Medicine and Pharmacology
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ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1941.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Perinatal Depression; Attachment Style; Coping Strategies; Gender Medicine; Women Health
Online: 26 May 2023 (14:42:26 CEST)
Abstract Peripartum depression (PPD) is a major complication of pregnancy and many risk factors have been associated with its development, including dysfunctional coping strategies and insecure attachment styles, both during pregnancy and postpartum. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of coping strategies in mediating the relationship between women’s attachment style and PPD in pregnancy, and one week after childbirth, in a large cohort of women. We hypothesized that the relationship between anxious and avoidant attachment and PPD would be mediated by use of maladaptive coping strategies. The assessment instruments were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Brief Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences (COPE), Experiences in Close Relationship Scale (ECR). The results indicated that the effect of insecure attachment styles (anxious and avoidant attachment) on antepartum depressive symptomatology was partially mediated by dysfunctional coping styles. Anxious attachment has also an indirect significant effect on postpartum depression through emotional coping; however, avoidant attachment does not seem to be significantly related to postpartum depression. Our findings revealed that not only it is important to consider attachment in understanding PPD but also that coping plays an important role in these relationships. These findings would help a preventive coping-based intervention strategy to enhance the capacity of women with insecure attachment styles to use more adaptive coping during and after pregnancy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1937.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Cancer Immunotherapy; Tumour Immunology; Clinical trials; Adverse effects
Online: 26 May 2023 (14:16:17 CEST)
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are a class of drug that produces durable and sustained anti-tumour responses in a wide variety of malignancies. The exponential rise in their use has been mirrored by a rise in immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Knowledge of such toxicities, as well as effective management algorithms for these toxicities, is essential to optimize clinical efficacy and safety. Currently, the guidelines for management of the irAEs are based largely on retrospective studies and case series. In this article, we review the current landscape of clinical trials investigating the management of irAEs with an aim to develop standardized, randomized controlled trial-based management algorithms for ICI-related toxicities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1927.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: COVID19; Children; Epilepsy; Adolescents; Pediatric; Pandemic
Online: 26 May 2023 (11:00:40 CEST)
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted health care worldwide. As the pandemic has been prolonged, quarantine restrictions have been lightened gradu-ally, which can influence outcomes of pediatric patients with chronic disease such as epi-lepsy by increase of susceptibility of the COVID-19 infection. The aim of this study was to determine impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on seizure control and identify potential risk factors that might worsen seizure attacks during the pandemic in children with epilepsy. We performed a retrospective chart review of 48 pediatric patients with epilepsy during the COVID-19 pandemic from January 2016 to July 2022. During the COVID-19 pandemic period, 25% of pediatric patients experienced sei-zure worsening, showing an increase in seizure frequency or duration or both. Factors associated with worsening seizures during pandemic were: diagnosis of epi-lepsy less than one year, comorbid conditions with cerebral palsy or having a tracheosto-my or a PEG, and infection with other viruses (respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus A, influenza virus B) rather than COVID-19 infection. Our finding highlights the need to proactively monitor and regularly follow up (es-pecially short period of time) patients after they are diagnosed with epilepsy. It is also important to properly manage those who are susceptible to serious illness and keep sea-sonal viral infections under surveillance to manage exacerbated seizure in children with epilepsy. Furthermore, pediatric physicians should not overlook surveillance of seasonal respiratory viruses since quarantine restrictions are getting eased.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1917.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Serum biomarkers; Traumatic brain injury; CT-scan findings; outcome; Toxoplasma gondii
Online: 26 May 2023 (10:28:07 CEST)
Despite the available literature on traumatic brain injury (TBI) biomarkers elsewhere, data are limited or non-existent in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The aim of the study was to analyse associations in acute TBI between admission serum biomarker concentrations and TBI severity, CT-scan findings and outcome as well as explore the influence of concurrent Toxoplasma gondii infection. Concentrations of serum biomarkers (GFAP, NFL Tau, UCH-L1, and S100B) were measured and Toxoplasma gondii detected in samples obtained <24 hours post-injury. The GOSE was used to evaluate 6 months outcome. All biomarkers levels increased with severity of TBI, but this increase was significant only for NFL (P=0.01). GFAP values significantly increased (P=0.026) in those with unfavorable outcome. Tau levels were higher in those who died (P=0.017). GFAP and NFL were sensitive to CT-scan pathology (p values respectively 0.004 and 0.002). S100B levels were higher (P<0.001) in TBI patients seropositive to Toxoplasma gondii. NFL was found to be sensitive to TBI severity while NFL and GFAP were predictive of CT intracranial abnormalities. Increased levels of GFAP and Tau were associated with poorer outcomes 6 months after TBI. S100B levels were significantly higher in T. gondii seropositive TBI patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1916.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: High flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy; acute respiratory failure; geriatrics; acute non-intensive hospital setting
Online: 26 May 2023 (10:22:17 CEST)
Background. There are scant data about the effectiveness of high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy in patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory failure (ARF) in non-intensive medical wards, particularly regarding the effect on arterial oxygenation compared to conventional oxygen therapy (COT) and non-invasive ventilation (NIV) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Methods. In a retrospective observational study, oxygenation parameters were measured before and immediately after HFNC initiation in 37 consecutive patients hospitalized in a geriatric ward in 2017. Results. HFNC was used as escalation therapy for untreatable hypoxia after failure of NIV/CPAP (n=18) or COT (n=19). Twenty-two patients died, 2 were transferred to the intensive care unit, while 13 were discharged alive. A “do not intubate” status was identified in 17 of the 22 deceased patients. Partial pressure of oxygen (pO2, p< 0.0001), oxygen saturation (SO2, p< 0.0001), pO2/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (p=0.004) and peripheral SO2 measured by pulse oximetry (p< 0.0001) significantly increased soon after HFNC application. Oxygenation improvements were greater after escalation from NIV/CPAP and in patients discharged alive. Conclusion. HFNC significantly improved oxygenation in severe ARF after failure of COT or NIV/CPAP and may be particularly suitable for older patients hospitalized in non-intensive medical wards.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1908.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; Mechanism of Action; Clinical and Epidemiological Features; Global Pandemic Infectious Disease
Online: 26 May 2023 (09:59:10 CEST)
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel global pandemic infectious disease with higher potential for outbreaks than the other epidemic disease such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), influenza A (H1N1), and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), which identified in China on December 31, 2019. This disease is caused by a new generation of betacoronavirus termed as the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) or SARS-CoV-2. Although, the first report of this disease was in recent months, now, the COVID-19 is known as a global pandemics. Hence, the aim of this article is the quick review of the recent studies on the novel coronavirus disease 2019 including researches on the epidemiological parameters, mechanism of action, diagnosis, and treatment of the novel coronavirus disease, as well as clinical features of patients infected with COVID-19. Moreover, the novel COVID-19 has comprised of SARS, H1N1, and MERS.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1906.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Congenital cytomegalovirus; hypothermia; status epilepticus; universal screening
Online: 26 May 2023 (09:51:15 CEST)
Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection resulting from non-primary maternal infection or reactivation during pregnancy can cause serious fetal-neonatal sequelae. We describe a male newborn born at term, with signs of perinatal asphyxia, and intractable acute provoked seizures, in the context of severe cCMV infection. The newborn was delivered in a referral hospital by emergency caesarean section due to fetal distress. Due to signs of asphyxia at birth and clinical moderate encephalopathy (Sarnat 2), he was transferred to our center for therapeutic hypothermia. Continuous full video-electroencephalography monitoring showed no seizures during the first 72 hours, however, soon after rewarming, he presented refractory status epilepticus. Cranial ultrasonography revealed bilateral ventricular and intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Routine infectious screen-ing on urine, blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and nasopharyngeal secretions revealed positive CMV DNA Polymer-ase Chain Reaction (PCR) on all samples. The CMV DNA performed on the bloodspot (Guthrie) card taken at birth yielded a positive result, confirming the intrauterine transmission and congenital origin of the infection. Maternal non-primary CMV infection in pregnancy is transmitted to the fetus in 0.5-2% of cases. When transmitted, it may cause serious fetal abnormalities, complications in the immediate neonatal period, and se-vere sequelae later in childhood. During pregnancy, it is useful to monitor maternal serology for CMV, even in previously immunized mothers, to identify signs of new infection or viral reactivation and implement measures to prevent neonatal sequelae. The possible advantages of standardized CMV screening of all newborns are a pertinent discussion point, as this may enable us to identify affected neonates timeously and prevent long term disabilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1905.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: CD44; CD44v10; monoclonal antibody; oral squamous cell carcinoma; immunohistochemistry
Online: 26 May 2023 (09:49:30 CEST)
CD44 is known as a cancer stem cell marker of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and plays a critical role in cancer malignant progression. Splicing variant isoforms of CD44 (CD44v) are overexpressed in cancers and considered a promising target for cancer therapy. Several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against CD44 have been developed by immunizing mice with CD44v3–10-overexpressed cancer cells. In this study, we characterized a novel clone, C44Mab-18 (IgM, kappa). C44Mab-18 reacted with CHO/CD44v3–10, but not with CHO/CD44s by flow cytometry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that the epitope of C44Mab-18 is determined to be the border sequence between variant 10 and the constant exon 16-encoded sequence. Flow cytometry showed that C44Mab-18 recognizes HSC-3, an oral squamous cell carcinoma(OSCC) cell line. The apparent dissociation constant (KD) of C44Mab-18 for CHO/CD44v3–10 and HSC-3 was determined to be 1.6 × 10−7 M and 1.7 × 10−7 M, respectively. C44Mab-18 detected CD44v3–10, but not CHO/CD44s in western blotting. Furthermore, C44Mab-18 detected endogenous CD44v10 in immunohistochemistry using OSCC tissues. Taken together, C44Mab-18 is useful for detecting CD44v10 in flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1900.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Gout; Tophus; Perforating Dermatosis; Transepidermal Elimination; Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia; Granulomatous Dermatitis
Online: 26 May 2023 (09:36:26 CEST)
Perforating dermatoses are dermatologic disorders with transepidermal elimination (TE) of dermal substances. While TE is typically associated with collagen and elastin, it can also occur as a secondary event in other processes, and it is important to keep a broad differential. We present a case of perforating tophaceous gout, which underscores the need for a thoughtful approach to perforating disorders. An updated review of recent literature is also presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1899.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: newborn; heart rate variability; caffeine; apnoea; apnea; autonomic nervous system
Online: 26 May 2023 (09:36:15 CEST)
Neonatal apnoea has been treated with caffeine, affecting the central nervous and the cardiovascular system. Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and might be used as a measure of ANS maturation in newborns. We aimed to establish the effect of caffeine on HRV in newborns and sought for a potential correlation between HRV and the postmenstrual age. In 25 newborns hospitalized due to apnoea and treated with caffeine (2.5 mg/kg), we assessed breathing frequency, arterial oxygen saturation, body temperature, and the heart rate, while they were sleeping. We assessed HRV by spectral analysis using fast Fourier transformation. The same protocol was reapplied 100 hours after caffeine withdrawal to assess control parameters. Caffeine increased breathing frequency (p=0.023) but did not affect any other parameter assessed including HRV. We established a positive correlation between postmenstrual age and HRV during treatment with caffeine as well as after caffeine had been withdrawn (total power: p=0.044; low-frequency band: p=0.039). Apparently, the maintenance dose of caffeine is too low to affect the heart rate and the HRV. A positive correlation between postmenstrual age and HRV might reflect maturation of ANS, irrespective of caffeine treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1889.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Endobronchial ultrasound; Transbronchial needle aspiration; bronchoscopy
Online: 26 May 2023 (08:16:28 CEST)
Endobronchial Ultrasound has been widely used in the lymph node staging of lung tumors and the diagnosis of mediastinal diseases. In the last decades this procedure has evolved in several technical aspects, with new tools available to optimize the tissue sampling and to increase the diagnostic yield, like elastography, different types of needles and, most recently, miniforceps and cryobiopsy. Then, also the indications for EBUS have extended beyond the thoracic boundaries to sample lesions of the liver, left adrenal gland and retroperitoneal lymph nodes via the gastroesophageal tract. In this review we will analyze the actual indication of EBUS, even the more unusual, to underline the multiple use of EBUS in clinical practise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1884.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: 1. traumatology; 2. Trauma surgery; 3. disaster medicine; 4. patient transfer; 5. trauma rehabilitation; 6. Advanced Trauma Life Support Care; 7. air ambulances
Online: 26 May 2023 (07:55:08 CEST)
On April 17, 2019, a coach with tourists from Germany crashed in Madeira requiring repatriation by the German Air Force. The Advance Trauma Life Support (ATLS) concept was the central component of patient care. Data in Madeira were collected through a structured interview. The analysis of the Aeromedical Evacuation was based on intensive care transport records. In Germany all available were reviewed for data collection. Quality of life (HRQoL) was evaluated by the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Twenty-eight prehospital patients were transported to the Level III Trauma Center in Funchal (Madeira). Five operative procedures were performed. Fifteen patients were eligible for Aeromedical Evacuation (AE). In the second hospital phase in Germany in total 82 radiological images and nine operations were performed. Hospital stay lasted 11 days (median, IQR 10–18). Median Follow-up (14 of 15 patients) was 16 months (IQR 16–21). 80% (8 out of 10) showed an increased risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Six key findings were identified in this study: divergent injury classification, impact of AE mission on health status, lack of communication, need of PTSD prophylaxis, patient identification, media coverage. Those findings may improve AE missions in the future e.g. required after armed conflicts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1877.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM); Tumor microenvironment (TME); Cytokine; Immunosuppression; Pro-tumor functions; Anti-tumor functions; Clinical application.
