Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Exopolysaccharide from Porphyridium cruentum (purpureum) is Not Toxic and Stimulates Immune Response against Vibriosis: The Assessment Using Zebrafish and White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

Version 1 : Received: 15 February 2021 / Approved: 18 February 2021 / Online: 18 February 2021 (15:56:44 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Journal reference: Marine Drugs 2021
DOI: 10.3390/md19030133


Exopolysaccharides or extracellular polysaccharides (EPS, sPS) represent valuable metabolite compound synthesized from red microalgae. It is a non toxic natural agent and can be applied as immunostimulant. Toxicity test of exopolysaccharides from Porphyridium has been done in-vivo using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryonic model, or the ZET (Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test). The administration of extracellular polysaccharide or exopolysaccharides (EPS) from microalgae Porphyridium cruentum (synonym: P. purpureum) on shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated to determine the effect of this immunostimulant on their non specific immune response and to test if this compound can be used as a protective agent for shrimp related to Vibrio infection. For immune response, exopolysaccharides was given to shrimps by immersion method on day 1 and booster on day 8. Shrimp hemocytes were taken on day 1 (EPS administration), day 7 (no treatment), day 8 (EPS booster) and day 9 (Vibrio infection) and tested for their immune response on each treatment. Result shows that the EPS is not toxic as represented by the normal embryonic development and the mortality data. In the Pacific whiteshrimps, it show an increase in values ​​of all immune parameters in line with the increasing EPS concentration, except the Differential Haemocyte Count (DHC). In detail, an increase was noted in total hemocytes (THC) value, Phagocytotic Activity (PA), Respiratory Burst (RB) in line with the EPS concentration increase. These results and other previous studies indicate that EPS from Porphyridium is safe and it enhances immune parameters in shrimp rapidly and has the ability as an immunostimulant or an immunomodulator. It is a good modulator for the non-specific immune cells of Pacific white shrimps, and it can be used as a preventive agent against vibriosis.


Hemocytes; Innate Immune Cells; Phagocytic Activity; Respiratory Burst; White-Shrimp; Microalgae; Immunomodulator; Toxicity; Extracellular Polysaccharide; Vibrio harveyi; Danio rerio



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