transported from the blood to the brain through the brain-blood barrier. Age-related increases in CCL11 are associated with cognitive impairments in executive functions, episodic and semantic memory and, therefore, this chemokine was described as an “endogenous cognition deteriorating chemokine” (ECDC) or “accelerated brain-aging chemokine” (ABAC). In schizophrenia, increased CCL11 is not only associated with impairments in cognitive functions, but also with key symptoms including formal thought disorders. Some patients with mood disorders and premenstrual syndrome show increased plasma CCL11 levels. In diseases of old age, CCL11 is associated with lowered neurogenesis and neurodegenerative processes and, as a consequence, increased CCL11 increases risk towards Alzheimer's Disease. Polymorphisms in the CCL11 gene are associated with stroke. Increased CCL11 also plays a role in neuroinflammatory disease including multiple sclerosis. In animal models, neutralization of CCL11 may protect against nigrostriatal neurodegeneration. Increased production of CCL11 may be attenuated by glucocorticoids, minocycline, resveratrol and anti-CCL11 antibodies.Conclusion: Increased CCL11 production during inflammatory conditions may play a role in human disease including age-related cognitive decline, schizophrenia, mood disorders and neurodegenerative disorders. Increased CCL11 production is a new drug target in the treatment and prevention of those disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: schizophrenia; treatment resistance; neuro-immune; inflammation; cytokines; neurocognition
Online: 8 December 2019 (16:04:52 CET)
Background: Schizophrenia and treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) are associated with aberrations in immune-inflammatory pathways. Increased High Mobility Group Protein 1 (HMGB1), an inflammatory mediator, and Dickkopf-Related Protein (DKK1), a Wnt/β-catenin signaling antagonist, affect the blood-brain-barrier and induce neurotoxic effects and neurocognitive deficits.Aim of the study: The present study aims to examine HMGB1 and DDK1 in non-responders to treatments with antipsychotics (NRTT, n=60), partial RTT (PRTT, n=55) and healthy controls (n=43) in relation to established markers of schizophrenia including IL-6, IL-10 and CLL11 (eotaxin); and to delineate whether these proteins are associated with the schizophrenia symptom subdomains and neurocognitive impairments.Results: HMGB1, DKK1, IL-6 and CCL11 were significantly higher in schizophrenia patients than in controls. DKK1 and IL-6 were significantly higher in NRTT than in PRTT and controls while IL-10 was higher in NRTT than in controls. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that schizophrenia was best predicted by increased DDK1 and HMGB1 while NRTT (versus PRTT) was best predicted by increased IL-6 and CCL11 levels. A large part of the variance in psychosis, hostility, excitation, mannerism and negative (PHEMN) symptoms, and formal thought disorders was explained by HMGB1, IL-6, and CCL11 while most neurocognitive functions were predicted by HMGB1, DDK1 and CCL11. Conclusion: The neurotoxic effects of HMGB1, DKK1, IL-6 and CCL11 including effects on the blood-brain-barrier and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway may cause impairments in executive functions, and working, episodic and semantic memory and explain, in part, PHEMN symptoms and a non-response to treatment with antipsychotic drugs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0012.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: premenstrual; depression; inflammation; neuro-immune; oxidative stress; antioxidants
Online: 2 December 2019 (14:12:33 CET)
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) frequently occurs in women of childbearing age. There are different case definitions of PMS, one proposed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and another based on the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP) scores. Here we review our recent papers indicating that the discovery of biomarkers of menstrual cycle-related symptoms is strongly dependent on the case definitions used and that the gold standard methods used to asses PMS, including the ACOG case definition, induce a high degree of false-negative findings. We propose a new case definition of the menstrual cycle-associated syndrome (MCAS), which is characterized by increased DRSP scores during the menstrual cycle and additionally by an exaggerated increase in symptoms the week prior to the menses. This case definition performed well and was externally validated by diverse biomarkers including plasma levels of progesterone and estradiol, chemokines (e.g. CCL2, CCL5 and CCL11), epidermal growth factor, hydroperoxides, paraoxonase 1 activity and complement C4. In conclusion, when evaluating menstrual cycle-related symptoms and their associations with biomarkers, we propose to assess daily measurements of the DRSP and based on those scores to a) use the diagnosis of MCAS as an indicant of menstrual cycle-related symptoms; and b) examine the associations of the time series in the DRSP and its subdomains (e.g. depression, physio-somatic, anxiety) and those in biomarkers including distributed lag models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0033.