Online: 26 May 2023 (07:31:53 CEST)
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play critical roles in the tumor microenvironment (TME), where they are recruited by signals released by cancer cells. Although they have great potential as therapeutic targets for cancer treatment, the dual roles of TAMs in promoting or inhibiting tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis make their function in cancer progression complex. In this review, we provide an overview of the current understanding of TAMs, including their phenotypic diversity, regulatory signaling pathways, and interactions with other cells in the TME. We also discuss the challenges related to the standard isolation protocols of TAMs, inconsistent research results, and translation of TAM knowledge into clinical applications. Additionally, we review the status of clinical trials involving TAMs and potential strategies to overcome the limitations. The future direction of TAM research should focus on developing more targeted therapies that specifically regulate TAM function and non-invasive methods for monitoring TAM activity in cancer patients. A comprehensive understanding of the complex role of TAMs in cancer may lead to the development of more effective treatments and improved outcomes for cancer patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1876.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: amniotic membrane allografts; cryopreserved amniotic membrane; lyophilization; freeze-dried amniotic membrane; N-acylethanolamines; palmitoylethanolamide; tissue banking; mass spec-trometry
Online: 26 May 2023 (07:29:40 CEST)
To compare concentrations of endogenous N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) lipid mediators pal-mitoylethanolamide (PEA), oleoylethanolamide (OEA), and anandamide (AEA) in fresh, decon-taminated, cryopreserved and freeze-dried amniotic membrane (AM) allografts. Thereby deter-mining whether AM's analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficiency related to NAEs persists during storage. The concentrations of NAEs were measured using ultra-high-performance liquid chro-matography-tandem mass spectrometry. Indirect fluorescent immunohistochemistry was used to detect the PEA PPARα receptor. The concentrations of PEA, OEA, and AEA were significantly higher after decontamination. A significant decrease was found in cryopreserved AM compared to decontaminated tissue for PEA but not for OEA and AEA. However, significantly higher val-ues for all NAEs were detected in cryopreserved samples compared to fresh tissue before decon-tamination. The freeze-dried AM had similar values to decontaminated AM with no statistically significant difference. The nuclear staining of PPARα receptor was clearly visible in all specimens. The stability of NAEs in AM after cryopreservation was demonstrated under tissue bank storage conditions. However, a significant decrease, but still higher concentration of PEA compared to fresh not decontaminated tissue was found in cryopreserved, but not frieze-dried AM. Results in-dicate that NAEs persist during storage in levels sufficient for the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of AM allografts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1875.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: prostate cancer; somatic alteration; epigenomics; epigenetic machinery; African ancestry; southern Africa; health disparity
Online: 26 May 2023 (07:24:27 CEST)
Prostate cancer is driven by acquired genetic alterations, including those impacting the epigenetic machinery. With African ancestry a significant risk factor for aggressive disease, we hypothesize that dysregulation among the roughly 656 epigenetic genes may contribute to prostate cancer health disparities. Interrogating prostate tumor genomic data from 109 men of southern African and 56 men of European Australian ancestry, we found African-derived tumors to present with a longer tail of epigenetic driver gene candidates (72 versus 10). Biased towards African-specific drivers (63 versus 9 shared), many are novel to prostate cancer (18/63) including several putative therapeutic targets (CHD7, DPF3, POLR1B, SETD1B, UBTF and VPS72). Through clustering of all variant types and copy number alterations, we describe two epigenetic PCa taxonomies capable of differentiating patients by ancestry and predicted clinical outcomes. We identified top genes in African and European-derived tumors that represent a multifunctional “generic machinery”, alteration to which may be instrumental in epigenetic dysregulation and prostate tumorigenesis. In conclusion, numerous somatic alterations in the epigenetic machinery drive prostate carcinogenesis but African-derived tumors appear to achieve this with greater diversity amongst such alterations. The greater novelty observed in African-derived tumors illustrates the significant clinical benefit to be derived from a much needed African tailored approach to prostate cancer healthcare aimed at reducing prostate cancer health disparities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1867.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: knee pain; frequency of knee pain; exercise training; physical activity
Online: 26 May 2023 (05:38:21 CEST)
Abstract: Background: Adolescents frequently self-report pain, according to epidemiological research. The knee is one of the sites where the pain is most common. One of the main factors contributing to the number of years people spend disabled and having substantial personal, societal, and economic burdens globally is musculoskeletal disorders. Insidious, slowly building onset that neither the adolescent nor the parent is aware of . Patellofemoral Pain (PFP) is a clinical knee pain commonly affecting adolescents. In the present study, the authors aimed to estimate the frequency of knee pain in Saudi adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional survey carried out from June to November 2022 included 676 adolescents, ages 10 to 18. The data are presented as frequencies and percentages for categorical variables. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare means between groups, while the chi-square test was used for the comparison of categorical variables. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Adolescents were invited to take part in the study; 57.5% were female and 42.5% were male, and 68.8% were aged between 15 and 18. The prevalence of knee pain was considerably high among females (26%), while it was 19.2% among males. Moreover, age was a significant predictor for knee pain, and BMI was as well. We also found a significant difference between BMI classification and stiffness of the knee (p = 0.008). There is a difference between adolescents who do physical activities in leisure and difficulty bending (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Our study noted a high rate of knee pain among adolescents, so we need to raise awareness about risk factors. Adolescent knee pain can be prevented with conservative methods and some minor lifestyle/activity modifications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1864.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Coanda Effect; aneurysm; hemodynamics; Willis Polygon; pathology
Online: 26 May 2023 (05:26:59 CEST)
It is yet unknown how the formation of aneurysm inside the human body occurs. Thus, the understanding and analysis of the Coanda effect will result in a better overview of the overall fluid mechanics that develops inside such a structure, leading not only to better treatment plans, but also to diminished postoperative risks. This paper presents how the fluid behaves in this situation, and takes into consideration how this physical phenomenon influences the hemodynamics inside numerous anatomical regions, located in the central nervous system, where aneurysms usually develop. Analyzing the three main areas in which cerebral aneurysms form the Coanda effect can potentially lead to the rupture of the aneurysm, by changing the blood flow trajectory, it should be taken into consideration when choosing a treatment plan, especially in postoperative care. In addition, there are other factors that can influence the evolution of an aneurysm such as shape, size, localization and the patient’s health condition. Understanding and analysis of the Coanda effect will result in a better overview of the overall fluid mechanics that develops inside such a structure, leading not only to better treatment plans, but also to diminished postoperative risks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0713.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: vanadium complexes; phosphatases; in vitro; cells models; metabolic disorders; diabetes; insulin resistance; gluconeogenesis; NAFLD
Online: 26 May 2023 (05:19:48 CEST)
In the text, the synthesis and characteristics of the novel ONS-type vanadium(V) complexes with thioanilide derivatives of amino acids are described. They have shown inhibition of human protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP1B, LAR, SHP1 and SHP2) in the submicromolar range, as well as inhibition of non-tyrosine phosphatases (CDC25A and PPA2) similar to bis(maltolato)oxovanadium(IV)(BMOV). The ONS complexes increased [14C]-deoxy-D-glucose transport into C2C12 myocytes, and one of them, VC070, also enhanced this transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These complexes inhibited gluconeogenesis in hepatocytes HepG2, but none of them decreased lipid accumulation in the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease model using the same cells. Compared to the tested ONO-type vanadium complexes with 5-bromosalicylaldehyde and substituted benzhydrazides as Schiff base ligand components, the ONS complexes revealed stronger inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases, but the ONO complexes showed greater activity in the cell models in general. Moreover, the majority of the active complexes from both groups showed better effects than VOSO4 and BMOV. Complexes from both groups activated AKT and ERK signaling pathways in hepatocytes to a comparable extent. One of the ONO complexes, VC068, showed activity in all of the above models, also including glucose utilization in the myocytes and glucose transport in insulin-resistant hepatocytes. The discussion section explicates the results within the wider scope of the knowledge about vanadium complexes.
INTERESTING IMAGES | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1842.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: hemopneumothorax; altitude barotrauma; emphysematous lesions; desquamative interstitial pneumonia
Online: 26 May 2023 (05:14:06 CEST)
We present the case of a 35-year-old patient without pathological history who developed hemopneumothorax due to altitude barotrauma during a commercial airline flight. The computed tomography of the chest identified the presence of emphysema "blebs" and bubbles, and the histopathological examination of the lung fragment obtained during the diagnostic and therapeutic thoracoscopy identified elements suggestive for the diagnosis of respiratory bronchiolitis associated with desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1855.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: sarcoidosis; advanced pulmonary fibrosis; signaling; molecular pathway
Online: 26 May 2023 (04:55:01 CEST)
Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disease of unknown etiology characterized by the formation of granulomas in various organs, especially lung and mediastinal hilar lymph nodes. The clinical course and manifestations are unpredictable: spontaneous remission can occur in approximately two thirds of patients; up to 20% of patients have chronic course of the lung disease (called Ad-vanced Pulmonary Sarcoidosis) resulting in progressive loss of lung function, sometimes life-threatening that can lead to respiratory failure and death. The immunopathology mechanism leading from granuloma formation to the fibrosis in APS still remains elusive. Recent studies have provided new insights into the genetics factors and immune components involved in the clinical manifestation of the disease. In this review we aim to summarize the clinical-prognostic charac-teristics and molecular pathways which are believed to be associated with the development of APS
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1844.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: excitotoxicity; human induced pluripotent stem cell; neuron; astrocyte; L-glutamate transporter; EAAT1; EAAT2
Online: 26 May 2023 (04:22:41 CEST)
Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neural cells have been used at the preclinical stage of drug development. As previously reported, hiPSC-derived neurons exhibit greater tolerance to excitotoxicity than that of primary cultures of rodent neurons; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We therefore investigated the functions of L-glutamate (L-Glu) transporters, the most important machinery used to maintain low extracellular L-Glu concentrations, in hiPSC-derived neural cells. We also clarified the contribution of each L-Glu transporter subtype. At 63 days in vitro (DIV), we detected neuronal circuit functions in hiPSC-derived neural cells by a microelectrode array system (MEA). Exposure to 100 μM L-Glu for 24 hrs did not affect the viability of these 63 DIV neural cells. Pharmacological inhibition of excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAT1) and EAAT2 blocked almost 100% of L-Glu uptake. In this condition, L-Glu exposure dramatically decreased cell viability. These results suggest that in hiPSC-derived neural cells, EAAT1 and EAAT2 are predominant L-Glu transporters, and their uptake potentials are stronger than those of primary cultures of rodent neurons. Furthermore, hiPSC-derived neural cells may be useful for screening drugs that target L-Glu transporters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1839.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Anti-tubercular agents, DprE1 inhibitor, Structure activity relationship, in vivo activity
Online: 26 May 2023 (04:12:31 CEST)
Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading infectious disease with serious antibiotic resistance. The benzothiazinone (BTZ) scaffold PBTZ169, an inhibitor of the decaprenylphosphoryl-β-D-ribose 2'-oxidase (DprE1) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), showed anti-TB potential in animal model and piloted clinical tests. Although highly potent, the BTZ type DprE1 inhibitors in general shows extremely low aqueous solubility, which adversely affect the drug like property. To improve the compounds physiochemical properties, we generated a series of BTZ analogues. Several optimized compounds had MIC values against Mtb in single digit nanomolar. The representative compound 37 displayed improved solubility and bioavailability compared to the lead compound. Additionally, compound 37 shows Mtb-killing ability in an acute infection mouse model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1838.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms; bone metastasis; biomarker
Online: 26 May 2023 (04:11:51 CEST)
We investigated the diagnostic capacity of selected circulating biomarkers (CBMs) for the early detection of bone metastasis (BMets) in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PanNENs). 115 patients with PanNENs and 40 controls were enrolled. We measured the serum levels of ferritin, cytokeratin 18 (CY18), CA19-9, CA125, AFP, CEA, and beta-2 microglobulin (B2M). 8 PanNENs patients developed BMets, and 107 remained BMets-free. We observed a significantly higher level of CA125 and CY18 in BM-PanNENs patients vs. non-BM-PanNENs patients (p = 0.01 and p = 0.04, respectively). CA125, CY18, and B2M area under receiver operator characteristic (AUROC) analyses differentiated BM-PanNENs from non-BM-PanNENs patients; CA125 area under the curve (AUC) 0.77, p < 0.01; CY18 AUC data were 0.72, p = 0.03, and B2M AUC 0.67, p = 0.02. Based on CBMs metrics in both subgroups, we reached a sensitivity/specificity for CA125 of 75/76%; for CY18 of 75/69%, for B2M of 100/50%, for CA125 and CY18 combination 93/90%, respectively. The useful CBMs for BM-PanNENs patients detection were CA125, CY18, and B2M. They seem to have the diagnostic capacity as a fair single biomarker and CA125&CY18 combination panel for the detection of BMets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1835.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; vaccines; breakthrough infection; hybrid immunity; SARS-CoV-2 antibody
Online: 26 May 2023 (04:05:24 CEST)
More than 3 years have passed since the emergence of COVID-19. On May 8, 2023, COVID-19 in Japan was downgraded to Category 5 by the Infectious Disease Control Law. In Japan, at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, cases of infection and deaths from severe disease were few compared with those of Western countries. However, in the medical field, screening for COVID-19 was given top priority, resulting in confusion and proving disadvantageous for many patients, also the overreaction to COVID-19 as the most important issue in society can be attributed largely to statements by infectious disease experts. In addition, the mRNA vaccine emerged in 2021, and most of the population was vaccinated up to two times within a short period of less than 1 year because infectious disease experts strongly promoted vaccination. After 2022, when vaccination progressed, and the Omicron strain, which is an attenuated strain, became the mainstay of the SARS-CoV-2, the number of severe cases of COVID-19 decreased significantly; however, the number of infected people increased dramatically instead. A significant portion of the population is thought to have hybrid immunity due to vaccination plus natural infection and maintains high antibody titers. Henceforth, additional vaccination should be given preferentially to those who will benefit most from it. Conversely, measures against COVID-19 caused serious damage to the economy and society. Policies that not only address countermeasures against infection, but also those that encompass the economy and society as a whole are necessary.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1827.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: One Health; Comparative Research; Reverse Translation
Online: 26 May 2023 (03:29:17 CEST)
According to data from the U.S FDA, the likelihood of a new drug progressing from Phase I clinical trials to market approval is only 8% (DiMasi et al., 2016). Furthermore, a significant attrition rate of 35% occurs during Phase II studies due to the failure to demonstrate clinical efficacy (Arrowsmith, 2011). These statistics underscore the urgent need to reassess the current research and development (R&D) paradigm. To address this challenge, a promising approach called reverse translational pharmacology (RTP) has emerged, aiming to enhance the predictive value of preclinical models used in biomedical research by leveraging animal models that spontaneously develop analogous diseases to humans (Schneider et al., 2018). The rationale behind RTP is that knowledge gained from clinical trials in canines can subsequently inform and guide human clinical trials, leading to improved outcomes for both species. Additionally, this approach capitalizes on the opportunity to stimulate veterinary drug development by leveraging pharmacokinetic (PK), efficacy, and safety data obtained from human clinical studies (Schneider et al., 2018). The application of reverse translational pharmacology holds immense potential for expediting drug development and advancing medical knowledge. By employing animal models that naturally develop diseases akin to those found in humans, researchers can enhance the predictive capacity of preclinical models, thereby mitigating the high attrition rates encountered in later stages of clinical trials. Moreover, the exchange of knowledge and data between human and veterinary medicine engenders a synergistic relationship, fostering progress in both domains (Schneider et al., 2018). As this innovative approach gains momentum, fostering collaborations between basic and clinician scientists, pharmaceutical companies, and veterinary professionals becomes increasingly imperative. By sharing resources, expertise, and findings, we can pave the way for groundbreaking discoveries and the development of safe and efficacious treatments for diverse diseases. Embracing reverse translational pharmacology offers an avenue to redefine the R&D paradigm, bringing us closer to a future where a higher proportion of drugs successfully traverse the arduous path from the laboratory to market approval, ultimately benefiting patients across species. In this brief commentary, we highlight four examples of diseases where reverse translational modeling has been used to support pharmaceutical research, including some applications developed in our research laboratory (SMART Pharmacology) at the Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine. In doing so, this report also seeks to provide a brief overview of the heuristic value of computational approaches in comparative research. To further illustrate the value of these in silico approaches, we deliberately chose to employ some features of ChatGPT to produce the present summary (OpenAI. (2023). GPT-3.5 [ChatGPT]. Retrieved from https://openai.com).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1817.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: hearing; auditory processing; cognition; music; byzantine; percussion; rhythm
Online: 26 May 2023 (02:35:33 CEST)
Better auditory processing of musicians is observed in previous research. As musicians differentiate their practice method and performance environment, we aimed to assess auditory perception in Greek musicians with respect to their musical specialization. If there are differences, this may provide a basis for better shaping auditory training in individuals with auditory processing disorder. The auditory tests administered were speech in noise (Speech in Babble), with and without rhythmic advantage (Word Recognition—Rhythm Component), short-term and working memory (Digit Span - Forward and Backwards), temporal resolution (Gaps In Noise) and detection of frequency discrimination threshold (DFL). Groups consisted of classical musicians, Byzantine chanters, percussionists, and non-musicians (12 participants/group). Statistical analysis revealed significant difference in: (i) word recognition in noise with precursor synchronized pulse between classical musicians compared to Byzantine musicians, (ii) better frequency discrimination of Byzantine musicians compared to non-musicians for the 2000Hz region and (iii) working memory, an advantage detected in musicians. Considering all the above, we conclude that musicians have a superior auditory perception, regardless of musical specialization. Musical training enhances elements of auditory processing and may be used as an additional rehabilitation during auditory training, focusing on specific types of music for specific auditory processing deficits.
