ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0555.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Fungal chitosan; animal chitosan; wine clarification; dissolving acid comparison.
Online: 24 February 2021 (16:38:23 CET)
Chitosan is a chitin-derived fiber, extracted from the shellfish shells, a by-product of fish industry, or from fungi grown in bioreactors. In oenology, it is used for the control of Brettanomyces spp., for the prevention of ferric, copper and protein casse and for clarification. The International Organisation of Vine and Wine established the exclusive utilization of fungal chitosan to avoid the eventuality of allergic reactions. This work focuses on the differences between two chitosan categories, fungal and animal chitosan, characterizing several samples in terms of chitin content and degree of deacety-lation. In addition, different acids were used to dissolve chitosans, and their effect on viscosity and on the efficacy in wine clarification were observed. Results demonstrated that, even if fungal and animal chitosans shared similar chemical properties (deacetylation degree and chitin content), they showed different viscosity depending on the acid used to dissolve them. A significant difference was discovered on their fining properties, as animal chitosans showed a faster and greater sedimentation compared to the fungal, independently from the acid used for their dissolution. This suggests that physic-chemical differences in the molecular structure occur between the two chitosan categories and that this affect significantly their technologic (oenological) properties.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0305.v1
Online: 23 March 2022 (03:12:40 CET)
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Cardiovascular diseases complication can give rise to myocardial infarction which produces cell death by blockage of blood flow, leading to loss of heart function. Current treatments directed at heart repair have several disadvantages such as the lack of donors for heart transplantation or the use of non-bioactive inert materials for replacement of the damage tissue. New treatment strategies involve stimulation of heart tissue regeneration with the use of bioactive materials like chitosan, in combination with cells and biochemical factors. Chitosan scaffolds have the necessary proprieties of biocompatibility, porosity, and biodegradation, that imitates the heart extracellular matrix. Chitosan scaffolds physical proprieties, such as electrical conductivity and mechanical proprieties, can be improved by different preparation techniques and by the functionalization with other materials.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0291.v1
Online: 17 December 2021 (14:46:05 CET)
Hydrogel antibacterial agent is an ideal antibacterial material because of it could diffuses antibacterial molecules into the decayed area by providing a suitable microenvironment and the hydrogel acts as a protective barrier on the decay interface. The biocompatibility and biodegradation make the removal process easily which were widely used in medical fields. However, there have been few reports on its application for controlling postharvest diseases in fruit. In this study, the Chitosan-Ag (CS-Ag) complex hydrogels were prepared using the physical crosslinking method, which used for controlling postharvest diseases in grape. The prepared hydrogels were stable for a long period at room temperature. The structure and surface morphology of CS-Ag composite hydrogels were characterized by UV-Vis, FTIR, SEM, and XRD. The inhibitory effects of CS-Ag hydrogel on disease in grape caused by P. expansum, A. niger and B. cinerea were investigated both in vivo and in vitro. The remarkable antibacterial activity of CS-Ag hydrogels was mainly due to the synergistic antibacterial and antioxidant effects of CS and Ag. Preservation test showed that the CS-Ag hydrogel had positive fresh-keeping effect. This revealed CS-Ag hydrogels plays a critical role in controlling fungal disease in grape.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0177.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Chitosan; Process safety; NuDIST; CAPE; Shrimp
Online: 9 July 2020 (07:49:29 CEST)
Nowadays, inherently safer designs are considered as key priorities to prevent or mitigate serious incidents with devastating consequences. The need for process safety assessment during early design phases has motivated the development of several contributions related to computer-aided assessment methodologies in order to measure the inherent safety of chemical processes. In this work, the large-scale production of chitosan from shrimp wastes was evaluated from process safety point of view using the numerical descriptive inherent safety technique (NuDIST).To this end, simulation of the chitosan production was performed using Aspen Plus ® to obtain extended mass and energy balances. The assessment of all the chemicals involved within the process was carried out for the following safety parameters: explosivity (EXP), flammability (FL) and toxicity (TOX). The safety assessment of the process included the parameters of temperature (T), pressure (P) and heat of reaction (HR). The maximum chemical safety score was estimated in 171.01 with ethanol as main contributor to the parameter of explosivity and flammability. The score associated with operating data was calculated in 209.30 and heat of reaction reported to be the most affecting parameter. The NuDIST score was estimated in 380.30. This NuDIST value revealed the low hazards associated with the handling of substances such as shrimp wastes, chitosan and water, as well as the non-extreme temperature and pressure conditions. In general, the large-scale production of chitosan from shrimp shells showed to be an inherently safe alternative of waste valorization.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Bismuth; Chitosan; pressure; thermoelectric; composite film
Online: 3 February 2020 (04:52:51 CET)
The main aim of this work is to report an alternative energy efficient technique of fabricating flexible thermoelectric generators (TEGs) using printable ink. In this process, we have fabricated thermoelectric (TE) composite thick film and we are experimenting several ways to overcome the challenges of conventional and additive manufacturing methods. Two different mesh sizes of n-type bismuth particle, various binder to thermoelectric (TE) material weight ratio, and two different pressure (200 MPa and 300 MPa) were employed for optimizing the thermoelectric properties of TE composite films. We are also exploring naturally occurring chitosan as a binder. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) dissolved chitosan was used for the binder and less than 0.2 wt% of chitosan was sufficient for the fabrication of TE inks and composite films. Low energy intensive curing process was employed to evaporate the solvent from the drop casted inks. External uniaxial pressure not only eliminated high energy intensive curing processes but also increased the packing density of the film by removing pores and voids in the chitosan-bismuth composite film. The microstructure analysis reveals that bulk-like structure, which rarely has voids, pores and grain boundaries, was observed in the composite films pressed at sufficiently high pressures. The highest performing composite film was obtained with the conditions of 1:2000 binder to bismuth weight ratio, 100 mesh of particle size, and 300 MPa of pressure. The best performing bismuth chitosan composite film pressed at 300 MPa had the power factor as 4009 ± 391 μW/m·K2 with high electrical conductivity value of 7337 ± 522 S/cm. The measured thermal conductivity of the best performing chitosan-bismuth composite film was 4.4 ± 0.7 W/m·K and the figure of merit calculated from the thermal conductivity was 0.27 at room temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0021.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: capsaicin; chitosan; lecithin; dissipative particle dynamics
Online: 2 May 2018 (11:07:01 CEST)
Transport of hydrophobic drugs in the human body exhibits complications due to the low solubility of these compounds. With the purpose of enhancing the bioavailability and biodistribution of such drugs, recent studies have reported the use of amphiphilic molecules, such as phospholipids, for synthesis of nanoparticles or nanocapsules. Given that phospholipids can self–assemble in liposomes or micellar structures, they are ideal candidates to function as vehicles of hydrophobic molecules. In this work, we report mesoscopic simulations of nanoliposomes, constituted by lecithin and coated with a shell of chitosan. The stability of such structure and the efficiency of encapsulation of capsaicin, as well as the internal and superficial distribution of capsaicin and chitosan inside the nanoliposome were analyzed. The characterization of the system was carried out through density maps and the potentials of mean force for the lecithin–capsaicin, lecithin–chitosan and capsaicin–chitosan interactions. The results of these simulations show that chitosan is deposited on the surface of the nanoliposome, as has been reported in some experimental works. It was also observed that a nanoliposome of approximately 18 nm in diameter is stable during the simulation. The deposition behavior was found to be influenced by pattern of N-acetylation of chitosan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0038.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: chitosan; polyphosphate; microspheres; immobilization; lipase; CALB
Online: 10 August 2017 (05:44:58 CEST)
Enzymes serve as biocatalysts for innumerable important reactions; however, their application has limitations, which could be overcome by using appropriate immobilization strategies. Here, a new support for immobilizing enzymes is proposed. This hybrid organic-inorganic support is composed of chitosan—a natural, nontoxic, biodegradable, and edible biopolymer—and sodium polyphosphate, which was the inorganic component. Lipase B from Candida antarctica (CALB) was immobilized in microspheres by encapsulation using these polymers. The characterization of the composites (by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and confocal Raman microscopy) confirmed the hybrid nature of the support, whose external part consisted of polyphosphate and core was composed of chitosan. The immobilized enzyme had the following advantages: possibility of enzyme reuse, easy biocatalyst recovery, increased resistance to variations in temperature (activity declined from 60°C and the enzyme was inactivated at 80°C), and increased catalytic activity in the transesterification reactions. The encapsulated enzymes were utilized as biocatalysts for transesterification reactions to produce the compound responsible for the aroma of jasmine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0104.v1
Online: 2 March 2021 (16:02:07 CET)
