Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Boosting the Immune Response – Combining the Local and Immune Therapy for Prostate Cancer Treatment

Version 1 : Received: 24 July 2022 / Approved: 26 July 2022 / Online: 26 July 2022 (08:01:20 CEST)

How to cite: Karwacki, J.; Kiełbik, A.; Szlasa, W.; Sauer, N.; Kowalczyk, K.; Krajewski, W.; Saczko, J.; Kulbacka, J.; Szydełko, T.; Małkiewicz, B. Boosting the Immune Response – Combining the Local and Immune Therapy for Prostate Cancer Treatment. Preprints 2022, 2022070393 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202207.0393.v1). Karwacki, J.; Kiełbik, A.; Szlasa, W.; Sauer, N.; Kowalczyk, K.; Krajewski, W.; Saczko, J.; Kulbacka, J.; Szydełko, T.; Małkiewicz, B. Boosting the Immune Response – Combining the Local and Immune Therapy for Prostate Cancer Treatment. Preprints 2022, 2022070393 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202207.0393.v1).

Abstract

Due to slow progression and susceptibility to radical forms of treatment low-grade PC is associ-ated with high overall survival (OS). With the clinical progression of PC the therapy is getting more complex. The immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) makes PC a difficult target for most immunotherapeutics. Its general immune resistance is established by i.e. immune evasion through Treg cells, synthesis of immunosuppressive mediators, and defective expression of surface neoantigens. The success of sipuleucel-T in clinical trials initiated several other clinical studies that specifically target the immune escape of the tumor and eliminate the immunosuppres-sive properties of TME. In the settings of PC treatment, this can be commonly achieved with radi-ation therapy (RT). Also, focal therapies usually applied for localized PC, such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy, cryotherapy, photodynamic therapy (PDT), or irreversible electroporation (IRE) were shown to boost anti-cancer response. Nevertheless, the present guide-lines restrict their application to localized and low-grade PC. This review explains how RT and focal therapies enhance the immune response. We also provide data supporting the combination of RT and focal treatments with immune therapies.

Keywords

metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer; cancer vaccines; immunotherapy; focal therapy; combination immunotherapy; tumor immune microenvironment; in vivo vaccination

Subject

MEDICINE & PHARMACOLOGY, Urology

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