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: depression; cytokines; neuro-immune; inflammation; oxidative stress; antioxidants
Online: 3 September 2019 (16:20:18 CEST)
Beta-thalassemia major (β-TM) patients are treated with repeated blood transfusions, which may cause iron overload (IO), which in turn may induce immune aberrations. Patients with β-TM have an increased risk of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aims of the present study are to examine whether repeated blood transfusions, IO and immune-inflammatory responses are associated with MDD in children (6-12 years) with β-TM. The Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), iron status (serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, TS%) and serum levels of CCL11, IL-1β, IL-10, and TNF-α were measured in β-TM with (n=54) and without (n=57) MDD and in healthy children (n=55). The results show that MDD in β-TM is associated with a greater number of blood transfusions, increased IO and IL-1β levels. Partial Least Squares path analysis shows that 68.8% of the variance in the CDI score is explained by the number of blood transfusions, IO, and increased levels of IL-1β and TNF-α. The latter two cytokines partly mediate the effects of IO on the CDI score, while the effects of blood transfusions on the CDI score are partly mediated by IO and the path from IO to immune activation. IO is also associated with increased IL-10 and lower CCL11 levels but these alterations are not significantly associated with MDD. In conclusion, blood transfusions may be causally related to MDD in β-TM children and their effects are in part mediated by increased IO and the consequent immune-inflammatory response. The results suggest that not only IO and its consequences including inflammation and ferroptosis, but also other factors related to the number of transfusions may cause MDD including psychosocial stressors. Current treatment modalities with folic acid and vitamin C are insufficient to attenuate IO and immune-inflammatory responses and to prevent MDD is children with β-TM undergoing blood transfusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0243.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: major depression; chronic fatigue; fibromyalgia; neuro-immune; inflammation
Online: 24 June 2019 (10:19:29 CEST)
Chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia symptoms frequently occur in major depressive disorder (MDD). The pathophysiology of these symptoms may in part, be ascribed to activated immune pathways, although it is unclear whether muscular factors play a role in their onset. The aim of the present study is to examine the role of muscle proteins in major depression in association with symptoms of chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia. We measured serum levels of agrin, talin-2, titin, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) as well as the FibroFatigue (FF), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) in 60 MDD patients and 30 healthy controls. The results show a significant increase in agrin and talin-2 in MDD patients as compared with controls. There were highly significant correlations between agrin and HAM-D, BDI-II and FF scores. Agrin, but not talin or titin, was significantly and positively associated with all 12 items of the FF scale. We found that a large part of the variance in HAM-D (47.4%), BDI-II (43.4%) and FF (43.5%) scores was explained by the regression on agrin, smoking, female sex (positively associated) and education (inversely associated). CPK was significantly and inversely associated with the total FF score and with muscle and gastro-intestinal symptoms, fatigue, a flu-like malaise, headache and memory, autonomic and sleep disturbances. These results suggest that aberrations in neuromuscular (NMJs) and myotendinous junctions may play a role in MDD and that the aberrations in NMJs coupled with lowered CPK may play a role in symptoms of chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia in MDD. Moreover, the increase of agrin in MDD probably functions as part of the compensatory immune-regulatory system (CIRS).