Hepato-renal dysfunctions associated with hyperlipidemia necessitates continuous search for natural remedies. This study thus, evaluated the effect of dietary chitosan on diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (90 ± 5.2) g were randomly allotted into six (6) groups (n=5): Normal diet, High-fat diet (HFD), Normal diet + 5% chitosan. The three other groups received HFD, supplemented with 1%-, 3%-, and 5% of chitosan. The feeding lasted for 8 weeks, after which the rats were sacrificed. The liver and kidneys were harvested for Analyses. Hepatic alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and renal biomarkers (ALT, AST, urea, and creatinine) were assayed spectrophotometrically. Additionally, expression of hepatic and renal CD43 and p53 was estimated immunohistochemically. Hyperlipidemia caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the hepatic (AST, ALT, and ALP) and renal (AST and ALT) activities, while renal urea and creatinine increased. Furthermore, the HFD group showed an elevated level of hepatic and renal CD43 while p53 expression decreased. However, groups supplemented with chitosan showed improved hepatic and renal biomarkers, as well as corrected the aberrations in the expressions of p53 and CD43. Conclusively, dietary chitosan could effectively improve kidney and liver functionality via abatement of inflammatory responses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0257.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: adsorption; chitosan; isotherm; nanochitosan; pb (ii) removal
Online: 22 October 2019 (10:35:50 CEST)
In this work, nanochitosan (NC) was prepared through ionic gelation using low-molecular-weight chitosan and maleic acid (MA). The synthesized NC was charac¬terized by means of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). In the course of preparation, the particle size of the material was strongly depended on the parameters such as chitosan concentration and pH of the solution. By controlling the above parameters, NC with the size of smaller than 100 nm was prepared. The chitosan and prepared NC were used for the adsorption of Pb (II) from aqueous solutions in a batch system. Among the sorption parameters, pH showed the strongest effect on the sorption process and maximum Pb (II) removal was obtained at pH value of 6. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order were used to track the kinetics of adsorption process. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were subjected to sorption data to estimate the sorption capacity. NC proved to be an excellent adsorbent with remarkable capacity to remove Pb (II) ions from the aqueous solutions at various concentrations. The NC also showed incredible performance with a comparatively easier preparation process than other reported work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0318.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: chitosan; nanocapsules; degradation; FRET; protein corona; bioimaging
Online: 17 September 2018 (15:02:11 CEST)
Sub-micron o/w emulsions coated with chitosan have been used for drug delivery, quorum sensing inhibition and vaccine development. To study interactions with biological systems, nanocapsules have been fluorescently labelled in previous works, but it is often difficult to distinguish the released label from intact nanocapsules. In this study, we present advanced labelling strategies based on FRET measurements for chitosan-coated nanocapsules and investigate their dissolution and degradation. We used FRET measurements of nanocapsules loaded with equimolar concentrations of two fluorescent dyes in their oily core and correlated them with DLS count rate measurement and absorbance measurements during their disintegration by dissolution. Using count rate measurements, we also investigated the enzymatic degradation of nanocapsules using pancreatin and how protein corona formation influences their degradation. Of note, nanocapsules dissolved in ethanol, where FRET decreased simultaneously with count rate, and absorbance caused by nanocapsule turbidity, indicating increased distance between dye molecules after their release. Nanocapsules were degradable by pancreatin in a dose dependent manner, and showed a delayed enzymatic degradation after protein corona formation. We present here novel labelling strategies for nanocapsules that allow us to judge their status and an in vitro method to study nanocapsule degradation and the influence of surface characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0011.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: chitosan; aldehydes; chalcone; MIC; anti-cancer activity
Online: 1 August 2018 (09:38:35 CEST)
Versatile hybrid organic polymers are prepared using two active intermediates such as cynuric chloride and chitosan derivatives. The prepared chalcones are characterized by using FT-IR, UV, and proton NMR, thermal analysis and Minimum inhibitory Concentration. Thermal stability of the synthesized hybrid polymer is found using TGA and the hybrid chitosan derivative chalcone is thermally stable up to 270 °C. The antimicrobial activity of the prepared chitosan containing chalcone moiety are find out using Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) method. The synthesized versatile chalcone shows excellent antimicrobial activity against gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa; and Gram-positive bacteria Chalcone containing halogen moiety shows high activity (MIC 7.8 µg/mL) than the hydroxyl containing chalcone. Cytotoxicity activity of the synthesized composites shows high activity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0700.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: chitosan; nanomaterials; electrochemical chemosensors; electrochemical biosensors; food safety
Online: 29 June 2021 (11:53:15 CEST)
Chitosan is a biopolymer derived from chitin. It is a non-toxic, biocompatible, bioactive, and biodegradable polymer. Due to its properties, chitosan has found applications in several and different fields such as agriculture, food industry, medicine, paper fabrication, textile industry, and water treatment. In addition to these properties, chitosan has a good film-forming ability which allows it to be widely used for the development of sensors and biosensors. This review is focused on the use of chitosan for the formulation of electrochemical chemosensors. It also aims to provide an overview of the advantages of using chitosan as an immobilization platform for biomolecules by highlighting its applications in electrochemical biosensors. Finally, applications of electro-chemical chitosan-based chemosensors and biosensors in food safety are illustrated
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0204.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Antioxidant; Anti-inflammatory; Chitosan; Flavonoids; Phenolics; Silybum marianum
Online: 11 January 2021 (15:59:31 CET)
Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn is a rich source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory flavonolignans with great potential for use in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. Its biotechnological production using in vitro culture system has been proposed. Chitosan is a well-known elicitor that strongly affects both secondary metabolites and biomass production by plants. The effect of chitosan on S. marianum cell suspension is not known yet. In the present study, suspension cultures of S marianum were exploited for their in vitro potency to produce bioactive flavonolignans in the presence of chitosan. Established cell suspension culture was maintained on the same hormonal media supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) and 1.0 mg/L NAA (α-naphthalene acetic acid) under photoperiod 16/8 h (light/dark) and exposed to various treatments of chitosan (ranging from 0.5 to 50.0 mg/L). The highest biomass production was observed for cell suspension treated with 5.0 mg/L chitosan, resulting in 123.3 g/L fresh weight (FW) and 17.7 g/L dry weight (DW) productions. Chitosan treatment resulted in an overall increase in the accumulation of flavonoids, phenolic compounds and silymarin. High accumulation levels of silybin B, silydianin and silybin A were recorded by HPLC analysis. The corresponding extracts displayed interesting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities. In particular, high ABTS antioxidant activity (741.5 μM Trolox C equivalent antioxidant capacity) was recorded in extracts obtained in presence of 0.5 mg/L of chitosan. On the opposite, highest inhibitions of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2, 30.5 %), secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2, 33.9 %) and 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX-2, 31.6 %) enzymes involved in inflammation process were measured in extracts obtained in presence of 5.0 mg/L of chitosan. Taken together, these results highlight the high potential of the chitosan elicitation of the S. marianum cell suspension for enhanced production of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory silymarin-rich extracts.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: meta-analysis; chitosan; lifestyle-related disease; cholesterol lowering
Online: 18 November 2020 (10:59:37 CET)
This study presents a meta-analysis of studies that investigate the effectiveness of chitosan administration on lifestyle-related disease in murine models. A total of 34 published studies were used to evaluate the effect of chitosan supplementation. The effect sizes for various items after chitosan administration were evaluated using the standardized mean difference. Using Cochran’s Q test, the heterogeneity of effect sizes was assessed, after which a meta-ANOVA and –regression test was conducted to explain the heterogeneity of effect sizes using the mixed-effect model. Publication bias was performed using Egger’s linear regression test. Among the items evaluated, blood triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol showed the highest Q statistics and I2 values, respectively. Other than blood HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride in feces, most items evaluated showed a negative effect size with high significance in the fixed- and random-effect model (p<0.0001). In the meta-ANOVA and -regression test, administering chitosan and resistant starch was revealed to be most effective in lowering body weight. In addition, chitosan supplementation proved to be an effective solution for TNF-α inhibition. In conclusion, chitosan has been shown to be somewhat useful in improving symptoms of lifestyle-related disease. Although there are some limitations in the results of this meta-analysis due to the limited number of animal experiments conducted, chitosan administration nevertheless shows promise in enhancing the quality of human life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0210.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: bioactive glass; gelatin; chitosan; 3-Glycidyloxypropyl trimethoxysilane; bone.
