REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1762.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Disease resistance; rice blast disease; sheath blight disease; weedy rice
Online: 26 June 2023 (08:57:43 CEST)
Weeds that infest crops are a primary factor limiting agricultural productivity world-wide. Weedy rice, also called red rice, has experienced independent evolutionary events through gene flow from wild rice relatives and de-domestication from cultivated rice. Each evolutionary event supplied/equipped weedy rice with competitive abilities that allowed it to thrive with cultivated rice and severely reduce yields in rice fields. Under-standing how competitiveness evolves is important not only for noxious agricultural weed management but also for the transfer of weedy rice traits to cultivated rice. Molec-ular studies of weedy rice using simple sequence repeat (SSR), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and whole genome sequence have shown great genetic variations in weedy rice population globally. These variations are evident both at whole genome and at single allele level, including Sh4 (shattering), Hd1 (heading and flower-ing), and Rc (pericarp pigmentation). The goal of this review is to describe the genetic diversity of current weedy rice germplasm and the significance of weedy rice germplasm as a novel source of disease resistance. Understanding these variations, es-pecially at an allelic level, is also crucial as individual locus that control important traits can be of great target to rice breeders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1042.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Sphingolipid, Diabetes, Obesity, Insulin Resistance, Metabolic Syndrome, Diabetic Kidney Disease, Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetic Complications
Online: 14 August 2023 (11:14:44 CEST)
Sphingolipids play an important role in the development of diabetes both type 1 and type 2 diabetes as well as in the development of both micro- and macro-vascular complications. Several reviews have been published concerning the role of sphingolipids in diabetes but most of the emphasis has been on the possible mechanisms by which sphingolipids, mainly ceramides, contribute to the development of diabetes. Research on circulating levels of the different classes of sphingolipids in serum and in lipoproteins and their importance as biomarkers to predict not only the development of diabetes but also of its complications has only recently emerged and it is still in its infancy. This review summarizes the previously published literature concerning sphingolipid-mediated mechanisms involved in the development of diabetes and its complications focusing on how circulating plasma sphingolipid levels and the relative content carried by the different lipoproteins may impact their role as possible biomarkers both in the development of diabetes and mainly in the development of diabetic complications. Further studies in this field may open new therapeutic avenues to prevent or arrest/reduce both the development of diabetes and progression of its complications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0179.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, disease resistance, fish
Online: 19 February 2019 (11:14:48 CET)
The basic pattern of MHC variation in fish, with MHC class I versus class II, and polymorphic classical versus nonpolymorphic nonclassical, is similar in fish and mammals. Nevertheless, in many or all teleost fishes, important differences with mammalian or human MHC were observed: (1) The allelic/haplotype diversification levels of classical MHC class I genes tend to be much higher than in mammals; (2) Teleost fish classical MHC class I and class II loci are not linked. The present article summarizes previous studies that performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for mapping differences in teleost fish disease resistance, and discusses them from MHC point of view. Overall, those studies suggest the possible importance of genomic regions including classical MHC class II and nonclassical MHC class I genes, whereas similar observations were not made for the genomic regions with the highly diversified classical MHC class I alleles. The present study is a review and discussion of the fish MHC situation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0300.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Fusarium head blight; deoxynivalenol; triticale; genetic resistance; disease evaluation
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:49:38 CEST)
Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) is a destructive disease affecting the grain yield and quality of wheat, barley, rye and triticale. Developing varieties with genetic resistance is integral to successfully managing FHB. However, significant knowledge gap exists in the genetic diversity present in triticale for FHB resistance. This information is critical for breeding new varieties of triticale as its production continues to increase. In the present study, a set of 298 winter triticale accessions from a worldwide collection were screened for their type-2 FHB resistance in an artificially inoculated misted nursery with high levels of inoculum density. Most of the triticale accessions were susceptible to FHB, and only 8% of accessions showed resistance in the field nursery screening. The resistant accessions identified in the nursery screening were selected and further screened for three years in greenhouse conditions. Seven accessions were found to show robust FHB resistance over the three years of greenhouse testing. Thirteen accessions showed significantly lower levels of Deoxynivalenol accumulation when compared to the susceptible triticale control. The accessions identified in the study will be useful in triticale and wheat breeding programs for enhancing FHB resistance and reducing DON accumulation.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Mollusc; selective breeding; gene editing; disease resistance; transgenesis; CRISPR/Cas9
Online: 15 October 2020 (16:06:27 CEST)
Molluscan aquaculture is a major contributor to global seafood production, but is hampered by infectious disease outbreaks which can cause serious economic losses. Selective breeding has been widely used to improve disease resistance in major agricultural and aquaculture species, and has clear potential in molluscs, albeit its commercial application remains at a formative stage. Advances in genomic technologies, especially development of cost-efficient genomic selection, have potential to accelerate genetic improvement. However, tailored approaches are required due to the distinctive reproductive and lifecycle characteristics of molluscan species. Transgenesis and genome editing, in particular CRISPR/Cas systems, have been successfully trialled in molluscs, and may further understanding and improvement of genetic resistance to disease through targeted changes to the host genome. Whole organism genome editing is achievable on a much greater scale compared to other farmed species, making genome-wide CRISPR screening approaches plausible. This review discusses the current state and future potential of selective breeding, genomic tools, and genome editing approaches to understand and improve host resistance to infectious disease in molluscs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1268.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Foliar fungal diseases; Integrated disease management; Marker-assisted selection; Quantitative trait loci; Resistance breeding; Solanum lycopersicum; Tomato
Online: 19 June 2023 (03:14:19 CEST)
Foliar fungal diseases in tomatoes include early blight (Alternaria linariae), Septoria leaf spot (Septoria lycopersici), and late blight (Phytophthora infestans) which is oomycetes. These are one of the significant production constraints in tomatoes. We describe the etiology, host range, distribution, symptoms, and disease cycle to understand the biology followed by management practices emphasizing the resistance breeding approach for these diseases. In crop improvement efforts, we provide an analytical review, including conventional and molecular methods for improving this disease resistance. Modern breeding tools, including genomics, genetic transformation, and genome editing, can be used to improve these traits. There is a good possibility of using these tools in the future to improve these traits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0098.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Type 2 diabetes; insulin target tissues; iPSCs; genetic factors; disease modeling
Online: 7 February 2020 (11:45:04 CET)
In this review, we discuss the insulin resistance (IR) and its development in the insulin target tissues that leads to diabetes. Also, we highlight the use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to understand the mechanisms underlying the development of IR. IR is associated with several metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). The development of IR in insulin target tissues involves genetic and acquired factors. Persons at genetic risk for T2D tend to develop IR several years before glucose intolerance. Although there are currently several mouse models for both IR and T2D that had provided a lot of information about the disease, these models cannot recapitulate all the aspects of this complex disease as seen in each individual. Patient-specific iPSCs can overcome the hurdles faced with the classical mouse models for studying IR. iPSC technology can generate cells genetically identical to IR individuals, which can help in distinguishing between genetic and acquired defects in insulin sensitivity. Combining the technologies of the genome editing and iPSCs may provide important information about the inherited factors underlying the development of different forms of IR. Further studies are required to fill the gaps in understanding the pathogenesis of IR and diabetes.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Bovine respiratory disease; Pasteurella multocida; resistance; tolerance; satP.
Online: 20 July 2021 (14:48:06 CEST)
Under the pressure of fluoroquinolones, Pasteurella multocida (PM) can easily develop resistance to fluoroquinolones mediated by QRDR target mutation. It is imperative to find new drug resistance inhibitor targets to combat the rapid development of drug resistance. In order to overcome these problems, we sequenced the transcriptome of PM with different levels of resistance to ENR(0.03 μg/mL; 8 μg/mL; 32μg/Ml, Enrofloxacin). The results showed that with the increase of resistance to fluoroquinolones, the expression of satP gene was significantly up-regulated. The satP gene deletion strain and replenishment strain were constructed, and their drug resistance and tolerance were determined. The results showed that the deletion of satP gene did not affect the resistance of PM to fluoroquinolones, rather affected the time when PM developed resistance to fluoroquinolones. After 10 generations of drug induction, the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) of fluoroquinolones for wild strain was 64 μg/mL, while the MIC for satP gene deletion strain was only 8 μg/mL. The MDK99 test (time to kill 99% bacteria),agar diffusion test and mutation frequency test showed that the tolerance of satP gene deletion strain was significantly lower than that of wild strain. At the same time, the virulence of gene deletion strain and wild strain was tested, and about 400 times decreased virulence was observed for satP gene deletion strain. The mouse infection model confirmed that mice infected with satP gene deletion strains were more likely to be treated with ENR than mice infected with wild-type bovine PM strains. The results show that satP has potential to be a target of fluoroquinolone resistance inhibitors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1693.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Wheat; Nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat; NLR genes; Gene duplication; Disease resistance
Online: 23 June 2023 (14:58:26 CEST)
Wheat has a large and diverse repertoire of NLRs involved in disease resistance, with over 1,500 NLRs detected in some studies. These NLR genes occur as singletons or clusters containing copies of NLRs from different phylogenetic clades. The number of NLRs and cluster size can differ drastically among ecotypes and cultivars. Primarily, duplication has led to the evolution and diversification of NLR genes. Among the various mechanisms, whole genome duplication (WGD) is the most intense and leading cause, contributing to the complex evolutionary history and abundant gene set of hexaploid wheat. Tandem duplication or recombination is another major mechanism of NLR gene expansion in wheat. The diversity and divergence of duplicate NLR genes are responsible for the broad-spectrum resistance of most plant species with limited R genes. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the rapid evolution and diversification of wheat NLR genes will help improve disease resistance in crops. The present review focuses on the diversity and divergence of duplicate NLR genes and their contribution to wheat disease resistance. Moreover, we provide an overview of disease resistance-associated gene duplication and the underlying strategies in wheat.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0136.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: endophytes; resistance inducers; biological control; abiotic stress; plant-microbe interactions; sustainability; integrated pest management; microorganisms; plant disease control
Online: 4 February 2021 (12:07:42 CET)
Plant diseases cause losses of approximately 16% globally. Thus, management measures must be implemented to mitigate losses and guarantee food production. In addition to traditional management measures, resistance induction and biological control have gained ground in agriculture due to their enormous potential. Endophytic fungi colonize plant tissues internally and have the potential to act as biological control agents, as elicitors in the process of resistance induction and in attenuating abiotic stresses. In this review, we list the action of this group of microorganisms as potential agents which can act in controlling plant diseases and describe several examples in which endophytes were able to reduce the damage caused by pathogens and adverse conditions. This is due to their arsenal of molecules generated during the interaction by which they form a kind of biological shield in the plant. Studies on these microorganisms have grown due to the existing diversity and the multiple benefits they can offer. Finally, considering that endophytic fungi can be an important tool in managing diseases due to the large amount of biologically active substances produced, bioprospecting this class of microorganisms is tending to increase and generate valuable products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0267.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Dioscorea; yield stability; environments; genotype; dry matter; disease resistance; Uganda
Online: 18 July 2022 (10:56:10 CEST)
Often yam varieties grown in different agro-ecologies show differential responses across production environments, a term known as genotype-by-environment interaction. Genotype-by-environment interaction makes selecting the best genotypes under varied production environments more complex. This study tested twenty yam genotypes evaluated in six test environments to assess genotype, environment, and the interaction between genotypes and environmental effect for tuber yield, yam mosaic virus, and dry matter content. The experiments were conducted in two seasons across three locations in Uganda using a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed a significant effect (p ≤ 0.001) for genotype (G), environment (E), and genotype by environment interaction for all the traits. Serere 2021 and Namulonge 2021 were identified as the most discriminating and representative environments for testing the yam mosaic virus, respectively. Serere 2021 was recognized as the most discriminating environment, whereas Arua 2021 was identified as the closest to an ideal environment for assessing yam tuber yields. The tested genotypes also exhibited high resistance to yam mosaic virus disease, high tuber yields, and high dry matter content. Genotypes UGY16020, UGY16034, UGY16042, and UGY16080 demonstrated great resistance to yam mosaic virus disease, high yielding, and considerable dry matter content and are thus potential parents for yam improvement. Further evaluation of the four genotypes should be done under farmers' production systems for selection, improvement, and release as new yam varieties for Uganda
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0127.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; liver fibrosis; amino acids; insulin resistance
Online: 7 May 2020 (13:29:39 CEST)
Altered amino acid levels have been found in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, it is not clear whether this alteration is due to altered hepatic metabolism or insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to clarify the association among amino acid levels, fatty liver, and liver fibrosis while eliminating the influence of insulin resistance. NAFLD and liver fibrosis were diagnosed using transient elastography and subjects were divided in three groups: normal, NAFLD, and liver fibrosis. To exclude the influence of insulin resistance, the subjects were matched using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The amino acid serum levels were compared among the groups. Of 731 enrolled subjects, 251 and 33 were diagnosed with NAFLD and liver fibrosis. Although significant differences were observed among the groups in the serum levels of most amino acids, all but those of glutamate and glycine disappeared after matching for HOMA-IR. The multivariate logistic regression revealed that glutamate, glycine, and HOMA-IR were independent risk factors for liver fibrosis. The altered serum levels of most amino acids were associated with insulin resistance, while the increase in glutamate and the decrease in glycine levels were strongly associated not only with insulin resistance, but also with altered liver metabolism in patients with liver fibrosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0765.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Zanthoxylum armatum; Coleosporium zanthoxyli; Transcriptome; Metabolome; Disease resistance; Phenylpropanoid metabolism
Online: 9 August 2023 (10:41:19 CEST)