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: premenstrual syndrome; depression; anxiety; fatigue; neuro-immune; progesterone
Online: 21 March 2019 (04:13:21 CET)
Objective: To examine associations between IgA responses to Gram-negative gut-commensal bacteria and peri-menstrual symptoms and sex hormone levels during the menstrual cycle in women with and without premenstrual symptoms. Methods: Forty women aged 18-45 years completed the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP) during all 28 consecutive days of the menstrual cycle. We assayed, in plasma,, IgA responses to 6 Gram-negative bacteria, i.e. Hafnei alvei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Morganella morganii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas putida and Citrobacter pylori, progesterone and oestradiol at days 7, 14, 21 and 28 of the menstrual cycle. Results: Significant changes in Δ (actual minus one week earlier) IgA to LPS of the 6 Gram-negative bacteria during the menstrual cycle were observed with peak IgA levels at T4 (day 28) and lows at T1 or T2 (day 7 or 14). The Δ IgA changes in H. alvei, M. Morganii, P. putida during the menstrual cycle were significantly and positively associated with changes in the total DRSP score, and severity of physio-somatic, anxiety and breast-craving, but not depressive, symptoms. The changes in IgA responses to LPS were largely predicted by changes in progesterone and steady-state levels of progesterone averaged over the luteal phase. Discussion: Menstrual cycle-associated changes in IgA directed against LPS and by inference bacterial translocation may be driven by effects of progesterone on transcellular, paracellular and vascular pathways thereby contributing to the severity of physio-somatic and anxiety symptoms as well as fatigue, breast swelling and food cravings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0236.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: depression; neuro-immune; cytokines; inflammation; indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase
Online: 26 February 2019 (11:05:49 CET)
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with changes in the levels of the cations calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) as well as circulating pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The immune-inflammatory nature of MDD has encouraged researchers to use anti-inflammatory drugs as an adjuvant treatment for MDD. However, the effect of this treatment on cation levels has not been studied. The present study examined a) differences in both cations between drug-naïve MDD patients and controls, and b) the effects of a combination of sertraline and ketoprofen, an anti-inflammatory drug, on Ca and Mg (both total and ionized). In the same patients we also examined the associations between both cations and IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-18, IFN-γ, TGF-β1, zinc and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Clinical improvement was estimated using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) at baseline and after follow up for two months. Serum Ca and Mg (total and ionized) were significantly lower in MDD patients as compared with controls, while treatment significantly increased calcium but decreased magnesium levels. There were significant and inverse correlations between the BDI-II scores from baseline to endpoint and Ca (both total and ionized), but not Mg, levels. The effects of calcium on the BDI-II score remained significant after considering the effects of zinc, IDO and an immune activation z unit weighted composite score based on the sum of all cytokines. There was a significant and inverse association between this immune activation index and calcium levels from baseline to endpoint. In conclusion, reduced levels of both cations play a role in the pathophysiology of major depression. Increased calcium levels are coupled to the clinical efficacy of antidepressants and attenuation of immune activation. The suppressant effect of antidepressants on Mg levels may be a side effect of those drugs. New antidepressant treatments should be developed that increase the levels both Ca and Mg.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0304.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: IBD; CCR6; CCL20; Immune mechanisms; T helper lymphocytes
