Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

NSCLC Biomarkers to Predict Response to Immunotherapy with Checkpoint Inhibitors (ICI): From the Cells to in-Vivo Images

Version 1 : Received: 16 August 2021 / Approved: 18 August 2021 / Online: 18 August 2021 (08:20:43 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Liberini, V.; Mariniello, A.; Righi, L.; Capozza, M.; Delcuratolo, M.D.; Terreno, E.; Farsad, M.; Volante, M.; Novello, S.; Deandreis, D. NSCLC Biomarkers to Predict Response to Immunotherapy with Checkpoint Inhibitors (ICI): From the Cells to In Vivo Images. Cancers 2021, 13, 4543. Liberini, V.; Mariniello, A.; Righi, L.; Capozza, M.; Delcuratolo, M.D.; Terreno, E.; Farsad, M.; Volante, M.; Novello, S.; Deandreis, D. NSCLC Biomarkers to Predict Response to Immunotherapy with Checkpoint Inhibitors (ICI): From the Cells to In Vivo Images. Cancers 2021, 13, 4543.

Journal reference: Cancers 2021, 13, 4543
DOI: 10.3390/cancers13184543

Abstract

Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death and it is usually diagnosed in advanced stages (stage III or IV). Recently, the availability of targeted strategies and of immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) has favorably changed patient prognosis. Treatment outcome is closely related to tumor biology and interaction with the host immune microenvironment (TME). Whether for targeted therapies the response relies on the presence of specific genetic alterations in tumor cells, for ICI accurate biomarkers of response are lacking and clinical outcome likely depends on multiple factors, host and tumor-related. This paper is an overview of the ongoing research on predictive factors both from in-vitro/ex-vivo analysis (ranging from conventional pathology to molecular biology) and in-vivo analysis, where molecular imaging is showing an exponential growth and use due to the technological advancement and to the new bioinformatics approaches applied to image analyses that allow specific features recovery in specific tumor subclones.

Keywords

immune checkpoint inhibitors; non-small cell lung carcinoma; PD-1; PD-L1; immune PET; immunotherapy; Radiomics; PET/CT

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