Thu, 25 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1813.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: rh-BMP2; Ki67-Proliferation – Gingival Tissue
Online: 25 May 2023 (14:36:37 CEST)
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), belonging to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, regulate many cellular activities including proliferation and neovascularization. The use of recombinant human bone morphogenic protein 2 (rh-BMP 2) in oral and maxillofacial surgery has seen a tremendous increase, especially with bone grafting materials to promote bone reconstruction processes; even though its interactions with the other essential processes in the human tissues are still not fully clear. investigating the effect of administrating rh-bmp2 on the clinical values of the gingival cell proliferation index Ki67 marker expression in the gingival tissue in comparison with normal human gingival tissue. The study includes 2 groups in a randomized controlled Clinical Trial: 40 gingival samples; 20 normal and 20 have been treated with 0.25µg of rh-BMP2 during dental implantation in the posterior mandible area, taken 3 months later in the time of healing abutments installation using a tissue puncher. Samples will be stained with hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemically. The expression of Ki67 will be measured in one way: the number of cells that express the marker. The comparison between groups will be done using One -a way ANOVA test in the numerical data SPSS 17.0 will be used as software. Differences would be considered significant at P=0.05. It is considered that rh-BMP2 can improve gingival tissue proliferation in patients undergoing dental implant treatment, and indicates better healing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1811.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: cardiac surgery; ascending aorta dissection, ascending aorta aneurysm
Online: 25 May 2023 (13:00:28 CEST)
(1) Background: There is a need of a novel surrogate marker to ease decision making when facing ascending aortic dilatation. In this article we study the ratio between ascending and descending aorta diameters as a potential one; (2) Methods: Retrospective observational cohort study, including all the patients who have undergone surgery for aTAAD between January 2014 and September 2020 at our center. A total of 50 patients were included. Clinical and demographic data was collected. Anatomical measurements were made including orthogonal maximal diameters of the ascending and descending aorta, post-dissection whole circumference length (post-wCL), post-dissection true lumen circumference length (post-tCL), surface and sphericity index of the ascending and descending aorta. Pre-dissection ascending aorta diameter (pre-AAD) and pre-dissection descending aorta diameter (pre-DAD) were calculated as well as the ratio between them and compared with reference values; (3) Results: 96% of the patients pre-AAD was smaller than the recommended 55mm. The ratio between the descending and ascending aorta pre-dissection diameters was significantly smaller compared to the reference value (0.657±0.125 versus 0.745± 0.016 with a mean difference of -0.088 and a p<0.001); (4) Conclusions: The 55mm threshold for aorta maximal diameter is an insufficient criterion when assessing the risk of dissection. The ratio between DAD and AAD is a parameter worthy of analysis as a tool to stratify the risk of dissection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1805.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: sagittal alignment; knee flexion; compensation parameter; spinopelvic sagittal balance; healthy subjects; compensation; Knee-spine syndrome
Online: 25 May 2023 (10:54:10 CEST)
Background: The aim of this study was to demonstrate involvement of whole-body compensatory alignment in different conditions of spinopelvic sagittal balance (compensated/decompensated). Methods: We enrolled 330 healthy subjects and divided them according to sagittal vertical axis (SVA): the compensated group, < 4 cm, (group C) and the decompensated group, ≥ 4 cm, (group D). The correlation between lack of ideal lumbar lordosis (iLL), which is calculated by using the Schwab formula, and the compensatory radiographic parameters in each group were analyzed. The threshold value of KF angle that indicates a spinopelvic sagittal imbalance (SVA ≥ 4) was determined by ROC curve analysis. Results: Correlation analysis of lack of iLL and each com-pensatory parameter showed a strong correlation for pelvic tilt (PT) (r = -.723), and a weak cor-relation for thoracic kyphosis (TK) (r = 275) in Group C. In Group D, the correlations were strong for PT (r = -.796), moderate for TK (r = .462), and KF (r = -.415). The optimal cutoff value for KF angle was determined to be 8.4 degrees (sensitivity 89%, specificity 46%). Conclusions: The pre-sent study showed differences between compensated/decompensated spinopelvic sagittal balance in the correlation strength between lack of iLL and whole-body compensatory parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1804.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: EVs; Macrophages 1; STAT3, AKT; NF-κB; metastasis; colorectal cancer.
Online: 25 May 2023 (10:48:17 CEST)
Despite the numerous advances in target therapy for the treatment of colorectal cancer, aggressive colorectal cancer remains an incurable disease whose negative modulation of the immune system in the tumor microenvironment is still critical for improving the patient's prognosis. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have received attention for their use as cell-membrane-camouflaged nanoparticles and drug delivery systems in nanomedicine derived by nearly all cell types for intercellular communication and regulation in the tumor microenvironment (TME). In this study, M1 Macrophage EVs (M1EVs) were used as nanocarriers of oxaliplatin (M1EV1) associated with retinoic acid (M1EV2) and Libidibia ferrea (M1EV3), or combined together with retinoic acid and Libidibia ferrea (M1EV4) to evaluate their antiproliferative and immunomodulatory potential on CT-26 and MC-38 colorectal cancer cell lines, as well as their capacity to prevent metastases in mouse models of colorectal cancer such as allographic and peritoneal. Tumors were evaluated by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The cell death profile and epithelial-mesenchymal transition process (EMT) were analyzed in vitro in colorectal cancer cell lines. Polarization of murine macrophages (RAW264.7 cells) was also carried out. M1EV2 and M1EV3 used alone or especially combined (M1EV4) downregulated the tumor progression by TME immunomodulation, leading to a decrease in primary tumor size and metastases in peritoneum, liver and lungs. STAT3, NF-kB and AKT were the major genes downregulated by systems of M1EVs. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) switched M2 phenotype (CD163) towards M1 (CD68) reducing levels of IL-10, TGF-β and CCL22. Furthermore, malignant cells showed overexpression of FADD, APAF-1, caspase-3, and E-cadherin, and decreased expression of MDR-1, survivin, vimentin, CXCR4, and PD-L1 after treatment with systems of M1EVs. The results obtained in this study provided evidence that EVs from M1 antitumor macrophages can transport drugs and increase their immunomodulatory and antitumor activity by stimulating activation or blockage of pathways involved in cell proliferation, migration, cell survival, and drug resistance processes.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1794.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: oligonucleotide vaccines; SARS-CoV-2; phosphorothioate oligonucleotides; innate immunity; adaptive immunity
Online: 25 May 2023 (10:13:35 CEST)
The main problem in creating anti-coronavirus vaccines that target mainly proteins of the outer membrane of the virus remains the rapid variability of the RNA genome of the pathogen that encodes these proteins. In addition, the introduction of technologies that can provide affordable and fast production of flexible vaccine formulas that easily adapt to the emergence of new subtypes of SARS-CoV-2 is required. Universal oligonucleotide vaccine can take into account the dynamics of rapid changes in the virus genome, as well as be synthesized on automatic DNA synthesizers in large quantities in a short time. In this brief report, the effectiveness of four phosphorothioate constructs of the La-S-so type oligonucleotide vaccine will be evaluated for the first time on transgenic mice [B6.Cg-Tg (K18-ACE2)2]. In our primary trials, the oligonucleotide vaccine increased the survival rate of animals infected with SARS-CoV-2 and also reduced the destructive effects of the virus on the lung tissue of mice. The obtained results show the perspective of the development of vaccine constructs of the La-S-so type for the prevention of coronavirus infections, including those caused by SARS-СoV-2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1784.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; cerebrospinal fluid; inflammasome; microglia; mild cognitive impairment; plasma; tau protein; TREM2
Online: 25 May 2023 (09:40:33 CEST)
People with specific TREM2 gene variants are more prone to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD). The TREM2 receptor regulates the number of myeloid cells, phagocytosis, and the inflammatory response via interacting with apolipoproteins and amyloid. Higher TREM2 expression has been found to protect against AD. When TREM2 activity increases, the activity of genes involved in the activation of microglia cells decreases. This can improve the efficiency of phagocytosis. When TREM2 is highly expressed and the inflammasome is activated, the results are not always congruent. Therefore, this study aimed to discover how sTREM2 levels in CSF and plasma samples relate to other indices of AD pathology. We examined 98 AD plasma samples, 35 plasma samples of subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 11 healthy controls (HC) plasma samples, as well as 155 AD CSF samples, 90 MCI CSF samples, and 50 HC CSF samples. CSF sTREM2 levels were higher in the AD group than in the MCI and HC groups, in contrast to plasma sTREM2. This shows that CSF sTREM2 levels could be used to distinguish between healthy and AD patients. CSF sTREM2 levels were significantly correlated with neurofibrillary changes, cognitive decline, and inflammasome activity in AD patients. While our findings are consistent with previous research, future studies will need to include more patients and employ standardized methodological approaches to add CSF sTREM2 to the list of biomarkers for AD.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1778.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Brugada Syndrome; channelopathy; arrhythmias
Online: 25 May 2023 (08:56:31 CEST)
Brugada Syndrome is a cardiac channelopathy closely related to lethal arrhythmias and sudden death in people without underlying structural pathology. The diagnosis is usually assumed with electrocardiographic patterns strictly limited to the right precordial leads, V1 or V2; but this is not so at all. In our article, we describe the clinical case of a patient with a novel and different electrocardiographic presentation: the typical diagnostic pattern was presented in a lower lead of the electrocardiogram, and next to it, another pattern was presented in a contiguous lead. In addition, we propose the possible association of a structural pathology (non-compaction cardiomyopathy) with Brugada Syndrome, since both share a possible common genetic origin in the SCN5A gene.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1772.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: learning process; laparoscopic gynecology; gynecological surgery; laparoscopy; ovarian cyst
Online: 25 May 2023 (08:45:33 CEST)
Background: Laparoscopy for benign ovarian pathology is the appropriate surgical approach and it has a lot of well-known advantages. Minimal invasive gynecological surgery increases the quality of life for the patient. The learning process of laparoscopy is difficult and re-quires many interventions to acquire manual skills. The objectives of the study were to assess the learning process of laparoscopy for adnexal pathology surgery performed by beginner laparoscopists. Materials and Methods: This study included three gynecological surgeons who were beginners in laparoscopy and who were named A, B and C. We collected information about patients, diagnosis, surgical technique and complications. Results: We have analyzed the data from 159 patients. The most frequent primary diagnosis was functional ovarian cyst, and the laparoscopic cystectomy was performed in 49.1% of intervention. The need to convert a laparoscopy into laparotomy was necessary in 1.3% of patients. There were no cases of reintervention, blood transfusion or ureteral lesions. The duration of the surgical intervention varied statistically significantly according to patient's BMI and to the surgeon. After 20 laparoscopic interventions, a significant improvement was found in the time needed to perform ovarian cystectomy (operator A and B) and salpingectomy (operator C). Conclusions: The process of learning laparoscopy is laborious and difficult. We found a significant decrease in operating time after a number of twenty laparoscopic interventions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1766.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: hypoxia-ischemia brain injury; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; neurological complication; neu-romonitoring; outcome.
Online: 25 May 2023 (08:26:02 CEST)
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), in conjunction with its life-saving benefits, carries a significant risk of acute brain injury (ABI). Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI) is one of the most common types of ABI in ECMO patients. Various risk factors such as history of hypertension, high day 1 lactate level, low pH, cannulation technique, large peri-cannulation PaCO2 drop (∆PaCO2), and early low pulse pressure, have been associated with the development of HIBI in ECMO patients. The pathogenic mechanisms of HIBI in ECMO are complex and multifactorial, attributing to the underlying pathology requiring initiation of ECMO and the risk of HIBI associated with ECMO itself. HIBI is likely to occur in the peri-cannulation or peri-decannulation time secondary to underlying refractory cardiopulmonary failure before or after ECMO. Current therapeutics target pathological mechanisms, cerebral hypoxia and is-chemia, by employing targeted temperature management in the case of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (eCPR), and optimizing cerebral O2 saturations and cerebral perfusion. This review describes the pathophysiology, neuromonitoring, and therapeutic techniques to improve neurological outcomes in ECMO patients so as to prevent and minimize the morbidity of HIBI. Further studies aimed at stand-ardizing the most relevant neuromonitoring techniques, optimizing cerebral perfusion, and minimizing the severity of HIBI once it occurs will improve long-term neurological outcomes in ECMO patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1761.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: checkpoint inhibitors; colitis; immune-related adverse events; enterocolitis; diarrhea
Online: 25 May 2023 (08:03:37 CEST)
The advent of immunotherapy and specifically of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) for the treatment of solid tumors has deeply transformed therapeutic algorithms in medical oncology. Approximately one third of patients treated with ICIs may develop immune-related adverse events, being the gastrointestinal tract often affected with different grades of mucosal inflammation. Checkpoint inhibitors colitis (CIC) presents with watery or bloody diarrhoea and in case of severe activity requires ICIs discontinuation. The pathogenesis of CIC is multifactorial and still partially unknow: anti-tumor activity that collaterally effects the colonic tissue and the upregulation of specific systemic inflammatory pathways (i.e., CD8+ cytotoxic and CD4+ T lymphocytes) are mainly involved. Many open issues remain on treatment timing and options, and biological treatment, above all with anti-TNF alpha, can be offered to these patients aiming to rapidly resume the oncological therapies. This review aims to summarize the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying CIC and to discuss evidenced-based management including the role of biological therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1753.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Chronic pain; Medical Devices; Neuromodulation; Clinical trials; Bayesian
Online: 25 May 2023 (07:27:31 CEST)
Chronic non-cancer pain is a highly debilitating condition affecting approximately 20% of the global population. Chronic pain may lead to significant physical disability, emotional distress, social isolation and financial burden. Whilst. pharmacological therapies remain the cornerstone of pain management in non-cancerous chronic pain, factors including the current opioid epidemic have led to non-pharmacological techniques becoming a more attractive proposition. We explored the prevalence of medical device use and their treatment efficacy in non-cancer pain management. A systematic methodology was developed, peer reviewed and published in PROSPERO (CRD42021235384). Key words of medical device, pain management devices, chronic pain, lower back pain, back pain, leg pain and chronic pelvic pain using Science direct, PubMed, Web of Science, PROSPERO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PorQuest and ClinicalTrials.gov. All clinical trials, epidemiology and mixed methods studies that reported the use of medical devices for non-cancer chronic pain management published between the 1st of January 1990 and the 30th of April 2022 were included. 13 studies were included in systematic review, of these 6 were used in the meta-analysis with 173 participants. Our meta-analysis for pain reduction in each study showed that transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation combined with instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization treatment and pulsed electromagnetic therapy produced significant treatment on chronic lower back pain patients. Pooled evidence revealed the use of medical device related interventions resulted in 0.7 degree of pain reduction under a 0-10 scale. Significant improvement in disability scores, with a 7.44 degree reduction in disability level compared to a placebo using a 50 score range was also seen. The application of medical devices in patients with chronic pain has gained popularity due to increasingly cost effective techniques, minimally invasiveness and greater awareness of risks associated with pharmacological management. Our analysis has shown that the optimal use of medical devices in a sustainable manner requires further extensive research, needing larger cohort studies with greater gender parity, in a more diverse range of geographical locations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1738.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Dysbacteriosis; pathobionts; nutrients; metabolites
Online: 25 May 2023 (05:15:50 CEST)
Microbiota and the metabolites they produce within the large intestine interact with the host epithelia under the influence of a range of host-derived metabolic, immune, and homeostatic factors. This complex host-microbe interaction affects intestinal tumorigenesis but established microbial or metabolite profiles predicting colorectal cancer (CRC) risk are missing. Here we describe alterations in fecal bacteria and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in healthy (Non-Adenoma, NA) versus CRC prone (High-Risk Adenoma, HRA) individuals. Analyzing samples from 117 participants undergoing routine colonoscopy we highlight the higher abundance of Proteobacteria and Parabacteroides distasonis, and the lower abundance of Lachnospiraceae species, Roseburia faecis, Blautia luti, Fusicatenibacter saccharovorans, Eubacterium rectale and Phascolarctobacterium faecium, in the fecal samples of HRA individuals. Volatolomic analysis reveals higher concentration in the feces of HRA individuals of 5 compounds, isobutyric acid, methyl butyrate, methyl propionate, 2-hexanone and 2-pentanone. Interestingly, there is a level of complexity revealed by assessing fecal bacteria-VOC associations and another one by assessing differences in these associations between NA and HRA individuals. For example, isobutyric acid corelates positively with the Lachnospiraceae incertae sedis and Bacteroides genera in NA individuals, and negatively in HRA individuals. In contrast, Coprococcus and Colinsella genera correlate negatively with isobutyric acid in NA individuals, and positively in HRA individuals. The described differences in the fecal microbiota and VOC profiles and their associations in NA versus HRA individuals indicate the significance of multiple levels of combinatorial analysis towards the identification of testable CRC risk biomarkers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1737.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: liver surgery; colorectal cancer; laparoscopy; survival
Online: 25 May 2023 (05:14:42 CEST)
Abstract Introduction Minimally invasive approaches to oncological liver resection is common in many hepatobiliary centres. This study aims to compare the key oncological and survival outcomes of patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) undergoing laparoscopic or open resections using propensity score matching (PSM). Methods A single-centre retrospective study was performed using a prospective database of patients undergoing liver resection for CRLM between January 2016 and December 2019. Different co-variates were selected for matching using PSM. Pre-matching and post-matching analyses were compared. Surgical and survival outcomes were analysed. Results In total, 303 patients who met the inclusion criteria were identified: 214 underwent open liver resection (OLR) and 91 laparoscopic liver resection (LLR). LLR had a significantly reduced length of intensive treatment unit (ITU) and overall in-patient stay but longer pringle and operative times. In the unmatched cohort, the median overall and disease-free survival time was significantly longer in patients undergoing laparoscopic compared with open surgery. A PSM model demonstrated significantly reduced blood loss and length of hospital stay, with a significantly greater Pringle and operative time in the LLR group. Differences seen in overall and disease-free survival were lost with propensity score matching, possibly due to lack of bi-lobar disease within the minimally invasive group. Conclusion In selected patients with CRLM, LLR presents similar survival and oncological outcomes with the advantages of the short-term results associated with the laparoscopic approach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1725.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Molecular biology; infectious diseases; clinical diagnostic; early detection; prognosis
Online: 25 May 2023 (03:34:18 CEST)
Antibiotic therapy is a cornerstone of modern medicine, yet the development of antibiotic re-sistance threatens to render these therapies ineffective. The gut microbiota, a complex ecosystem of microorganisms residing in the gastrointestinal tract, plays a critical role in modulating anti-biotic efficacy and resistance. This review delves into the intricate relationship between gut mi-crobiota, antibiotic therapy, and resistance, and discusses the potential applications of gut mi-crobiota research in guiding personalized antibiotic therapy and resistance mitigation strategies. Recent advancements in metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metabolomics have demon-strated the potential for tailored antibiotic regimens that minimize collateral damage to com-mensal bacteria and reduce the risk of resistance. Adjuvant therapies such as probiotics, prebi-otics, and synbiotics have shown promise in restoring gut microbial balance and mitigating the adverse effects of antibiotic therapy. We address the challenges associated with this emerging field including the need for standardized methodologies, ethical considerations, and interdisci-plinary collaboration. With continued interdisciplinary collaboration and the implementation of standardized methodologies, gut microbiota research can contribute to the global fight against antibiotic resistance and improve patient outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1721.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: axial force; chemotherapy; malignant colorectal obstruction; palliation; self-expandable metal stent
Online: 25 May 2023 (03:11:04 CEST)