Online: 17 July 2018 (10:37:41 CEST)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has evoked a significant interest in human immunobiology given its tactical immune evasion methodologies resulting in acute immune destabilization. IBD comprising of Crohn’s disease and Ulcerative colitis manifest as chronic inflammation in the gut mucosa, leading to complexities involving immune dysregulation in the T helper lymphocyte arm effecting disease pathogenicity. The mucosa of the alimentary canal is constantly exposed to a myriad of food antigens and luminal microorganisms for which a consistent host-protective mechanism is operative in healthy people. Lowered mucosal immune expression which allows penetration of the epithelial barrier by infective pathogenic microbes, elicits both innate and adaptive immune responses in the gut culminating in aberrant intestinal inflammation. Interestingly, IBD leukocyte repertoire is significantly entwined with chemokine assisted chemotactic navigation into the sites of inflammation which is also thought to generate favourable immune suppressive responses. The functions of the cognate chemokine receptor, CCR6, which binds with its unique ligand CCL20, are expected to tilt the balance between upregulation of homeostatic tolerance and inflammatory pathophysiology. This review aims at critically examining the CCR6 driven immune pathways; TH1/TH2, TH1/TH17, TH17/ Treg, IL-23/IL-17, Akt/ERK-1 /2, ILC3 for systematic investigation of its underlying mechanisms in the future and to underpin its importance in resolving IBD aetiopathology. Thus, CCR6 occupies an exclusive position in gut immunology which renders it an invaluable therapeutic tool for the production of novel medicaments to treat IBD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0121.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: autophagy； immune system； cancer；cell death；metabolic homeostasis
Online: 27 June 2017 (06:30:17 CEST)
Autophagy is a highly conserved catabolic mechanism that mediates the degradation of damaged cellular components by inducing their fusion with lysosomes. This process provides cells with an alternative source of energy for the synthesis of new proteins and the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in stressful environments. Numerous studies have demonstrated beneficial roles for the induction as well as the suppression of autophagy in cancer cells. Autophagy may induce either survival or death depending on the cell/tissue type. Radiation therapy is widely used therapeutic option to treat cancer, and it induces autophagy in human cancer cell line. Also, melatonin seems to affect cancer cell death via regulation of programmed cell death. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of autophagy and its regulation in cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0073.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: Hochu-ekki-to; immune modulation; polycystic ovarian syndrome
Online: 9 May 2017 (04:11:56 CEST)
The traditional herbal medicine, Hochu-ekki-to, has been shown to have preventive effects on viral infection and stress. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical effects of Hochu-ekki-to on two stress-related rat models of polycystic ovarian syndrome. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control and treatment groups, the latter of which were subjected to stress induced by exposure to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or cold temperatures. After these stress inductions, rats were orally treated with dissolved Hochu-ekki-to once per day for 7 days. Rats subjected to the two different stressors exhibited upregulation of steroid hormone receptors (in ovaries) and reproductive hormones (in blood), and consequent stimulation of abnormal follicle development accompanied by elevation of Hsp 90 expression (in ovaries). Treatment with Hochu-ekki-to for 7 days after stress induction increased immune functions, reduced the stress-induced activation of Hsp 90, and normalized the levels of the tested steroid hormone receptors and reproductive hormones. Our findings suggest that stress stimulations may promote the activation of Hsp 90 via the dysregulation of steroid hormone receptors and reproductive hormones, but that post-stress treatment with Hochu-ekki-to improves reproductive and immune functions in the ovaries of stressed rats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0297.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: gastric cancer; immunotherapy; immune checkpoint blockade (ICB); immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI),; DNA repair gene signature (DRGS); prognostic biomarker; score system
Online: 20 October 2021 (22:47:19 CEST)
Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous group of diseases with only a fraction of patients responds to immunotherapy. The relationships between tumor DNA damage response, the immune system and immunotherapy have recently attracted attention. Accumulating evidence indicate that DNA repair landscape is a significant factor in driving response to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy. In this study, to explore new prognostic and predictive biomarkers for gastric cancer patients who are sensitive and responsible to immunotherapy, we developed a novel 15-DNA repair gene signature (DRGS) and its related scoring system and evaluated the efficiency of DRGS in discriminating different molecular and immune characteristics and therapeutic outcomes of gastric adenocarcinoma. The results showed that DRGS high score patients showed significantly better therapeutic outcomes compared to DRGS low score patients (P < 0.001). Integrated analysis of multi-omics data demonstrated that the patients with high DRGS score were characteristic of high levels of anti-tumor lymphocytes infiltration, tumor mutation burden (TMB) and PD-L1 expression, and these patients exhibited a longer overall survival and may benefit more from ICB therapy, as compared to the low-score patients. Therefore, the DRGS and its scoring system may have implications in tailoring immunotherapy in gastric cancers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0486.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Migraine; systemic inflmmation; serial systemic immune inflammatory indices; aura