Online: 5 November 2020 (10:48:46 CET)
Bioactive glass (BG) represents a promising biomaterial for bone healing; here injectable BG pastes biological properties were improved by 25 wt% gelatin or chitosan, as well as mechanical resistance was enhanced by adding 10 or 20 wt% 3-Glycidyloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) cross-linker. Composites exhibited bioactivity as apatite formation was observed by SEM and XRD after 14 days immersion in SBF; moreover, polymers did not enhance degradability as weight loss was >10% after 30 days in physiological conditions. BG-gelatin-20 wt% GPTMS composites demonstrated the highest compressive strength (4.8±0.5 MPa) in comparison with 100% BG control (1.9±0.1 MPa). Cytocompatibility was demonstrated towards human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC), osteoblasts progenitors and endothelial cells. The presence of 20 wt% GPTMS conferred antibacterial properties thus inhibiting the joint pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis infection. Finally, hMSC osteogenesis was successfully supported in a 3D model as demonstrated by alkaline phosphatase release and osteogenic genes expression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0252.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Electrophoretic deposition; design of experiment; hydroxyapatite; chitosan; antibacterial
Online: 15 May 2020 (10:01:20 CEST)
In this study, silver-strontium doped hydroxyapatite (AgSr-HA)/chitosan composite coatings were deposited on stainless steel (SS) substrate via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique. The EPD parameters such as the concentration of Ag Sr-HA particles in the suspension, applied voltage and deposition time were optimized on by the Taguchi Design of Experiment (DoE) approach. DOE approach elucidated that the “best” coating was obtained at; the deposition voltage of 20V, deposition time of 7 minutes, and at 5 g/L of Ag Sr-HA particles in the suspension. The optimum coatings were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. SEM images confirmed the deposition of chitosan/Ag Sr-HA on the SS substrate. The wettability studies indicated the hydrophilic nature of the chitosan/Ag Sr-HA coatings, which confirmed the suitability of the developed coatings for orthopedic applications. The average surface roughness of the chitosan/Ag Sr-HA coatings was in a suitable range for the attachment of bone marrow stromal cells. Chitosan/Ag Sr-HA coatings showed a potent antibacterial effect against the Gram-Positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0472.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: chitosan; quorum sensing; antibacterial activity; quorum sensing inhibition
Online: 25 July 2018 (08:32:31 CEST)
New approaches to deal with drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria are urgent. We studied the antibacterial effect of chitosans against an E. coli quorum sensing biosensor reporter strain, and selected a non-toxic chitosan to evaluate its QS inhibition activity and its effect on bacterial aggregation. To this end, chitosans of varying DA (12 to 69%) and Mw (29 to 288 KDa) were studied. Only chitosans of low DA (~12%) inhibited the bacterial growth, regardless of the Mw. Chitosan MDP DA30 (DA 42% and Mw 115 kDa) was selected for further QS inhibition and SEM imaging studies. MDP DA30 chitosan exhibited QS inhibition activity in an inverse dose-dependent manner (≤12.5 µg/mL). SEM images revealed that this chitosan, when added at low concentration (≤30.6 µg/mL), induced substantial bacterial aggregation, whereas at high concentration (234.3 µg/mL), it did not. Aggregation explains the QS inhibition activity as the consequence of retardation of the diffusion of AHL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0003.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: aerogel; biopolymer; pectin; alginate; chitosan; beads; jet cutting
Online: 2 July 2018 (08:06:51 CEST)
The aim of this work is to develop a method to produce spherical biopolymer-based aerogel particles, which is capable for scale up in the future. Therefore, jet cutting method is suggested. Amidated pectin and sodium alginate were used as precursor (1–3 wt. % solution) for particle production via jet cutting. Gelation was realized via two methods: internal setting method (using calcium carbonate particles as cross-linker and citric and acidic acid for pH adjustment) and diffusion method (in calcium chloride solutions). Gel particles were subjected to solvent exchange to ethanol and consequent supercritical drying with CO2. Spherical aerogel particles with narrow particle size distribution in the range of 400 to 1500 µm and with specific surface area of around 500 m2/g could be produced. Overall, it can be concluded that jet cutting method is suitable for aerogel particle production, although the shape of the particles is not perfectly spherical in all cases. However, parameter adjustment might lead to even better shaped particles in further work. Moreover, the biopolymer-based aerogel particles synthesized in this study were tested as humidity absorber in drying units for home appliances, particularly for dishwashers. It could be shown that for several cycles of absorption and desorption of humidity aerogel particles are stable with an absorption capacity of around 20 wt. %.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0033.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: polyphenols; folic acid-chitosan; encapsulation; loading efficacy; TEM
Online: 4 June 2018 (10:41:51 CEST)
Encapsulation of antioxidant polyphenols leads to increase solubility and bioavailability of these micronutrients in solution. The encapsulation of antioxidant resveratrol, genistein and curcumin by folic acid-chitosan nanocapsules was studied in aqueous solution, using multiple spectroscopic methods, TEM images. Structural analysis showed that polyphenol bindings are via hydrophilic, hydrophobic and H-bonding contacts with resveratrol forming more stable conjugates. As chitosan size increased, the binding efficacy and stability of polyphenol-polymer adducts were increased. Polyphenol binding induced major alterations of chitosan morphology. Chitosan nanoparticles are capable of delivery of polyphenols in vitro.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0453.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Photodynamic inactivation, reactive oxygen species, chitosan, cell wall
Online: 30 May 2018 (16:19:51 CEST)
Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) combines the nontoxic photosensitizer (PS) and visible light to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause oxidative damages in (on) microbial organisms. Previously, we have shown that chitosan can augment the bactericidal efficacy mediated by PDI against bacteria and Candida. In this study, we showed that the antimicrobial action of chitosan to augment PDI relates to the enlargement of cell surface destruction. The microbial cell surfaces exhibit severe irregular shapes after PDI in the presence of chitosan. Furthermore, increase in the concentrations or incubation time of chitosan significantly reduce the amounts of photosensitizers TBO required, indicating that chitosan could be a synergistic agent with PDI against human pathogens. A prolonged lag phase was found in PDI surviving microbial cells, in which chitosan can act to synergistically eradicate the cells. Once the impaired cells rebuild their cellular functions from PDI-induced damage, the increased cytotoxic effect of chitosan disappeared. Together, our results suggest that chitosan with an augmented bactericidal activity after PDI is to inhibit the rehabilitation of PDI surviving cells, leading to microbial death.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0012.v3
Online: 21 February 2018 (16:00:38 CET)
Chitosan is a cationic polysaccharide usually obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin poly(N-acetylglucosamine). It is biocompatible, biodegradable, mucoadhesive and non-toxic. These excellent biological properties make chitosan a good candidate for a platform in developing drug delivery systems having improved biodistribution, increased specificity and sensitivity, and reduced pharmacological toxicity. In particular, chitosan nanoparticles are found to be appropriate for non-invasive routes of drug administration: oral, nasal, pulmonary and ocular routes. These applications are facilitated by the absorption-enhancing effect of chitosan. Many procedures for obtaining chitosan nanoparticles have been proposed. Particularly, the introduction of hydrophobic moieties into chitosan molecules by grafting to generate a hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance promoting self-assembly is a current and appealing approach. The grafting agent can be a hydrophobic moiety forming micelles that can entrap lipophilic drugs or it can be the drug itself. Another suitable way to generate self-assembled chitosan nanoparticles is through the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes with polyanions. This paper reviews the main approaches for preparing chitosan nanoparticles by self-assembly through both procedures and illustrates the state of the art of their application in drug delivery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0123.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: immobilization, lipase, magnetic nanoparticles, chitosan, collagen, squaric acic
Online: 27 October 2016 (18:40:02 CEST)