Evidence of the efficacy and safety of colorectal stent placement for palliation remains insufficient. This single-arm, prospective, multicenter study with WallFlex enteral colonic stent included 200 consecutive patients with malignant large bowl obstruction in the palliation cohort. The technical and clinical success, as well as stent patency and complications as short-term (≤ 7 days) and long-term (> 7days) outcomes, of high axial force self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) placement was evaluated. The technical and clinical success rates were 98.5% and 94.5%, respectively. Non recurrent colorectal obstruction at 1 year was 63.9%, and 71.2% of the patients remained free of recurrent colorectal obstruction until death or the last follow-up. Fifty-six patients (28.0 %) received chemotherapy and five patients were administered bevacizumab after stent placement. The overall complication rate was 47%, including four (2.0%) early-onset and ten (5.0%) late-onset perforations, mostly due to stent-edge injury. Only the use of a long SEMS was a risk factor for perforation. In conclusion, endoscopic colorectal stenting using high axial force SEMS is an effective and safe procedure for palliation in patients with malignant colorectal obstruction. However, care should be taken to avoid perforation at the stent edge when using a long SEMS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0930.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Multidisciplinary pain clinic; Diabetic foot; Amputation; Foot ulcer; Diabetes Mellitus; Economic evaluation; Cost Benefit Analysis
Online: 25 May 2023 (02:56:11 CEST)
Aims: Multidisciplinary diabetic foot clinics have been shown to be an effective therapeutic model for reducing major amputations and mortality rates. The aim of this article is to assess the economic impact of the implementation of a multidisciplinary diabetic foot clinic in a hospital in Barcelona, Spain. Methods: Observational cost-benefit study of all subjects with diabetes admitted with the diagnosis of a major amputation due to diabetic foot from 2010 to 2020. Direct and indirect costs were compared before and after the introduction of the multidisciplinary diabetic foot clinic. Results: The individual cost per patient with diabetic foot was €14,768 before the implementation of the unit. After the implementation of the clinic, the expected cost was reduced to €5,985 due to a 40% reduction in the probability of hospitalization. Overall, the implementation of the clinic resulted in cost savings per patient valued at €8,783, of which, €7,165 are related to hospital benefits. Conclusion: The results of this analysis contributes to the evidence suggesting that multidisciplinary diabetic foot clinics are cost-effective, by demonstrating that they have a positive impact on patient health while also reducing the utilization of healthcare resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1715.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: bronchopulmonary dysplasia; extremely preterm infants; human milk; breastfeeding
Online: 25 May 2023 (02:28:28 CEST)
Introduction The increase in survival of extremely preterm infants has led to increased rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Therefore, a potential role of human milk feeding in protecting against this condition has been suggested. Material and methods Retrospective descriptive study based on data about morbidity in the population of infants born from 22+0 to 26+6 weeks of gestation, included in the Spanish network SEN1500 during the period 2004-2019 and who were alive at discharge. The primary outcome was moderate-severe BPD. In addition, associated conditions were studied, including breastfeeding at discharge. The temporal trends of BPD and breastfeeding rates at discharge were also studied. Results In the study population of 4341 infants who survived to discharge, the rate of moderate-severe BPD was 43,7% and increased over the period to a rate >50% in the last three years. The factors significantly associated with a higher risk of moderate-severe BPD were male sex, high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, inhaled nitric oxide, patent ductus arteriosus, and late-onset sepsis. Exclusive human milk feeding at discharge and any amount of human milk at discharge were associated with a lower incidence of moderate-severe BPD (OR 0.752, 95% CI 0.629-0.901, and OR 0.714, 95% CI 0.602-0.847, respectively). The rates of human milk at discharge in infants with moderate-severe BPD increased over the period. In the last years, more than one-third of extremely preterm infants were discharged on exclusive human milk feeds, and about two-thirds of them on any amount of human milk feeding. Conclusions The results of the present study strongly support the role of any amount of human milk in preventing BDP in extremely preterm infants.
Wed, 24 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1713.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: preeclampsia; exosomes; nicotine; proteomics; bioinformatics
Online: 24 May 2023 (13:29:39 CEST)
Preeclampsia (PE) is a serious complication of pregnancy with a pathogenesis that is not fully understood, though it involves the impaired invasion of extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) into the decidual layer during implantation. Recently, others have found that diverse cell types, including EVTs, produce exosomes filled with molecular cargo (mainly proteins and RNAs) that can be transported to other cells and organs both locally and long-range. The cargo delivered by exosomes can signal to and modify the receiving cells and their environment, and EVT-derived exosomes may influence the pathogenesis of PE. Because the risk of PE is actually decreased by cigarette smoking, we considered the possibility that nicotine, a critical component of tobacco smoke, might protect against PE by modifying the content of exosomes from EVTs. In this study, we applied nicotine stimulation to cultured EVTs and subjected their secreted exosomes to proteomic analysis. We identified many proteins whose abundance in exosomes was modified by nicotine treatment of the donor EVTs, and we used bioinformatic annotation and network analysis to select five key hub proteins with potential roles in the pathogenesis or prevention of PE.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1710.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: prostate cancer; immunotherapy; dendritic cell-based vaccines; castration-resistant prostate cancer; tumor microenvironment; biomarkers
Online: 24 May 2023 (10:47:44 CEST)
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second most common cause of death due to cancer. About 30% of patients with PCa who have been castrated develop a castration-resistant form of the disease (CRPC), which is incurable. In the last decade, new treatments that control the disease have emerged, slowing progression and spread, and prolonging survival while maintaining the quality of life. These include immunotherapies; however, we do not yet know the optimal combination and sequence of these therapies with the standard ones. All therapies are not always suitable for every patient due to co-morbidities or adverse effects of therapies or both, so there is an urgent need for further work on new therapeutic options. Advances in cancer immunotherapy with an immune checkpoint inhibition mechanism (e.g., ipilimumab, an anti-CTLA-4 inhibitor) have not shown a survival benefit in patients with CRPC. Other immunological approaches have also not given clear results, which has indirectly prevented breakthrough for this type of therapeutic strategy into clinical use. Currently, the only approved form of immunotherapy for patients with CRPC is a cell-based medicine, but it is only available to patients in some parts of the world. Based on the experience gained from recently completed clinical research on immunotherapy with dendritic cell-based immunohybridomas, the aHyC dendritic cell vaccine, for patients with CRPC, we highlight the current status, and possible alternatives that should be considered in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1699.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Vitamin D; mite allergy; dermatophagoides; monomeric allergoid; immunotherapy; rhinitis; anti-histamine; Immunoglobulin; IgE; asthma; corticosteroid; children
Online: 24 May 2023 (05:14:28 CEST)
The post-hoc analysis presented here aimed to address the influence of endogenous vitamin D in the immunological mechanism underlying effective mite allergoid-immunotherapy (AIT). Previously, we have shown that one subpopulation of T regulatory cells results in phenotypically identifiable as functionally potentiated and memory cells in allergic children after 12 months of this immunoactive treatment. Indeed, AIT is the only known treatment able to reshape the detrimental immune response against the allergen into a not noxious one. Besides, VD is widely considered an immunoregulatory molecule endogenously produced and exogenously provided with foods and supplements that might interact with AIT mechanism and affect its outcome. Therefore, a post-hoc analysis of the clinical and immunological data of three different cohorts of allergic patients was performed. One cohort (N=70) was on standard symptoms-controlling pharmacological treatment while the other two (N=60 and N=35, respectively) were treated with AIT for 12 months. Among the first were observed a lower mean endogenous VD level (<22 ng/ml) along with worse symptoms and higher use of medications. Remarkably, the comparison between two sub-cohorts of patients with serum VD above (N=32) or below (N=28) a cut-off value set at mean value (27 ng/ml) revealed that optimal improvement of all clinical and immune parameters was achieved (as expected by effective AIT), irrespective of the VD level. Notably, the third analysis, carried out on one cohort of AIT patients also taking concomitantly VD3 as food supplement (N=19), was distinguished by uppermost overall treatment outcome (amelioration of symptoms, lowest medications requirement, and reduction of total and allergen-specific IgE) as well as the increase of allergen-specific tolerogenic memory T regulatory cells. These findings suggest that endogenous VD level affects allergy severity and allergen immunotherapy effectiveness. Also, VD3 might be investigated as an add-on supplement to get the best out of immunotherapy in VD deficient/insufficient allergic patients. The immunogenic but low-allergenic mite allergoid used as bioactive agent might have contributed to minimize allergic and highlight immunological effects described here.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1694.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Womens Health; Data Science; Data Methods; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 24 May 2023 (04:48:58 CEST)
Abstract ObjectivesThe aim of this perspective is to report the use of synthetic data as a viable method in women’s health given the current challenges linked to obtaining life-course data within a short period of time and accessing electronic healthcare data. Methods We used a 3-point perspective method to report an overview of data science, common applications, and ethical implications. Results There are several ethical challenges linked to using real-world data, consequently, generating synthetic data provides an alternative method to conduct comprehensive research when used effectively. The use of clinical characteristics to develop synthetic data is a useful method to consider. Aligning this data as closely as possible to the clinical phenotype would enable researchers to provide data that is very similar to that of the real-world. Discussion Population diversity and disease characterisation is important to optimally use data science. There are several artificial intelligence techniques that can be used to develop synthetic data. ConclusionSynthetic data demonstrates promise and versatility when used efficiently aligned to clinical problems. Therefore, exploring this option as a viable method in women’s health, in particular for epidemiology may be useful.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1684.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Arm elevation; Grocery Shelving Test; Functional assessment; Reference values; Upper limb activities
Online: 24 May 2023 (04:13:07 CEST)
Background: Arm elevation plays an important role in simple and complex daily tasks. Muscles that stabilize the shoulder girdle also function as respiratory accessory muscles. Dual demand on these muscles, particularly in patients with chronic respiratory conditions, leads to dyspnea and fatigue of the upper limb, making simple daily activities difficult. Various tests, including Grocery Shelving Task (GST), are designed to assess functional performance during upper limb activities. The aim of the study is to derive reference values for GST among the population of the United Arab Emirates Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 220 healthy individuals of both genders between the ages of 20 and 69. Duration required to complete GST was recorded. The correlation between duration and age, height, body mass and body mass index (BMI) were also assessed. Results: Reference values for duration (in seconds) in females for age groups 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59 and 60-69 are 43.5±5.5, 43.1±8.08, 48.1±6.7, 44.9±7.1, 46.7±6.5 respectively. Values for males of age groups 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59 and 60-69 are 45.7±6.7, 44.8±8.9, 42.5±10.01, 53.4±4.2, and 53.9±5.4 respectively. Conclusion: Reference values for GST duration were obtained. Weak correlations were found between duration and age, height, body mass, BMI of the participants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1680.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Chronic kidney disease; Pentraxin-3; Renal Replacement Therapies; Inflammaging.; innate immunity
Online: 24 May 2023 (03:59:18 CEST)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is actually considered a public health priority according to the increasing number of patients affected by this condition: this casuistry is not only related to specific glomerular, tubular or autoimmune diseases or a consequence of acute kidney injury (AKI) episodes leading to organ failure, but it is tied to the progression of life expectancy and the impact of comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. CKD and its comorbidities promote low grade inflammatory status with an impact on patients’ clinical conditions, reducing their possibility for kidney transplantation or graft survival and their survival when receiving renal replacement therapies such as hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). CKD is often referred to as an ageing accelerator: innate immune system dysregulation, in the uraemic proinflammatory milieu, is involved in this accelerated senescence phenomena and pentraxins, particularly Pentraxin-3 (PTX-3), are of particular interest in the development of kidney disease. A complete understanding of the mechanism of CKD progression, innate immune system involvement and a proper definition of PTX-3 role in kidney disease, could redefine the approach for diagnosis and a more centered patients’ management to slow down CKD progression over time and reduce its clinical and social impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1679.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Ferroptosis; NCX4040; Erastin; Ferrostatin-1; RSL3; Colon Cancer
Online: 24 May 2023 (03:52:22 CEST)
Our recent studies showed that the treatment of human ovarian tumor cells with NCX4040 resulted in significant depletions of cellular glutathione, formation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and cell death. NCX4040 is also cytotoxic to several human colorectal cancer cells (CRC) in vitro and in vivo. Here, we have examined ferroptosis-dependent mechanism(s) of cytotoxicity of NCX4040 in HT-29 and K-RAS mutant HCT116 colon cell lines. Ferroptosis is characterized by accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the cell, leading to an iron-dependent oxidative stress-mediated cell death. However, its relevance in the mechanism of NCX4040 cytotoxicity in CRC is not known. We found that NCX4040 generated ROS in CRC cells without any depletion of cellular GSH. Combinations of NCX4040 with erastin (ER) or RSL3 (RAS-selective lethal 3), known inducers of ferroptosis, enhanced CRC death. In contrast, ferrostatin-1, an inhibitor of ferroptosis, significantly inhibited NCX404-induced cell death. Treatment of CRC cells with NCX4040 resulted in induction of lipid peroxidation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. NCX4040 treatment induced several genes related to ferroptosis (e.g., CHAC1, GPX4 and NOX4) in both cell lines. Metabolomic studies also indicated significant increases in both lipid and energy metabolism following the drug treatment in HT-29 and HCT116 cells. These observations strongly suggest that NCX4040 causes ferroptosis-mediated cell death of CRC cells. Furthermore, combinations of NCX4040 and ER or RSL3 may contribute significantly for the treatment of CRC, including those that are difficult to treat due to the presence of Ras mutation in the clinic. NCX4040 induced ferroptosis may also be a dynamic form of cell death for the treatment of other cancers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1675.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: in situ gel; intranasal delivery, gellan gum; mucoadhesion; 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid; respiratory syncytial virus; common cold; antiviral activity
Online: 24 May 2023 (03:08:42 CEST)
The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) poses a serious risk to global public health and is a significant cause of severe lower respiratory infections. There are currently only a few therapies available to treat RSV infections, as well as no RSV vaccinations. Therefore, there is an urgent demand for clinically feasible, safe, and affordable RSV prevention and treatment alternatives. In this study, an ion-activated in situ gel comprising broad-spectrum antiviral 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) for antiviral action on RSV was developed. In this content, mechanical properties, sprayability, drug content, pH, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength, in vitro drug release pattern, and stability were all examined. Rheological properties were also tested by utilizing in vitro gelation capacity and rheological synergism tests. Finally, the optimized in situ gel's cytotoxic and antiviral activities on RSV cultured in human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (HEP-2) cell line were evaluated. In conclusion, the optimized in situ gel prepared with a combination of 0.5%w/w gellan gum and 0.5%w/w sodium carboxymethylcellulose demonstrated good gelation capacity and sprayability (weight deviation between T0 and T14: 0.34%), desired rheological synergism (mucoadhesive force (Fb): 9.53), mechanical characteristics (adhesiveness: 0.300 mJ ± 0.05), ex vivo bioadhesion force (19.67 g ± 1.90), drug content uniformity (RSD%: 0.494), and sustained drug release over period of 168 h (101.57% ± 0.53). The antiviral activity test results showed that the optimized in situ gel had strong anti-HRSV activity (EC50 simultaneous = 0.05 µg/ml, SI = 306; EC50 preinfection = 0.154 µg/ml, SI= 100) which was significantly higher than that of ribavirin (EC50 =4.189 µg/ml; SI= 28) used as a positive control against hRSV. In conclusion, this research has demonstrated the formulation of an effective antiviral nasal spray that has the ability to possess both prophylactic and virucidal activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1674.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Complementary And Alternative Medicine Keywords: antioxidants; anti-inflammatory activity; diabetes mellitus; Eryngium carlinae; phenolic compounds; rosmarinic acid
Online: 24 May 2023 (03:06:23 CEST)
Secondary metabolites such as flavonoids are considered to be promising in the treatment of NAFLD, which is one of the complications of diabetes due to oxidative stress and inflammation. Some plants, such as Eryngium carlinae, have been investigated with regard to their medicinal properties in in vitro and in vivo assays, showing favorable results for the treatment of various diseases such as diabetes and obesity. The present study examined the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of the phenolic compounds present in an ethyl acetate extract of the inflorescences of Eryngium carlinae on liver homogenates and mitochondria from STZ-induced diabetic rats. Phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by UHPLC-MS. In vitro assays were carried out to discover the antioxidant potential of the extract. Male Wistar rats were administered with a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (45 mg/kg) and were given the ethyl acetate extract at a level of 30 mg/kg for 60 days. Phytochemical assays showed that the major constituents of the extract were flavonoids; in addition, the in vitro antioxidant activity was dose-dependent with IC50 = 57.97 mg/mL and IC50 = 30.90 mg/mL in the DPPH and FRAP assays, respectively. Moreover, the oral administration of the ethyl acetate extract improved the effects of NAFLD, decreasing serum and liver TG levels and oxidative stress markers and increasing the activity of the antioxidant enzymes. Likewise, it attenuated liver damage by decreasing the expression of NF-κB and iNOS, which lead to inflammation and liver damage. These results suggest that the phenolic compounds of the ethyl acetate extract of E. carlinae have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, and hepatoprotective activity.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1667.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; lymphedema management; manual lymph drainage; liphedema rehabilitation after mastectomy
Online: 24 May 2023 (02:11:14 CEST)
(1) Background: Breast cancer-associated lymphedema (BCRL) is a major complication of breast cancer treatment, affects the quality of life of breast cancer survivors who develop it. Manual lymphatic drainage has a beneficial result in combating lymphedema in patients who have undergone breast cancer surgery. The hypothesis consists in complete decongestive therapy reduces the lymphedema at the level of the upper limb on the side of mastectomy. (2) Methods: Twenty-five patients with radical mastectomy and upper limb lymphedema on the mastectomy side were included in this study. Upper limb circumferences were measured with a tape measure at the following levels: metacarpophalangeal joint; distal radioulnar joint; 10 cm distal to lateral epicondyle; 5 cm proximal to elbow joint; 10 cm proximal to lateral epicondyle. (3) Results: Patients received twice weekly manual lymphatic drainage, multi-layer compression bandaging and upper limb muscle stimulation exercises on the mastectomy side twice weekly. The circumference assessed at the level of the metacarpophalangeal joints and distal radio-carpal joint decreased at the final evaluation. Forearm perimetery - 5 and 10 cm distal to the lateral epicondyle the circumference decreased at the final assessment. (4) Conclusions: Patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema should receive comprehensive decongestive therapy in the early stage of lymphedema to achieve rapid clinical results and improved quality of life
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1666.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: minimal access; coronary artery; revascularisation; MIDCAB; TECAB; HCR
Online: 24 May 2023 (02:04:38 CEST)
Minimal access cardiac surgery appears to be the future. It is increasingly desired by cardiologists and demanded by patients who perceive superiority. Minimal access coronary artery revascularisation has been increasingly adopted throughout the world. Here we review the history of minimal access coronary revascularization and see that it is almost as old as the history of cardiac surgery. Modern minimal access coronary revascularization takes a variety of forms – namely minimal access direct coronary artery bypass grafting (MIDCAB), hybrid coronary revascularisation (HCR) and totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (TECAB). It is noteworthy that there is significant variation in nomenclature and approaches for minimal access coronary surgery and this truly presents a challenge to comparing the different methods. However, these approaches are increasing in frequency and proponents demonstrate clear advantages for their patients. The challenge that remains, as for all areas of surgery, is demonstrating superiority of these techniques over tried and tested open techniques which is very difficult. There is a paucity of randomized controlled trials to help answer this question, and the future of minimal access coronary revascularisation to some extent is dependent on such trials. Thankfully some are underway and the results eagerly anticipated.