Chinese pepper rust is a live parasitic fungal disease caused by Coleosporium zanthoxyli, which seriously affects the cultivation and industrial development of Z. armatum. Cultivating and planting resistant cultivars is considered the most economical and environmentally friendly strategy to control this disease. Therefore, the mining of excellent genes for rust resistance and analysis of the mechanism of rust resistance are the key strategies to achieve the targeted breeding of rust resistance. However, there is no relevant report on pepper rust resistance at present. The aim of the present study was to further explore the resistance mechanism of pepper by screening the rust-resistant germplasm resources in the early stage. Combined with the analysis of plant pathology, transcriptomics, and metabolomics, we found that the genes and metabolites related to phenylpropanoid metabolism were highly enriched in resistant varieties after pathogen infection, which indicated that phenylpropanoid metabolism might mediate the resistance of Z. armatum. This finding was further confirmed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, which revealed that the expression levels of core genes involved in phenylpropane metabolism in disease-resistant varieties were high. In addition, the difference in flavonoid content in the leaves between resistant and susceptible varieties further supported the conclusion that the flavonoid pathway is one of the main pathways involved in resistance formation in Chinese pepper, and MeJA is involved in the formation of resistance. Our research results not only help to better understand the resistance mechanism of Z. armatum rust but also contribute to the breeding and utilization of resistant varieties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2148.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: disease management; hemorragic events; hydroxyurea; resistance; symptomatic evaluation; patient-reported outcomes; thrombotic events; polycythemia vera
Online: 30 May 2023 (13:11:32 CEST)
Patients with polycythemia vera (PV) are at increased risk of thrombosis and hemorrhages. Although hydroxyurea (HU) has been the frontline therapy for patients at high-risk of vascular complications, about 25% of patients develop resistance/intolerance to this therapy. The aim of this non-interventional, multicenter cohort study was to understand the clinical characteristics and HU treatment response of Portuguese PV patients. HU resistance/intolerance was defined according to adjusted European LeukemiaNet (ELN) criteria. 134 PV patients with a mean disease duration of 4.8±5.0 years were included and followed up for 2 years. At baseline, most patients were ≥60 years old (83.2%), at high risk for thrombotic events (87.2%), and receiving HU therapy (79.1%). A total of 10 thrombotic events and 8 hemorrhagic events were reported, resulting in a 5-year probability of thrombo-hemorrhagic events of 17.2%. Hematocrit (p=0.007), hemoglobin (p=0.012) and MPN10 symptom score (12.0±11.6 vs 10.3±9.1; p=0.041) decreased significantly at the 24-month visit compared to baseline. Overall, 75.9% of patients met at least one of the adjusted ELN criteria for HU resistance. 14.4% of patients remained on HU throughout the study. The results from this real-world study may help identify the subset of patients at higher risk of disease sequelae who may benefit from earlier second-line treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0207.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: bacterial wilt; Ralstonia solanacearum; genotype-by-sequencing; disease resistance; quantitative trait loci; Solanum lycopersicum
Online: 16 May 2019 (10:35:18 CEST)
Bacterial wilt (BW), caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the major biotic factors limiting tomato production in the humid tropics. Pyramiding of resistance genes through marker-assisted selection is an efficient way to develop durable BW resistant cultivars. Tomato line ‘Hawaii 7996’ (H7996) is a stable and robust resistance source against various R. solanacearum strains. Major BW resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) Bwr-12 and Bwr-6, and several minor or strain specific QTLs have been coarse-mapped in this line, but none has been fine-mapped and validated. The objective of the current study was to construct a high density genetic map using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers derived from genotyping-by-sequencing, fine-map Bwr-12 and Bwr-6 and determine the effects of these QTLs using a near isogenic line (NIL) population. A high density genetic map using 1,604 SNP markers with an average distance of 0.82 cM was developed for 188 F9 recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross H7996 × WVa700. A total of seven QTLs associated with BW resistance to race 1-phylotype I or/and race 3-phylotype II strains were located on chromosomes 6 (Bwr-6.1, 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4) and 12 (Bwr-12.1, Bwr-12.2 and Bwr-12.3) with logarithm of odds (LOD) scores of 6.2-15.6 and 6.2-31.1, explaining 14.2-33.4% and 15.9-53.9% of the total phenotypic variation contributed from H7996, respectively. To validate the genetic effects of the two QTL regions, a set of 80 BC3F3 NILs containing different sections of Bwr-6 with or without Bwr-12 was phenotyped for disease severity after challenge with either race 1-phylotype I Pss4 or race 3-phylotype II Pss1632 BW strains over two seasons. Bwr-6.1 specific to Pss4 and Bwr-6.3 specific to Pss1632 were mapped to an interval of 5.0 cM (P < 0.05) between 6_33,444,000_SLM6-47 and 6_33,868,000_SLM6-124 SNP marker, and to 2.7 cM (P < 0.01) between positions 6_35,949,000 _SLM6-107 to 6_36,750,000_SLM6-82 marker, respectively. In addition, the specific effect of Bwr-12 for resistance to Pss4 (LOD score of 5.8-16.1, P < 0.01) was confirmed and markers for this QTL have already been made available previously.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0297.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: ATG8; ATG4; autophagy; Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4; plant disease resistance
Online: 6 December 2023 (03:17:36 CET)
Banana is one of the most important fruits in the world due to its status as a major food source for more than 400 million people. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4) causes substantial losses of banana crops every year, and molecular host resistance mechanisms are currently unknown. We here performed a genome-wide analysis of the autophagy related protein 8 (ATG8) family in a wild banana species. The banana genome was found to contain 10 MaATG8 genes. Four MaATG8s formed a gene cluster in the distal part of chromosome 4. Phylogenetic analysis of ATG8 families in banana, Arabidopsis thaliana, Citrus, rice, and ginger revealed five major phylogenetic clades shared by all of these plant species, demonstrating evolutionary conservation of the MaATG8 families. The transcriptomic analysis of plants infected with Foc TR4 showed that almost all of the MaATG8 genes were more highly induced in resistant cultivars than in susceptible cultivars. Finally, MaATG8F was found to interact with MaATG4B in vitro (with yeast two-hybrid assays), and MaATG8F and MaATG4B all positively regulated banana resistance to Foc TR4. Our study provides novel insights into the structure, distribution, evolution, and expression of the MaATG8 family in bananas. Furthermore, the discovery of interactions between MaATG8F and MaATG4 could facilitate future researches of disease resistance genes for genetic improvement of bananas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0340.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Cannabidiol; Alzheimer's disease; Huntington's disease; Multiple sclerosis; Parkinson’s disease; Prion disease; Proteinopathies
Online: 21 May 2020 (09:43:09 CEST)
Cannabidiol is a well-known non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid from Cannabis sativa, which exerts a broad range of neuropharmacological activities in the central nervous systems. Over the past years, compelling evidence from preclinical and clinical studies support therapeutic potentials of cannabidiol in various neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the accumulation of misfolded or aggregated protein due to the defective protein homeostasis or proteostasis network, termed as proteinopathies. Because of its role in the protein homeostasis network, cannabidiol could be a potent molecule to revert not only age-associated neurodegeneration but also other protein misfolding disorders. In this review, we discuss the potentiality of cannabidiol as a pharmacological modulator of the proteostasis network, highlighting its neuroprotective and aggregates clearing system inducing potentials in the neurodegenerative diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0338.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: disease incidence; emerging disease; Cultivated forage crops; plant pathology; disease incidence; emerging disease
Online: 24 January 2022 (09:57:58 CET)
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most important forage crops in the world. In Bolivia it is cultivated in different parts of the High Andes and in the Interandean Valleys. The species is affected by several fungal diseases which reduce production, but before 2016 hardly any mention had been made of virus disease in the region. The aims of the present work were: 1) to describe the symptomology of this apparent viral disease, and ii) determine its effects on the yield of different alfalfa cultivars available from the CIF-UMSS. In 2016, a plot was established at Tiquipaya (Dept. of Cochabamba) (altitude 2480 m) was planted with 12 alfalfa cultivars. Disease incidence values were estimated and the area under the disease progress curves (AUDPC) calculated. The disease progress curves themselves were analyzed using logit functions for polycyclic diseases, and yields were determined. Disease symptoms included deformation of the folioles, thickened veins, the presence of vein enations and papillae on the abaxial leaves, reduced plant size - all symptoms of infection apparently caused by Alfalfa Dwarf Virus. The different cultivars returned different incidence values. They also returned different apparent infection rates ranging from 0.072/day for Cóndor, to 0.113/day for Tamborada. The different cultivars returned different dry weight yields, with yields inversely related to the AUDPC. In conclusion, based on the foliar symptoms registered, the viral disease is associated with the Alfalfa Dwarf Virus. The twelve cultivars evaluated presented different incidence levels of the viral disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0534.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Crohn's disease; renal disease; amyloidosis
Online: 23 July 2020 (07:50:19 CEST)
Crohn's disease (CD) results from an aberrant immune response against the commensal microbiota in genetically susceptible hosts. However, the nature of the immune defects, the microflora involved and the genetic susceptibility remain incompletely defined and controversial. Extraintestinal manifestations occur in up to 25-35% of patients and generally precede the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms, which are often of a colonic nature and are influenced by disease activity. Renal manifestations can be considered dependent on the same immune mechanism that determines inflammatory bowel disease in CD. This review seeks to describe the current state of association between CD and kidney disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0036.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Crohn's disease; renal disease; amyloidosis
Online: 4 February 2020 (04:51:50 CET)
Crohn's disease (CD) results from an aberrant immune response against commensal microbiota in genetically susceptible hosts. However, the nature of immune defects, the microflora involved, and genetic susceptibility remain incompletely defined and controversial. This review seeks to describe the present state of association between CD and renal disease; moreover, we highlight the convergence of CD with amyloidosis that can trigger sustained inflammation, producing the pathological alteration observed in both diseases. The following MESH terms were searched in PubMed, PubMed Central (PMC), and Web of Science: “Crohn´s disease” and “renal disease.” The R RISmed package was used for PubMed and PMC. The abnormal humoral immune response is described along with alterations in immune cell migration mechanisms in CD during inflammation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0166.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Crohn’s disease; periodontal disease; Crohn’s disease activity indexes; periodontal indexes
Online: 2 November 2023 (10:51:54 CET)
Introduction: Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory granulomatous disease that can affect the entire gastrointestinal tract. It is characterized by various extraintestinal manifestations (EIM), of which oral manifestations (OM) are often possible. One of the possible OM is periodontal disease (PD) a chronic inflammatory condition of the supporting tissues of the teeth. This study aimed to show the existence of a mutual relationship between the clinical activity of PD and the clinical and endoscopic activity of CD. Materials and methods: Using one clinical and two endoscopic indexes for the assessment of CD activity and clinical attachment loss (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), pocket probing depth (PPD) and radiographic bone loss (RDL) on dental panoramic tomogram to assess PD in CD patients. Results: A total of 38 patients underwent the entire study process, of which 20 patients with CD and 18 patients with CD and PD. Considering all CD activity scores, there were 26 patients with active disease, and half of them had PD, and 85.7% of operated patients had active CD. Values of CAL, PPD, BOP and RBL were higher in active CD than remission, except BOP when compared to CDAI score which was higher in remission of CD. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study indicate that there is a connection between the activity of CD and the worse condition of the supporting tissues of the gums in the oral cavity which is important to keep in mind the necessity of referring patients with CD to a dentist for timely and adequate therapeutic measures.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; public health intervention; disease severity; personal survival strategy; randomized control trials; epidemiological model; junk science; mind and body; reductionist
Online: 24 August 2020 (03:11:34 CEST)
To predict how the COVID-19 pandemic progresses, we developed a systematic method for predicting disease outcomes. In the method, we evaluate how personal disease outcomes are mainly affected by viral concentration and exposure time and four defense mechanisms: human innate immunity/host response, acquired immune response, inflammation resolution and micro circulation, and the available space in the thorax cage. By considering how pandemic measures affect viral exposure and those mechanisms, we found many pandemic measures are misused or abused to deliver long-term adverse impacts. We noted that lifestyles have been changed as a result of movement restriction measures. By using the method, we found that altered lifestyles are predicted to raise infection rate, disability and death risks in the future. We show that a person can use personal, environmental, emotional factors to reduce infection rate and death risk. To prove the validity of this finding, we extensively examined medical research models, holistic and reductionist models, epidemiological models, disease risk factors, etc, and found that population methods are unfit for studying holistic health, statistical population does not exist in most clinical trials, mathematical models were misused for studying disease properties for a population, mathematical equations for modeling personal diseases are beyond human ability to solve, statistical models are misused, population-derived treatments are inherently dangerous to patients, vaccines have limited benefits due to unique lung structure and rapid RNA mutation, and immune system damage is caused by fast viral replication rate. We found that altering biological properties to improve the defense mechanisms could prevent a super majority of deaths and prevent the virus from reaching a point to damage the immune system. For vulnerable persons, such measure is a viable strategy for surviving from the pandemic. As a whole, holistic personalized medicine is more powerful than population-based reductionist treatment by one to several orders of magnitudes. We urge people do their parts to force the medical establishment to abandon population treatment models that are responsible for failure of medicine and dissemination of misleading and factually wrong information on the effectiveness of medical treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0020.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: infliximab; pharmacokinetics; disease control; inflammatory bowel disease
Online: 1 September 2023 (11:52:39 CEST)
Objective: Infliximab (IFX) concentrations are a predictive factor (PF) of pharmacokinetic (PK) origin in the treatment of Crohn’s disease (CD). We evaluated clearance, another PF of PK origin, either alone or in combination with concentrations. Methods: PF of PK origin were evaluated from two cohorts, the first received standard dosing (n=37), and the second was designed to proactively target therapeutic IFX concentrations (n=108). Concentrations were measured using homogenous mobility shift assay. Clearance was estimated using nonlinear mixed effects methods with Bayesian priors. C-reactive protein based clinical remission (<3mg/L in the absence of symptoms) was used for the disease control outcome. Longitudinal changes in disease control due to factors including time, IFX concentration, and clearance were analyzed using repeated event analysis. Change in objective function value (∆OFV) was calculated to compare concentration and clearance. Results: Lower baseline clearance and proactive dosing associated with enhanced disease control during induction (p<0.01). Higher IFX concentrations and lower Clearance measured at the second, third and fourth infusion yielded improved disease control during maintenance (p<0.032). During maintenance, the association with disease control was better with clearance than with concentrations (∆OFV= -19.2; p<0.001), and the combination of both further minimized OFV (p<0.001) with markedly improved clinical yield in the presence of both PF of PK origin. Conclusion: PF of PK origin and lower clearance during induction and maintenance yielded enhanced disease control in pediatric CD treated with IFX. The combination of IFX concentration and clearance are better predictors of therapeutic outcome compared to either one alone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0329.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; Genetic testing; bioethics
Online: 21 June 2018 (04:38:35 CEST)
Over the last decade, advances in our understanding about the genetic architecture of complex traits and common diseases, have increased our ability to perform susceptibility genetic testing for diseases in asymptomatic individuals. These technological developments raise complex ethical, legal and social considerations. Here we discuss a series of ethical issues associated with susceptibility genetic testing for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. These include, amongst others, informed consent, disclosure of results and unexpected findings, mandatory screening, privacy and confidentiality, and stigma and genetic discrimination. As knowledge of the genetic basis of these diseases continues growing, and as genetic testing becomes more widespread, we anticipate that it will become increasingly important for scientists and clinicians to engage in the conversation about the ethical, social and policy implications of these technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0023.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: gluten; celiac disease; antibodies; Ménière’s disease; vertigo