The synthesis of new collagen, chitosan and chitosan-collagen coated magnetic nanoparticles have been done. Two types of cross-linkers for polymer shell stabilization were used: glutaraldehyde (Gla) as a standard cross-linker and new one – squaric acid (SqA). Structure and morphology of prepared nanoparticles were characterized by ATR-FT IR, XRD and TEM analysis. The immobilization of lipase from Candida rugosa was performed on the nanoparticles surface. The amount of immobilized enzyme was quantified by the Bradford method. All of lipase-biopolymers coated nanoparticles were characterized with good activity recovery. A little hyperactivation of lipase immobilized on nanoparticles with SqA was observed. All of prepared lipase-immobilized nanoparticles were characterized with very good reusability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0371.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: carboxymethy chitosan; corn peptide; antioxidant activity; antibacterial activity; film
Online: 17 May 2021 (07:59:06 CEST)
Active films based on carboxymethyl chitosan incorporated corn peptide were developed. Physicochemical properties of the films, including thickness, opacity, moisture content, color, mechanical properties, water vapor permeability, and oil resistance, were measured. Biological activities of the films, including the antioxidant and antibacterial activities, were characterized in terms of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity, reducing power, the total antioxidant activity, and the filter disc inhibition zone method. The results indicated that the incorporation of corn peptide caused interactions between carboxymethyl chitosan and corn peptide in Maillard reaction and gave rise to the films light yellow appearance. Compared with the Control, the degree of glycosylation, browning intensity, thickness, opacity, tensile strength, antioxidant activity, and antibacterial activity of films were increased, but the elongation, vapor permeability, and oil resistance of films were decreased. The films based on corn peptide and carboxymethyl chitosan can potentially be applied to food packaging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0125.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: biomaterials; cell control; chitosan; polyvinyl alcohol; scaffold; tissue engineering
Online: 7 December 2020 (07:30:10 CET)
Scaffolds are widely used in tissue engineering because their manufacture is based on natural and synthetic polymers, which allows them to have properties such as biocompatibility and biodegradability, creating an ideal environment for cell growth on their surface. In this context, among the polymers studied in Tissue Engineering are Chitosan (CH) and Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA). CH is a versatile polymer obtained from de-acetylation of chitin, which is used for its high biodegradability and biocompatibility, although its mechanical properties must be improved. It has been found that one of the ways to improve the mechanical properties of CH is to mix it with other synthetic polymers such as PVA. PVA is known for its biocompatibility, biodegradability, zero toxicity and ease of preparation due to its solubility in water and excellent mechanical properties, such as tensile strength and ease in the formation of films and barriers. In this study we evaluated the capacity of scaffolds made with CH and PVA in different concentrations (2: 1, 1: 1, 1: 2, respectively) as a possible application in bone regeneration. This was made through different characterization tests such as Infrared Spectroscopy, AFM, Swelling test and Porosity test, where we obtained information about its structural and physicochemical properties. Additionally, a cellular quality control was performed on the material through the MTT assay. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study showed that there are strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol molecules. The Swelling and Porosity tests showed favorable results, obtaining maximum values of 5519% and 72.17% respectively. MTT tests determined that the prepared materials are not cytotoxic. These findings suggest that scaffolds possess properties suitable for use in Tissue Engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0612.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: inherent safety analysis; sustainability evaluation; SWROIM; shrimp exoskeleton; chitosan
Online: 24 November 2020 (10:54:49 CET)
The recovery and valorization of waste are some of the key aspects of sustainable production. The crustacean exoskeletons can be potentially used to obtain value-added products such as chitosan. A comprehensive analysis including both safety and sustainability aspects of chitosan production from shrimp shells is presented in this study. The inherent safety analysis and sustainability evaluation was performed using the Inherent Safety Index (ISI) methodology and the Sustainable Weighted Return on Investment Metric (SWROIM), respectively. The process was designed for a processing capacity of 57,000 t/y according to shrimp production in Colombia. The economic (%ROI), environmental (PEI output), energy (exergy efficiency), and safety (ITI) technical parameters were included in the sustainability evaluation. The three first were obtained from the previous analysis performed by the authors. The total inherent safety index was estimated at 25 indicating that the process is inherently unsafe. The main process risks were given by the dangerous substance, reactivity, and inventory subindices. The overall sustainability evaluation showed a SWROIM of 36.23% indicating that the case study showed higher weighted performance compared to the return on investment (ROI) metric of 18.08%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0234.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Full Factorial Design; Optimization; metronidazole; nanocomposites; sodium alginate; Chitosan
Online: 21 January 2020 (09:58:09 CET)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chitosan (CS) and Alginate (Alg) polymers concentrations and CaCl2 concentration on metronidazole (MET) drug loading (LE), size particles and zeta potential. Nanocomposites were prepared by ionotropic pregelation method. A (21 *31 *21) *3= 36 full factorial design (FFD) was used to predict statistical equation and responses. The MET-CS-AlgNPs nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscope and in vitro drug release studies. All data indicated the presence of drug into MET-CS-AlgNPs nanocomposites. The release profile of MET-CS-AlgNPs nanocomposites was found to be sustained
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0011.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Poly (lactic acid); chitosan; calcium silicate; tissue engineering; osteogenesis
Online: 1 March 2017 (17:03:43 CET)
Electrospinning is the versatile technique to generate large quantities of micro- or nano-fibers from a wide variety of shapes and sizes of polymer. Natural bone is a hierarchically composites with the dispersion of inorganic ceramic along organic polymer. The aim of this study, the electrospun poly (lactic acid) (PLA) mats coated with chitosan (CH) and calcium silicate (CS) powder were fabricated. The morphology, chemical composition, and surface properties of CS/CH-PLA composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro, the CS/CH-coated PLA mats increased the formation of apatite on the surface when soaking in cell cultured medium. During culture, the adhesion and proliferation of the human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured on CS/CH-PLA were significantly promoted relative to those on PLA. Collagen I and fibronectin levels and promoted cell adhesion were observed upon an increase in CS content. Further, compared to PLA mats without CS/CH, CS10 and CS15 mats markedly enhanced the proliferation of hMSCs as well as their osteogenesis properties, which was characterized by bone-related gene expression. Our results demonstrated that the biodegradable and electroactive CS/CH-PLA mats had potential application as an ideal candidate for bone tissue engineering. Together, findings from this study clearly demonstrated that PLLA-C2S composite scaffold may function as an ideal candidate for bone tissue engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0099.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Chitosan; mHTCC; SARS-CoV-2; S protein; ACE2; Molecular interaction
Online: 7 June 2022 (09:05:16 CEST)
Abstract The present work was designed to investigate antiviral potential of novel mono and oligomeric Chitosan derivatives through in-silico approaches to find potent broad-spectrum anti-viral and promising drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2 and augmentation of their mode of action. Chitosan biopolymer and its derivatives were screened virtually against spike glycoprotein and human ACE2 receptor of nCoV-19. HTCC a polymeric Chitosan has been reported to interact with the corona viral Spike (S) protein and blocks its interaction with ACE2 receptor. Better biocompatibility, structural correlations, variation in degree of decetylation and molecular weight of modified Chitosan derivatives are the key attributes for enhancement of anti-viral activity. The Chitosan derivatives constructively interact with viral S protein. N-Carboxy methyl Chitosan (NCMC) among the Chitosan derivatives displayed efficient binding affinity. NCMC, when compared to mHTCC, a monomeric Chitosan for its interaction with the S protein, RBD site and ACE2 receptor, displayed efficient binding affinity with binding energy of -7.9, -6.3 and -7.4; -6.2, -4.8 and -5.5 Kcal/mol respectively. The interaction of S protein with ACE2 and ligand mHTCC-S protein complex and NCMC-S protein complex with ACE2 was calculated through flexible docking resulted in efficient reduction of binding energy from -901.2kJ/mol to -765.06kJ/mol and-814.72kJ/mol respectively, elucidated that the binding affinity of the viral S protein for its receptor ACE2 decreases in the presence of NCMC/mHTCC. The computational study envisages the antiviral efficiency of NCMC, mHTCC and biocompatible Chitosan derivatives for the first time,as preventive intervention against Covid-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0411.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: Biodegradable film; thermoplastic starch; chitosan; mechanical properties; water vapor permeability