Online: 31 October 2022 (11:17:24 CET)
Background: Migraine is the commonest complex neurological disorder affecting over a billion people worldwide. Neuroinflammation has long been considered to play an important role in the pathophysiology of migraine. The main aim of this single-centre, proof of concept, retrospective study was to determine the possible clinical utility of systemic immune-inflammatory response in migraine with and without aura in a hospitalized cohort. We measured the role of universally available serial white blood cell counts to calculate the serial systemic immune-inflammatory indices (SSIIi) and the potential association between aura and SSIIi changes in a cohort of migraine patients admitted to tertiary care center in Melbourne Australia.Main body: We retrospectively assessed patients' medical records presenting to Western Health with migraine over an 18 month period. Patients were classified as either having migraine with aura (MA) or without aura (MO) based on ICHD-3 criteria. Baseline demographics and brain imaging findings in each group were evaluated. Patients with two sets of white blood cell counts during the admission were included in the analysis. SSIIi were calculated as, neutrophil counts x platelet counts / lymphocyte counts. Correlation between SSIIi and MA and MO were assessed using SPSS27.Conclusion: SSIIi were elevated in MA and MO followed by a downward trend in both groups, with MA being statistically significant. This proof-of-concept study suggests the potential role of systemic inflammation in pathobiology of migraine. SSIIi appear to show clinical utility. Further comprehensive ,controlled , multicenter studies are required to clarify the exact role of systemic inflammatory response and the clinical utility of SSIIi in a subset of migraine in the Emergency department setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0286.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: cytokines; haplotypes; immune response; Leishmania; regulatory mechanisms; resistance; susceptibility
Online: 19 October 2022 (11:30:49 CEST)
Background: The Ibizan Hound is a canine breed native to the Mediterranean region, where leishmaniasis is an endemic zoonosis. Several studies indicate a low prevalence of this disease in dogs, whereas other canine breeds present a high prevalence. However, the molecular underlaying mechanisms yet remains unknown. Methods: In this study, we analyze the haplotypes of genes encode cytokines related to immune response of Leishmania infantum infection in twenty-four Boxer and twenty-four Ibizan hound apparently healthy using CanineHD DNA Analysis BeadChip including 165,480 mapped positions. Results: The results show that several haplotypes of genes encoding Interleukin 6 (IL6) and Interferon gamma (IFNG) are related to Interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and Interleukins (IL) 2 and 18 serum levels. Our results indicate that the regulation of immune response is different in the two canine breeds analyzed and are related to the haplotype compositions of the genes encoding these cytokines. Conclusions: Future studies are needed to elucidate whether these differences and haplotypes are related to different phenotypes in immune response and expression gene regulation to L. infantum infection in dogs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0389.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Ricefish; Microbiome; Ampicillin; Erythromycin; Immune and Stress-Related Genes
Online: 29 June 2022 (03:05:46 CEST)
Antibiotics have been used in various fields such as livestock farm and fish farm as well as hospital in order to treat diseases caused by bacteria. However, the antibiotics that are not completely decomposed, but remains as residue and discharge to aquatic environment, can cause an imbalance in the gut flora of host, as well as regulate abnormal host gene regulatory system. We investigated the effects of chronic exposure with the low concentrations of erythromycin and ampicillin on gut microbiome and immune and stress-related gene expression using Korea native ricefish (Oryzias latipes). As a result of microbiome analysis, the proportion of Proteobacteria was increased in the ricefish when exposed to erythromycin and ampicillin chronically, whereas the proportion of other bacterial phyla decreased. In addition, the immune and stress-related genes were significantly influenced in the ricefish under the chronic antibiotics exposure. These results show that the internal microbial flora and the host gene expression are susceptible even in the low concentration of chronic antibiotic existing environments. This study provides the importance of the appropriate use of antibiotics dose to maintain the sustainable and healthy aquaculture industry and water ecosystem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0176.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: machine learning; ankylosing spondylitis; diagnostic model; immune microenvironment; informatics