Online: 2 May 2017 (05:49:26 CEST)
Background: Meniere's disease (MD) has been recently linked to gluten assumption. Approximately 75% of MD patients show positive skin test to food and about 50% of the positive responses are specific to the gliadin acid extract fraction. Aim of this study was to investigate the humoral immune responses to wheat antigens and related autoantigens in MD patients. Methods. We assessed the reactivity of sera from 28 patients with definite MD and 100 healthy controls against a repertoire of 51 antigens usually associated with immune reaction to gluten. Results. MD patients showed an increase of anti-wheat IgA, anti-cerebellar peptide IgA and anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65 IgM compared to healthy controls. In particular, the increase of anti-wheat IgA and GAD 65 IgM has been confirmed in a subgroup of MD patients symptomatically responding to a gluten free diet (GFD). Conclusion. In MD patients, an increase of the antibody production against gluten biomarkers was observed; in particular, anti-wheat IgA seems to be associated to clinical response to GFD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0396.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: neurodegenerative disease; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Huntington’s disease; multiple sclerosis; tryptophan; kynurenines; biomarkers; personalized medicine
Online: 13 November 2020 (20:57:22 CET)
Neurodegenerative diseases are multifactorial, initiated by a series of the causative complex which develops into a certain clinical picture. The pathogenesis and disease course vary from patient to patient. Thus, it should be likewise to the treatment. Peripheral biomarkers are to play a central role for tailoring a personalized therapeutic plan for patients who suffered from neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s diseases, Parkinson’s disease, and multiple sclerosis, among others. Nevertheless, the use of biomarkers in clinical practice is still underappreciated and data presented in biomarker research for clinical use is still uncompelling, compared to abundant data available for drug research and development. So is the case with kynurenines (KYNs) and the kynurenine pathway (KP) enzymes which have been associated with a wide range of diseases including cancer, autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases, neurologic diseases, and psychiatric disorders. This review article discusses current knowledge of the KP alteration observed in the central nervous system as well as the periphery, its involvement in pathogenesis and disease progression, and emerging evidence of roles of microbiota to the gut-brain axis, searching for practical peripheral biomarkers which ensure personalized treatment plans for neurodegenerative diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Sarcopenia; MASLD; Liver Disease; Aging.; Steatotic liver disease
Online: 1 November 2023 (07:06:18 CET)
Introduction: Sarcopenia, muscle loss, often coexists with MASLD, a common liver disorder, which is more prevalent in those with sarcopenia. Sarcopenia also increases the risk of liver conditions like steatosis and fibrosis. Studies on sarcopenia in MASLD are common in developed countries, but fewer follow the EWGSOP2 guidelines in Brazil. Aim: to assess sarcopenia prevalence in MASLD patients. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted at the Gastroen-terology/Hepatology Service of ISCMPA with patients diagnosed with MASLD. The EWGSOP2 criteria were used to evaluate sarcopenia. Categorical data presented as absolute and relative frequency; parametric continuous data ex-pressed as mean±standard deviation; non-parametric continuous data as me-dian and IQR. Gender differences in were analyzed using Fisher's Exact Test or Chi-squared tests, and for continuous variables, T Student tests (parametric) and Mann-Whitney U tests for independent samples (non-parametric). The significance level was set at 5% (p<0.05). Results: The study involved 103 MASLD patients with an average age of 60.39 years, comprising 48 (46.60%) adults and 55 (53.40%) older individuals. Concerning sarcopenia diagnosis, four individuals exhibited decreased muscle strength; two had reduced MME (sarcopenia); and one showed decreased walking speed (severe sarcopenia). Among the participants, 63 (60.6%) were physically active. 35 (62.5%) had mild to moderate steatosis, while 21 (37.5%) had severe steatosis. In terms of EHNA, 13 subjects (24.08%) had moderate to severe EHNA. Regarding fibrosis classi-fication, 68 (72.34%) individuals had undetermined or high probability based on the NAFLD score, with higher prevalence in males (n=23; 88.5%). Fibrosis assessment via liver biopsy revealed 27 (28.72%) in F1 and F2 and 15 (16.96%) in F3 and F4. Stratification of fibrosis into F3 and F4 was more com-mon among men (n=9; 47.4%). Conclusion: Most of the population was physi-cally active. The parameters indicating sarcopenia exceeded the thresholds recommended by EWGSOP2. The prevalence of sarcopenia was low in individuals with MASLD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1522.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Atenolol; mortality; Asians; chronic progressive disease; cardiovascular disease
Online: 22 September 2023 (04:36:12 CEST)
Background: The current review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of atenolol on all-cause mortality rate among Asian patients with chronic progressive diseases, mainly diabetes mellitus, primary hypertension, and coronary artery disease. Methods: We searched the COCHRANE, MEDLINE, TRIP, and EMBASE databases for published articles up to 31 March 2023. Studies that compared all-cause mortality rates among Asian patients who were on atenolol or other medications were included. Results: The review included 79603 Asian patients from three cohort studies. Out of the studied patients, 36046 were atenolol users and 43557 were non-atenolol users. The review revealed that atenolol users recorded lower all-cause mortality rates compared to non-users with a significant difference (OR= 0.57, CI= 0.44-0.75, P<0.001). The pooled estimate of the all-cause mortality rate was also lower among atenolol users (7.02%) compared to metoprolol tartrate users (13.15%) with a significant difference (OR= 0.50, CI= 0.47-0.53, p < 0.0001). Although the included studies were categorized as having a low risk of bias for most of the studied domains, significant heterogeneity was recorded across these studies (I2 =88%, P=0.001). Conclusion: This review found that atenolol when compared to a control or metoprolol tartrate, has a significant effect in reducing the all-cause mortality rate among Asian patients with chronic progressive disease.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0809.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; condensed cytokines; intrathecal; PRP
Online: 12 June 2023 (09:12:30 CEST)
Choroid plexus insufficiency or glymphatic stasis are often classified as prequels to harmful accretion of toxic proteins in neurodegenerative disease. Cognitive decline and memory loss subsequently become cardinal features of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), typically progressing with amyloid-ß and tau protein accumulation. For Parkinson’s disease (PD), α-synuclein deposits and dopamine depletion are linked to impaired movement, resting tremor, and rigidity. Importantly, both diagnoses are accompanied by hyperinflammation and intrathecal cytokine changes. Thus far, numerous clinical trials for investigational drugs have produced nothing effective for AD or PD, yet the anti-inflammatory and regenerative potential of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) remains largely unexamined in this context. This report explores a proposed Phase I study on intrathecal condensed plasma growth factors processed from autologous thrombin-activated PRP as monotherapy for AD or PD. The concept gains support from related work where cytokines of platelet origin successfully lowered inflammation, corrected background fibrosis, deactivated abnormal cells, and recovered local tissue function—all desirable outcomes in AD and PD. PRP-mediated effects on membrane potentials, electrolyte balance, and water clearance are less well characterized, but experimental evidence suggests these pathways could likewise influence glymphatic drainage to ameliorate proteinopathies. As a well-tolerated ‘orthobiologic’ with no hypersensitivity risk, intrathecal PRP and its derivatives bring advantages distinct from synthetic pharmaceuticals. If age-associated neuroinflammation in AD and PD is an upstream event contributing to neural disruption, then dampening local oxidative stress by a patient’s own platelet cytokines (as already proven in other tissues) could offer therapeutic relevance to these neurodegenerative conditions as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0616.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Crop Disease Classification; Crop Disease Dataset; Image Augmentation
Online: 8 June 2023 (09:47:54 CEST)
Crop disease classification has always been a critical and persistent problem in the field of agricultural and forestry sciences, where often we do not have access to a sufficient number of samples to know the distribution of real-world samples. How to make full use of the existing data is the starting point of our thinking. To address this problem, this paper proposes a supervised image augmentation method Negative Contrast, which uses the contrast images of existing disease samples after removing disease areas as negative samples for image augmentation when samples are relatively scarce. Numerous experiments have shown that several classical models using this augmentation method have improved in disease classification of four crops, rice, wheat, corn, and soybean, with a maximum accuracy improvement of 30.8%. In addition, the comparative analysis of attentional heat map shows that the model using Negative Contrast is more accurate and intense on the area of interest of diseases, and thus reflects better generalization ability in real-world disease classification. Our dataset and codes can be found in https://www.kaggle.com/datasets/w970704112/corn-wheat-rice-soybean and https://github.com/hiter0/contrastaug .
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; Alzheimer’s Disease; Clinical trial; Precision medicine.
Online: 5 July 2021 (16:08:41 CEST)
Concomitant neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) are common in the brains of people with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Furthermore, AD biomarkers are associated with cognitive decline and dementia in PD patients during life. Here, we highlight the considerable overlap between AD and PD, emphasizing neuropathological, biomarker, and mechanistic studies. We suggest that precision medicine approaches may successfully identify PD patients most likely to develop concomitant AD. The ability to identify PD patients at high risk for future concomitant AD in turn provides an ideal cohort for trials of AD-directed therapies in PD patients, aimed at delaying or preventing cognitive symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0435.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: chronic kidney disease; hemodialysis; cardiovascular disease; echocardiography; child
Online: 4 July 2019 (10:37:00 CEST)
Assessment of cardiac function is the leading parameter when evaluating the state of the cardiovascular system of patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. The aim of the paper: to assess the state of the cardiovascular system of these patients using new sensitive echocardiography and Doppler techniques and thus advance the prevention of cardiovascular disease.Method: Twenty children with end-stage renal insufficiency on chronic hemodialysis and twenty healthy controls underwent echocardiographic monitoring using standard Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging. Structural and functional changes in the left ventricle were evaluated.Results: Patients on hemodialysis had significantly greater left ventricular mass indices compared to the controls (p<0.001). The patients on hemodialysis had preserved systolic function – their fractional shortening, ejection fraction and Sm (systolic myocardial velocity) did not differ significantly compared to the controls (p>0.05). Early diastolic function in children on hemodialysis was also preserved: the E/A and Em/Am ratio did not differ significantly from the control group (p>0.05). Children on hemodialysis exhibited impaired late diastolic function (compliance index), that is, considerably higher E/Em compared to controls (p<0.00). Myocardial Performance Index values showed statistically significant elevation in children on hemodialysis compared to the control group (p<0.001).Conclusion: Tissue Doppler in tandem with conventional Pulsed Doppler can provide additional information on left ventricular filling pressures (E/Em) in children on hemodialysis. It is therefore recommended to perform routine measuring of Em waves and the E/Em ratio, not only in order to evaluate myocardial relaxation and ventricular filling pressures, but primarily to stratify risk and provide a prognosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0937.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Google Trends; disease prediction; Lyme disease; Lyme; Big Data; One Health; negative binomial; mixed models; zoonotic disease; tick-borne disease
Online: 11 August 2023 (11:01:40 CEST)
Google Trends data can be informative for infectious disease incidences, including Lyme disease. However, the use of Google Trends for predictive purposes is underutilized. In this study, we tested the ability of Google Trends search data to predict monthly state-level Lyme disease case counts in the United States. We requested Lyme disease data for the years 2010-2021. We downloaded Google Trends search data on terms for Lyme disease, symptoms of Lyme disease, and diseases with similar symptoms as Lyme disease. We built mixed negative binomial models based on a training dataset (2010-2016) and tested the models on a test dataset (2017-2021). A model was built for each search term and monthly lags of search terms were included as predictors. The highest performing models had high predictive ability, indicated by low Root Mean Squared Errors (RMSEs) and close association between observed and predicted case counts. The highest performing model was for the search term “Summer Flu”, which indicates low specificity of some of the terms. We outline challenges of using Google Trends data, including data availability and a mismatch between geographic units. We discuss opportunities for Google Trends data, including prediction of additional zoonotic diseases and incorporating environmental and companion animal data.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0383.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Calabria; Italy; neurodegenerative diseases; Alzheimer’s disease; Frontotemporal dementia; Par-kinson’s disease; Niemann Pick type C disease; Spino-cerebellar ataxia; Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease; Gerstmann Straussler Scheincker disease
Online: 22 August 2022 (11:23:49 CEST)
Although originally multi-ethnic in its structure, nowadays the Calabria region of southern Italy represents an area with a low genetic heterogeneity and a high level of consanguinity that allows rare mutations to be maintained due to the founder effect. A complex research methodology ranging from clinical activity to genealogical reconstruction of families/populations along the centuries, creation of databases, and molecular/genetic research, has been modelled on the characteristics of the Calabrian population for more than three decades. This methodology allows to the identification of several novel genetic mutations or variants associated with neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, in this population it has been reported a higher prevalence of several hereditary neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson’s disease, Niemann Pick type C disease, Spino-cerebellar ataxia, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and Gerstmann Straussler Scheincker disease. Thus, Calabria constitutes a model for the study of neurodegenerative diseases, a sort of "outdoor laboratory" useful for the advancement of knowledge in this field. Here, we summarize and discuss some results of research data supporting the view that Calabria is a genetic isolate and could represent a useful model for the study and characterization of neurodegenerative diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1883.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs); innate immunity; sepsis; lung disease; cardiovascular disease; liver disease; kidney disease; diabetes; COVID-19; coagulopathy and thrombotic microangiopathy; cancer; autoimmunity; preeclampsia; Kawasaki disease
Online: 28 September 2023 (04:00:59 CEST)
Neutrophils are the principal trouper of innate immune system. Activated neutrophils undergo a noble cell death termed NETosis and release a mesh-like structure called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) as a part of their defensive strategy against microbial pathogen attack. This web-like architecture includes a DNA backbone embedded with antimicrobial proteins like myeloperoxidase (MPO), neutrophil elastase (NE), histones etc. and deploys in the entrapment and clearance of encountered pathogens. Thus NETs play an inevitable beneficial role in the host's protection. However, recent accumulated evidence shows that dysregulated and enhanced NET formation has various pathological aspects including promotion of sepsis, pulmonary, cardiovascular, hepatic, nephrological, thrombotic, autoimmune, pregnancy, cancer diseases etc. and the list is increasing gradually. In this review, we summarize NETs mediated pathophysiology of different diseases, focus on some updated potential therapeutic approaches against NETs and share our future perspectives.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1229.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Molecular Genetics; Neurodegenerative Disease; Molecular pathology; Epigenetics; Gene expression; Therapeutic targets; Biomarkers; Alzheimer’s Disease; Parkinson’s Disease; Huntington Disease; Amyotrphic Lateral Sclerosis
Online: 17 May 2023 (10:28:26 CEST)
