Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Exploring the Modulation of Immune Response and Oxidative Stress of Intracellular Pathogens Using Nanoparticles Encapsulating Drugs

Version 1 : Received: 26 October 2020 / Approved: 28 October 2020 / Online: 28 October 2020 (10:05:05 CET)

How to cite: Pandey, R.P.; Priyadarshini, A.; Gupta, A.; Vibhuti, A.; Leal, E.; Sengupta, U.; Katoch, V.M.; Sharma, P.; Moore, C.E.; Raj, V.S. Exploring the Modulation of Immune Response and Oxidative Stress of Intracellular Pathogens Using Nanoparticles Encapsulating Drugs. Preprints 2020, 2020100580 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0580.v1). Pandey, R.P.; Priyadarshini, A.; Gupta, A.; Vibhuti, A.; Leal, E.; Sengupta, U.; Katoch, V.M.; Sharma, P.; Moore, C.E.; Raj, V.S. Exploring the Modulation of Immune Response and Oxidative Stress of Intracellular Pathogens Using Nanoparticles Encapsulating Drugs. Preprints 2020, 2020100580 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0580.v1).

Abstract

The immune system is a dynamic network of cells and cytokines are the major mediators of immune responses which combat pathogens. Based on the cytokine production, effector T cells differentiate into subsets known as Th1, Th2, Th17 or Treg (T regulatory). This system serves as a barrier to intracellular pathogens, bacterial infections and stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) and nitric oxide (NO), which diffuses across membranes and engulfs intracellular pathogens. Oxidative stress occurs when ROS, reactive nitrogen species (RNS) production and antioxidant defences become imbalanced. Oxidative stress generated by infected cells produces a substantial amount of free radicals which enables killing of intracellular pathogens. Intracellular pathogens are exposed to endogenous ROS as part of normal aerobic respiration, also aexogenous ROS and RNS are generated by the host immune system in response to infection. Nanoparticles which are designed for drug delivery are capable of trapping the desired drug in the particles which protects the drug from enzymatic degradation in a biological system. The small (subcellular) size of nanoparticles enables higher intracellular uptake of the drug which results in the reduction of the concentration of free drugs reducing their toxic effect. Research on the modulation of immune response and oxidative stress using nanoparticles used to encapsulate drugs has yet to be explored fully. In this review we illustrate the immune activation and generation of oxidative stress properties which are mediated by nanoparticle encapsulated drug delivery systems which can make the therapy more effective in case of diseases caused by intracellular pathogens.

Subject Areas

Immune system; Oxidative stress; Nanoparticles; Intracellular Pathogens

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