Tue, 23 May 2023
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1664.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: Soft tissue; necrotizing infection; water borne; vibrio; fungal; aeromonas; debridement; negative pressure wound care
Online: 23 May 2023 (14:43:28 CEST)
Background: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) are common presentations to the emergency department. However, this is less common after contact with contaminated water, both salt or fresh. This review presents the diagnosis and the management of water-related soft tissue sepsis in this vulnerable and difficult to treat subgroup of necrotizing soft tissue sepsis. Methods: A summative literature overview regarding bacterial and fungal SSTI after contact with contaminated water, with practical diagnostic and management aspects addressed. Results: The literature indicates that these remain difficult to treat wounds and organisms. An approach using appropriate diagnostic tools with both medical and surgical management strategies is provided. Conclusion: SSTI due to water contamination of wounds involve unusual organisms with unusual resistance patterns and require a nuanced and directed diagnostic approach with adaptation of the normal antibiotic or antifungal selection to achieve cure, along with aggressive debridement and wound care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1657.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: obesity; gender; metabolism; cancer; gastrointestinal
Online: 23 May 2023 (12:43:10 CEST)
Background: The prevalence of obesity, defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2, has reached epidemic levels. Obesity is associated with an increased risk of various cancers, including gastrointestinal ones. Recent evidence has suggested that obesity disproportionately impacts males and females with cancer, resulting in varied transcriptional and metabolic dysregulation. Methods: This study aimed to elucidate the differences in the metabolic milieu of adenocarcinomas of the gastrointestinal (GI) track both related and unrelated to sex in obesity. To demonstrate these obesity and sex-related effects, we utilized three primary data sources: serum metabolomics from obese and non-obese patients assessed via the Biocrates MxP Quant 500 mass spectrometry-based kit, the ORIEN tumor RNA-sequencing data for all adenocarcinoma cases to assess the impacts of obesity, and publicly available TCGA transcriptional analysis to assess GI cancers and sex-related differences in GI cancers specifically. We applied and integrated our unique transcriptional metabolic pipeline in combination with our metabolomics data to reveal how obesity and sex can dictate differential metabolism in patients. Results: Differentially expressed genes (DEG) analysis of ORIEN obese adenocarcinoma as compared to normal-weight adenocarcinoma patients resulted in large-scale transcriptional reprogramming (4029 DEGs, adj. p < 0.05 and |logFC|>0.58). Gene Set Enrichment and metabolic pipeline analysis showed genes enriched for pathways relating to immunity (inflammation, and CD40 signaling, among others) and metabolism. Specifically, we found alterations to steroid metabolism and tryptophan/kynurenine metabolism in obese patients, both of which are highly associated with disease severity and immune cell dysfunction. These findings were further confirmed using the TCGA colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (ESCA) data, which showed similar patterns of increased tryptophan catabolism for kynurenine production in obese patients. These patients further showed disparate alterations between males and females when comparing obese to non-obese patient populations. Alterations to immune and metabolic pathways were validated in 6 patients (2 obese and 4 normal weight) via CD8+/CD4+ peripheral blood mononuclear cell RNA-sequencing and paired serum metabolomics, which showed differential kynurenine and lipid metabolism, which corresponded with altered T-cell transcriptome in obese populations. Conclusions: Overall, obesity is associated with differential transcriptional and metabolic program in various disease sites. Further, these alterations, like kynurenine and tryptophan metabolism, which impact both metabolism and immune phenotype, vary with sex and obesity together. This study warrants further in-depth investigation into obesity and sex-related alterations in cancers that may better define biomarkers of response to immunotherapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1646.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: graphene-based nanomaterials; graphene-based drug delivery systems; lysosomes; cancer; endosomal/lysosomal escape; lysosomal cell death
Online: 23 May 2023 (10:52:24 CEST)
Graphene-based nanomaterials (GNMs), including graphene, graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, and graphene quantum dots, may have direct anticancer activity or be used as nanocarri-ers for antitumor drugs. GNMs usually enter tumor cells by endocytosis and can accumulate in lysosomes. This accumulation prevents drugs bound to GNMs from reaching their targets, sup-pressing their anticancer effects. A number of chemical modifications are made to GNMs to facili-tate the separation of anticancer drugs from GNMs at low lysosomal pH and to enable lysosomal escape of drugs. Lysosomal escape may be associated with oxidative stress, permeabilization of the unstable membrane of cancer cell lysosomes, release of lysosomal enzymes into the cytoplasm, and cell death. GNMs can prevent or stimulate tumor cell death by inducing protective autopha-gy or suppressing autolysosomal degradation, respectively. Furthermore, because GNMs prevent bound fluorescent agents from emitting light, their separation in lysosomes may enable tumor cell identification and therapy monitoring. In this review, we explain how the characteristics of the lysosomal microenvironment and the unique features of tumor cell lysosomes can be exploited for GNM-based cancer therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1641.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii; biofilm; extensively drug resistance; biofilm associated genes
Online: 23 May 2023 (10:33:26 CEST)
Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) is a bacterium that causes infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Treatment is challenging due to biofilm formation by AB strains, which hinders antibiotic effec-tiveness and promotes drug resistance. The aim of our study was to analyze the biofilm-producing capacity of AB isolates from various forms of infections in relation to biofilm-related genes and their drug resistance. We tested one hundred isolates for biofilm formation using the crystal violet microplate method. Drug re-sistance analyses were performed based on EUCAST and CLSI guidelines, and biofilm genes were detected using PCR. All tested strains were found to form biofilms, with 50% being ICU strains and 72% classified as strong biofilm-producers. Among these, 87% were extensively drug-resistant (XDR) and 2% were extra extensively drug-resistant (E-XDR). The most common gene set was bap, bfmS, csuE, and ompA, found in 57% of all isolates. Our research has shown that, regardless of the form of infection, biofilm-forming strains can be expected among AB isolates. The emergence of E-XDR and XDR strains among non-ICU infections highlights the necessity for the rational use of antibiotics to stop or limit the further acquisition of drug re-sistance by A. baumannii.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1639.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: endothelial barrier; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; hydrogen sulfide; cytokine; TNF-α
Online: 23 May 2023 (10:31:05 CEST)
Recent studies have confirmed that lung microvascular endothelial injury plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. Our group and others have demonstrated the beneficial effects of H2S in several pathological processes and provided a rationale for considering the therapeutic implications of H2S in COVID-19 therapy. Here, we evaluated the effect of the slow-releasing H2S donor, GYY4137, on the barrier function of a lung endothelial cell monolayer in vitro, after challenging the cells with plasma samples from COVID-19 patients or inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus. We also assessed how the cytokine/chemokine profile of patients’ plasma, endothelial barrier permeability, and disease severity correlated with each other. Alterations of barrier permeability after treatments with patient plasma, inactivated virus, and GYY4137 were monitored and assessed by electrical impedance measurements in real-time. We present evidence that GYY4137 treatment reduced endothelial barrier permeability after plasma challenge and completely reversed the endothelial barrier disruption caused by inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus. We also showed that disease severity correlated with the cytokine/chemokine profile of the plasma but not with barrier permeability changes in our assay. Overall, these data demonstrate that treatment with H2S-releasing compounds has the potential to ameliorate SARS-CoV-2–associated lung endothelial barrier disruption.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1637.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: computational; drug repurposing; drug repositioning; cancer; combination therapy; network biology; machine learning; deep learning; precision oncology
Online: 23 May 2023 (10:19:47 CEST)
As cancer remains resistant to several modes of treatment, novel therapeutics are still under active investigation to overcome treatment inefficacy in cancer. Given the high attrition rate of de novo drug discovery, drug screening, and drug repurposing have offered time- and cost-effective alternative strategies for the identification of potentially effective therapeutics. In contrast to large-scale drug screens, computational approaches for drug repurposing leverage the increasing amounts of biomedical data to predict candidate therapeutic agents prior to testing in biological models. Current studies in drug repurposing for cancer therapy prediction have increasingly focused on the prediction of combination therapies, as combination therapies have numerous advantages over monotherapies. These include increased effect from synergistic interactions, reduced toxicity from lowered drug doses, and a reduced risk of resistance due to multiple non-overlapping mechanisms of action. This review provides a summary of several classes of computational methods used for drug combination therapy prediction in cancer research, including networks, regression-based machine learning, classifier machine learning models, and deep learning approaches, with the goal of presenting current progress in the field, particularly to non-computational cancer biologists. We conclude by discussing the need for further advancements in technologies that incorporate disease mechanisms, drug characteristics, multi-omics data, and clinical considerations to generate effective patient-specific drug combinations, as holistic data integration will inevitably result in optimal targeted therapeutics for cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1633.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: ulcerative colitis; Crohn’s disease; scoring system; histological mucosal healing
Online: 23 May 2023 (09:51:37 CEST)
Mucosal healing (MH) is the main treatment target in ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, and it is defined by a combination of complete endoscopic and histologic remission. Indeed, the complete resolution of mucosal inflammation should be confirmed at histology. Neutrophil infiltration represents the unique histological marker in discriminating the active vs quiescent phase of disease, also including crypt injuries (cryptitis and crypt abscesses), erosions and ulcerations. Basal plasmacytosis do not qualify by itself the remission in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), but it represents a diagnostic clue, mostly at onset. Several histological scoring systems have been developed to evaluate therapeutic efficacy, even though they often resulted tricky and subjective. Moreover, these scores listed a heterogeneous group of histological features as parameters. The recently proposed simplified histological score on MH was based on neutrophils and their distribution in the gut mucosa was also considered, aiming to provide a simple, time-sparing and reproducible tool to be applied to the routinary diagnostic practice. The artificial intelligence could be a promising tool both in evaluating and standardizing the histological assessment of disease activity in IBD. Moreover, novel molecules involved in the inflammatory dynamics in the gut could be employed in supporting the diagnostic practice in IBD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1615.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Anti-obesity drugs; BMI; Glucose tolerance; Homeostasis; Obesity; Sleep disturbances; Molecular pathology
Online: 23 May 2023 (08:15:14 CEST)
Accumulation of extra fats in the body results in disturbance in homeostasis causing obesity. The pathophysiology of obesity has been associated with various genetic, epigenetic factors and the disturbed lifestyles of an individual. One of the outcomes is disturbance in the sleep cycle which leads to sleep disorders. The evolutionary significance of sleep lies in the fact that it saves energy and is crucial for adjustment of an individual to ecological and environmental factors, and thus maintains homeostasis. Sleep has an anabolic function and replenishes the wakefulness-associated loss of glycogen stores. However, the modern lifestyle is well known to disrupt sleep behavior and patterns affecting human health negatively. Alteration in homeostasis leads to several acute and chronic pathophysiological conditions like obesity and related metabolic morbidities being one amongst them. Shorter sleep duration and poor sleep quality are important risk factors associated with the development of obesity and have more adverse effects on energy homeostasis. Consequently, it is crucial to comprehend the obesity and sleep relationship and its therapeutic strategies, given that strong crosstalk exists between energy balance that favors obesity and sleep apnea. It is therefore highly recommended to the people with a high risk of obesity to maintain sleep discipline and good sleep hygiene in our daily life. Interventions are required to improve both sleep quality and quantity, and associated obesity. More focused research is needed for uncovering the pieces of evidence that determine whether such interventions can improve obesity-related health consequences. The present review discusses the important findings on the therapeutic and neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating sleep and obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1605.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: pH sensitive Polymer; Methacrylate Polymers; Eudragit L100; Polymeric nanoparticles; Apocynin; Rheumatoid arthritis; Carbopol-934 based Hydrogel; Transdermal Drug Delivery System
Online: 23 May 2023 (07:51:12 CEST)
The aim of the current study was to develop and evaluate the therapeutic potential of apocynin (APO) loaded pH-sensitive nanoparticles (NPs) based transdermal hydrogel for management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Slightly modified nanoprecipitation technique was used for preparation of polymeric nanoparticles. Optimization was done through design expert software. Optimized APO-NPs were loaded into carbopol-934 based hydrogel as final dosage form and further studied for physicochemical properties. Optimized APO-NPs formulation had a minimum particle size 63.44 nm, polydisperibility index 0.161, and zeta potential -15mV with a maximum encapsulation efficiency of 89%. In-vitro and ex-vivo studies of APO-NPs based hydrogel was performed at pH 5.5 (pH of normal skin) and 6.8 (pH of inflammed joint) showed a pH-responsive sustained drug release and increased penetration in comparison to free APO based hydrogel. The stability studies of APO-NPs based hydrogel were done to strengthen the potential use of the prepared formulation through transdermal route. Assessment and therapeutic efficacy of the prepared pH-sensitive nanocarriers system was evaluated in chronic inflammatory RA mice model. Parameters associated with chronic inflammation were investigated including behavioral changes and histopathological, and radiological x-rays images of joints of mice paws. In-vivo study depicts improvement in behavioral parameter, decline in synovial hyperplasia and bone structure restoration. In conclusion, APO loaded pH-sensitive NPs based transdermal is a promising carrier system that can effectively manage RA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1603.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Cryptococcal infection; Sepsis; qSOFA; blood culture; HIV; Africa
Online: 23 May 2023 (07:47:20 CEST)
Cryptococcosis is a leading cause of death among people with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Limited diagnostic and therapeutic options significantly impair treatment options in Africa. We investigated the burden of cryptococcosis and related mortality among people with HIV and suspected sepsis in Ethiopia. We conducted a prospective cohort at 1) Adama Hospital Medical College and 2) Asella Referral and Teaching Hospital from September 2019 to November 2020. We enrolled adult HIV-infected patients presenting with suspected sepsis and assessed 28-day survival. We performed blood cultures and cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) testing. In total, 82 participants were enrolled with a median age of 35 years and 61% being female. Overall, 11(13%) had positive CrAg tests, of which 5 had Cryptococcus detected in blood cultures. Despite high-dose fluconazole (1200mg/d) monotherapy in patients with positive CrAg tests, the 28-day mortality was 64%(7/11), being significantly higher than in CrAg-negative patients (9%(6/71); p<0.001). Cryptococcosis is the leading cause of mortality among HIV-infected sepsis patients. CrAg screening in HIV-infected patients attending emergency department can minimize the cryptococcosis missing case irrespective of CD4 count and viral load. These findings warrant the need of a bundle approach for diagnosis of HIV-infected persons presenting with sepsis in low- and middle-income countries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1601.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Periodontitis; Herpesviruses; Periodontal; Biomarkers
Online: 23 May 2023 (07:43:32 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought marked changes worldwide to the management of airborne infectious diseases. It sparked the development of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and pharmacotherapeutics to prevent infection and increase the survival rate during the acute viral phase and the comorbidities associated with COVID-19. Periodontal disease may increase the morbidity and perhaps the mortality of a COVID-19 infection. However, the molecular interaction between periodontitis and COVID-19 infection remains undetermined. A potential pathogenic co-morbidity may involve periodontal pathogenic release of destructive cytokines in the highly inflamed connective tissue and risk for COVID-19. Additional biomarkers such as C-reactive proteins appear to play a role for risk and pathogenesis of COVID-19. The potential of herpesviruses, especially as it is related to aggressive periodontitis may also be a comorbidity for COVID-19. This paper reviews available evidence on the bidirectional association between periodontitis and COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1584.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: Body temperature; Elderly patient; Orthopedic surgery; Zero-Heat-Flux thermometer