The Neurodegenerative Diseases are, according to recent studies, one of the main causes of disability and death worldwide. Interest in molecular genetics has started to have an exponential growth thanks to numerous advancements in tech, shifts in the understanding of the disease as a phenomenon, and the change of perspective regarding gene editing and the upsides of this action. The aim of this paper is to analyse the newest approaches in genetics and molecular sciences regarding four of the most important neurodegenerative disorders: Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, Huntington’s Disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. We intend through this review to focus on the newest treatment, diagnosis and predictions plans regarding this large group of diseases, in order to obtain a better accuracy analysing and spotting the emerging signs that could lead to a better outcome in order to increase both the quality and the life span of the patient. Moreover, this review could provide future evidence of possible novelty therapies that target the specific genes and could be useful to be taken into consideration when the classical approaches fail to shed light.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0808.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; Niemann-Pick type C disease; neurodegeneration; neuroinflammation; immunomodulatory therapies; rare diseases
Online: 13 September 2023 (07:33:01 CEST)
Many of the potential immune therapeutic targets are similarly affected in adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s (AD) disease, Parkinson’s disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), but also in a seemingly distinct Niemann-Pick type C disease with primarily juvenile-onset. This strongly argues for an overlap in pathogenic mechanisms. The commonly researched immune targets include various immune cell subsets such as microglia, peripheral macrophages, or regulatory T cells (Tregs), the complement system, and other soluble factors. In this review, we will compare these neurodegenerative diseases from a clinical point of view and point out the common pathways and mechanisms of protein aggregation, neurodegeneration and/or neuroinflammation that could potentially lead to shared treatment strategies. We also describe the common therapeutic approaches in treating the immune dysfunctions in these disorders, moving from immunization to microbiome regulation and stem cell treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0393.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Parkinson's disease; Huntington's disease; Integration; Shared patterns; Neurodegeneration; Multi-Omics; Alzheimer's Disease; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Online: 19 October 2020 (15:44:47 CEST)
Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis are heterogeneous, progressive diseases with frequently overlapping symptoms characterized by a loss of neurons. Studies suggested relations between neurodegenerative diseases for many years, e.g., regarding the aggregation of toxic proteins or triggering endogenous cell death pathways. Within this study, publicly available genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic data were gathered from 188 studies and more than one million patients to detect shared genetic patterns between the neurodegenerative diseases and the analyzed omics-layers within conditions. The results show a remarkably high number of shared genes between the transcriptomic and proteomic levels for all diseases while showing a significant relation between genomic and proteomic data only in some cases. A set of 139 genes was found to be differentially expressed in several transcriptomic experiments of all four diseases. These 139 genes showed overrepresented GO-Terms and pathways mainly involved in stress response, cell development, cell adhesion, and the cytoskeleton. Furthermore, the overlap of two and three omics-layers per disease were used to search for overrepresented pathways and GO-Terms. Taken together, we could confirm the existence of many relations between Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis on the transcriptomic and proteomic level by analyzing the pathways and GO-Terms arising in these intersections. The significance of the connection between the transcriptomic and proteomic data for all four analyzed neurodegenerative diseases showed that exploring these omics-layers simultaneously holds new insights that do not emerge from analyzing these omics-layers separately. Our data therefore suggests addressing human patients with neurodegenerative diseases as complex biological systems by integrating multiple underlying data sources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1638.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: autoimmune inner ear disease; sensorineural hearing loss; Meniere’s disease
Online: 25 October 2023 (10:21:22 CEST)
Background: Autoimmune inner ear disease (AIED) is a rare autoimmune condition characterized by progressive sensorineural hearing loss with hearing fluctuations over weeks to months, presenting significant challenges in both diagnosis and treatment. Due to its rarity, treatment responses and prognosis in AIED remain poorly understood. Methods: This study reviewed medical records from Taipei Medical University Hospital documented between August 2016 and August 2021. Among 67 patients experiencing fluctuating hearing loss, 11 met the diagnostic criteria for AIED and underwent regular follow-up assessments within a 5-year timeframe. ROC curve was used to discriminate the power of these prognostic parameters. Results: In this study, several factors including younger age, milder initial hearing loss, meeting criteria for bilateral Meniere's disease (MD), having an ascending audiogram pattern, longer time interval between hearing impairment attacks in contralateral ears and responding well to steroids were associated with better prognosis. ROC curve demonstrated the diagnostic value of specific parameters such as the presence of bilateral MD (AUC 0.825, 95% CI 0.640–1.000), pretreatment HI ≤ 45 dB HL (AUC 0.808, 95% CI 0.610–1.000), response to steroids (AUC 0.800, 95% CI 0.595–1.000), and ascending audiogram (AUC 0.858, 95% CI 0.683–0.858). Conclusions: This study identified key prognostic factors for AIED, providing valuable insights for predicting AIED prognosis and facilitating personalized patient management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1825.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Inflammatory bowel disease; Crohn's Disease; Ulcerative Colitis; Pregnancy; Newborn
Online: 28 August 2023 (09:20:55 CEST)
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) presents distinct challenges during pregnancy due to its influence on maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. This literature review aims to dissect the existing scientific evidence on pregnancy in women with IBD and provide evidence-based recommendations for clinical management. A comprehensive search was conducted across scientific databases, selecting clinical studies, systematic reviews, and other pertinent resources. Numerous studies have underscored an increased risk of complications during pregnancy for women with IBD, including preterm birth, low birth weight, neonates small for gestational age, and congenital malformations. Nevertheless, it's evident that proactive disease management before and throughout pregnancy can mitigate these risks. Continuation of IBD treatment during pregnancy and breastfeeding is deemed safe with agents like thiopurines, anti-TNF, vedolizumab, or ustekinumab. However, there's a call for caution when combining treatments due to the heightened risk of severe infections in the first year of life. For small molecules, their use is advised against in both scenarios. Effective disease management, minimizing disease activity, and interdisciplinary care are pivotal in attending to women with IBD. The emphasis is placed on the continual assessment of maternal and infant outcomes and an expressed need for further research to enhance the understanding of the ties between IBD and adverse pregnancy outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1873.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Bacterial Extracellular Vesicles; Therapeutics; Neurodegenerative Disease; Alzheimer's Disease; Nanocarriers
Online: 27 June 2023 (09:27:15 CEST)
Bacterial Extracellular Vesicles (BEVs) generated from the bacteria has high feasibility of intracellular interactions with other cells, can be used as a cargo to deliver any therapeutic substances like monoclonal antibodies, proteins, plasmids, siRNA and small molecules for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). BEVs have a high ability for delivering therapeutic molecules across the blood-brain barrier to treat Alzheimer's Disease (AD) via various mechanisms. In this review, we have sum up in-depth research details of the role and advancement of BEVs in NDs, AD and its Therapeutics. Moreover, details about offensive and defensive functions of BEVs in ND pathogenesis and examine the critical BEV networks in the microbiome-gut-brain axis and their role in neurodegenerative disorders. Additionally determining the roles of BEVs in the neuroimmune system and their interaction with neurodegenerative disorders and exploring the risk factors of BEVs in the autophagy-lysosomal pathway and their possible effects on neurodegenerative disorders are summarised in detail. In conclusion, this review seeks to contribute to a better understanding of the potential function of BEVs in NDs and to identify new therapeutic intervention strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1245.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: diabetic kidney disease; metabolic-associated fatty liver disease; biomarker
Online: 16 June 2023 (13:36:04 CEST)
Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) and diabetic kidney disease (DKD) share various pathophysiological factors, and epidemiological evidence suggests that these two diseases are associated. Albuminuria and the estimated glomerular filtration rate, which are conventional biomarkers of DKD, are reportedly associated with the risk or severity of MAFLD. Recently, novel DKD biomarkers reflecting renal tubular injury have been introduced to complement conventional DKD markers. In this article, we looked at previous studies that showed an association between MAFLD and DKD and also reviewed the significance of DKD biomarkers as predictive risk factors for MAFLD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0048.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: ulcerative colitis; biomarkers; diagnosis; inflammatory bowel disease; Crohn’s disease
Online: 2 August 2021 (14:39:13 CEST)
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is one of the two disorders known as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) along with Crohn’s disease (CD), with complex pathogenesis, requiring costly invasive investigations. Objective: to examine the most recent biomarkers proposed for UC diagnosis; to establish the strategy used to make the differential diagnosis between UC and CD relying on these biomarkers, also adding the benefit of finding new non-invasive tools in managing this condition. The search was performed in a single database (Web of Science) using the specific keywords „ulcerative colitis”, „biomarkers” and „diagnosis” for the last five years. Study eligibility criteria: clinical trials on adults and pediatric patients with ulcerative colitis compared with Crohn’s disease. Results: We selected 57 studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and clinical case series (CCS), summarizing the latest most specific biomarkers in diagnosis of UC. Limitations: we considered RCTs and CCS from one database, limited to the search topics. Our findings indicate a important number of potential biomarkers with diagnostic value, which bring the advantage of a non-invasive method to approach this challenging disorder.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0178.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; Parkinson's disease; genetics; gene regulatory network; miRNAs
Online: 18 June 2019 (13:07:49 CEST)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are the most common neurodegenerative disorders related to aging. Though several risk factors are shared between these two diseases, the exact relationship between these two diseases is still unknown. In this paper, we analyzed how these diseases relate to each other from a genomics viewpoint. Using an extensive literature search, we accumulated the list of genes from the major genome-wide association (GWAS) studies. However, we found only one gene (HLA-DRB5) reported in these GWAS studies that are common between AD and PD. We also listed all the miRNAs that have been previously reported for AD and PD. Here we found 15 different miRNAs that were reported in both diseases. In order to get better insights, we predicted the gene coexpression network for both AD and PD. Network analysis on these networks show six clusters of genes related to AD and four clusters of genes related to PD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0727.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: newborn screening; lysosomal storage disease; Pompe disease; Mucopolysaccharidosis type I; Gaucher disease; Fabry disease; second tier test; tandem mass spectrometry; glycosaminoglycans; lysosphingosine.
Online: 10 November 2023 (16:19:05 CET)
In the last two decades, the development of high-throughput diagnostic methods and availabil-ity of effective treatments has increased interest in newborn screening for lysosomal storage disorders. However, long-term follow-up experience is needed to clearly identify risks, benefits and challenges. We report our 8-year experience of screening and follow up on about 250,000 neonates screened for four lysosomal storage diseases (Pompe disease, mucopolysaccharidosis type I, Fabry dis-ease, Gaucher disease), using enzyme activity assay by tandem mass spectrometry, and bi-omarker quantification as second tier test. Among the 126 positive newborns (0.051%), 51 infants were confirmed as affected (positive pre-dictive value 40%), with an overall incidence of 1:4,874. Of these, 3 infantile-onset Pompe dis-ease, 2 neonatal-onset Gaucher disease and 4 mucopolysaccharidosis type I patients were imme-diately treated. Furthermore, another four Gaucher disease patients needed treatment in the first years of life. Our study demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of newborn screening for lysosomal storage diseases. Early diagnosis and treatment allow the achievement of better patient out-comes. Challenges such as false positive rates, the diagnosis of variants of uncertain significance or late-onset forms, and the lack of treatment for neuronopathic forms, should be addressed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0270.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; clinical trial fails; disease-modifying treatments; alzheimer’s disease biomarkers; combination treatment; clinical trial designs
Online: 24 September 2019 (11:23:25 CEST)
Despite all scientific efforts and many protracted and expensive clinical trials, no new drug has been approved by FDA for treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD) since 2003. Indeed, more than 200 investigational programs have failed or have been abandoned in the last decade. The most probable explanations for failures of disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) for AD may include late initiation of treatments during the course of AD development, inappropriate drug dosages, erroneous selection of treatment targets, and mainly an inadequate understanding of the complex pathophysiology of AD, which may necessitate combination treatments rather than monotherapy. Clinical trials’ methodological issues have also been criticized. Current drug-development research for AD is aimed to overcome these drawbacks. Preclinical and prodromal AD populations, as well as traditionally investigated populations representing all the clinical stages of AD, are included in recent trials. Systematic use of biomarkers in staging preclinical and prodromal AD and of a single primary outcome in trials of prodromal AD are regularly integrated. The application of amyloid, tau, and neurodegeneration biomarkers, including new biomarkers—such as Tau positron emission tomography, neurofilament light chain (blood and CSF biomarker of axonal degeneration) and neurogranin (CSF biomarker of synaptic functioning)—to clinical trials allows more precise staging of AD. Additionally, use of the Bayesian statistics, modifiable clinical trial designs, and clinical trial simulators enrich the trial methodology. Besides, combination therapy regimens are currently assessed in clinical trials. The abovementioned diagnostic and statistical advances, which have been recently integrated in clinical trials, are consequential to the recent failures of studies of disease-modifying treatments. Their experiential rather than theoretical origins may better equip potentially successful drug-development strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0152.v2
Online: 23 February 2023 (02:56:41 CET)
A synoptic review of plant disease epidemics and outbreaks was made using two complementary approaches. The first approach involved reviewing scientific literature published in 2021, in which quantitative data related to new plant disease epidemics or outbreaks were obtained via surveys or similar methodologies. The second approach involved retrieving new records added in 2021 to the CABI Distribution Database, which contains over a million global geographic records of organisms from over 50,000 species. The literature review retrieved 186 articles, describing studies in 62 categories (pathogen species/species complexes) across >40 host species on 6 continents. Pathogen species with >5 articles were: Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, cassava mosaic viruses, citrus tristeza virus, Erwinia amylovora, Fusarium spp. complexes, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, Magnaporthe oryzae, maize lethal necrosis co-infecting viruses, Meloidogyne spp. complexes, Pseudomonas syringae pvs, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Xylella fastidiosa, and Zymoseptoria tritici. Automated searches of the CABI Distribution Database identified 617 distribution records new in 2021 of 283 plant pathogens. A further manual review of these records confirmed 15 pathogens reported in new locations: apple hammerhead viroid, apple rubbery wood viruses, Aphelenchoides besseyi, Biscogniauxia mediterranea, Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus, citrus tristeza virus, Colletotrichum siamense, cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus, Erwinia rhapontici, Erysiphe corylacearum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4, Globodera rostochiensis, Nothophoma quercina, potato spindle tuber viroid, and tomato brown rugose fruit virus. Of these, 4 pathogens had at least 25% of all records reported in 2021. We assessed two of these pathogens – tomato brown rugose fruit virus and cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus – to be actively emerging in/spreading to new locations. Although three important pathogens – Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus, citrus tristeza virus and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense – were represented in the results of both our literature review and our interrogation of the CABI Distribution Database, in general our dual approaches revealed distinct sets of plant disease outbreaks and new records, with little overlap.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0538.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Chronic kidney disease; End-stage kidney disease; amino acids; metabolites