Online: 23 November 2021 (08:19:40 CET)
Starch is a biopolymer with wide potential for the generation of new biodegradable packages due to its high availability and low price. However, due to its weak functional properties, it is necessary to limit the interaction of some hydroxyl, and to evaluate blends with other polymers to improve their performance. Glycerol plasticized acetylated corn starch films were developed by the casting method, and the impact of incorporating chitosan (TPS:CH) at various proportions (75:25, 50:50, and 25:75 v/v) was studied. The effect of the chitosan ratios on the films' physical, mechanical, water vapor barrier, and thermal properties was evaluated. Chitosan protonated amino groups promote the formation of intermolecular bonds, improving the tensile strength, the thermal stability, the water adsorption capacity, and the gas barrier of starch films. Where the film composed of TPS25-CH75 was the one that presented the best barrier to water vapor. These composite films are a good option for development of biodegradable packaging.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0558.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: chitosan; chitin; biological activit; drug delivery; antioxidant; antimicrobial; biocatalysis; nanoparticles
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:07:28 CEST)
Chitosan arouses large interest due to its properties and possible applications. Every year the number of publications and patents based on this polymer increases. Chitosan exhibits poor solubility in neutral and basic media limiting its use in such conditions. Another serious obstacle is directly related to its natural origin. Chitosan is not a single polymer with a defined structure but a family of molecules with differences in their composition, size, and monomer distribution. These properties have a fundamental effect on the biological and technological performance of the polymer. Moreover, some of the biological properties claimed are discrete. In this review, we discuss how chitosan chemistry can solve the problems related to its poor solubility and can boost the polymer properties. We focus on some of the main biological properties of chitosan and the relationship with the physicochemical properties of the polymer. Then, we visit two polymer applications related to green processes: the use of chitosan in the green synthesis of metallic na-noparticles and its use as support in biocatalyst. Finally, we briefly describe how making use of the technological properties of chitosan it is possible to develop a variety of systems for drug delivery
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0311.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Chitosan; Silver nanoparticles; Graphene oxide; Nanocomposites; Antibacterial property; Drug delivery
Online: 12 April 2021 (13:59:44 CEST)
In this work, we designed and fabricated a multifunctional nanocomposite system which consists of chitosan, raspberry-like silver nanoparticles and graphene oxide. Room temperature atmospheric pressure microplasma (RT-APM) process provides a rapid, facile, and environment-friendly method for introducing silver nanoparticles into the composite system. By loading different drugs onto the polymer matrix and/or graphene oxide, our composite can achieve a pH controlled dual drug release with release profile specific to the drugs used. In addition to its strong antibacterial ability against E. coli and S. aureus, our composite also demonstrates excellent photothermal conversion effect under irradiation of near infrared lasers. These unique functionalities point to it’s the potential of nanocomposite system in multiple applications areas such as multimodal therapeutics in healthcare, water treatment, and anti-microbial, etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0652.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: chitosan coating; edible coating; guava fruit; shelf-life; HPLC; flavonoids
Online: 26 March 2021 (10:12:24 CET)
Guava is a vital fruit worldwide, especially in Pakistan, and due to its nutritional value famous in each age group. Due to a very short shelf life, the marketing and export of this fruit faced severe constraints. Therefore, in the current study, edible coating of chitosan (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0%) was evaluated on postharvest shelf life when guava fruits were stored (room temperature and 4 °C temperatures) for 12 days. The chitosan treated coating fruits have shown reduced total sugars and malondialdehyde levels compared to untreated control samples. However, a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) in total sugar and malondialdehyde levels exists between samples stored in m compared to refrigerated temperature (4 °C). The chitosan-coated samples have shown a greater amount of vitamin C, quercetin, rutin, and total phenolic contents than control samples. However, these nutritional parameters' levels were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) in samples stored at room than samples stored at refrigerated temperature. However, the levels of crude fiber, potassium, and sodium were found statistically nonsignificant (p ≥0.05) in control versus chitosan treated coating treatments. The findings have documented that the coatings of 1.5 and 2.0% were most effective for extension in shelf life and maintaining the nutritional attributes of guava fruit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0674.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: chitosan; microbial synthesis; milk composition; volatile fatty acids; purine derivatives
Online: 26 November 2020 (14:15:52 CET)
The study compared the influence of chitosan sources on rumen fermentation, methane emission and milk production in lactating dairy cows fed a glycerin-based diet. Six, lactating Holstein-Frisian crossbreeds (410 ± 5.0 kg BW, 120 ± 21 day-in-milk), were arranged in a 3 x 3 replicated Latin square design. In addition to control, a 2% chitosan extract supplement and a 2% commercial chitosan supplement of dry matter intake were the treatments. The results denoted that no significant differences on daily dry matter, nutrients or estimated energy intake were noted when cows received different sources of chitosan. Nutrient digestibility was not influenced differently by extraction based or commercial chitosan supplements. The pH, temperature, ammonia nitrogen, blood urea and microbial count were similar among treatments. The different sources of chitosan supplements did not change the totals of volatile fatty acids, acetate and butyrate; in contrast, different chitosan sources influenced (P<0.05) propionate content. The ruminal acetate to propionate ratio was markedly (P<0.05) reduced with chitosan supplement, but no change appeared between sources of chitosan. At 4 hours after feeding, the methane estimation signiﬁcantly decreased with the addition of chitosan supplementation (P<0.05) compared to the control group. The purine derivatives and microbial protein synthesis were not altered by the treatments. No significant differences existed on milk yield, milk composition or milk urea nitrogen when cows received different sources of chitosan (P>0.05). In sum, supplementing extracted chitosan showed more potential than did commercial chitosan for enhancing economic efficiency and recycling shrimp residues, therefore, reducing environmental waste.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: economic evaluation; techno-economic sensibility; biorefinery; shrimp; chitin; chitosan; astaxanthin
Online: 27 September 2020 (04:41:00 CEST)
Huge amounts of wastes are generated during shrimp processing, representing approximately 65% of the initial shrimp weight, which can become an environmental problem when accumulated. Residues such as shrimp shells can be processed to obtain value-added products such as chitin, chitosan, astaxanthin, and a nitrogenous extract under the biorefinery concept. In this work, the economic evaluation and the techno-economic sensibility analysis for a mass integrated biorefinery based on shrimp were developed to determine the economic feasibility of the project and to identify the critical techno-economic variables that affect the profitability of the process. The results showed that a biorefinery for the annual processing of 4,113.09 tons of fresh shrimp in Colombia is profitable, with a return on investment percentage (%ROI) equal to 65.88% and a net present value (NPV) of 10.40 MM USD. The process supports decreases of up to 28% in capacity of production and increases of 12% and 11% in the cost of raw materials and variable operating costs without incurring losses, respectively. However, the decrease over 500 USD/t in the shrimp meat selling price is not supported, thus it is mainly recommended to increase the selling price of this product.