Online: 23 May 2023 (05:32:17 CEST)
Thermoregulation is important for maintaining homeostasis of our body. It can be easily broken under anesthesia. An appropriate method to measure the core body temperature is needed, especially for elderly patients because the efficiency of thermoregulation gradually decreases with age. The aim of this study was to examine the accuracy and feasibility of using of SpotOn® sensor in lower extremity orthopedic surgery in elderly patients aged over 80 years by comparing a SpotOn® sensor with two other reliable minimal-invasive methods: a tympanic membrane thermometer and a bladder thermometer. This study enrolled 45 patients aged over 80 years who were scheduled to undergo a lower extremity surgery. Body temperature was measured using a SpotOn® sensor, tympanic membrane thermometer and bladder thermometer. Agreements between the SpotOn® sensor and the other two methods were assessed using Bland and Altman plots for repeated measures adjusted for unequal numbers of measurements per patient. Compared with TempBladder, bias and limits of agreement for TempZHF were 0.07℃ ± 0.58℃. Compared with TempTympanic, bias and limits of agreement for TempZHF were -0.28℃ ± 0.61℃. 3M SpotOn® sensor using ZHF method for patients aged over 80 years undergoing lower extremity surgery shows feasible measurement value and sensitivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0132.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: SLNB; SPIO; ALND; LS; superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles
Online: 23 May 2023 (05:26:30 CEST)
Abstract: (1) Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy assumes importance in the search for metastases, especially in patients with malignant breast disease. Our study approaches the new techniques to prevent complications such as possible postoperative seroma formation, pain or hypoesthesia of the axillary cord and medial arm surface, as well as motor deficits in a preventive manner to avoid disabling outcomes and presents initial data from its experience with the sentinel lymph node biopsy technique. (2) Methods: There are mainly two radioactive tracer detection techniques and a new technique using a radiotracer called Sentimag-magtrace. The positive lymph node is located and removed to perform histologic analysis. In our study, we evaluate 100 patients who underwent breast cancer surgery (3) Results: our experience allowed us to calculate the identification rate with the different methods of sentinel lymph nodes by radioactive tracer 88.9 % vs magnetic tracer technology (Sentimag) 89.5%. (4) Conclusions: Thus, this technique avoids radiation exposure for both patients and health care providers, as well as reducing costs and time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1576.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: colorectal cancer; adipose tissue; miRNAs; serum biomarkers; obesity
Online: 23 May 2023 (05:03:00 CEST)
This work aims to investigate the expression levels of four preselected miRNAs previously linked to Cancer and/or Obesity, with the purpose of finding potential biomarkers in the clinical management of Colorectal Cancer (CRC) developed by obese and non-obese patients. We analyzed samples from a total of 65 subjects, 43 affected by CRC and 22 without cancer. Serum and both subcutaneous and omental adipose tissues (SAT and OAT) were analyzed, as well as tumor and non-tumor colorectal tissues in the case of the CRC patients. The relative expression (2-∆∆Ct) levels of 4 miRNAs (miR-181a-5p, miR-143-3p, miR-132-3p and miR-23a-3p) were measured by RT-qPCR. Serum, SAT and OAT expression levels of these miRNAs showed significant differences between subjects with and without CRC, especially in the group of overweight/obese subjects. In CRC serum levels of miR-181a-5p, miR-143-3p and miR-23a-3p correlated with their levels in both SAT and OAT. Moreover, in the case of miR-181a-5p, these correlations were significantly influenced by the body mass index (BMI). From these data, we can conclude that both adiposity and CRC induce changes in the expression of the miRNAs investigated, demonstrating the potential utility of this panel of miRNAs in the diagnosis and prognosis of CRC patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1575.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: complicated appendicitis; negative appendectomy; Heisenberg’s principle; diagnostic uncertainty; children
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:58:36 CEST)
Abstract Background. There is an inherent limit in the accuracy of our measurements, set by nature itself and predicted by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, which defines the properties of nature in the microcosmos. There is a fundamental limit to the accuracy with which complementary phys-ical quantities of a particle can be predicted from their initial conditions. As classical physics is essentially considered at borderline of quantum mechanics, so the power of uncertainty princi-ple is limited in describing everyday life perceived or managed phenomena. Method. In this study, we apply Heisenberg's uncertainty principle to children under diagnostic uncertainty re-garding appendicitis. We analyze this phenomenon in clinical practice. Results. Medical practice is full of uncertainty. False negative decisions correlate with delays in treatment and adverse outcomes in children with atypical appendicitis. On the other hand, false-positive surgery deci-sions result in negative appendectomies. With improvement of technology, the incidence of complicated appendicitis or negative appendectomies due to diagnostic uncertainty has de-creased but cannot be ignored or eliminated. Conclusion. According to the principle, there is a fundamental limit to the accuracy with which the complementary variables of negative appen-dectomy and complicated appendicitis can be observed or measured simultaneously. What does all this mean for the physician?
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1574.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs); major depressive disorder (MDD); obesity; metabolic dysregulation; comorbidities
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:54:21 CEST)
The co-occurrence of depression and obesity has become a significant public health concern worldwide. Recent studies have shown that metabolic dysfunction, which is commonly observed in obese individuals and characterized by inflammation, insulin resistance, leptin resistance, and hypertension, is a critical risk factor for depression. This dysfunction may induce structural and functional changes in the brain, ultimately contributing to depression's development. Given that obesity and depression mutually increase each other's risk of development by 50-60%, there is a need for effective interventions that address both conditions. The comorbidity of depression with obesity and metabolic dysregulation is thought to be related to chronic low-grade inflammation, characterized by increased circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and C-reactive protein (CRP). As pharmacotherapy fails in at least 30-40% of cases to adequately treat major depressive disorder, a nutritional approach is emerging as a promising alternative. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are a promising dietary intervention that can reduce inflammatory biomarkers, particularly in patients with high levels of inflammation, including pregnant women with gestational diabetes, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and overweight individuals with major depressive disorder. Further effort directed to implement these strategies in clinical practice could contribute to improved outcomes in patients with depression and comorbid obesity and/or metabolic dysregulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1572.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: prostate cancer; prognostic nutritional index; inflammation; prognosis
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:50:23 CEST)
Background: In this paper, it was aimed to evaluate the biomarker potential as well as the effect of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI), which is calculated using the albumin level reflecting nutritional status and lymphocyte count reflecting immune status, in determining the prognosis of metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC). Methods: This retrospective observational study included the complete data of 108 patients with mCPSC who were treated for at least three months between January 1, 2010, and June 1, 2021. The relationship between cancer specific survival (CSS), overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS) and PNI was evaluated. Kaplan-Meier method for OS, PFS, and CSS, as well as univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were used in statistical analyses. Results: The median age of 108 patients included in the study was 68.54 (61.05-74.19) years. While 71.3% (n = 77) of the patient population were high-volume according to CHAARTED, 52.8% (n = 57) were high-risk based on LATITUDE. 49.75 was determined as the best cut-off point for the PNI. OS (months) was found to be significantly lower in patients with low PNI (median: 34.93, 95% CI: 21.52–48.34) compared to patients with high PNI (median: 65.60, 95% CI: 39.36–91.83) (p=0.016). Patients with high PNI (median: 48.20, 95% CI: 34.66–61.73) had significantly better CSS (months) than patients with low PNI (median: 27.86, 95% CI: 24.16–31.57) (p=0.001). Conclusions: PNI calculated at the time of diagnosis strongly predicts OS and CSS but not PFS in patients with mCSPC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1570.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: metabolic syndrome; endothelial dysfunction; omega-3 fatty acid
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:45:24 CEST)
Aim: Evaluation of role of supplementation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on endothelial function in patients with metabolic syndrome. Methods: Total of 80 patients with metabolic syndrome were enrolled to two groups. We evaluated endothelial function in subjects before and after three-month treatment with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in dose 2.4g daily (800mg 3 times a day) vs placebo. Using the Endo-PAT2000 device (Itamar Medical Ltd. Caesarea, Israel), reactive hyperemia index – a parameter of endothelial function and augmentation index– a parameter of arterial stiffness were measured. Plasmatic level of glutation peroxidase, homocysteine, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein (a) were also evaluated. Results: The average values of reactive hyperemia index before the treatment with n-3PUFA was 1.62 ± 0.42 , whereas 1.96 ± 0.62 at the end of the study (p<0.005). Augmentation index changed from 14.66 ± 19.55 to 9.21 ± 15.64 after the treatment (p=0.003). We also observed statistically significant decrease of apolipopotein B (0.94 ± 0.36 vs 1.13 ± 0.35, p = 0.001) and homocysteine (19.31 ± 5.29 vs. 13.78 ± 3.05, p = 0.001) and increase of the glutathion perxidase plasma levels (41.65 ± 8.90 vs. 45.20 ± 8.01), p=0.001. Conclusion: We have observed significant improvement of the endothelial function in subjects with metabolic syndrome treated with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in dose 2.4g daily.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1559.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: anxiety; cardiac rehabilitation; depression; medical education; primary care
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:16:09 CEST)
Depression and anxiety in cardiovascular disease worsen the prognosis of patients. Treatments for these disorders often provide limited improvement. The present study aimed to test, for the first time, the impact of educational technology on anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients participating in a cardiac rehabilitation program. A 12-month randomized controlled trial was conducted, in which 207 patients were randomly assigned to either the experimental (n=76) or control (n=69) groups. The intervention involved a structured patient education program provided by medical students who had undergone specially designed training in cardiac rehabilitation. The primary outcomes were death, hospitalization, heart failure, and recurrent myocardial infarction. The study also assessed anxiety and depression. A year later, the experimental group showed a statistically significant decrease in anxiety and depression on the HADS scale, with reductions of 2.0 and 1.9 points respectively (p<0.05). The control group showed reductions of 1.5 and 1.2 points (p<0.05). The difference in depression (HRDS) between the groups at 12 months was -1.29 in favor of the main group (95% CI, -0.7 to -1.88), and the standardized effect size (SMD) was 0.36 (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.69). No treatment-related adverse events were observed. The results suggest that educational interventions can have a positive impact on mental health. The study's strengths include a structured intervention, randomization, and long-term follow-up. Limitations include the lack of blinding of study participants and a relatively small sample size.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1557.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Meta-analysis; heterogeneity; reviewer; checklist
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:09:07 CEST)
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have become an important way to summarize data. The hierarchy of evidence-based medicine confers a high platform to meta-analyses. Hence, it is imperative that the analytical and reporting strategy associated with a meta-analysis be standardized. The modern tradition of reporting and publishing a meta-analysis is riddled with several methodological flaws. The most common of these flaws involve the choice of the model used to conduct the meta-analysis and the way that the heterogeneity of studies is assessed. The use of the I2 statistic as a means of detecting within-study heterogeneity is a common methodological flaw encountered in reporting summary statistics.One of the ways to rectify the above flaws is to arm reviewers with an objective way to scrutinize the manuscript. This narrative review enlists six checklists for reviewers to improve the reporting of meta-analyses. The first two checklists address reporting of the risk of bias and assessment of publication bias with the help of a funnel plot. Checklists 3, 4, and 5 address the choice of model selected for the meta-analysis, the method to assess the confidence interval, and the measures of heterogeneity. The final checklist addresses the question asked in the meta-analysis, binary versus an effect size estimate. Although there are many more aspects which can help improve the assessment of a manuscript, these basic checklists can be employed by reviewers without the need for an external statistical analysis to enhance and improve meta-analyses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1549.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: multiple sclerosis; oligodendrocyte; myelination; inflammation; microglia; macrophage; bi-omarkers; imaging diagnostics
Online: 23 May 2023 (03:39:19 CEST)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a heterogeneous disease of the central nervous system that is governed by neural tissue loss and dystrophy during its progressive phase, with complex reactive pathological cellular changes. The immune-mediated mechanisms that promulgate the demyelinating lesions during the relapses of acute episodes are not characteristic of chronic lesions during progressive MS. This has limited our capacity to target the disease effectively as it evolves within the central nervous system white and gray matter, thereby leaving neurologists without effective options to manage individuals as they transition to a secondary progressive phase. The current review highlights the molecular and cellular sequelae that have been identified to cooperate and/or contribute to neurodegeneration that identifies individuals with progressive forms of MS. We emphasize the need for appropriate monitoring via known and novel molecular and imaging biomarkers that can accurately detect and predict progression for the purposes of newly designed clinical trials that may demonstrate efficacy of neuroprotection and potentially neurorepair. To achieve neurorepair, we focus on the modifications required in the reactive cellular and extracellular milieu, in order to enable endogenous cell growth as well as transplanted cells that can integrate and/or renew the degenerative MS plaque.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1536.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Republic of Belarus; population; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; seromonitoring; herd immunity; antibodies; nucleocapsid; receptor binding domain; vaccination; hybrid immunity
Online: 23 May 2023 (02:47:10 CEST)
Background. The course of the COVID-19 epidemic process depends on population immunity which prevents pathogen spread among the population. Aim: to study the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 humoral immunity in the Belarusian population relative to COVID-19 pandemic dynamics. Materials and methods. The work was carried out according to a methodology for assessing population immunity developed by Rospotrebnadzor (Russia) and the Belarusian Ministry of Health with the participation of the St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute (SPPI), taking into account WHO recommendations. The study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of Belarus and the SPPI Bioethics Committee. Participant selection was carried out by questionnaire using a cloud (internet server) service. To monitor population immunity, a cohort of 4,661 people (participating in all stages of seromonitoring) was formed from the overall volunteer group. Volunteers were randomized by age group (1-17, 18-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70+ years), region, and professional group. For the detection of antibodies (Abs) to nucleocapsid (Nc) and S glycoprotein receptor-binding domain (RBD), corresponding assay systems were used following manufacturer instructions. The study was conducted in 4 stages according to a single scheme. Results. In the 1st stage (pandemic month 15), collective immunity was due mainly to Nc+RBD+ Ab status alone. By the 2nd stage (carried out after 4 months), their share decreased 1.2-fold, while the share of volunteers who had only RBD Abs increased 1.7-fold. In the 3rd and 4th stages (carried out after 9 and 19 months), the share of persons with RBD+Nc‒ compared to the 2nd stage decreased by 3.5%; the proportion of persons with Nc+RBD‒ Abs increased by 1.5-fold. The most important factor in population immunity was vaccination of the population, the coverage of which reached 70% by the 4th stage. Among vaccines, the Sputnik V and Sputnik Light vector designs were used most often. The whole-virion, inactivated BIBP-CorV vaccine was used less often. Conclusion. The evolution of collective SARS-CoV-2 humoral immunity included a set of changes in circulating Ab levels (Nc, RBD). The hybrid immunity formed helped to reduce the incidence to nearly zero.