Online: 7 September 2023 (11:24:56 CEST)
There is a pressing need for more precise biomarkers of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Plasma samples from 820 subjects [231 with CKD, 325 with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and 264 controls] were analyzed by LC-MS/MS to determine a metabolic profile of 28 aminoacids (AA) and biogenic amines to test their value as markers of CKD risk and progression. The Kynurenine/Tryptophan ratio showed the strongest correlation with estimated glomerular filtration rate values (coefficient=-0.731, P<0.0001). Models created with Orthogonal Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) containing the metabolic signature showed high goodness of fit and predictability for controls/CKD (R2X:0.73;R2Y:0.92;Q2:0.92) and lower for CDK/ESKD (R2X:0.56;R2Y:0.59;Q2:0.55). Based on generated VIP scores, the most relevant markers for segregating samples into control/CKD or CKD/ESKD groups were citrulline (1.67) and tryptophan (1.59), respectively. ROC analysis showed that the addition of the metabolic profile to a model including CKD classic risk factors improved AUC from 86.7% (83.6-89.9) to 100% (100-100) for CKD risk (P<0.0001), and from 63.0% (58.2-67.8) to 96.5% (95.3-97.8) for the risk of progression from CKD to ESKD (P<0.0001). Plasma concentrations of AA and related amines may be useful as diagnostic biomarkers of kidney disease, both for CKD risk and for progression of CKD patients to ESKD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0824.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: biopsychosocial approach; coronary artery disease; cardiovascular disease; SHARE survey; aging
Online: 10 August 2023 (08:14:46 CEST)
Myocardial infarction is one of the main causes of death, and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) are always considered when studying it. However, although it is known that other social and psychological variables, and especially frailty, can increase the risk of infarction, their simultaneous effect has not been extensively studied. This study is based on data from the SHARE project (latest wave, 8), with a representative sample of 46498 participants, aged 50 or older (M = 70.40, SD = 9.33), 57.4% were females. Statistical analyses included a full structural equation model that predicts 27% of infarction occurrence and evidences the significant effect of well-being, depression, and social connectedness on frailty. Frailty in turn explains 15.5% of the variability of CVRF. This work supports the need to study these physical, social, and mental health factors together to intervene on frailty, and in turn improve cardiovascular outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1406.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: circRNA; Parkinson's disease; RNAi; neurodegenerative disease; oligonucleo-tide-based therapies
Online: 20 June 2023 (08:27:50 CEST)
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are single-stranded RNA molecules often circularized by backsplicing. Growing evidence implicates circRNAs in the underlying mechanisms of various diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease (PD) - the first and second most prevalent neurodegenerative disorders. Several circRNAs are associated with brain damage, including circSNCA, circHIPK2, circHIPK3, and circSLC8A1. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies on circRNAs have shed light on their roles in the pathobiology of various diseases. Gain-of-function approaches typically employ viral or non-viral vectors that hyperexpress RNA sequences capable of circularizing to form the specific circRNA under investigation. In contrast, loss-of-function studies utilize CRISPR/Cas systems, antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), or RNAi techniques to knockdown the target circRNA. Given that aberrantly expressed circRNAs have been associated with brain pathologies, a critical question arises: could circRNAs serve as viable targets for neuroprotective treatments? Translating any oligonucleotide-based therapy, including those targeting circRNAs, involves developing adequate brain delivery systems, minimizing off-target effects, and addressing the high costs of treatment. Nonetheless, RNAi-based FDA-approved drugs have entered the market, and circRNAs have attracted significant attention and investment from major pharmaceutical companies. Spanning from bench to bedside, circRNAs present a vast opportunity in biotechnology for oligonucleotide-based therapies designed to slow or even halt the progression of neurodegenerative diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0767.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Data analytics; Cluster analysis; Disease mapping; Distance metrics; livestock Disease
Online: 12 June 2023 (05:10:55 CEST)
This study investigates how Electronic Livestock Health Recording Systems (ELHRs) facilitates the detection of disease burden and make cluster analysis by applying data analytics tools and techniques. A sample size of 18333 livestock disease cases reported from 2007-2015 by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Federal Democratic of Ethiopia was used for data collection. The results showed that ELHRs are important as livestock disease data preservers, saving costs, and facilitating the extraction of up-to-date and complete information. Euclidean and Manhattan distance performed well at 98%, while cosine distance measurement metrics performed poorly. Finally, with the application of the selected clustering techniques, metrics, tools, and dataset, it has been attempted to successfully detect an optimal number of disease clusters and meet the objectives of the study.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0098.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; mitochondria; oxidative stress; calcium; heterocyclic compounds
Online: 17 May 2023 (14:13:20 CEST)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) are the two most common neurodegenerative diseases in elderly. The key histopathological features of these diseases are the presence of abnormal protein aggregates and the progressive and irreversible loss of neurons in specific brain regions. The exact mechanisms underlying the etiopathogenesis of AD or PD remain unknown, but there is extensive evidence indicating that excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) along with a depleted antioxidant system, mitochondrial dysfunction, and intracellular Ca2+ dyshomeostasis play a vital role in the pathophysiology of these neurological disorders. Due to an improvement in life expectancy, the incidence of age-related neurodegenerative diseases has significantly increased. However, there is no effective protective treatment or therapy available but rather only very limited palliative treatment. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of preventive strategies and disease-modifying therapies to treat AD/PD. Because dysregulated Ca2+ metabolism drives oxidative damage and neuropathology in these diseases, the identification or development of compounds capable of restoring Ca2+ homeostasis and signaling may provide a neuroprotective avenue for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, a set of strategies to control mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis and signaling has been reported, including decreased Ca2+ uptake through voltage-operated Ca2+ channels (VOCCs). In this article, we review the modulatory effects of several heterocyclic compounds on Ca2+ homeostasis and trafficking, and their ability to regulate compromised mitochondrial function and associated free radical production during the onset and progression of AD or PD. This comprehensive review also describes the chemical synthesis of the heterocycles and summarizes the clinical trial outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Fatty liver disease; NAFLD; coronavirus disease 2019; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 4 April 2023 (09:31:42 CEST)
The global population is currently experiencing the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, which has caused the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. By our profound comprehension of COVID-19, encompassing the involvement sequence of the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal system, and cardiovascular apparatus, the multiorgan symptoms of this infectious disease have been discerned. Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a pervasive public health concern, intricately linked with metabolic dysregulation and estimated to afflict one-fourth of the global adult population. The burgeoning focus on the association between COVID-19 and metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is justified by the potential role of the latter as a risk factor for both SARS-CoV-2 infection and the subsequent emergence of severe COVID-19 symptoms. Investigations have suggested that changes in both innate and adaptive immune responses among metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) patients may play a role in determining the severity of COVID-19. The remarkable similarities observed in the cytokine pathways implicated in both diseases imply the existence of shared mechanisms governing the chronic inflammatory responses characterizing these conditions. The effect of metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) on the severity of COVID-19 illness remains uncertain, as indicated by conflicting results in cohort investigations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: acute kidney disease; chronic kidney disease; gene therapy; cell therapy
Online: 25 January 2023 (04:29:25 CET)
The rising global incidence of acute and chronic kidney diseases has increased the demand for renal replacement therapy. This issue, compounded with the limited availability of viable kidneys for transplantation, has propelled the search for alternative strategies to address the growing health and economic burdens associated with these conditions. In the search for such alternatives, significant efforts have been devised to augment the current and primarily supportive management of renal injury with novel regenerative strategies. For example, gene- and cell-based approaches that utilize recombinant peptides/proteins, gene, cell, organoid, and RNAi technologies have shown promising outcomes primarily in experimental models. Supporting research has also been conducted to improve our understanding of the critical aspects that facilitate the development of efficient gene- and cell-based techniques that the complex structure of the kidney has traditionally limited. This manuscript is intended to communicate efforts that have driven the development of such therapies by identifying the vectors and delivery routes needed to drive exogenous transgene incorporation that may support the treatment of acute and chronic kidney diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0209.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Systems Biology; Systems Medicine; Disease Mechanisms; Disease Maps; Network Biology
Online: 13 December 2022 (01:06:32 CET)
As a conceptual model of disease mechanisms, a disease map integrates available knowledge and is applied for data interpretation, predictions and hypothesis generation. It is possible to model disease mechanisms on different levels of granularity and adjust the approach to the goals of a particular project. This rich environment together with requirements for high-quality network reconstruction makes it challenging for new curators and groups to be quickly introduced to the development methods. In this review, we offer a step-by-step guide for developing a disease map within its mainstream pipeline that involves using the CellDesigner tool for creating and editing diagrams and the MINERVA Platform for online visualisation and exploration. We also describe how the Neo4j graph database environment can be used for managing and querying efficiently such a resource. For assessing the interoperability and reproducibility we apply FAIR principles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0179.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Population genetics; Pigmentary traits; Phototype; Pleiotropy; Skin disease; Eye disease
Online: 10 November 2022 (01:06:40 CET)
Human pigmentation has been largely associated with different disease prevalence among populations, but most of these studies are observational and inconclusive. Known to be genetically determined, pigmentary traits have been largely studied by GWAS, mostly in Caucasian ancestry cohorts from North Europe, identifying robustly, several loci involved in many of the pigmentary traits. Here, we conduct a detailed analysis of 13 pigmentary-related traits in a South European cohort of Caucasian ancestry (n=20,000). We observed fair phototype strongly associated with non-melanoma skin cancer and other dermatoses and confirmed by PRS-approach the shared genetic basis with skin and eye diseases, such as melanoma (OR=0.95), non-melanoma skin cancer (OR=0.93), basal cell carcinoma (OR=0.97) and darker phototype with vitiligo (OR=1.02), and cataracts (OR=1.04). Detailed genetic analyses revealed 37 risk loci associated with 10 out of 13 analyzed traits, and 16 fine-mapped genes significantly associated with at least two pigmentary traits. Some of them widely reported, such as MC1R, HERC2, OCA2, TYR, TYRP1, SLC45A2, and unveiling three new candidates RP11-1084J3.4, C1QTNF3 and C17orf112, not reported in GWAS Catalog. These results highlight the importance of phototype assessment as a genetic proxy of skin functionality when evaluating disease screening in mixed populations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Alzheimer’s Disease; Parkinson’s Disease; eye movements; Rough Set; Machine Learning
Online: 2 November 2022 (04:12:08 CET)
Humans are a vision-dominated species, and what we see depends on where we look. Therefore, eye movements (EM) are essential to our interactions with the environment, and experimental findings show EM is affected in neurodegenerative disorders (ND). It could be a reason for some cognitive and movement disorders in ND. Therefore, we aim to determine if changes in EM-evoked responses can tell us about ND, such as Alzheimer’s (AD) and Parkinson’s Disease (PD) progression in different stages. In the present review, we have analyzed the results of neurological, psychological, and EM (saccades, antisaccades, pursuit) tests to predict disease progression with Machine Learning (ML) methods. Described predictive algorithms are using various approaches, including Granular Computing, Naive Bayes, Decision Trees/Tables, Logistic Regression, C-/LinearSVC, KNC, and Random Forest. We demonstrated that EM is a robust biomarker for assessing symptom progression in PD and AD. There are also navigation problems in 3D space in both diseases. Consequently, we investigated EM experiments in the virtual space and how they may help find neurodegeneration-related brain changes. In conclusion: EM parameters with clinical symptoms are powerful precision instruments that, in addition to predictions of ND progression with the help of ML, could be used to indicate the different preclinical stages of both diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0320.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: crohn's disease; inflmmatory bowel disease; quality of life; ulcerative colitis
Online: 24 May 2022 (04:33:57 CEST)
Background: Crohn’s and Ulcerative Colitis Questionnaire-32 (CUCQ-32) is a validated questionnaire to measure the quality of life (QoL) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, it does not have stoma specific questions and can be lengthy. This study aimed to validate a subset of the CUCQ-32 that would be suitable for patients with a stoma. Methods: Baseline data were collected from a cohort of patients with acute ulcerative colitis who were participating in the CONSTRUCT multi-centre clinical trial. A subset of the CUCQ-32 questions was selected by stepwise regression. Further validation was examined using data from the UK IBD biological therapies audit. Construct validity was carried out using the EuroQol 5 dimensions (EQ5D) questionnaire, Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (SCCAI) and the Harvey-Bradshaw Index (HBI). Literature review and an expert focus group identified supplementary questions to cover patients with a stoma. Test-retest analysis was done during the patients’ second follow up visits. Results: Using the data from 124 patients, a short version questionnaire (CUCQ-12) was developed. Further validation using data from 484 patients with IBD as part of the UK IBD biological therapies audit. Using the data from 61 patients with a stoma, we identified 5 stoma specific questions for the CUCQ-12+. The CUCQ-12+ demonstrated excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s α= 0.86); established effective reproducibility (intra-class correlation coefficient= 0.74); correlated well with the EQ5D (r= - 0.48), HBI (r= 0.45) and SCCAI (r= 0.43); and represented good responsiveness statistics (>0.5). Conclusions: CUCQ-12+ is a valid and reliable QoL measure that can be used for all patients with IBD in clinical practice including patients with a stoma.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0073.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Mitochondrial dysfunction; Alzheimer's disease; Parkinson's disease; Neurodegeneration; Amyloid beta; Parkin
Online: 3 September 2021 (16:01:26 CEST)
Mitochondrial dysfunctions remained a pivotal mechanism in manifold neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondrial homeostasis within the cell is an essential aspect of cell biology. Mitochondria which is also known as the power-generating set of the cell, have a dominant role in several processes associated with the genomic integrity and cellular equilibrium maintenance. They are involved in maintaining optimal cells functioning and guidance from possible DNA damage which could lead to mutations and onset of diseases. Conversely, system perturbations which could be due to environmental factors or senescence induce changes in the physiological balance and result in the mitochondrial functions impairment. The focal point of this review focuses on mitochondrial dysfunction as a significant condition in the onset of neuronal disintegration. We explain the pathways associated with the dysfunction of the mitochondria which are common amongst the most recurring neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimers and Parkinsons disease. Do mitochondrial dysfunctions represent an early event in causing a shift towards neuropathological processes?