Online: 13 June 2022 (09:42:04 CEST)
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder with unknown etiology and hard to early diagnose. It’s imperative to investigate the changes in AS patients’ peripheral blood, which may contribute to the diagnosis and further understanding of AS. Common differential expressed genes between normal and AS patients in GSE73754 and GSE25101 were screened by machine learning algorithms. IL2RB and ZDHHC18 were hubgenes screened and a diagnostic model was established. C-indexes and calibration analyses suggested high prediction accuracy of the model in training and validation cohorts. The AUC values of the model in GSE73754, GSE25101, GSE18781 and GSE11886 were 0.86, 0.84, 0.85 and 0.89 respectively. Decision curve analyses suggested high net benefit by the model. Functional analysis of the differential expressed genes indicated that they were mainly clustered in processes related to immune response. Immune microenvironment analysis revealed that neutrophils were expanded and activated in AS, while some T cells were decreased. IL2RB and ZDHHC18 were potential blood biomarkers for AS and might be used for early diagnosis and a supplementary diagnostic tool to the existing methods. Our study deepened the insight into the pathogenesis of AS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0149.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: immune response; fatty acid; lipid metabolism; RNA-Seq; transcriptome
Online: 10 February 2022 (10:57:03 CET)
The objective of this study was to identify key transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism and immune response related to the differentially expressed genes (DEG) from the liver samples of 35 pig model for metabolic diseases fed diets containing either 1.5 or 3.0% soybean oil (SOY1.5 or SOY3.0). A total of 281 DEG between SOY1.5 and SOY3.0 diets (log2fold-change ≥ 1 or ≤ −1; FDR-corrected p-value < 0.1) were identified, in which 129 were down-regulated and 152 were up-regulated in SOY1.5 group. The functional annotation analysis detected transcription factors linked to lipid homeostasis and immune response, such as RXRA, EGFR, and SREBP2 precursor. These findings demonstrated that key transcription factors related to lipid metabolism could be modulated by dietary inclusion of soybean oil. It could contribute to nutrigenomics research field that aims to elucidate dietary interventions in animal and human health, as well as to drive the food technology and science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0432.v1
Subject: Keywords: Oxidative and nitrosative stress; antioxidants; biomarkers; neuro-immune; neurocognition
Online: 23 November 2021 (15:05:47 CET)
This study aims to systematically review and meta-analyze the nitro-oxidative stress (O&NS)/antioxidant (ANTIOX) ratio in the peripheral blood of people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We searched PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science for articles published from inception until July 31, 2021. Forty-six studies on 3.798 MCI individuals and 6.063 healthy controls were included. The O&NS/ANTIOX ratio was significantly higher in MCI than in controls with a Standardized Mean Difference (SMD)=0.378 (95% CI: 0.250; 0.506). MCI individuals showed increased lipid peroxidation (SMD=0.774, 95%CI: 4.416; 1.132) and O&NS-associated toxicity (SMD=0.621, CI: 0.377; 0.865) and reduced glutathione (GSH) defenses (SMD=0.725, 95%CI: 0.269; 1.182) as compared with controls. MCI was also accompanied by significantly increased homocysteine (SMD=0.320, CI: 0.059; 0.581), but not protein oxidation, and lowered non-vitamin (SMD=0.347, CI: 0.168; 0.527) and vitamin (SMD=0.564, CI: 0.129; 0.999) antioxidant defenses. The results show that MCI is at least in part due to increased neuro-oxidative toxicity and suggest that treatments targeting lipid peroxidation and the GSH system may be used to treat or prevent MCI.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0642.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; RAS; acute kidney injury; immune response