Mon, 22 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1533.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: prostate cancer; brachytherapy; lower urinary tract symptom; international prostate symptom score (IPSS); overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS)
Online: 22 May 2023 (16:28:32 CEST)
To examine the association of clinical, treatment, and dose parameters with late urinary toxicity after low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT) for prostate cancer, we retrospectively studied patients with prostate cancer who underwent LDR-BT from January 2007 through December 2016. Urinary toxicity was assessed using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and Overactive Bladder (OAB) Symptom Score (OABSS). Severe and moderate lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were defined as IPSS ≥ 20 and ≥ 8, respectively; OAB was defined as a nocturnal frequency of ≥ 2 and a total OABSS of ≥ 3. In total, 203 patients (median age, 66 years) were included, with a mean follow-up of 8.4 years after treatment. The IPSS and OABSS worsened after 3 months of treatment; these scores improved to pretreatment levels after 18–36 months in most patients. Patients with a higher baseline IPSS and OABSS had a lower frequency of moderate and severe LUTS and OAB at 24 and 60 months, respectively. LUTS and OAB at 24 and 60 months were not correlated with the dosimetric factors of LDR-BT. Although the rate of long-term urinary toxicities assessed using IPSS and OABSS was low, the baseline scores were related to long-term function. Refining patient selection may further reduce long-term urinary toxicity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0843.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: CLL, Zanubrutinib, BTK inhibitors, efficacy, safety, chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Online: 22 May 2023 (16:15:16 CEST)
Ibrutinib, a first-in-class Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor (BTKi), is a commonly deployed therapeutic option for previously untreated, and relapsed/refractory (R/R) patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The use of ibrutinib is, however, partially limited by significant off-target side effects. Zanubrutinib (zanu) is a second-generation BTKi with enhanced target selectivity and occupancy of the kinase binding site. The SEQUOIA study showed that zanu significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) when compared to bendamustine–rituximab (BR) in treatment-naive CLL patients with an acceptable safety profile. More recently, data from the phase III ALPINE trial which directly compared zanu with ibrutinib has demonstrated that zanu’s advantages are both an improved safety profile and enhanced clinical efficacy. Based on the results of the SEQUOIA and ALPINE pivotal trials the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) licensed zanu for the treatment of patients with CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) in January 2023. The updated (v2.2023) National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines and newly released German CLL algorithm, suggest that zanu may replace first-generation BTKi as one of the preferred therapeutic options for patients with CLL/SLL due to its increased selectivity for the kinase binding site, improved therapeutic efficacy, and favorable toxicity profile.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1527.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Additive manufacturing; Chairside kit; SEM; Surface roughness; Rapid prototype
Online: 22 May 2023 (12:40:18 CEST)
A chairside polishing kit is an alternative to a laboratory polishing technique. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different polishing techniques on the surface roughness of three-dimensional (3D)-printed acrylic denture bases (ADB). One hundred twenty disc-shaped specimens were fabricated from one conventional heat-polymerized (HP) ADB resin and two 3D-printed (Asiga (AS) and NextDent (ND)) ADB resins (n=40 per ADB resin). Each group was furtherly divided based on the polishing protocol (n=10) as follows: convectional polishing protocol (C), Microdont chairside polishing kit (M), Shofu chairside polishing kit (S), and unpolished group (U). The surface roughness (surface roughness average (Ra) and average maximum profile height (Rz)) of the printed specimens were measured using an optical profilometer, and the scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to capture the surface at ×1000. Two-way ANOVA and post hoc tests were used for data analysis (α = 0.05) at significant levels. In unpolished groups, there was a statically significant difference between HP vs 3D-printed ADBs (p < 0.0001). For Ra values, the lowest values were presented in HP-C, AS-S, and ND-C. While the highest values were shown in all unpolished groups. Within the material, there were statistically significant differences between the three polishing protocols (C, M, and S) vs unpolished (p < 0.0001), while there was no significant between C, M, and S groups (p = 0.05). The Rz values had the same pattern as the Ra values. The two chairside polishing kits were comparable to conventional polishing technique, and it could be recommended for the clinical application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1518.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Cesarean section; risk factors; pregnancy complications; pregnancy outcome
Online: 22 May 2023 (11:21:41 CEST)
The aim of this study was to determine the most common maternal and neonatal complications related to cesarean section at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) and to compare the outcomes between emergency and elective cesarean sections. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at SQUH from 1st January 2016 to 31st December 2016. This comparative study involved 300 women who underwent cesarean section, 150 in elective cesarean section group and 150 in emergency cesarean section group. Data was collected from the delivery ward maternity registry and Electronic Patient Records. SPSS software version 23 was used to analyze the data.The mean maternal age was 29.66 (± 4.96) and 33.22 (± 4.63) years in the elective and emergency cesarean section groups respectively (p=001). The main risk factor for both the groups was maternal diabetes and the most common indication for both was previous cesarean section. Hypotension related anesthetic complication was noted more in elective cesarean section (15.3%) than in emergency cesarean section group (4.0%) with p value=0.002. The most common major intraoperative complication in both groups was postpartum hemorrhage, 66.9% women in emergency group and 63.0% women in elective group. Post-partum fever was seen in 12.0% of women in emergency group as compared to 4% in elective group (p=0.019). Anemia was observed in 79.2% and 65.3% in emergency and elective groups respectively (p=0.011). Respiratory distress syndrome and transient tachypnea of the newborn were the main neonatal complications in both groups. There was no significant difference between emergency and elective cesarean section related maternal and neonatal complications except for transient intraoperative hypotension, maternal postoperative febrile morbidity and anemia. Future prospective studies including larger sample size and multiple centers is recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1516.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: lipid-lowering treatment; primary prevention; coronary calcium; intima-media thickness; arterial stiffness; carotid artery; femoral artery
Online: 22 May 2023 (11:19:08 CEST)
Several noninvasive vascular biomarkers have been suggested for improving the risk stratification for atherothrombotic events. To identify biomarkers suitable for detecting intermediate-risk individuals who might benefit from lipid-lowering treatment (L-LT) in primary prevention, the present study tested the association of plasma LDL-cholesterol with coronary artery calcification (CAC) Agatston score, high carotid and femoral intima-media thickness (IMT), low carotid distensibility and high carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity in 260 asymptomatic individuals at intermediate cardiovascular risk and free of diabetes and L-LT. High or low vascular biomarkers were considered when their value was above the 95th or below the 5th percentile, respectively, of the distribution in the healthy or in the study population. LDL-cholesterol was independently associated with the CAC score =0 (OR 0.67; 95%CI 0.48-0.92, P=0.01), CAC score >100 (1.59; 1.08-2.39, P=0.01) and with high femoral IMT (1.89; 1.19-3.06, P<0.01), but not with other biomarkers. Our data confirm that in the presence of CAC score =0 in individuals at intermediate risk, L-LT can be avoided, while it should be used in those with CAC score >100. Femoral artery IMT could represent a useful biomarker for decision regarding L-LT, however the reference values according to sex and age should be established in a large healthy population
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1174.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Eurycoma longifolia; quassinoids; cancer cell lines; apoptosis; TNF-α; DHFR; molecular docking; ADMET.
Online: 22 May 2023 (11:02:09 CEST)
Eurycomanone and eurycomalactone are known quassinoids present in the roots and stems of Eurycoma longifolia. These compounds had been reported to have cytotoxic effects, however, their mechanism of action in a few cancer cell lines have yet to be elucidated. This study was aimed to investigate the anti-cancer effects and mechanisms of action of eurycomanone and eurycomalactone in cervical (HeLa), colorectal (HT29) and ovarian (A2780) cancer cell lines via Sulforhodamine B assay. Their mechanism of cell death was evaluated based on Hoechst 33342 assay and in silico molecular docking toward DHFR and TNF-α as putative protein targets. Eurycomanone and eurycomalactone exhibited in vitro anti-cancer effects manifesting IC50 values of 4.58 ± 0.090 µM and 1.60 ± 0.12 µM (HeLa), 1.22 ± 0.11 µM and 2.21 ± 0.049 µM (HT-29), and 1.37 ± 0.13 µM and 2.46 ± 0.081 µM (A2780) respectively. They induced apoptotic cancer cell death in dose- and time-dependent manners. Both eurycomanone and eurycomalactone were also predicted to have good inhibitory potential as demonstrated by the docking into TNF-α with binding affinity of -8.83 and -7.51 kcal/mol, respectively, as well as into DHFR with binding affinity results of -8.05 and -8.87 kcal/mol, respectively. These results support the evidence of eurycomanone and eurycomalactone as anti-cancer agents via apoptotic cell death mechanism that could be associated with TNF-α and DHFR inhibition as among possible protein targets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1507.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Radionuclide therapy; nuclear medicine; radiopharmaceutical; antibody; peptide; small molecule inhibitor; tumor; microenvironment
Online: 22 May 2023 (10:51:48 CEST)
Targeted radionuclide therapy is become increasingly prominent as a nuclear medicine subspe-cialty. For many decades, treatment with radionuclides has been mainly restricted to the use of iodine-131 in thyroid disorders. Currently, radiopharmaceuticals, consisting of a radionuclide coupled to a vector that binds to a desired biological target with high specificity, are being de-veloped. The objective is to be as selective as possible at the tumor level, while limiting the dose received at the healthy tissue level. In recent years, a better understanding of molecular mecha-nisms of cancer, as well as the appearance of innovative targeting agents (antibodies, peptides, small molecules) and the availability of new radioisotopes, have enabled considerable advances in the field of vectorized internal radiotherapy with a better therapeutic efficacy, radiation safety and personalized treatments. For instance, targeting the tumor microenvironment, instead of the cancer cells, now appears as particularly attractive. Several radiopharmaceuticals for therapeutic targeting have shown clinical value in severals types of tumors and have been or will soon be approved and authorized for clinical use.
INTERESTING IMAGES | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1509.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: prostatic carcinoma; MRI prostate; MRI prostate stromal sarcoma
Online: 22 May 2023 (10:51:05 CEST)
We present a case of neglected atypical high grade prostatic stromal sarcoma (PSS) at the transitional zone , invading the peripheral zone, prostatic capsule & peri prostatic fat reaching to pelvic side wall, it showed T2WI hyperintense signal (compared to typical cases of PSS showing T2WI hypointense signal) corresponding to developing on top of pre-existing nodular hyperplasia. Careful reviewing of prostatic central / transitional zone lesions is mandatory especially at T2WI, diffusion & contrast images to exclude malignancy which can be easily missed due to multiple signal patterns described. Most common tumors at transitional zone is stromal sarcoma which could be typical showing T2 hypointense signal or atypical showing T2 hyperintense signal intensity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1505.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Quality of life; Mediterranean diet; , MEDAS-14; type 2 diabetes; physical dimension; emotional dimension
Online: 22 May 2023 (10:47:21 CEST)
Introduction: When analyzing the current situation in Spain, derived from our current lifestyles far from following a Mediterranean lifestyle, there is an alarming prevalence of diabesity, which increases the global risk of suffering from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and decreases the quality of life related to health (QLRH). In order to guarantee, beyond glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2), adequate control of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in DM2, it will be necessary to carry out a community intervention focused on the application of education programs focused on promoting the acquisition of healthy eating habits through the Mediterranean diet (DMED). This dietary pattern, together with physical exercise, has been shown to contribute to improving the QLRH of patients. Objective: To analyze the quality of life related to health, present in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes, to determine the possible relationship between this and the degree of adherence to the Mediterranean diet and to examine whether there are differences between the sexes. Material and methods: Observational descriptive study in 93 patients diagnosed with DM2 with poor glycemic control (1Ac ≥ 7%), carried out in various health centers in Albacete and Cuenca, in which the baseline relationship between adherence to DMed and the HRQoL. They were administered a data collection sheet that included a survey of the degree of adherence to the DMed (MEDAS-14) and QLRH (SF-12v2) in the Primary Care (PC) medical and nursing consultations. The variables were analyzed: age groups, sex, years of evolution of DM2, body mass index (BMI), as well as basal glycemia (GB) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). The “MEDAS-14” (adherence to DMED) was the main variable and the “SF-12v2” (QLRH) was the secondary variable. Material and methods: Observational descriptive study in 93 patients diagnosed with DM2 with poor glycemic control (1Ac ≥ 7%), carried out in various health centers in Albacete and Cuenca, in which the baseline relationship between adherence to DMed and the HRQoL. They were administered a data collection sheet that included a survey of the degree of adherence to the DMed (MEDAS-14) and QLRH (SF-12v2) in the Primary Care (PC) medical and nursing consultations. The variables were analyzed: age groups, sex, years of evolution of DM2, body mass index (BMI), as well as basal glycemia (GB) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). The “MEDAS-14” (adherence to DMED) was the main variable and the “SF-12v2” (QLRH) was the secondary variable. Results: Patients with poorly controlled DM2 and with low adherence to the MedDM show a non-significantly greater affectation in the physical sphere: fair general state of health, physical function I (limitation to make moderate efforts such as moving a table, vacuuming or walk more than an hour), physical function II (limitation to climb several flights of stairs), physical role (problems at work or daily activities doing less than loved ones), physical role II (they had to stop performing some tasks at work or activities of daily living) and regular body pain. Presenting less affectation in the mental field: emotional role I, emotional role II, mental health I, vitality and mental health II. Without affectation in the social function since they consider that rarely the emotional or physical problems have hindered their social activities. Conclusions: Diabetic patients with poor glycemic control have low adherence to the MedMD (<9 points) and have poor QLRH. Low adherence to the DMed and obesity are related to a greater affectation in the physical dimension and less affectation in the mental dimension without affectation in the "social function".