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0143.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: AMDV; Aleutian disease; mink parvovirus; Aleutian mink disease virus; vaccine
Online: 5 August 2021 (11:13:05 CEST)
Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is known to cause the most significant disease in the mink industry. It is globally widespread and manifested as a deadly plasmacytosis and hyperglobulinemia. So far, measures to control viral spread have been limited to manual serological testing for AMDV-positive mink. Further, due to the persistent nature of this virus, attempts to eradicate Aleutian disease (AD) have largely failed. Therefore, effective strategies to control viral spread are of crucial importance for wildlife protection. One potentially key tool in the fight against this disease is by immunization of mink against AMDV. Throughout many years, several researchers have tried to develop AMDV vaccines and demonstrated varying degrees of protection in mink by those vaccines. Despite these attempts, there are currently no vaccines available against AMDV, allowing the continuation of the spread of Aleutian disease. Herein, we summarize previous AMDV immunization attempts in mink as well as other preventative measures with the purpose to shed light on future studies designing such a potentially crucial preventative tool against Aleutian disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0313.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Pig; PRRS; PRRS virus; immune response; disease resistance; disease control
Online: 14 July 2021 (09:40:20 CEST)
The control of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is still a major issue worldwide in the pig farming sector. Despite extensive research efforts and the practical experience gained so far, the syndrome still heavily affects farmed pigs worldwide and challenges established beliefs in veterinary virology and immunology. The clinical and economic repercussions of PRRS are based on concomitant, additive features of virus pathogenicity, host susceptibility and influence of environmental, microbial and non-microbial stressors. This makes a case for integrated, multi-disciplinary research efforts in which the three types of contributing factors are critically evaluated toward the development of successful disease control strategies. These could be definitely eased by the definition of reliable markers of disease risk and virus pathogenicity. As for the host’s susceptibility to PRRSV infection and disease onset, the roles of both innate and adaptive immune responses are still ill-defined. In particular, the overt discrepancy between passive and active immunity and the uncertain role of adaptive immunity vis-à-vis an established PRRSV infection should prompt the scientific community to the development of novel research schemes, in which apparently diverging and contradictory findings could be reconciled, and eventually brought to a satisfactory conceptual framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0576.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Hypericum oblongifolium; Alzheimer’s disease; Folecitin; Memory impairment; Neurodegenerative disease; Neuroprotection
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:25:28 CEST)
Neurological disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease, are commonly associated with persistent neuro-inflammation, and there is an urgent need to discover new therapeutic agents that may target the various pathways involved in neurodegeneration. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of folecitin, a flavonoid isolated from Hypericum oblongifolium, against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress associated with neurodegeneration, amyloidogenic Aβ production pathway, and memory dysfunction in mice. LPS was administered i.p. at 250 µg/kg/day for 3 weeks, followed by the administration of folecitin at a dose of 30 mg/kg/day for the last two weeks. A Western blot technique was used to assess the expression of different proteins involved in oxidative stress, neurodegeneration, and neuronal synapse. Results indicated that folecitin significantly reduced LPS-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration, including the expression of BAX, Caspase-3, and PARP-1 proteins, inhibited BACE1, and the amyloidogenic Aβ production pathway. Folecitin improved both pre- and post-neuronal synapse, as well as memory dysfunction. Furthermore, folecitin significantly activated endogenous antioxidant proteins such as Nrf-2 and HO-1 via stimulating the phosphorylation of Akt proteins. These findings suggest that folecitin may be a suitable lead to design new drugs for neurotoxin-triggered neurodegenerative disorders.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Crohn’s Disease, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Exclusive Enteral Nutrition, Mucosal Healing
Online: 16 February 2021 (15:58:08 CET)
Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. Among medical strategies, the dietary therapy with exclusive enteral nutrition is recommended as first line option, at least for children, because it induces clinical remission and mucosal healing. Modulen®, a polymeric TGF-β2 enriched formula, has a good palatability and is widely used. For the first time in the literature, this review outlines and discusses the clinical outcomes obtained with this therapy, as well as the potential mechanisms of action of its compounds. It can be explained by its TGF-β2 content but also by its protein and lipid composition. Further well-designed studies are required to improve our knowledge and to optimize therapeutic strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0145.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; Periodontitis; Periodontal disease; Mendelian Randomization; Bioinformatics; Oral Health
Online: 7 October 2020 (08:26:14 CEST)
Latest evidence revealed a possible association between Parkinson’s disease (PD) and periodontitis. We explored the causal relationship of this association through two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) in European ancestry populations. To this end, we used openly accessible data of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on PD and periodontitis. As instrumental variables for periodontitis, seventeen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a GWAS of periodontitis (1817 periodontitis cases vs. 2215 controls) and forty-five SNPs from a GWAS of PD (20,184 cases and 397,324 controls). Eight non-overlapping SNPs of periodontitis from an additional GWAS assisted in the validation of association being studied. Multiple approaches of MR were carried-out. There was no evidence of genetic liability of periodontitis being associated with a higher risk of PD (B= -0.0003, Standard Error [SE] 0.0003, P = 0.26). The eight independent SNPs (B= -0.0000, SE 0.0001, P = 0.99) validated this outcome. We found no association of genetically primed PD towards periodontitis (B= -0.0001, SE 0.0001, P = 0.19). This MR study found no conclusive evidence to support a bidirectional causal genetic liability between PD and periodontitis. Further GWAS studies are needed to confirm the consistency of these results.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0748.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Verticillium dahliae; plant-pathogen interactions; disease resistance; integrated disease management
Online: 30 September 2020 (14:10:04 CEST)
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is a valuable horticultural crop grown and consumed worldwide. Optimum production is hindered by several factors of which Verticillium dahliae, the cause of Verticillium wilt, is one of the major biological constraints in temperate production regions. V. dahliae is difficult to manage because it is a vascular pathogen, has a broad host range and worldwide distribution, and can persist in soil for years. Understanding the pathogen virulence and genetic diversity, host resistance, and plant-pathogen interactions can ultimately inform the development of integrated strategies to manage the disease. In recent years, considerable research has focused on providing new insight into these processes as well as the development and integration of environment-friendly management approaches. In this review, we discuss and summarize the recent findings on the race and population structure of V. dahliae; pathogenicity factors; host genes, proteins, and enzymes involved in defense; the emergent management strategies, and recent approaches to managing Verticillium wilt in tomatoes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0050.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; Periodontitis; Periodontal disease; protein-protein network interaction; Bioinformatics
Online: 3 September 2020 (04:13:12 CEST)
Recent studies supported a clinical association between Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and periodontitis. Hence, investigating possible protein interactions between these two conditions is of interest. In this study, we conducted a protein-protein network interaction analysis with recognized genes encoding proteins for PD and periodontitis. Genes of interest were collected via GWAS database. Then, we conducted a protein interaction analysis using STRING database, with a highest confidence cut-off of 0.9. Our protein network casted a comprehensive analysis of potential protein-protein interactions between PD and periodontitis. This analysis may underpin valuable information for new candidate molecular mechanisms between PD and periodontitis and may serve new potential targets for research purposes. These results should be carefully interpreted giving the limitations of this approach.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Bioactive substances; Biopesticide; Blast disease; Disease management; Plant growth promotion
Online: 9 August 2020 (22:38:01 CEST)
Rice is consumed as a staple food by majority of the people in the world and failure in rice crop, due to any reason, poses a severe threat of starvation. Rice blast, caused by a fungus blast has been ranked among the most important plant diseases. It is by far the most threatening disease of ric crop and it is found wherever rice is grown. All of the rice blast disease management strategies that have been employed have limited success and rice blast has never been eliminated from a region in which rice is grown. Hence there is need to look for the best remedy in terms of effectiveness and organic nature of the method etc. This study was aimed to determine the plant growth promoting and biopesticidal effects of bioactive components present in a mixture of Piper caninum and Piper betle var. Nigra leaf extracts. . The extracts were applied in the field to determine their inhibition effects against blast disease, growth and yield improvement.. Extract of both the plants promoted plant growth and exhibited antifungal activity against rice blast fungus, Pyricularia oryzae. However the synergistic effect of the mixture of the two extracts exhibited greater effects than an effect of a single extract. . All treatments reduced the intensity of blast disease on week 15 with disease intensity by 7.90%. The extracts could increase plant height, the numbers of tillers, number of leaves, number of grains per panicle number of heads per panicle, and the full-grain weight hill.. The highest potential yield (t/ha) was observed in the 2% extract treatment, and all treatment results significantly differed from that of the control. The potential grain yield was 3.23 t/ha in the control, while that in the treatment ranged from 3.81 t/ha to 5.61 t/ha. The high grain yield observed with the treatment was caused by the low intensity of blast disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Lyme disease; Borrelia burgdorferi; Tickborne disease; Chronic infection; Spirochete culture
Online: 8 March 2018 (07:08:02 CET)
Introduction: Lyme disease is a tickborne illness that generates controversy among medical providers and researchers. One of the key topics of debate is the existence of persistent infection with the Lyme spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in patients who have been treated with recommended doses of antibiotics yet remain symptomatic. Persistent spirochetal infection despite antibiotic therapy has recently been demonstrated in non-human primates. We present evidence of persistent Borrelia infection despite antibiotic therapy in patients with ongoing Lyme disease symptoms. Materials & Methods: In this pilot study, culture of body fluids and tissues was performed in a randomly selected group of 12 patients with persistent Lyme disease symptoms who had been treated or who were being treated with antibiotics. Cultures were also performed on a group of 10 control subjects without Lyme disease. The cultures were subjected to corroborative microscopic, histopathological and molecular testing for Borrelia organisms in four independent laboratories in a blinded manner. Results: Motile spirochetes identified histopathologically as Borrelia were detected in culture specimens, and these spirochetes were genetically identified as Borrelia burgdorferi by three distinct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Spirochetes identified as Borrelia burgdorferi were cultured from the blood of seven subjects, from the genital secretions of ten subjects, and from a skin lesion of one subject. Cultures from control subjects without Lyme disease were negative for Borrelia using these methods. Conclusions: Using multiple corroborative detection methods, we showed that patients with persistent Lyme disease symptoms may have ongoing spirochetal infection despite antibiotic treatment, similar to findings in non-human primates. The optimal treatment for persistent Borrelia infection remains to be determined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0220.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: heart disease; coronary artery disease; machine learning; deep learning; predictive features; coronary artery disease diagnosis; health informatics
Online: 20 January 2020 (09:11:14 CET)
Heart disease is one of the most common diseases in middle-aged citizens. Among the vast number of heart diseases, coronary artery disease (CAD) is considered a common cardiovascular disease with a high death rate. The most popular tool for diagnosing CAD is the use of medical imaging, e.g., angiography. However, angiography is known for being costly and also associated with a number of side effects. Hence, the purpose of this study is to increase the accuracy of coronary heart disease diagnosis by selecting significant predictive features in order of their ranking. In this study, we propose an integrated method using machine learning. The machine learning methods of random trees (RTs), the decision tree of C5.0, support vector machine (SVM), the decision tree of Chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) are used in this study. The proposed method shows promising results and the study confirms that the RTs model outperforms other models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0271.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: chronic kidney disease; disease progression; end stage renal disease; mortality; health-related behaviors; physical activity; smoking; alcohol
Online: 26 June 2019 (15:38:12 CEST)
Healthy life style is associated with decreased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and mortality in the general population. However, there is no definitive evidence on the benefits of physical activity and other health-related behaviors in the early-stage CKD. This study aimed to explore the association between health-related behaviors and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and mortality in the early stages of CKD. The National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database from January 1st, 2009 to December 31st, 2016 was used to screen 83,470 subjects with early stage CKD. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between health-related behaviors and ESRD and death. Kaplan-Meier curves for mortality and ESRD were plotted according to the physical activity, smoking status and alcohol consumption pattern. Risk of death decreased significantly in subjects who engaged in sufficient physical activity (adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.73; 95% CI: 0.64-0.83; p < 0.001). Risk of ESRD and death increased significantly in the current smoker with adjusted HR of 1.44 (95% CI: 1.06-1.95; p < 0.02) and 1.61 (95% CI: 1.44-1.80; p < 0.001) respectively. Therefore, systematic interventions to encourage physical activity and smoking cessation need to be actively considered in the early stages of CKD.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0513.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: TAU; MAPT; neurodevelopment; neurogenetic and neurodegenerative disease; isoform; disease mechanism; dementia
Online: 7 December 2023 (14:56:39 CET)
TAU is the main disease driver in Alzheimer’s and many other sporadic and genetic tauopathies. TAU is differently spliced, the role of individual splice-isoforms unclear. Murine Mapt-KO mice are healthy, and protected from Alzheimer’s, but no such case has been reported in humans. Using gnomad database, we here demonstrate that the only isoform expressed during fetal human brain development is intolerant to mutation, while other brain and peripheral nervous system TAU isoforms are dispensable. With TAU targeted therapies for Alzheimer’s and other tauopathies on the rise, we caution that TAU is essential human brain development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0444.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: CRMO; CNO; Crohn's disease; inflammatory bowel disease; osteomyelitis; pediatrics; ulcerative colitis
Online: 8 November 2023 (01:42:37 CET)
Chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis (CNO), also known as chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO), is a rare autoinflammatory bone disease primarily affecting children and adolescents. This review presents a comprehensive analysis of the intricate relationship between CNO and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), shedding light on shared pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical management. A thorough literature review was conducted, encompassing 24 case reports involving 40 patients. The demographic distribution of patients revealed a near-equal gender ratio, with a median age of diagnosis at 12 years. The diagnosis patterns showed a higher proportion of CNO as the initial diagnosis, while Crohn's disease was more prevalent than ulcerative colitis. The time interval between the clinical presentations varied, ranging from simultaneous detection to a substantial 15-year gap. Treatment modalities included non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), steroids, aminosalicylates, and biologic agents, such as infliximab, often overlapping in their use, suggesting shared pathophysiological pathways. Both conditions displayed systemic manifestations, and patients often responded well to immunosuppressive medications. The pathophysiology of CNO involves genetic predisposition, cytokine dysregulation, and osteoclast activation. Dysregulated innate immunity results in immune cell infiltration into bones, causing sterile bone lesions. Notably, emerging evidence hints at a potential link between the microbiome and CNO. In contrast, IBD results from imbalanced mucosal immune responses to the intestinal microbiota. Polymorphisms in the promotor region of IL-10, common cytokines, immune cells, and genetic markers indicate shared immunological and genetic factors between CNO and IBD. Both conditions also involve extraintestinal symptoms. This analysis underscores the need for clinical awareness of the co-occurrence of CNO and IBD, especially among pediatric patients. A deepened understanding of the connections between these seemingly distinct diseases could lead to more effective management and improved patient outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0099.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: vascular endothelial function; inflammation; oxidative stress; cardiovascular disease prevention; disease management
Online: 6 July 2020 (09:08:34 CEST)
In atherosclerosis patients, vascular endothelial dysfunction is commonly observed with damage of vascular endothelial glycocalyx, an extracellular matrix-bound to and encapsulating the endothelial cell lining the blood vessel wall. Unfavorable lifestyle; smoking and physical inactivity, also induces glycocalyx degradation. Moreover, the vascular endothelial glycocalyx is damaged by various unfavorable disease conditions like as dehydration, acute infectious disease, trauma, sepsis, ARDS, Kawasaki disease, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, atherosclerosis, stroke, dementia, microvascular angina, acute coronary syndrome, and heart failure. The vascular endothelial glycocalyx has been shown to be important not only as a physical cytoprotective barrier for vascular endothelial cells but also as a mechanism that regulates intracellular cell signaling. Therefore, vascular endothelial glycocalyx has great potential to explore new strategies for assessing the benefit conditions of our healthy vasculature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0328.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; disease management; prevention and control; public health; disease outbreaks
Online: 23 March 2020 (01:49:47 CET)
The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a significant concern in many countries due to the rapid rate of transmission between humans. Taking advantage of the experience of the last epidemics in 2002 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and 2012 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), some regions of the world were well- prepared for the new outbreak. However, other countries needed to be adapted to the situation promptly. Many management strategies were established, and some restrictions were introduced in some regions. In this review, we aimed to determine countries’ public responses to the epidemic of COVID-19 and how they developed administrative approaches towards the outbreak.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0190.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: epigenetics; nucleic acids; RNA; DNA; cardiovascular disease; chronic disease; aging, metabolism
Online: 16 November 2019 (00:59:04 CET)
RNA epigenetics is perhaps the most recent aspect of interest for translational epigeneticists. RNA modifications create such an extensive network of epigenetically driven combination whose role in physiology and pathophysiology is still far from being elucidated. Not surprisingly, some of the players determining changes into RNA structure are in common with those involved in DNA and chromatin structure regulation, while other molecules seem very specific to RNA. It is envisaged, then, that new small molecules, acting selectively on RNA epigenetic changes, will be reported soon, opening new therapeutic interventions based on the correction of the RNA epigenetic landscape. In this review, we shall summarize some aspects of RNA epigenetics limited to those in which the potential clinical translatability to cardiovascular disease is emerging.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0289.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; Parkinson’s disease; Alzheimer’s disease; clinical trials
Online: 25 July 2019 (11:38:57 CEST)
A nutritional approach could be a promising strategy to prevent or slow the progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease, since there is no effective therapy for these diseases so far. The beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids are now well established by a plethora of studies through their involvement in multiple biochemical functions, including synthesis of antinflammatory mediators, cell membrane fluidity, intracellular signalling and gene expression. This systematic review will consider epidemiological studies and clinical trials that assessed the impact of supplementation or dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Indeed, treatment with omega-3 fatty acids, being safe and well tolerated, represent a valuable and biologically plausible tool in the management of neurodegenerative diseases in their early stages.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0511.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: coeliac disease; Crohn’s disease; dysplasia; histotype; overall survival; tumor infiltrating lymphocyte.
