Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Immune Checkpoints in Pediatric Solid Tumors: Targetable Pathways for Advanced Therapeutic Purposes

Version 1 : Received: 31 March 2021 / Approved: 1 April 2021 / Online: 1 April 2021 (12:22:35 CEST)

How to cite: Cocco, C.; Morandi, F.; Airoldi, I. Immune Checkpoints in Pediatric Solid Tumors: Targetable Pathways for Advanced Therapeutic Purposes. Preprints 2021, 2021040016 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202104.0016.v1). Cocco, C.; Morandi, F.; Airoldi, I. Immune Checkpoints in Pediatric Solid Tumors: Targetable Pathways for Advanced Therapeutic Purposes. Preprints 2021, 2021040016 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202104.0016.v1).

Abstract

Tumor microenvironment (TME) represents a complex network between tumor cells and a variety of components including immune, stromal and vascular endothelial cells as well as extracellular matrix. A wide panel of signals and interactions here take place, resulting in a bi-directional modulation of cellular functions. Many stimuli, on one hand, induce tumor growth and spread of metastatic cells and, on the other hand, contribute to the establishment of an immunosuppressive environment. The latter feature is achieved by soothing immune effector cells, mainly cytotoxic T lymphocytes, B and NK cells, and/or through expansion of regulatory cell populations, including regulatory T and B cells, tumor-associated macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. In this context, immune checkpoints (IC) are key players in the control of T cell activation and anti-cancer activities, leading to the inhibition of tumor cell lysis and of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Thus, these pathways represent promising targets for the development of effective and innovative therapies both in adults and childhood. Here we address the role of different cell populations homing the TME and of well-known and recently characterized IC in the context of pediatric solid tumors. We also discuss preclinical and clinical data available using IC inhibitors alone, in combination each other or administered with standard therapies.

Subject Areas

Immune checkpoint inhibitors; pediatric solid tumor; immune suppression

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