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1503.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: exosome; prostate cancer; biomarker
Online: 22 May 2023 (10:39:32 CEST)
Backgound: Exosomes are extracellular nanovesicles, carriers of different biomolecules such as lipids, proteins, nucleic acids. Their composition and the fact that their release dramatically increases in case of tumorigenesis, opens different scenarios on the possible application in the research for new biomarkers.Methods: The most widely applied methodologies include ultracentrifugation techniques, size-based techniques, immunoaffinity capture-based techniques (mainly ELISA) and precipitation. To optimize the acquisition of exosomes from the reference sample, more techniques can be applied in sequence for a single extraction, determining an increase in labor time and costs. Results: The analysis of PSA-expressing exosomes provides an incredibly accurate way to discriminate between healthy patients and those with prostate disease. Specifically, IC-ELISA alone method achieved 98.57% sensitivity and 80.28% specificity in discriminating prostate cancer (PC) from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).An immunocapture-based ELISA assay was performed to quantify and characterize carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX expression in exosomes. The results revealed that CA IX positive exosomes were 25-fold higher in plasma samples from PC patients than in those from healthy control. Conclusions: The analysis of PC-linked exosomes represents a promising diagnostic model that can effectively distinguish patients with PC from those with non-malignant prostatic disease, However, the use of exosome analysis in clinical practice is currently limited by several issues, including a lack of standardization in the analytical process and high costs, which are still too high for a large-scale use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1500.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; relapsed; refractory; autologous stem cell transplantation
Online: 22 May 2023 (10:29:20 CEST)
Treating relapsed and refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is still challenging for clinicians, but the available CAR-T and bispecific antibodies revolutionized therapy. Autologous stem cell transplantation was the most effective treatment modality previously. The authors report data from a single center over ten years. The retrospective study included 116 patients. There were 53 relapsed, 39 primary refractory cases, 19 had CNS involvement, and 5 received primary consolidation transplants. The median duration of follow-up was 46 months. The median event-free survival was 75 months, and the median overall survival was 105 months for all cases. Five-year overall survival was 59%, and event-free survival was 54%. Pretreatment prognostic factors at diagnosis had no effect on the outcome of transplantation. The authors found no difference between survival in relapsed or refractory cases, and the number of salvage lines or the germinal center / activated B-cell type also did not influence the results. Complete metabolic response before transplant confirmed by 18FDG PET/CT strongly affected survival. The pretransplant creatinine and CRP levels significantly influenced the long-term outcome. The number of stem cells infused did not affect survival, but engraftment within nine days did result in better survival. These data support the finding that the response to salvage therapy did select a better prognostic group who may still benefit from autologous transplantation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1499.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: head-and-neck cancer; chemoradiation; cisplatin; carboplatin; loco-regional control; metasta-ses-free survival; overall survival; toxicity
Online: 22 May 2023 (10:21:54 CEST)
Keywords: head-and-neck cancer; chemoradiation; cisplatin; carboplatin; loco-regional control; metastases-free survival; overall survival; toxicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1489.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Adolescents; Assessment; Functional Somatic Disorders; Functional Somatic Syndromes; Psychoeducation
Online: 22 May 2023 (09:44:00 CEST)
Functional somatic disorders (FSD) characterized by persistent and disabling physical symptoms are common in adolescents. Diagnostic uncertainty and insufficient illness explanations are proposed perpetuating factors that may constitute barriers for treatment engagement. This study evaluates the impact of manualized assessment and psychoeducation on diagnostic certainty and various clinical outcomes in adolescents with multi-system FSD. Ninety-one adolescents (15-19 years) included in a randomized trial testing group-based therapy (AHEAD) received systematic assessment (4 hrs.) and a subsequent psychiatric consultation (1.5 hrs.). Clinical outcomes included self-reported physical health, symptom severity, illness perception, illness related behavior, and psychological flexibility assessed before and approximately two months after assessment, prior to specialized treatment. Data were analyzed using t-tests. Immediately following assessment 71 (80.7%) adolescents out of 88 reported a higher diagnostic certainty and 74 (84.1%) reported that attending assessment gave them positive expectations for future treatment. A clinically relevant improvement of physical health was not observed at two months but considerable reductions were seen on symptom severity, illness worry, negative illness perceptions, limiting illness behavior and psychological inflexibility. The results underpin the importance of systematic assessment and psychoeducation which may be effective in their own right in specialized treatment of adolescents with severe FSD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1487.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: biomarkers; COVID-19; epidemiology; laboratory; long COVID; pathogenesis; post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-19 infection (PASC); post COVID; post-COVID syndrome (PCS)
Online: 22 May 2023 (09:41:11 CEST)
Long COVID (LC) encompasses a constellation of long-term symptoms experienced by at least 10% of people after the initial SARS-CoV-2 infection, and so far has affected about 65 million people. The etiology of LC remains unclear; however, many pathophysiological pathways may be involved, including viral persistence; chronic, low grade inflammatory response; immune dysregulation and defective immune response; reactivation of latent viruses; autoimmunity; persistent endothelial dysfunction and coagulopathy; gut dysbiosis; hormonal dysregulation, mitochondrial dysfunction; and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. There are no specific tests for the diagnosis of LC, and clinical features including laboratory findings and biomarkers may not specifically relate to LC. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to develop and validate biomarkers that can be employed for the prediction, diagnosis and prognosis of LC and its therapeutic response. Promising candidate biomarkers that are found in some patients are markers of systemic inflammation including acute phase proteins, cytokines and chemokines; biomarkers reflecting SARS-CoV-2 persistence, reactivation of herpesviruses and immune dysregulation; biomarkers of endotheliopathy, coagulation and fibrinolysis; microbiota alterations; diverse proteins and metabolites; hormonal and metabolic biomarkers; as well as cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. At present, there are only two reviews summarizing relevant biomarkers; however, they do not cover the entire umbrella of current biomarkers or their link to etiopathogenetic mechanisms, and the diagnostic work-up in a comprehensive manner. Herein, we aim to appraise and synopsize the available evidence on the typical laboratory manifestations and candidate biomarkers of LC, their classification based on main LC symptomatology in the frame of the epidemiological and pathogenetic aspects of the syndrome, and furthermore assess limitations and challenges as well as potential implications in candidate therapeutic interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1477.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: myelofibrosis; ruxolitinib; severity of symptoms; adherence to therapy
Online: 22 May 2023 (08:52:13 CEST)
We aimed to explore symptoms severity and adherence to therapy for patients with myelofibrosis treated with ruxolitinib in Bulgaria. It is a prospective, non-interventional study performed at the Specialized hospital for active treatment of hematological diseases in Sofia during 2022 - 2023. Date of diagnosis, demographic characteristics, clinical indicators, ruxolitinib dose, and other data points were collected. Clinical indicators were assessed at baseline, in the middle and at the end of observation. Severity of symptoms was measured with MPN-SAF TSS and adherence to therapy with the Morisky 4 questionnaire 6 times during the observation. The mean age of diagnosis was 58.5 years, with the average duration of disease of 3 years. Pa-tients’ laboratory results were within physiological ranges, with spleen size experiencing a con-stant decrease. The average value for the severity of the symptoms per MPN-SAF TSS results decreased significantly, indicating better disease control. The average adherence to therapy did not change and remained high at around 9 points, except for one patient. In conclusion the treatment of myelofibrosis patients with ruxolitinib decreased symptoms se-verity and spleen size. Patients were adherent to the therapy over the observed period but as treatment duration increases the risk of adherence decreasing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1475.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: 3D cephalometry; norm skull; skull anatomy; Procrustes analysis
Online: 22 May 2023 (08:41:02 CEST)
The unsolved problem in three-dimensional surgical planning for patients with facial deformity, dysgnathia, or asymmetry is the lack of a normative database of “norm skulls” that can be used as treatment objectives. A study was conducted on 90 Eurasian persons (46 male and 44 female adults) with normal and balanced facial appearance, skeletal Class I pattern, and proper interincisal relationship with normal occlusion. Cone-beam computed tomography was performed. 18 landmarks were digitized and 3D cephalometric measurements of overall facial features, skull, midface and mandible were performed and analyzed by means of proportions calculated from the landmarks. Male and female skulls were analyzed as well as subdivisions revealed by cluster analysis. The data showed that four subtypes of skulls were distinguishable with statistical significance (p< 0,05). A male and a female type subdivided in a brachiocephalic and dolichocephalic phenotype could be identified. For each type then a mean shape was calculated by a Procrustes transformation, which in turn was used to create four template skulls from a male and a female skull by means of a thin plate spline transformation. The normative data of the subtypes can individually serve as a guide for orthodontic surgery, especially helpful in 3D plan-ning and execution of craniofacial operations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1471.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: full arch; mandibular atrophy; short dental implants; short implants; prosthetic
Online: 22 May 2023 (07:26:03 CEST)
Background: This study aimed to evaluate survival rate, marginal bone levels, and full arch prosthetic success on short implants when placed in areas of severely resorbed and edentulous mandibles. Methods: This is a systematic review of all randomized controlled trials of at least 10 patients with a control group in which bone augmentations were performed that were published between January 2010 and February 2023. Only 3 relevant studies met the inclusion criteria. Results: It obtained demonstrate that short-term dental implant survival rates ranged from 94.2% to 97.4% with a 5-year follow-up and the prosthetic success rate varied by 62% during the same follow-up. The mean marginal bone level values of the affected short implants ranged from 0.2 mm to 0.6 mm. Conclusions: The data obtained demonstrated that short dental implants positioned with criterion and precision as a full-arch fixed support are a valid therapeutic choice for the medium-long term rehabilitation of severe edentulous mandibular atrophy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1470.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: PSMA PET CT; Biochemical Recurrence; prostate cancer recurrence; prostate bed recurrence
Online: 22 May 2023 (07:25:45 CEST)
Aim of the study: To draw inferences from a retrospective evaluation of PSMA PET CT scans performed for the evaluation of biochemical recurrence. Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis of 295 PSMA PET CT scans spanning 3 years between 2020 and 2022 was undertaken. Results: Of 295 PET CT scans, 179 were positive, 66 negative and 50 had indeterminate findings. In positive group, 67 had radical prostatectomy and PSMA avid lesions were seen most commonly in pelvic lymph nodes. Remaining 112 positive scans, in non-radical prostatectomy group; 25 had recurrence only in prostate, 17 had recurrence involving prostate bed; 28 had no recurrence in prostate gland, while 42 had recurrence in prostate as well as extra prostatic sites. Overall, in non-prostatectomy group, 75 % population was harbouring a PSMA avid lesion in prostate gland while in remaining 25% population recurrence did not involve prostate gland. Majority of indeterminate findings were seen in small pelvic or retroperitoneal lymph nodes or skeletal regions (ribs/others) and in 9 patients indeterminate focus was seen in the prostate bed only. Follow up PSMA PET CT was helpful in prior indeterminate findings and unexplained PSA rise. Conclusion: A higher recurrence in prostate bed while evaluating biochemical recurrence prompts us to think; whether prostatectomy should be offered more proactively? Follow up PSMA PET CT is helpful for indeterminate findings; a PSA rise of 0.7 ng/ml in 6 months can result in positive PSMA PET CT while negative scan can be seen upto 2ng/ml PSA rise in 6 months.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1466.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: Lawsonia inermis; Henna; leaves; phytochemical; wound healing activity; Morocco
Online: 22 May 2023 (05:30:59 CEST)
The present study aims at valorizing Moroccan Henna (Lawsonia inermis) by developing healing formulations for cosmetic and therapeutic uses. For such a goal, the plant was collected from three locations in Southeastern Morocco (Alnif, Tafraoute Sidi Ali and Tazarine). Phytochemical anal-yses of aqueous extracts of Henna leaves was performed by determining phenolic compounds contents, flavonoids and tannins in the extracts. Then, specific formulations were prepared using aqueous extracts of L. inermis to assess their in vivo wound healing potential in Swiss Albino mice as animal model. Results disclosed that phenolic compound contents (13.48%), flavonoids (9.25%) and tannins (2.57%) are higher in Henna leaf extracts from Alnif, while Tazarine Henna aqueous extract was found to be richer in saponins (0.32%). Exclusion chromatographic analysis on Se-phadex G50 gel corroborates the obtained results and shows that Lawsone levels (Henna coloring agent) are higher in Henna collected from Alnif. Aqueous Henna leaf extracts, at a dose of 10% in petroleum jelly, have been tested for their ability to heal induced burns in mice. Healing moni-toring, carried out with Henna extracts on mice batches and those of two control batches (Mice batch treated with petroleum jelly alone and batch treated with petroleum jelly containing 1% flamazine), showed a great reduction in burnt surface with an accentuated contraction percentage (CP) and complete re-epithelialization duration (CRD) at 21 days in the three studied Henna-based formulations. These findings suggest the interest of potential development of Henna-based for-mulations, as source of phenolic compounds, for further dermatological, cosmetic and therapeutic applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1464.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: osteoconduction; osteoconductive granulated biopolymers; compaction coefficient; adsorption capacity; bone growth factors
Online: 22 May 2023 (05:09:23 CEST)
Osteoconductive granulated biopolymers (OGB) are used to restore the lost volume of the jaw bone. OGB is employed as a loose fraction and exhibits physical traits common to bulk mixtures. By removing air bubbles and industrial dust from the OGB fraction through special processing, more accessible spaces are left over for the adsorption of bone growth factors. The recipient site's biological environment alters the OGB fraction's physical characteristics. This is the cause of the OGB fraction's volume changing uncontrollably during the first three weeks following surgery. Predictive indicators for describing the physical processes of osteoconduction include the compaction coefficient and adsorption capacity. Taking into account the prognostic indicators of the dynamics of changes in the physical properties of the OGB fraction in the postoperative period, 3D planning of the bioengineered structure should be done. The OGB fraction's adsorption and drainage properties are optimized by raising the purity of OGB production and preparing the biopolymer for clinical studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1459.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: TLR (toll-like receptor) 9; cathelicidin anti-microbial peptide; CAMP; TNFα; adipocyte; adipose tissue; innate immunity
Online: 22 May 2023 (03:55:19 CEST)
Understanding the complex interactions between metabolism and the immune system (“meta-flammation”) is crucial for the identification of key immunomodulatory factors as potential therapeutic targets in obesity and in cardiovascular diseases. Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) is an important factor of innate immunity and is expressed in adipocytes. CAMP therefore might play a role as an adipokine in metaflammation and adipose inflammation. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 is another component of the innate immune system that is expressed and functionally active in adipocytes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of TLR9 signaling on CAMP expression in adipocytes and in adipose tissue. CAMP gene expression in murine 3T3-L1 and human SGBS adipocytes and in murine and human adipose tissues was quantified by real-time PCR. TLR9 knockdown was applied in murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes via siRNA transfection. Adipocyte inflammation was induced in vitro by TNFα stimulation. Serum CAMP concentrations in TLR9 knockout (KO) and in wildtype mice were quantified by ELISA. CAMP gene expression was considerably increased in 3T3-L1 adipocytes during differentiation. TNFα significantly induced CAMP gene expression in mature adipocytes, which was antagonized by inhibitors of NF-κB and PI3K signaling. Cell-free nucleic acids (cfDNA) as endogenous TLR9 ligand significantly impaired CAMP gene expression, whereas synthetic agonistic and antagonistic TLR9 ligands had no effect. Cellular TLR9 knockdown reduced adipocyte CAMP gene expression in vitro and male TLR9 knockout mice exhibited lower systemic CAMP concentrations than wildtype mice. CAMP and TLR9 gene expression were correlated positively in murine and human subcutaneous but not in intraabdominal/visceral adipose tissues. These findings suggest a regulatory role of TRL9 in adipocytic CAMP expression as a novel putative molecular mechanism in adipose tissue innate immunity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1454.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Catastrophes; Genetic identification; Kinship analysis; DNA degradation
Online: 22 May 2023 (03:01:25 CEST)
Different types of disasters, whether natural or human character, lead to the significant loss of human lives. In the latter case, the quick action of identification of corpses and human remains is mandatory. There are a variety of protocols to identify victims, however, genetics is one of the tools that allow an exact identification of the victim. However, several factors may interfere with this identification, from the biological samples’ degradation not allowing the analysis of nuclear information, to failure to dispose of biological samples from family members. Access to certain family members could be a determinant of the proper choice of genetic markers that allow the identification of the victim, or his/her inclusion in a given genetic maternal or paternal lineage. With the new advances in the genetic field, it is expected to allow soon the identification of victims from disasters only with his/her biological postmortem samples, being possible to draw a robot portrait and its most likely physical characteristics. In all cases, genetics is the only modern tool with universal character and can be used in essentially all biological samples, giving and identification of more or less accurate statistical character, depending on whether nuclear or lineage markers are used.
Fri, 19 May 2023
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1444.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Gamma-aminobutyric acid; subtype; analgesic effect; mechanism
Online: 19 May 2023 (15:03:06 CEST)
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a non-protein-producing amino acid, is extensively found in microorganisms, plants and vertebrates, and is abundantly expressed in the spinal cord and brain. To date, GABA is considered to be the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Its physiological effects are related to the regulation of synaptic transmission, the promotion of neuronal development and relaxation, and the prevention of insomnia and depres-sion. Mediated through its specific receptors, it plays a pivotal role in the control of neuronal ex-citability, which can serve as anovel target for developing analgesics for pain management. This review provides an update on the accumulating evidence of specific GABA receptors and their subtypes in the involvement of pain analgesia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1435.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder; microbiota; meta-analysis
Online: 19 May 2023 (10:54:34 CEST)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with high heterogeneity and has a prevalence of 0.7% to 3.2% in children. Gut microbiota are a collection of microorganisms that inhabit in human guts, which can produce various metabolites that affect the homeostasis and functions of nervous and endocrine systems. There are many studies on the relationship between various gut microbiota and ASD, but the alteration pattern of microbial profiles in ASD children is not conclusive. In order to more robustly describe the deregulations of gut microbiota compositions in ASD, a meta-analysis was performed. The related investigations from PubMed, Embase and Web of Science were collected and manually reviewed. By procedure, 26 eligible studies until 2023, with a total of 1021 ASD and 951 typically developed children and adolescents, were included for the meta-analysis. RevMan5.4 was used to assess the overall effect of 8 microbes at the phylum level and 19 microbes at the genus level. Results demonstrated relatively up-regulated abundance of Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroides, Clostridium, Dorea and Sutterella, and down-regulated abundance of Proteobacteria, Bifidobacterium, Coprococcus, and Akkermansia in ASD children, indicating partly agreement in the ASD-associated microbes, albeit the heterogeneity of ASD.