Online: 20 November 2018 (16:43:14 CET)
Small bowel carcinomas (SBC) are uncommon neoplasms, whose predisposing conditions include hereditary syndromes and immune-mediated intestinal disorders, including coeliac disease (CD) and Crohn’s disease (CrD). Although both CD-associated SBC (CD-SBC) and CrD-associated SBC (CrD-SBC) arise from an inflammatory background, they differ substantially in tumour cell phenotype, frequency of microsatellite instability and nuclear β-catenin expression, as well as in prognosis. For these patients, high tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte density and glandular/medullary histotype represent independent positive prognostic factors. Dysplasia adjacent to SBC is rare and characterized by intestinal phenotype and nuclear β-catenin in CD, while it is frequent and typified by gastro-pancreatobiliary marker expression and preserved membranous β-catenin in CrD. Recent evidence suggests that Epstein-Barr virus-positive dysplasia and SBC, albeit exceptional, do exist and are associated with CrD. In this review we summarize the novel pathological and molecular insights of clinical and therapeutic interest to guide the care of CD-SBC and CrD-SBC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0689.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Fibromyalgia; Fibrotherapy; Invisible disease
Online: 10 November 2023 (11:12:49 CET)
Background: Fibromyalgia patients suffer from widespread chronic pain throughout the musculoskeletal system. There are no apparent clinical visible symptoms, and the syndrome lacks a clear medical explanation. Female fibromyalgia patients often feel they suffer from a transparent disease which is not acknowledged as an illness by their social circle. Hence, they are often exposed to skeptics and critics. One of the challenges fibromyalgia patients faces is to convince their surroundings that they are in pain and accept the presence of the invisible disease and the chronic pain in their lives. A multidisciplinary Fibrotherapy treatment model, implemented at the Ezra Le'Marpeh Rehabilitation Center, supports female fibromyalgia patients through a holistic mind-body approach, delivered in three 10-week cycles totaling 30 weeks of treatment. The research aims to understand the experiences of female fibromyalgia patients who perceive themselves as suffering from an invisible disease and the personal and familial aspects of transitioning from lack of acceptance to coping with reality and adaptation. Methods: We interviewed 16 female fibromyalgia patients in Israel and qualitatively analyzed the data using the Grounded Theory approach. Results: Following participation in the program, the fibromyalgia patients accepted the presence of the disease in their lives and changed their attitude toward the disease and its consequences. Conclusions: As fibromyalgia symptoms are invisible and can suddenly burst into their lives without warning, female fibromyalgia patients often face skepticism from their social circle and have self-doubt. Therefore, participating in holistic intervention programs may improve how they accept the disease and come to terms with its existence by taking a proactive coping approach.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0649.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Still’s Disease; Ferritin; Arthritis
Online: 9 November 2023 (14:39:52 CET)
Still’s disease, also known as systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, is an autoimmune disorder with a triad of fever, salmon pink rash, and inflammatory polyarthritis. Its diagnosis is quite challenging due to the lack of specific symptoms and overlap with many other rheumatological and autoimmune disorders. However, recent studies have shown that high serum ferritin levels can act as a biomarker for this disease. Ferritin is an intracellular iron storage protein that acts as a pro-inflammatory reactant. There are various explanations indicating the presence of higher ferritin levels in Still's disease. High ferritin tells us about disease severity, and prognosis and can also predict life-threatening complications that can be easily prevented and thus it helps in reducing mortality associated with Still's disease. However, there are certain limitations to the use of ferritin as the only diagnostic marker for Still's disease. Overcoming those limitations can take the diagnosis of Still's disease to a higher level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1387.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: ageing; age-related disease; antagonistic pleiotropy; biological constraint; hyperfunction; hypofunction; programmatic ageing; trade-off
Online: 23 November 2023 (04:05:44 CET)
The evolutionary theory of aging, particularly antagonistic pleiotropy (AP), provides an account of the ultimate origins of aging. What remains unclear is the nature of the proximate mechanisms by which AP gives rise to diseases of aging, like cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Damage-centric theories focusing on loss of genetic and cellular function have been proposed, as well as programmatic theories focusing on unwanted gene and cellular function. The latter include the hyperfunction and developmental theory that view aging as the futile continuation, or run-on, of growth and developmental programmes into later life. Yet neither type of theory has performed well in explaining late-life disease aetiology, particularly with respect to disease onset, presentation and progression. What is proposed here in this review is a new programmatic theory of aging. We argue that the emergence of many specific diseases may involve quasi-programmes that are not the result of run-on, but rather are triggered by other factors in late life. Such triggers may be non-programmatic (e.g. infection, mechanical injury) or programmatic. Moreover, the consequent pre-pathological and pathological changes may in some cases trigger further changes, leading to futile and destructive cascades of quasi-programmes and pathology. The origins of triggered quasi-programmes can be traced to biological constraint i.e. the inability of organisms to optimise all functions at once. And, to some extent, the new theory presented here revises the understanding of AP. That is, because any gene can be triggered in an erroneous manner, every gene is potentially an AP gene that risks pathology, though level of risk varies according to constraint. To help validate the theory, we test it against several complex diseases of aging. The new model in this review attempts to provide a blueprint understanding that, to a certain extent, closes the gap in the causal chain of events between evolutionary causes of aging and the aetiology of age-related diseases. It also helps to explain why certain disorders mimic accelerated aging and how interventions, such as the suppression of IIS and mTOR retard many aspects of aging; notably, though, unlike prior programmatic theories, the new theory is not mTOR-centric. Finally, it provides new perspectives on possible treatment of aging.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1673.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Microglia; Neuroinflammation; Alzheimer’s Disease
Online: 24 May 2023 (02:50:56 CEST)
Microglia together with other permanent macrophages in central nervous system (CNS) are responsible for regulating the innate immune response of the brain and spinal cord. Upon activation, microglia triggers the release of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, chemokines, and other proteins related to neuro-inflammation. Elevated levels of neuro-inflammation have been linked to a decline in cognitive performance manifested in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). There are mounting evidence in the literature to suggest that microglia are responsible for a substantial amount of the synaptic damage seen in AD. Most importantly, scientific studies have suggested that overexpression of microglia-derived neuro-inflammation elevates amyloid beta (Aβ) plaque formation, and hyperactivation of tau protein; the two main pathological characteristic features of AD. Alternatively, Aβ and tau formation further activate microglia to sustain the neuro-inflammation triggering a vicious cascade of neurodegeneration in AD. Here in this review, we discussed the role of microglia associated neuroinflammation for the pathogenesis of AD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0302.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: ferroptosis; senescence; ageing; disease
Online: 17 January 2023 (09:07:35 CET)
Background: Senescence is a cellular ageing process in all multicellular organisms. It is characterized by a decline in cellular functions and proliferation, resulting in increased cellular damage and death. This condition plays an essential role in the ageing process and significantly contributes to the development of age-related complications. On the other hand, ferroptosis is a systemic cell death characterized by excessive iron accumulation followed by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress is a common trigger of this condition and may be induced by various factors such as toxins, drugs, and inflammation. Ferroptosis is linked to numerous illnesses, including cardiovascular disease, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Relevance of these conditions to ageing and disease: Senescence is believed to contribute to the decline in tissue and organ function that occurs with ageing. It has also been linked to the development of age-related pathologies, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. In particular, senescent cells have been shown to produce inflammatory cytokines and other pro-inflammatory molecules that can contribute to these conditions. On the other hand, ferroptosis has been linked to the development of various health disorders, including neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease, and cancer . It is known to play a role in developing these diseases by promoting the death of damaged or diseased cells and contributing to the inflammation often associated with them. Both senescence and ferroptosis are complex processes that are still not fully understood. Further research is needed to thoroughly understand the role of these processes in ageing and disease, and to identify potential interventions to target these processes to prevent or treat age-related conditions. Objectives: This systematic review aims to assess the potential mechanisms underlying the link connecting senescence, ferroptosis, ageing, and disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0364.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: leptospirosis; dysbiosis; Weil's disease
Online: 21 November 2022 (03:26:33 CET)
Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease, causing about 60,000 deaths annually. One of the reasons for the severe course of leptospirosis is a cytokine storm, which develops as a result of an excessive immune response. The gut microbiota that resides in the gastrointestinal tract provides essential health benefits to its host, particularly by regulating immune homeostasis and a bidirectional relationship with many internal organs. A change in the gut microbiota can be caused not only by antibiotics, but also by infectious agents such as the coronavirus or the flu virus. It is known that L. interrogans can change the microbiota of mice. Thus, gut dysbiosis in leptospirosis can affect the clinical course of the disease, through the gut–organ axis. Modulation of intestinal microbiota by probiotics and/or fecal microbiota transplantation in leptospirosis may become an important area of scientific research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0256.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Pompe Disease; Breathing; Respiratory
Online: 22 January 2020 (09:24:53 CET)
Pompe disease is a glycogen storage disease caused by a deficiency in acid α-glucosidase (GAA) – a hydrolase necessary for the degradation of lysosomal glycogen. This deficiency in GAA results in muscle and neuronal glycogen accumulation, which causes respiratory insufficiency. Pompe disease rodent models provide a means of assessing respiratory pathology and are important for pre-clinical studies of novel therapies that aim to treat respiratory dysfunction and improve quality of life. This review aims to compile and summarize existing manuscripts which characterize the respiratory phenotype of Pompe rodent models. Manuscripts included in this review were selected utilizing specific search terms and exclusion criteria. Analysis of these findings demonstrate that Pompe disease rodent models have respiratory physiological defects as well as pathologies in the diaphragm, tongue, phrenic and hypoglossal motor nucleus, phrenic and hypoglossal nerves, neuromuscular junctions, and airway smooth muscle and higher order respiratory control centers. Overall, the culmination of these pathologies contributes to severe respiratory dysfunction, underscoring the importance of characterizing the respiratory phenotype while developing effective therapies for patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1545.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: alternative methods; fungal disease management; plants; alternative methods; fungal disease management; plants
Online: 22 September 2023 (09:22:05 CEST)
Fungal pathogens pose a major threat to food production worldwide. Traditionally, chemical fungicides have been the primary means of controlling these pathogens, but many of these fungicides have recently come under increased scrutiny due to their negative effects on the health of humans, animals, and the environment. However, the use of fungicides with less of an environmental impact tends to result in the development of resistance in populations of phytopathogenic fungi. Therefore, new environmentally friendly alternatives that provide adequate levels of disease control are needed to replace chemical fungicides—if not completely, at least partially. A number of alternatives to conventional chemical fungicides have been developed, including plant defence elicitors (PDEs), biological control agents (fungi, bacteria and mycoviruses), biofungicides, RNA interference (RNAi) methods, and resistance breeding. This article reviews the conventional and alternative methods available to manage fungal pathogens, discusses their strengths and weaknesses, and identifies potential areas for future research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0945.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Autoinflammatory Disease; Hereditary Periodic Fever Syndromes; Hereditary Recurrent Fever; Hereditary Autoinflammatory Disease
Online: 14 August 2023 (02:44:49 CEST)
Autoinflammatory disorders encompass a wide range of conditions with systemic and neuro-logical symptoms, which can be acquired or inherited. These diseases are characterized by an abnormal response of the innate immune system, leading to an excessive inflammatory reac-tion. On the other hand, autoimmune diseases result from dysregulation of the adaptive im-mune response. Disease flares are characterized by systemic inflammation affecting the skin, muscles, joints, serosa, and eyes, accompanied by unexplained fever and elevated acute phase reactants. Autoinflammatory syndromes can present with various neurological manifestations, such as aseptic meningitis, meningoencephalitis, sensorineural hearing loss, and others. Early recognition of these manifestations by general neurologists can have a significant impact on the prognosis of patients. Timely and targeted therapy can prevent long-term disability by reducing chronic inflammation. This review provides an overview of recently reported neuroinflam-matory phenotypes, with a specific focus on genetic factors, clinical manifestations, and treatment options. General neurologists should have a good understanding of these important diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0444.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Avenanthramide; AKT-Protein kinase B; Alzheimer's disease; Parkinson's disease; oxidative stress; neuroprotection
Online: 7 August 2023 (02:28:52 CEST)
Avenanthramides (Avns) and its derivatives, a group of polyphenolic compounds found abundantly in Oats (Avena sativa Linn.) have emerged as a promising candidate for neuroprotection due to their immense anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties. Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs), characterized by progressive degeneration of neurons, present a significant global health burden with limited therapeutic options. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling pathway plays a crucial role in cell survival, growth, and metabolism, making it an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Dysregulation of PI3K signalling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various NDDs including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Avns has been shown to modulate PI3K/AKT signalling, leading to increased neuronal survival, reduced oxidative stress, and improved cognitive function. This review explores the potential of Avns polyphenols, as modulators of the PI3K signalling pathway focusing on their beneficial effects against NDDs. Further, we outlined the need for clinical exploration to elucidate the specific mechanisms of Avns action on the PI3K/AKT pathway and its potential interactions with other signalling cascades involved in neurodegeneration. Based on the available literature using relevant keywords from Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Science, our review emphasizes the potential of Avns as a therapeutic strategy for NDDs and warrants further investigation and clinical exploration.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1923.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; phytochemicals; dietary intervention; epigenetics; transcriptome; epigenome; transcriptomics; epigenomics
Online: 27 July 2023 (13:22:59 CEST)
Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, are caused by a combination of multiple events that damage neuronal function. A well-characterized biomarker of neurodegeneration is proteinaceous aggregates accumulation in the brain. However, the gradually worsening symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases are unlikely to be solely due to the result of a mutation in a single gene, but rather a multi-step process involving epigenetic changes. Multiple epigenetic studies have revealed that modification of histones accompanied by both the local and global remodeling of the chromatin structure and alternations in transcriptional patterns are closely associated with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Unlike DNA mutations, epigenetic alterations are reversible, and therefore raise the possibilities for therapeutic intervention including dietary modifications. Additionally, reactive oxygen species may contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Given that the antioxidant properties of plant-derived phytochemicals are likely to exhibit pleiotropic effects against ROS-mediated epigenetic alternation, dietary intervention may be promising for the management of neurodegeneration in these diseases. In this review, the state-of-the-art applications using single-cell multi-modal omics approaches including genetics, and epigenetics, and dietary approaches for the identification of novel biomarkers and therapeutic approaches for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2098.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: chronic kidney disease; end-stage renal disease; dialysis; diabetes; frailty; elderly; Vietnam
Online: 29 June 2023 (10:16:12 CEST)