Online: 29 July 2021 (10:20:36 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To contain the virus, numerous preventive measures have been taken including isolation of patients, careful infection control, social distancing, and taking vaccine. So far, new confirmed and death cases are still increasing. SARS-CoV-2 invades cells by using the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 is an essential enzyme of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) which converts angiotensin II (Ang II) to angiotensin (1-7). ACE2 is expressed in different organs, including lung, heart, and kidney. A high number of COVID-19 patients developed kidney injury has been reported. Renal impairment and acute injury are associated with mortality of COVID-19, which is 14-16 times higher than other general patients. Acute Kidney Injury has been occured in 2.9 up to 43% of intensive care unit patients. The increasing evidence show that the components of RAS can activate the complement cascade, and cytokines production. Kidney injury caused by SARS-CoV-2 is related mainly to systemic and local inflammation. Moreover, the uncontrolled immune responses mediated by SARS-CoV-2 including hypercytokinaemia, secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, antibody dependent enhancement, complement system, and phagocytic cells activation can contribute in the virus pathogenesis leading to associated renal dysfunction. However, the role and crosstalk between of RAS components and immune response in mediating kidney injury remain undefined. In this review, we focus on the recent studies to provide the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 interacting with RAS and immune responses to mediate kidney injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0431.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: cell-penetrating peptides; nasal vaccination; mucosal; immune enhancer; adjuvant
Online: 16 June 2021 (10:19:31 CEST)
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been evaluated as enhancers in drug delivery, their addition in medical formulations favors absorption allowing obtaining the pharmacological effect with lower drug doses. In vaccine formulations their inclusion has been also explored with interesting results. Currently mucosal vaccination constitutes a promising alternative with the main advantage of inducing both systemic and mucosal immune responses, which are crucial for control tumors and infections at mucosal tissues. The known CPP Penetratin was recently evaluated in vaccine formulations designed for nasal administration. The authors demonstrated that this non-covalent linked CPP could improve the antigen-specific systemic and mucosal antibody responses. In the present work we evaluate in Balb/C mice the nasal immune-enhancing effect of four CPPs. Animals were intranasally immunized with CPP and the recombinant hepatitis B surface protein (HBsAg) as model antigen. The IgG antibody response in sera and the mucosal IgA response were measured by ELISA. The IFN-g secretion response at spleen was also evaluated by ELISPOT and ELISA. Among the CPPs studied one novel peptide stand out by its ability to potentiate the humoral and cellular immune response against the co-administered antigen. Considering that the use of mucosal routes is a promising strategy in vaccination against infectious diseases and cancer, which are gaining special relevance nowadays in the development of novel candidates against SARS-CoV-2 and other potential emerging respiratory virus, the searching and development of safe mucosal adjuvants constitute a current need.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0597.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: viral respiratory infections; severe asthma; immune response; biologicals; omalizumab
Online: 26 March 2021 (10:55:06 CET)
Viral respiratory infections are recognized risk factors for the loss of control of allergic asthma and the induction of exacerbations, both in adults and children. Severe asthma is more susceptible to virus-induced asthma exacerbations, especially in the presence of high IgE levels. In the course of immune responses to viruses, an initial activation of innate immunity typically occurs and the production of type I and III interferons is essential in the control of viral spread. However, the Th2 inflammatory environment still appears to be protective against viral infections in general and in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections as well. As for now, literature data, although very limited and preliminary, show that severe asthma patients treated with biologics don’t have an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection or progression to severe forms compared to the non-asthmatic population. Omalizumab, an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, exerts a profound cellular effect, which is able to stabilize the effector cells becoming much more efficient from the point of view of innate immunity in contrasting respiratory viral infections. In addition to the antiviral effect, clinical efficacy and safety of this biological allows a great improvement in the management of asthma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0315.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Brain Metastasis; Immune Checkpoint; Tumor Microenvironment, T-cells, TILs