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: antimicrobial activity; antiradical activity; chitosan; hydroxypropylmethylcellulose; lignin; pathogenic microorganisms; organosolv
Online: 25 March 2019 (11:40:11 CET)
The antiradical and antimicrobial activity of lignin and lignin-based films are both of great interest for applications such as food packaging additives. The polyphenol structure of lignin in addition to the presence of O-containing functional groups is potentially responsible for these activities. This study used DPPH assays to discuss the antiradical activity of HPMC/lignin and HPMC/lignin/chitosan films. The scavenging activity (SA) of both binary (HPMC/lignin) and ternary (HPMC/lignin/chitosan) systems was affected by the percentage of the added lignin: the 5% addition showed the highest activity and the 30% addition had the lowest. Both, scavenging activity and antimicrobial activity are depending on the biomass source showing the following trend: organosolv of softwood > Kraft of softwood > organosolv of grass. Testing the antimicrobial activities of lignins and lignin-containing films showed high antimicrobial activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria at 35 °C and at low temperatures (0-7 °C). Purification of kraft lignin has a negative effect on the antimicrobial activity while storage has positive effect. The lignin release in the produced films affected the activity positively and the chitosan addition enhances the activity even more for both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Testing the films against spoilage bacteria that grow at low temperatures revealed the activity of the 30% addition on HPMC/L1 film against both B. thermosphacta and P. fluorescens while L5 was active only against B. thermosphacta. In HPMC/lignin/chitosan films the 5% addition exhibited activity against both B. thermosphacta and P. fluorescens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0157.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: chitosan hydrogels, silver nanowires, controlled release, antimicrobial activity, bone regeneration
Online: 18 February 2019 (10:38:46 CET)
One-dimensional nanostructures such as silver nanowires (AgNWs) have attracted considerable attention owing to their outstanding electrical, thermal and antimicrobial properties; however, their application in the prevention of infections linked to bone tissue regeneration interventions has not yet been explored. Here we report on the development of an innovative scaffold prepared from chitosan, composite hydroxyapatite and AgNWs (CS-HACS-AgNWs) having both bioactive and antibacterial properties. In vitro results highlighted the antibacterial potential of AgNWs against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The CS-HACS-AgNWs composite scaffold demonstrated suitable Ca/P deposition, improved gel strength, reduced gelation time, and sustained Ag+ release within therapeutic concentrations. Antibacterial studies showed that the composite formulation was capable of inhibiting bacterial growth in suspension and of completely preventing biofilm formation on the scaffold in the presence of resistant strains. The hydrogels were also shown to be biocompatible, allowing cell proliferation. In summary, the developed CS-HACS-AgNWs composite hydrogels demonstrated significant potential as a scaffold material to be employed in bone regenerative medicine, as it presents enhanced mechanical strength combined with the ability to allow calcium salts deposition, while efficiently decreasing the risk of infections. The results presented justify further investigations into potential clinical applications of these materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0491.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: electronic tongue; milk; galactose; phthalocyanine; chitosan; ionic liquid; LbL sensor
Online: 25 July 2018 (15:50:19 CEST)
A nanostructured electrochemical bi-sensor system for analysis of milks has been developed using the Layer by Layer technique. The non-enzymatic sensor [CHI+IL/CuPcS]2, is a layered material containing a negative film of the anionic sulfonated copper phthalocyanine (CuPcS) acting as electrocatalytic material, and a cationic layer containing a mixture of an ionic liquid (IL) (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) that enhances the conductivity and chitosan (CHI) that facilitates the enzyme immobilization. The biosensor ([CHI+IL/CuPcS]2-GAO) results from the immobilization of galactose oxidase on the top of the LbL layers. FTIR, UV-vis and AFM have confirmed the proposed structure and cyclic voltammetry has demonstrated the amplification caused by the combination of materials in the film. Sensors have been combined to form an electronic tongue for milk analysis. Principal Component Analysis has revealed the ability of the sensor system to discriminate between milk samples with different lactose content. Using PLS-1 calibration models, correlations have been found between the voltammetric signals and chemical parameters measured by classical methods. PLS-1 models provide excellent correlations with lactose content. Additional information about other components such as fats, proteins and acidity can also be obtained. The method developed is simple and the short response time permits its use in assaying milk samples on-line.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0489.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: antibacterial agent; antibiofilm; ferulic acid grafted chitosan; human pathogenic bacteria
Online: 29 June 2018 (15:21:41 CEST)
Emergence of more virulent forms of human pathogenic bacteria with multi drug resistance is a serious global issue and requires alternative control strategies. The current study was focused to investigate the antibacterial and antibiofilm potential of ferulic acid grafted chitosan (CFA) against Listeria monocytogenes (LM), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), and Staphylococcus aureus (SA). The present result showed that CFA at 64 µg/mL concentration exhibit bactericidal action against LM and SA (>4 log reduction) and bacteriostatic action against PA (<2 log CFU) within 24 h of incubation. Further studies based on propidium iodide uptake assay, measurement of material released from the cell, and electron microscopic analysis revealed that the bactericidal action of CFA was due to the altered membrane integrity and permeability. CFA dose-dependently inhibited biofilm formation (52-89% range), its metabolic activity (30.8-75.1% range) and eradicated mature biofilms, and reduced viability (71-82% range) of the test bacteria. Also, the swarming motility of LM was differentially affected at sub-MIC concentration of CFA. In the present study, the ability of CFA to kill and alter the virulence production in human pathogenic bacteria will insight a new scope for the application of these biomaterials in healthcare to effectively treat bacterial infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0133.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: testosterone; cellulose bead; chitosan; coating; zinc ion; freeze drying; adsorbent
Online: 16 January 2018 (05:04:16 CET)
Immobilized metal ion affinity adsorbents have been widely used in separation technique to purify proteins. Due to the leakage of metal ion from the adsorbents, there is no metal ion affinity adsorbent for hemoperfusion has been applied to clinical trial. In this study, in order to prevent the leakage of Zn2+ loaded from cellulose beads based adsorbent, improve its stability and adsorption capacity for testosterone, Freeze-drying method was used to enhance the porosity of cellulose beads, improve the surface area of the cellulose beads and adsorption capacity for testosterone. Chitosan was used to coat the adsorbents for preventing the leakage of Zn2+ loaded and improve the adsorbent’s stability. Moreover, the factors affecting adsorption ability and some components in plasma were also investigated. The results indicate the adsorption ability of the adsorbent can be significantly improved by freeze-drying. After the adsorbent was coated with 0.02% chitosan solution, the highest adsorption percentage reached 48%. During adsorption, the Zn2+ concentration in plasma did not rise. In addition, the adsorption percentage for total proteins was below 15%. The results may be caused by the pore size and surface area of the adsorbent enlarged via freeze-drying, and the chitosan solution went into the pores and coated the outer and inner surface of the adsorbent. The adsorbent has a potential clinical application to remove testosterone in patients with recurrent and metastatic prostate cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0076.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: acne vulgaris; antibiotic resistance; chitosan-phytochemical conjugates; synergistic antibacterial effect
Online: 13 April 2017 (11:19:33 CEST)
The object of this study was to discover an alternative therapeutic agent with fewer side effects against acne vulgaris, which is one of the most common skin diseases. Acne vulgaris often associates with acne-related bacteria such as <i>Propionibacterium acnes</i>, <i>Staphylococcus epidermidis</i>, <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> and <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i>, some of which exhibit a resistant against commercial antibiotics used in the treatment of acne vulgaris (tetracycline, erythromycin, and lincomycin). In the current study, we evaluated <i>in vitro</i> antibacterial activity of chitosan-phytochemical conjugates against acne-related bacteria. Three of chitosan-phytochemical conjugates used in this study showed stronger antibacterial activity than that of chitosan (unmodified control). Chitosan-caffeic acid conjugate (CCA) exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against acne-related bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 8 μg/mL to 256 μg/mL. In addition, the MICs of antibiotics against antibiotic resistant <i>P. acnes</i> and <i>P. aeruginosa</i> strains were dramatically reduced in the combination with CCA, suggesting that CCA would restore the antibacterial activity of the antibiotics. The analysis of fractional inhibitory concentration indices clearly revealed a synergistic antibacterial effect between CCA and the antibiotics. Thus, the median ∑FIC values against the antibiotic resistant bacterial strains were ranged from 0.375 to 0.533 in the combination mode of CCA and antibiotics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0021.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: chitosan; dexketoprofen trometamol; drug delivery; gelatin; NSAIDs; personalized medicine; smart polymers
Online: 1 October 2021 (13:53:53 CEST)
Chronic and non-healing wounds demand personalized and more effective therapies for treating complications and improve patient adherence. This work aims to develop a suitable chitosan-based scaffold to provide 24 hours controlled release of DKT, by taking advantage of chitosan’s thermo-responsive behavior as well as local hyperthermia in wounds. Three formulation prototypes were developed using chitosan (F1), 2:1 chitosan: PVA (F2), and 1:1 chitosan:gelatin (F3). Compatibility tests were done by DSC, TG, and IR spectroscopy. SEM was employed to examine the morphology of the surface and inner layers from the scaffolds. In vitro release studies were performed at 32 °C and 38 °C to evaluate the release profiles, which were later adjusted to different kinetic models for the best formulation. F3 showed the most controlled release of DKT at 32 °C for 24 hours (77.75 ± 2.72 %), and reduced the burst release in the initial 6 hours (40.18 ± 1.00 %), while at 38 °C the release reached 88.52 ± 2.07 % at 12 hours. The release profile for this formulation fits with Hixson-Crowell and Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetic models at both temperatures. Therefore, the developed chitosan/gelatin thermo-responsive scaffold provides a suitable system for wound healing with a controlled release of DKT for 24 hour-use, which can overcome adherence issues and wound complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0034.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: nasal permeability; nose-to-brain; simvastatin; nanocapsules; mucoadhesion; CNS disorders; chitosan
Online: 4 February 2019 (13:27:10 CET)
Drug delivery to the brain represents a challenge especially in the therapy of central nervous system malignancies. Simvastatin (SVT), as other statins, has shown potential anticancer properties that are difficult to exploit in the CNS. In the present work the physico-chemical, mucoadhesive and permeability enhancing properties of simvastatin-loaded poly-ε-caprolactone nanocapsules coated with chitosan for nose-to-brain administration were investigated. Lipid-core nanocapsules coated with different molecular weight (MW) chitosans (LNCchit) prepared by a novel one-pot technique were characterized for particle size, surface charge, particle number density, morphology, drug encapsulation efficiency, interaction between surface nanocapsules with mucin, drug release and permeability across two nasal mucosa models. Results show that all formulations present adequate particle size (below 220 nm), positive surface charge, narrow droplet size distribution (PDI<0.2) and high encapsulation efficiency. Nanocapsules presented controlled drug release and mucoadhesive properties dependent on the MW of the coating chitosan. The results of permeation across RPMI 2650 human nasal cell line evidenced that LNCchit increased the permeation of SVT. In particular, the amount of SVT permeated after 4h for nanocapsules coated with low MW chitosan, high MW chitosan and control SVT was 13.91 ± 0.78 µg, 9.15 ± 1.23 µg and 1.42 ± 0.21 µg respectively. These results were confirmed by the SVT ex vivo permeation across rabbit nasal mucosa. This study highlighted the suitability of LNCchit as promising strategy for the administration of simvastatin for a nose-to-brain approach for the therapy of brain tumors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0085.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: chitosan; kappa-carrageenan; polyelectrolyte complex; gold nanoparticles encapsulation; glucose oxidase; bionanocomposite.