Background. There is limited evidence on the relationship between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and frailty in older people in Vietnam. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of frailty and its impact on mortality in older patients with end-stage renal disease. Method. This is a prospective, observational study at two large Dialysis Centres in Vietnam from November 2020 to June 2021. Consecutive older patients diagnosed with end-stage renal disease and on dialysis were recruited. Participants’ frailty status was defined by the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). The study outcome was all-cause mortality at 6th month. Results. A total of 175 participants were recruited (mean age 72.4 years, 58.9% female). Using the cut-point of CFS ≥4, 87.4% of the participants were frail. Mortality at 6th month was 14.9%, 31.9% in participants with CFS ≥7, 12.8% in participants with CFS=6, 7.5% in participants with CFS from 4 to 5, and 4.5% in participants with CFS ≤3 (p=0.001). Cox regression analysis showed that compared to the non-frail participants, the probability of death over 6 months was nearly 2-fold higher in the mildly frail, 3-fold higher in the moderately frail, and 9-fold higher in the severely frail participants. Conclusion. This study demonstrated a very high prevalence of frailty in older patients with end-stage renal disease and dialysis and the significant impact of frailty severity on mortality. Healthcare providers should consider incorporating frailty screening into routine care for older patients with end-stage renal disease and dialysis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2060.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: N6‐methyladenine; reactive oxygen species; RNA binding protein; Alzheimer's disease; neurodegenerative disease
Online: 29 June 2023 (03:38:33 CEST)
Changes in epitranscriptome with N6‐methyladenine (m6A) modification could be involved in the development of multiple diseases, which might be a prevalent modification of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in eukaryotes. The m6A modification might be performed through the action of methyltransferases, demethylases, and methylation-binding proteins. Importantly, the m6A methylation may be associated with various neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), depression, aging related diseases, and/or aging itself. In addition, the m6A methylation might functionally regulate the eukaryotic transcriptome by influencing splicing, export, subcellular localization, translation, stability, and decay of mRNAs. Neurodegenerative diseases may possess a wide variety of phenotypes depending on the neurons that degenerate at occasions. Interestingly, increasing number of evidences have indicated that m6A modification could modulate the expression of autophagy-related genes and promote autophagy in neuronal cells. Oxidative stresses such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) could stimulate the m6A RNA methylation, which may be also related to the regulation of autophagy and/or the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Both m6A modification and autophagy could also play critical roles in regulating health condition of neurons. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the m6A and autophagy relationship in human diseases may benefit in developing therapeutic strategies in the future. This paper reviews advances in the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of m6A modification in the occurrence and development of neurodegenerative diseases and/or aging, discussing the possible therapeutic procedures related to mechanisms of m6A RNA methylation and autophagy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2023.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease; inhaled corticosteroid; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; fluticasone; budesonide
Online: 30 May 2023 (02:34:11 CEST)
Studies have shown increased nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM) incidence with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use in patients with chronic respiratory diseases; however, this association in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains insufficiently studied. Using a nationwide population-based database of the Korean National Health Insurance Service, newly diagnosed COPD patients (20052018) treated with inhaled bronchodilators were selected. An NTM case was defined by the presence of the first diagnostic code following inhaled bronchodilator use. Results indicated that ICS users did not have an increased risk of NTM disease compared to non-ICS users (hazard ratio [HR], 1.121; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9501.323; p = 0.1755). The highest quartile of the cumulative ICS dose was associated with the development of NTM (1.200, 0.9501.323, p = 0.0497). Medium (1.229, 1.0081.499, p = 0.0410) and high daily doses of ICS (1.637, 1.2412.160, p = 0.0005) were associated with an increased risk of NTM disease. There was no difference in the risk of NTM according to ICS type. ICS use may not increase the risk of developing NTM disease in patients with COPD. However, physicians should weigh the potential benefits and risks of ICS, especially when using high doses and prolonged durations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0067.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: COVID-19; Disease-behaviour dynamics model; Prophylactic attitude; Vaccination; Perceived disease prevalence
Online: 23 May 2023 (08:20:22 CEST)
In this age of mass media and, in particular, social media-driven perception of reality, coupling disease and prophylactic opinion dynamics models can provide better insights into disease evolution than using a disease model alone. We develop in this work two disease-opinion dynamics models based on the epidemiology of the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the availability or not of imperfect vaccines. We assume that susceptibility to infection decreases with the level of prophylactic attitude (personal hygiene, social distancing), and changes in prophylactic attitudes of susceptible individuals occur in response to perceived disease prevalence and vaccination coverage and efficacy in the population. We derive and discuss the disease-free equilibriums and reproduction numbers in the introduced models. We further assess the impacts of the distribution of opinions at disease introduction, the ability to detect presymptomatic, asymptomatic and symptomatic positive COVID-19 cases, the behavioural responses to the outbreak and the introduction of vaccination, and the effects of distortions of disease prevalence by public policy and mass media on disease dynamics. The insights highlighted from the proposed models are expected to make informative contributions to public policy in a context of opinion fluxes in response to perceived disease prevalence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0772.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: renal resistive index, acute and chronic kidney disease, arterial stiffness, cardiovascular disease
Online: 23 April 2023 (04:46:54 CEST)
Initially, renal resistive index (RRI) was investigated to improve diagnosis in kidney diseases, but failed to meet this goal. Recently many papers highlighted the prognostic significance of RRI in chronic kidney disease, in the estimation of revascularization success of renal artery stenoses or the evolution of the graft and recipients in renal transplantation. Moreover, RRI gained importance in prediction of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients. Along with RRI study in renal pathology have been revealed correlations of this index with parameters of systemic circulation. The theoretical and experimental premises of this connection were reconsidered, and studies for analyzing the link between RRI and arterial stiffness, central and peripheral pressure or left ventricular flow were conducted with this purpose. A high amount of data is currently indicating that RRI is influenced more by pulse pressure and vascular compliance than by renal vascular resistance – assuming that RRI reflects the complex interplay between systemic circulation and renal microcirculation and should be considered as a marker of systemic cardiovascular risk beyond its prognostic relevance for kidney disease. In this review we will go through clinical research that revealed the implications of RRI in renal and cardiovascular disease.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0476.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Alzheimer's Disease; Familial Alzheimer Disease (FAD); presenilins; Amyloid beta Precursor Protein; mutation
Online: 23 April 2023 (02:50:35 CEST)
Probabilistic and parsimony-based arguments regarding available genetics data are used to propose that Hardy and Higgin’s amyloid cascade hypothesis is valid but is commonly interpreted too narrowly to support, incorrectly, the primacy of the amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) in driving Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis. Instead, increased activity of the βCTF (C99) fragment of APP is likely the critical pathogenic determinant altered by mutations in the APP gene. This model is consistent with the regulation of APP mRNA translation via its 5’ iron responsive element (IRE). Similar arguments support that the pathological effects of familial Alzheimer’s disease mutations in the genes PSEN1 and PSEN2 are not exerted directly via changes in APP cleavage to produce different ratios of Aβ length. Rather, these mutations likely affect the stability of presenilin holoprotein and/or γ-secretase multimers with consequences for γ-secretase activity and other important cellular functions. All fAD mutations in APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 likely find unity of pathological mechanism in their actions on endolysosomal acidification and mitochondrial function, with detrimental effects on iron homeostasis and promotion of “pseudo-hypoxia” being of central importance. Aβ production is enhanced and distorted by oxidative stress and accumulates due to decreased lysosomal function. It may act as a disease-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) enhancing oxidative stress-driven neuroinflammation during the cognitive phase of the disease. We also discuss fascinating, but largely ignored, data on presenilin biology that may be important in understanding presenilins’ central role in familial Alzheimer’s disease.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Hypoxia Inducible Factor; HIF; Ischemia; Hypoxia; Adaptation; Alzheimer’s Disease; Parkinson Disease; Neurodegeneration
Online: 26 February 2021 (15:34:31 CET)
Hypoxia is one of the most common pathological conditions which results from ischemic injury, trauma, inflammatory conditions, tumors, The adaptation of the body to hypoxia is a phenomenon that is of great importance both in normal conditions and in Most of the cellular response’ reactions to hypoxia is associated with a family of transcription factors called hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF). They induce the expression of a wide range of genes that help cells adapt to a hypoxic HIF functions are currently being extensively studied. In 2019, William G. Kaelin and Gregg Semenza from the USA and Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe from the UK received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of the basic mechanisms of adaptation to hypoxia and investigation of the role of HIF factor in the regulation of the hormone erythropoietin Based on its pivotal physiological importance, the HIF factor attracts more and more attention as a new potential target for treating a large number of diseases associated with Most of the experimental work dealing with the HIF factor is focused on its role in liver and However, increasing amount of experimental results clearly demonstrates that the HIF factor-based response represents an universal adaptation mechanism for all kinds of tissues, including the nervous system where HIF is critical for regulating neurogenesis, nerve cell differentiation, and neuronal This review provides actual overview about the complex role of HIF-1 in the adaptation of nerve cells to hypoxia with the focus on its potential role by various neuronal
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0234.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis; Chytridiomycosis; Amphibian pathogen; Amphibian disease; Culex quinquefasciatus, vector-borne disease
Online: 26 March 2019 (10:01:02 CET)
The amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is an infectious disease responsible for the worldwide decline of amphibian species. To mitigate these declines, it is necessary to identify the various vectors by which the fungus can be transmitted between individuals and populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether adult female mosquitoes can carry and transfer Bd fungal cells. Mosquitoes were exposed to net soaked in a live Bd zoospore suspension to determine whether they are able to externally acquire the fungus. Another group was placed into containers with a sterile and Bd-inoculated agar plate to determine whether mosquitoes could transfer Bd between these surfaces. Bd DNA was found to be present on mosquito legs exposed to inoculated netting and agar plates suggesting that Bd can be transmitted by the mosquito over short distances This is the first study to demonstrate that an insect host may be a mechanical vector of Bd and suggests that we should begin to consider the role of mosquitoes in the dissemination and control of the fungus.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0481.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: protein tau; Alzheimer’s disease; neurodegenerative disease; synaptic dysfunction; Aβ-peptides; tau-imaging
Online: 27 August 2018 (11:25:45 CEST)
One of the most commonly known chronic neurodegenerative disorders, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), manifests the common type of dementia in 60–80% of cases. From a clinical standpoint, a patent cognitive decline and a severe change in personality, as caused by a loss of neurons, is~usually evident in AD with about 50 million people affected in 2016. The disease progression in patients is distinguished by a gradual plummet in cognitive functions, eliciting symptoms such as memory loss, and eventually requiring full-time medical care. From a histopathological standpoint, the~defining characteristics are intracellular aggregations of hyper-phosphorylated tau protein, known as neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), and depositions of amyloid β-peptides (Aβ) in the brain. The~abnormal phosphorylation of tau protein is attributed to a wide gamut of neurological disorders known as tauopathies. In addition to the hyperphosphorylated tau lesions, neuroinflammatory processes could occur in a sustained manner through astro-glial activation, resulting in the disease progression. Recent findings have suggested a strong interplay between the mechanism of Tau phosphorylation, disruption of microtubules, and synaptic loss and pathology of AD. The mechanisms underlying these interactions along with their respective consequences in Tau pathology are still ill-defined. Thus, in this review: (1) we highlight the interplays existing between Tau pathology and AD; and (2) take a closer look into its role while identifying some promising therapeutic advances including state of the art imaging~techniques.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2109.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Phytobacteria; Insect vectors; Philaenus spumarius; Demarcated Zones; Olive Quick Decline Syndrome; Pierce's disease; Almond leaf scorch disease; Phony peach disease
Online: 31 August 2023 (12:37:05 CEST)
Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is classified as a quarantine pest due to its consequences on economically significant crops. Its main form of transmission in Europe is through the insect Philaenus spumarius. Due to climate change, populations of insect vectors became more extensive, resulting in the dissemination of the bacteria through longer periods, but destruction of these insects raises issues, due to their role in nature. Upon infection, Xf causes the occlusion of xylem vessels by bacterial aggregates, and tylosis production by the plant as a response to infection. Although symptomatic manifestations of Xf are often linked to water stress, a variety of plant species have been found to carry the pathogen without symptoms, making it all too easy to evade detection when relying on visual inspections. Beyond water stress, other conditions (individual plant resistance/tolerance, bacterial concentrations, transpiration rates, and interactions between subspecies) may be implicated in symptom development. A thorough understanding of how this disease develops, especially its capacity to spread from the initial focus and establish a systemic infection, is imperative. This review focuses on the Xf infection process, the development of symptoms, its spread within Portugal, and the actions that have been taken to counter it.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0074.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Lumpy skin disease virus; lumpy skin disease; epidemiological footprint and multi-country outbreak; transboundary spread and disease resurgence; diagnosis and vaccines
Online: 13 February 2023 (14:44:26 CET)
The lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) is an animal virus and a member of the Poxviridae family, which causes lumpy skin disease (LSD) in livestock animals like cows and buffaloes. LSD is an important transboundary disease of economic importance that was first discovered in 1929 in Zambia. LSDV has been prevalent in African countries, where several outbreaks have been reported previously. However, the virus has spread rapidly across the Middle East in the past two decades, reaching Russia and, recently, the Asian subcontinent. With the unprecedented cluster outbreaks reported across Asian countries, LSDV is certainly undergoing an epidemiological shift and expanding its geographical footprint globally. The recent LSD outbreaks have gained attention from global regulatory authorities and raised serious concerns among epidemiologists and veterinary researchers. Although there is no dearth of knowledge about LSDV, the disease lacks networked global surveillance and management, consequently making the current statistics deficient, fragmented, and unreliable. Hence, recurrent LSD outbreaks seriously threaten the global livestock industry. This review provides recent insights into LSDV by augmenting latest literature associated with its epidemiology, pathogenesis, transmission, currently-available intervention strategies, and economic implications on the dairy industries. The review also critically examines the changing epidemiological footprint of LSD and speculates on the possible reasons contributing to the ongoing multi-country LSD outbreak.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0666.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease; anti-pancreatic antibodies; cell based assay; Crohn’s disease; diagnostic biomarker
Online: 11 October 2023 (14:23:46 CEST)
Introduction: The serological support to early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is actually very limited. In this study we evaluated the performance of a promising multiparametric method including either well established and newly developed biomarkers. Methods: This multicenter retrospective observational study finally enrolled 156 patients with IBD, 100 affected by Crohn’s disease (CD) and 56 by ulcerative colitis (UC) recruited at the Gastroenterology Units of Udine (Italy), Rijeka (Croatia) and Belgrade (Serbia). Twently age-sex matched blood donors (BD) were included as controls. Autoantibody profiles were determined using a mosaic cell and tissue-based indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) method simultaneously investigating: anti-saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA), anti-atypical perinuclear neutrophilic antibodies (P-ANCA), anti-pancreatic antigens antibodies (PAB) and anti-goblet cells antibodies (GAB). Results: PAB (anti-CUZD1 and/or anti-GP2 antibodies) were present in 24 CD patients versus none of UC patients or BD (24% sensitivity, 100% specificity). As regards CD patients, combined positivity of PAB and ASCA (sensitivity 84%, specificity 71.4%) performed better than ASCA alone. Colon involvement (87.5% vs. 60.5%; p=0.014), deep mucosal lesions (58.3% vs. 25.0%; p=0.002) and need for biologic therapies (79.2% vs. 46.1%; p=0.005) were significantly more prevalent in PAB-positive than in PAB-negative CD patients. Multivariate analysis identified PAB positivity (OR=3.67; 95%CI=1.29-10.46) and anti-CUZD1 in particular (OR=3.54; 95%CI=1.08-11.63) as significant risk factors for deep mucosal lesions development in CD. Conclusion: A multiparametric diagnostic approach appears very useful to better characterize IBD patients. PAB, isolated or combined with other autoantibodies, may support both differential diagnosis and selection of CD patients at risk for more severe disease.