Online: 15 February 2021 (15:06:48 CET)
The heterogeneity of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes is not well characterized in brain metastasis. To address this, we performed a targeted analysis of immune cell subsets in brain metastasis tissues to test which immunosuppressive routes are involved in brain metastasis. We performed multiplex immunofluorescence (mIF), using commercially available validated antibodies on twenty formalin-fixed paraffin embedded whole sections. We quantitated the subsets of immune cells utilizing a targeted panel of proteins including PanCK, CD8, CD4, VISTA and Iba1, and analyzed an average of 15000 cells per sample. We classified tumours as either high (>30%) or low (<30%) tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and found that increased TILs density correlated with survival. We next sought out to phenotype these TILs using mIF. The tumours with low TILs (n=9) had significantly higher expression of the immune-checkpoint molecule VISTA in tumor cells (p<0.01) as well as in their microenvironment (p<0.001). Contrastingly, the brain metastatic tumours with high TILs (n=8) displayed higher levels of activated microglia, as measured by Iba1 expression. Low TILs-tumours displayed CD8+ T-cells that co-express VISTA (p<0.01) significantly more compared to high TILs group, where CD8+ T-cells significantly co-express Iba1 (p<0.05). Interestingly, no definite phenotypes of CD4+ subsets were observed. These results were supported by RNA analysis of a publicly available, independent cohort. In conclusion, our work contributes to a growing understanding of the immune surveillance escape routes active in brain metastasis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0783.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: depression; anxiety; melancholia; inflammation; neuro-immune; physiosomatic; biomarkers; schizophrenia
Online: 31 December 2020 (09:42:35 CET)
Background. The aim of this study is to examine whether biomarkers of the immune-inflammatory response (IRS) and endogenous opioid (EOS) systems are associated with affective symptoms in schizophrenia. Methods. We recruited 115 schizophrenia patients and 43 healthy controls and assessed the Hamilton Depression (HDRS) and Anxiety (HAM-A) rating Scale scores as well as serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, eotaxin (CCL11), high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1), and mu (MOR) and kappa (KOR) opioid receptors.Results. The HDRS and HAM-A scores are significantly and positively correlated with a) psychosis, hostility, excitation, mannerism, negative symptoms, psychomotor retardation, and formal thought disorders; and b) lowered scores on semantic and episodic memory, executive functions, and attention tests as measured with the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Psychiatry. Both HDRS and HAM-A are significantly increased in non-responders to treatment as compared with partial responders. Both affective scores are strongly associated with latent vectors extracted from all symptoms, reflecting overall severity of psychosis (OSOS), and neurocognitive test scores, reflecting a generalized cognitive decline (G-CoDe). The HDRS score was strongly and positively associated with IL-6, HMGB1, KOR, and MOR levels, and the HAM-A score with IL-6, IL-10, CCL11, HMGB1, KOR, and MOR levels. A single latent trait may be extracted from OSOS, G-CoDe, and the HDRS and HAMA scores, and this latent vector score is strongly predicted by HMGB1, MOR, and DKK1.Conclusion. Immune-inflammatory and EOS pathways contribute to the phenome of schizophrenia, which comprises OSOS, affective, and physiosomatic symptoms, and G-CoDe.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; Inflammasome; Interleukin 1β; Inflammation; Innate Immune System
Online: 12 July 2020 (08:17:56 CEST)
Covid-19 disease is caused by SARS Cov-2 virus. Despite its high transmissibility, the CFR (Case Fatality Rate) of COVID-19 seems to be lower than the SARS (9,5%) and MERS (34,4%) ones93 , but higher than the influenza one (0-1%)94,95 . The disease is asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic in most of the patients, although in few cases it can be characterized by serious complications. The main causes of hospitalization in intensive care are represented by ALI (Acute Lung Injury), ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome), cardiovascular problems and coagulopathies (diffuse thrombosis, microthrombosis, embolisms, myocarditis, arrhytmias, heart failure, stroke)96-98, acute nephropathy99,100 and encephalopathies101. The virus presence in the vascular wall can cause endotheliitis, which triggers the process of diffuse coagulation that can lead to a worsening of the systemic inflammation. The exaggerated inflammatory response seems to be connected with the development of ARDS, MOF (Multiple Organ Failure) and coagulopathies102-107.