Online: 6 December 2018 (13:15:35 CET)
In this work, an enzymatic sensor, based on a bionanocomposite film consisting of a polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) [Chitosan/kappa-carrageenan] doped with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) encapsulating glucose oxidase (GOD) deposited on a gold electrode (Au) for glucose sensing, is described. Using the electrocatalytic synergy of AuNPs and GOD as a model of enzyme, the variation of the current (µA) as a function of the log of the glucose concentration (log [glucose]), shows 3 times higher sensitivity for the modified electrode (283.9) compared to that of the PEC/GOD modified electrode (93.7), with a detection limit of about 5 µM and a linearity range between 10µM and 7mM. The response of the PEC/AuNPs/GOD based biosensor also presents good reproducibility, stability and negligible interfering effects from ascorbic acid, uric acid, urea and creatinine. The applicability of the PEC/AuNPs/GOD based biosensor was tested in glucose-spiked saliva samples and acceptable recovery rates were obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0558.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Alginate, Chitosan, Layer-by-layer, Magnetic nanoparticles, Drug delivery, Cancer, Curcumin
Online: 28 September 2018 (09:26:48 CEST)
Curcumin is a promising anti-cancer drug but its applications in cancer therapy are limited due to its poor solubility, short half-life and low bioavailability. In this study, curcumin loaded magnetic alginate / chitosan nanoparticles were fabricated to improve the bioavailability, uptake efficiency and cytotoxicity of curcumin to MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Alginate and chitosan were deposited on Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles based on their electrostatic properties. The sizes of the nanoparticles (120-200 nm) were within the optimum range for drug delivery. Sustained curcumin release was obtained use the nanoparticles with the ability to control the curcumin release rate by altering the number of chitosan and alginate layers. Confocal fluorescence microscopy results showed that targeted delivery of curcumin with the aid of magnetic field were achieved. The FACS assay indicated that MDA-MB-231 cells treated with curcumin loaded nanoparticles had a 3-6 folds uptake efficiency to those treated with free curcumin. MTT assay indicated that the curcumin loaded nanoparticles exhibited significantly higher cytotoxicity toward MDA-MB-231 cells than toward HDF cells. The sustained release profiles, enhanced uptake efficiency and cytotoxicity to cancer cells as well as the targeting potential make MACPs a promising candidate for cancer therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0044.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: high and low molecular weight chitosan; lipid metabolism; liver lipid accumulation
Online: 3 July 2018 (12:13:20 CEST)
The present study examined and compared the effects of high- and low-molecular weight (MW) chitosan, a nutraceutical, on intestinal and liver lipid metabolism in rats fed with high-fat diet. Both high- and low-MW chitosan decreased liver weight, elongated small intestine, improved the dysregulation of blood lipids and liver fat accumulation, and increased fecal lipid excretion in high-fat diet-fed rats. Supplementation of both high- and low-MW chitosan significantly inhibited the decreased phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α protein expressions and the increased lipogenesis/cholesterogenesis-associated protein expressions (sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)1c, SREBP2, and PPARγ) and the decreased apolipoprotein (Apo)E and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) protein expressions in the livers of high-fat diet-fed rats. Both high and low-MW chitosan supplementation could also suppress the increased MTTP protein expression and the decreased angiopoietin-like protein (Angptl)4 protein expression in the intestines of high-fat diet-fed rats. Comparison between high and low-MW chitosan, high-MW chitosan has a higher efficiency than low-MW chitosan on the inhibition of intestinal lipid absorption and the increase of hepatic fatty acid oxidation, which can improve liver lipid biosynthesis and accumulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0260.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: ATRP; chitosan grafted poly acrylic acid; heavy metals; adsorption; water treatment.
Online: 15 June 2018 (14:50:41 CEST)
In this work, we synthesized chitosan grafted-poly acrylic acid (CS-g-PA) through surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). We also studied the adsorption process of copper and lead ions onto CS-g-PA surface. Adsorption equilibrium studies indicated pH 4.0 as the best pH for the adsorption process, while the maximum adsorption capacity for Pb2+ ions was 98 mg*g-1 and for Cu2+ was 164 mg*g-1, higher adsorption capacities than chitosan alone (CS), where Pb2+ was only 14.8 mg*g-1and Cu2+ was 140 mg*g-1, respectively. Furthermore, the adsorption studies indicated that Langmuir model describes all the experimental data. All these results suggest that the new CS-g-PA polymers had potential as adsorbent for hazardous and toxic metal ions produced by different industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0126.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: glucose biosensor; chitosan matrix; screen-printed electrode; Glucose Oxidase (GOx); glutaraldehyde crosslinker
Online: 7 December 2022 (10:01:10 CET)
In this study, we designed a new biosensing membrane for the development of an electrochemical glucose biosensor. To proceed, we used a chitosan-based hydrogel that entraps glucose oxidase enzyme (GOx) and we crosslinked the whole matrix using glutaraldehyde, which is known for its quick and reactive crosslinking behavior. Then, the stability of the designed biosensors was investigated over time according to different storage conditions (in PBS solution at temperatures of 4 °C and 37 °C and in the presence or absence of glucose). In some specific conditions, we found that our biosensor is capable to keep its stability for more than six months of storage. We also included catalase to protect the biosensing membranes from the enzymatic reaction by-products (e.g., hydrogen peroxide). This design protects the biocatalytic activity of GOx and enhances the biosensor lifetime.
