ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0483.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Optical Biosensor; Plasmonics; Plasmonics sensors; SPR biosensor
Online: 25 January 2021 (11:02:23 CET)
The purpose of this paper is to present advanced techniques in optical biodevices. Moreover different configurations involving the generation of fiber optical biosensors are described. To overcome some limitations of fiber optical biosensors, plasmonic phenomena proposed. In addition novel plasmonic phenomena have broaden researcher’s horizons in new discovering in terms of technology and application. As regards there are many challenges to detect ultra-low concentration samples with high sensitivity in real time. Researchers have always made great efforts to discover more effective methods. Throughout the paper SPR and LSPR as a powerful analysis instrument are introduced. Finally surveys the current practical performances of plasmonic sensors in detection of bio target are provided. As a result these devices demonstrate great potential in identifying target analytic due to their unique optical biosensors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0251.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: EGFET; ISFET; electrochemical cell; enzymatic biosensor; DNA–DNA biosensor; immunosensor; antigen–antibody biosensor; ionic sensor
Online: 12 October 2018 (04:38:42 CEST)
Since 1970s, a great deal of attention has been paid to the development of semiconductor–based biosensors because of the numerous advantages they offer, including high sensitivity, faster response time, miniaturization, and low–cost manufacturing for quick biospecific analysis with reusable features. Commercial biosensors have become highly desirable in the fields of medicine, food, environmental monitoring as well as military applications (e.g., Hoffmann–La Roche, Abbott Point of Care, Orion High technologies, etc.), whereas increasing concerns on the food safety and health issues have resulted in the introduction of novel legislative standards for these sensors. Numerous devices have been developed for monitoring of biological–processes such as nucleic–acid hybridization, protein–protein interaction, antigen–antibody bonds and substrate–enzyme reactions, just to name a few. Since 1980s scientific interest moved to the development of semiconductor–based devices which also include integrated front–end electronics, such as the extended–gate–field–effect–transistor biosensor which is one of the first miniaturized chemical sensors. This work is intended to be a review of the state of the art focused on the development of biosensors based extended–gate–field–effect–transistor within the field of bioanalytical applications, which will highlight the most recent research works reported in the literature. Moreover, a comparison among the diverse EGFET devices will be presented giving particular attention to the materials and technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1035.v1
Online: 15 May 2023 (11:05:26 CEST)
We introduced a novel biotin-binding peptide for sensing biotin, biotinylated proteins, and nu-cleotides. From a 15-mer library displayed on the RNA coliphage Qβ, a 15-amino acid long peptide (HGHGWQIPVWPWGQG) hereby referred to as nanotag was identified to selectively bind biotin. The targets selection was achieved through panning with elution by infection. The selected peptide was tested as a transducer for an immunogenic epitope of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) on Qβ phage platform separated by a linker. The biotin-tag showed no significant in-fluence on the affinity of the epitope to its cognate antibody (SD6). The nanotag bound biotin selectively when fused either to the C- or N-terminus of the epitope. The epitope would not bind or recognize SD6 while positioned at the N-terminus of the nanotag. Additionally, the biotin com-peted linearly with the SD6 antibody in a competitive ELISA. Competition assays using the se-lected recombinant phage itself as a probe, or transducer, enable the operationalization of this technology as a biosensor toolkit to sense and quantify SD6 analyte. Herein, the published Strep II nanotag (DVEWLDERVPLVET) was used as a control and has similar functionalities to our pro-posed novel biotin-tag thereby providing a new platform for developing devices for diagnostic purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0698.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: optic biosensor; fluorescence; bacterial detection
Online: 30 October 2018 (03:44:11 CET)
The importance of detecting bacteria in various food products is ever-increasing, due to recent food trends that lend themselves to food contamination. Additionally, the detection of probiotics in food products is of increasing importance to consumers, who realize the benefits of probiotics on one’s diet. Existing technologies for detection of bacteria in food are accurate, but most are slow, increasingly costly and unsuitable for applications outside of research laboratories. Optic approaches have recently emerged as an alternative, allowing rapid detection of bacterial presence. This study employs a portable kinetics fluorometer, fabricated in-house, in conjunction with NADH sensitive fluorescence reporter for analysis of various food products. The presence of bacteria is detected in 5 minutes. Both pathogenic and probiotic bacteria were detected in food products, such as raw chicken and beef, spoiled lettuce and contaminated water, yogurt, and kombucha tea. The cellular activity of two probiotic pills was also verified. All samples displayed varying levels of bacterial activity. The study indicates the viability of biosensors being used as an alternate method to detect bacteria in food products – and the viability of a fluorescence-based biosensor to detect viable bacteria. The approach is suitable for both laboratory and field determinations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0841.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: HCVcoreAg; antibody; aptamer; nanoribbon biosensor; diagnostics