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: transforming growth factor β3; chitosan sponge; human periodontal ligament cells; osteogenic differentiation
Online: 11 September 2019 (13:42:18 CEST)
Abstract: Periodontal disease is the main reason for tooth loss in adults. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are the advanced technologies used to manage soft and hard tissue defects caused by periodontal disease. We developed a transforming growth factor-β3 chitosan sponge (TGF-β3/CS) to repair periodontal soft and hard tissue defects. We investigated the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation behaviors of primary human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) to discuss the bioactivity and application of TGF-β3 in periodontal disease. We separately used Calcein-AM/PI double-labeling or CM-Dil-labeling coupled with fluorescence microscopy to trace the survival and function of the cells after implantation in vitro or in vivo. The mineralization of osteogenic differentiated hPDLSCs was confirmed by measuring ALP activity and calcium content. The levels of COL I, ALPL, TGF-βRI, TGF-βRII, and Pp38/t-p38 were tested using Western blot to explore the mechanism of bone repair prompted by TGF-β3. When hPDLSCs were inoculated with different concentrations of TGF-β3/CS (62.5–500 ng/mL), ALP activity was the highest in TGF-β3 (250 ng/mL) group after seven days (P < 0.05 vs. control); the calcium content in each group increased significantly after 21 and 28 days (P < 0.001 vs. control). The best result was achieved in the TGF-β3 (500 ng/mL) group. All results showed that TGF-β3/CS can promote osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSC and may be involved in the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. TGF-β3/CS has the potential for application in the repair of incomplete alveolar bone defects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0123.v4
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: chitosan-copper NPs; quinolone derivatives; ultrasonic irradiation; one- pot synthesis; green-sustainable perspectives
Online: 19 December 2018 (03:25:20 CET)
Chitosan decorated copper nanoparticles (CS/CuNPs) catalysts were synthesized via reduction methods utilizing green protocol. The CS/CuNPs hybrid catalysts were tested for the synthesis of quinoline derivatives utilizing one-pot multicomponent reaction (MCR) under ultrasonic irradiation. The best catalyst (CS/CuNPs) that provided good conversion reaction yield and high turnover frequency (TOF) was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), , scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. Generalization of the scope of the proposed catalytic process was studied using different aldehydes. Excellent products yield and high TOF in even shorter reaction time (~5 min) was attained. Recyclability performance of the catalyst over five times re-use without detectable loss in product yield was recorded. The current method is green process utilizing environmentally benign catalyst and considered to be promising sustainable protocol for the synthesis of fine chemicals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0142.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: chitosan; thermoresponsive hydrogel; nitric oxide; s-nitrosothiols; biocompatibility; antimicrobial; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; pluronic F127
Online: 19 March 2018 (07:25:27 CET)
Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in physiological processes, including vasodilatation, wound healing and antibacterial activities. As NO is a free radical, designing drugs to generate therapeutic amounts of NO in controlled spatial and time manners is still a challenge. In this study, the NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) was incorporated into the thermoresponsive Pluronic F-127 (PL) - chitosan (CS) hydrogel, with an easy and economically feasible methodology. CS is a polysaccharide with known antimicrobial properties. Scanning electron microscopy, rheology and differential scanning calorimetry techniques were used for hydrogel characterization. The results demonstrated that the hydrogel has a smooth surface, thermoresponsive behavior and good mechanical stability. The kinetics of NO release and GSNO diffusion from GSNO-containing PL/CS hydrogel demonstrated a sustained NO/GSNO release, in concentrations suitable for biomedical applications. The GSNO-PL/CS hydrogel demonstrated a concentration-dependent toxicity to Vero cells, and antimicrobial activity to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values of 0.5 µg·mL-1 of hydrogel, which corresponds to 1 mmol·L-1 of GSNO). Interestingly, the concentration range in which the NO-releasing hydrogel demonstrated an antibacterial effect was not found to be toxic to the Vero mammalian cell. Thus, the GSNO-PL/CS hydrogel is a suitable biomaterial for topical NO delivery applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0005.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: chitin; chitosan; derivatization; controlled functionalization, click chemistry; graft copolymer; cyclodextrin; dendrimer; ionic liquids
Online: 1 March 2018 (07:13:47 CET)
The functionalization of polymeric substances is of great interest for the development of innovative materials for advanced applications. For many decades, the functionalization of chitosan has been a convenient way to improve its properties with the aim to prepare new materials with specialized characteristics. In the present article, we summarize the latest methods for the modification and derivatization of chitin and chitosan, trying to introduce specific functional groups under experimental conditions, which allow a control over the macromolecular architecture. This is motivated because an understanding of the interdependence between chemical structure and properties is an important condition for proposing innovative materials. New advances in methods and strategies of functionalization such as click chemistry approach, grafting onto copolymerization, coupling with cyclodextrins and reactions in ionic liquids are discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0066.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: chitin; chitosan; cosmetics; biodegradability; biomaterials; polysaccharides; green technology; marine cosmetic ingredients; marine green source; marine resources
Online: 6 May 2019 (12:37:44 CEST)
Huge amounts of chitin and chitosans can be found in the biosphere as important constituent of the exoskeleton of many organisms, as well as waste by worldwide seafood companies. Nowadays, politicians, environmentalists, and industrialists encouraged the use of these marine polysaccharides as renewable source, particularly when developed by alternative eco-friendly processes, especially in the production of regular cosmetics. The aim of this review is to outline the physicochemical and biological properties and the different bioextraction methods of chitin and chitosans sources, focusing on enzymatic deproteinization, bacteria fermentation, and enzymatic deacetylation methods. Thanks to their biodegradability, non-toxicity, biocompatibility, and bioactivity, the application of these marine polymers is widely used in the contemporary manufacturing of biomedical and pharmaceutical products. In the end, advanced cosmetic products based on chitin and chitosans are presented, analyzing different therapeutic aspects about skin, hair, nail, and oral care. The innovative formulations described can be considered as excellent solutions regarding problems in the various body anatomical sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0603.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: ORR; PGM-free; iron; chitosan; biomass, acid electrolyte; iron-nitrogen-doped carbon; graphitization, site density, Fe-Nx
Online: 26 February 2021 (09:43:44 CET)
The development of platinum group metal-free (PGM-free) electrocatalysts derived from cheap and environmentally friendly biomasses for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is a topic of relevant interest, particularly from the point of view of sustainability. Fe-nitrogen-doped carbon materials (Fe-N-C) have attracted particular interest as alternative to Pt-based materials, due to the high activity and selectivity of Fe-Nx active sites, the high availability and good tolerance to poisoning. Recently, many studies focused on developing synthetic strategies, which could transform N-containing biomasses into N-doped carbons. In this paper chitosan was employed as a suitable N-containing biomass for preparing Fe-N-C catalyst in virtue of its high N content (7.1%) and unique chemical structure. Moreover, the major application of chitosan is based on its ability to strongly coordinate metal ions, a precondition for the formation of Fe-Nx active sites. The synthesis of Fe-N-C consists in a double step thermochemical conversion of a dried chitosan hydrogel. In acidic aqueous solution, the preparation of physical cross-linked hydrogel allows to obtain sophisticated organization, which assure an optimal mesoporosity before and after the pyrolysis. After the second thermal treatment at 900 °C, a highly graphitized material was obtained, which has been fully characterized in term of textural, morphological and chemical properties. RRDE technique was used for understanding the activity and the selectivity of the material versus the ORR in 0.5 M H2SO4 electrolyte. Special attention was put in the determination of the active site density according to nitrite electrochemical reduction measurements. It was clearly established that the catalytic activity expressed as half wave potential linearly scales with the number of Fe-Nx sites. It was also established that the addition of the iron precursor after the first pyrolysis step leads to an increased activity because of both an increased number of active sites and of a hierarchical structure, which improves the access to active sites. At the same time, the increased graphitization degree, and a reduced density of pyrrolic nitrogen groups are helpful to increase the selectivity toward the 4e- ORR pathway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0245.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: Chitosan-g-PMMA amphiphilic nanoparticles; thiolated polymers; mucoadhesion; mucosal drug delivery; Caco2 and HT29-MTX cell lines; apparent permeability in vitro.
Online: 18 April 2018 (16:28:21 CEST)
Engineering of drug nanocarriers combining fine-tuned mucoadhesive/mucopenetrating properties is currently being investigated to ensure more efficient mucosal drug delivery. Aiming to improve the transmucosal delivery of hydrophobic drugs, we designed a novel kind nanogel produced by the self-assembly of amphiphilic chitosan graft copolymers ionotropically crosslinked with sodium tripolyphosphate. In this work, we synthesized for the first time chitosan-g-poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles thiolated by the conjugation of N-acetyl cysteine. First, we confirmed that both non-crosslinked and crosslinked nanoparticles in the 0.05-0.1% w/v concentration range display very good cell compatibility in two cell lines that are relevant to oral delivery, Caco2 cells that mimic the intestinal epithelium and HT29-MTX cells that produce mucin. Then, we evaluated the effect of crosslinking, nanoparticle concentration and thiolation on the permeability in vitro utilizing monolayers of (i) Caco2 and (ii) Caco2:HT29-MTX cells (9:1 cell number ratio). Results confirmed that the ability of the nanoparticles to cross Caco2 monolayer was affected by the crosslinking. In addition, thiolated nanoparticles interact more strongly with mucin, resulting in a decrease of the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) compared to the pristine nanoparticles. Moreover, for all the nanoparticles, higher concentration resulted in lower Papp suggesting indicating that the transport pathways could undergo saturation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0179.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: calorie restriction mimetics; anti-aging; lifespan extension; glucose metabolism modulation; chitosan; acarbose; SGLT2 inhibitor; 2-deoxy-D-glucose; D-allulose; D-glucosamine
Online: 7 November 2018 (15:26:42 CET)
Calorie restriction (CR) has been shown to prolong the lifespan of humans, but enforcing long-term CR is difficult. Therefore, a compound that reproduces the effect of CR without CR is needed. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on compounds with CR mimetic (CRM) effects. More than 10 compounds have been listed as CRMs, some of which are conventionally categorized as upstream-type CRMs showing glycolytic inhibition while the others are categorized as downstream-type CRMs that regulate or genetically modulate intracellular signaling proteins. Among these, we focus on upstream-type CRMs and propose their classification as compounds with energy metabolism inhibition effects, particularly glucose metabolism modulation effects. The upstream-type CRMs reviewed include chitosan, acarbose, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, and hexose analogs such as 2-deoxy-D-glucose, D-glucosamine, and D-allulose, which show anti-aging and longevity effects. Finally, we discuss the molecular definition of upstream-type CRMs.