Online: 13 October 2023 (04:34:39 CEST)
The performance of the nanoribbon biosensor upon the use of two different types of molecular probes — the antibodies and the aptamers against HCVcoreAg — has been tested. The sensor chips employed are based on “silicon-on-insulator structures”. Two different HCVcoreAg preparations have been tested: recombinant b-galactosidase-conjugated HCVcoreAg (“Virogen”, USA) and recombinant HCVcoreAg (“Vector-Best”, Russia). Upon the detection of either type of the antigen preparation, the lowest concentration of the antigen detectable in buffer with pH 5.1 has been found to be approximately equal, amounting to ~10–14 M. This value has been found to be similar upon the use of either type of molecular probes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1654.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: antioxidants; biocatalyst; biosensor; electrochemical method; sensor
Online: 28 July 2023 (08:40:19 CEST)
Antioxidants are very beneficial for health because they protect the body from the effects of free radicals on various degenerative diseases caused by food contamination, air pollution, sunlight, etc. In general, methods for measuring the capacity of antioxidants generally use accurate meth-ods such as spectrophotometry and chromatography. Still, it takes time, sample preparation and must be done in a laboratory with particular expertise. Therefore, a new, more practical method needs to be developed for determining antioxidants, namely the electrochemical method. The electrochemical method is promising to develop because it has several advantages, including high sensitivity and fast response. The electrochemical method discussed in this article reviews sensors, biosensors, and nanosensors. This paper comprehensively analyzes contemporary developments in electrochemical biosensor techniques and antioxidant evaluation methodologies. The discussion centers on utilizing multiple biosensors. Electrochemical biosensors have been determined to be prevalent in analyzing food quality, assessing active factor functionality, and screening practical components. The present study outlines the difficulties linked with electrochemical bio-sensor technology and provides insights into the potential avenues for future research in this domain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0176.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: inorganic fluorescent hydrogel; fluorescent nanocrystal; biosensor
Online: 4 May 2023 (03:48:53 CEST)
Fluorescent hydrogels are promising candidate materials for portable biosensors to be used in point-of-care diagnosis because (1) they have a greater capacity for binding organic molecules than immunochromatographic test systems, determined by the immobilization of affinity labels within the three-dimensional hydrogel structure; (2) fluorescent detection is more sensitive than the colorimetric detection of gold nanoparticles or stained latex microparticles; (3) the properties of the gel matrix can be finely tuned for better compatibility and detection of different analytes; and (4) hydrogel biosensors can be made reusable and suitable for studying dynamic processes in real time. Water-soluble fluorescent nanocrystals are widely used for in vitro and in vivo biological imaging due to their unique optical properties, and hydrogels based on them allow preserving these properties in bulk composite macrostructures. Here we review the techniques for obtaining analyte-sensitive fluorescent hydrogels based on nanocrystals, the main methods used for detecting the fluorescent signal changes, and the approaches to the formation of inorganic fluorescent hydrogels via sol–gel phase transition using surface ligands of the nanocrystals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0656.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Silicene; Graphene; DNA; hybridization; Biosensor; ISFETs
Online: 26 March 2021 (10:58:26 CET)
Two-dimensional silicon allotrodes– also called Sinicene– have recently experienced intensive scientific research interest due to their unique electrical, mechanical, and sensing characteristics. A novel silicene based nano-material has been enticed great amenities, partially because of its uniformity with graphene. Silicene is a highly sensitive for numerous sensors based on molecular sensing as pH sensor, gas sensor, ion sensor and biosensing are Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) nucleobase sensor, photonic sensor, cell-based biosensor, glucose sensor, and bioelectric nose sensor. Nowadays genetic research based on DNA hybridization, which is a vital tools for sensing material and it has various detection methods. Among of them, the detection method is frequency readout used to a label-free detection of DNA hybridization. In this paper we have compared the graphene and silicene quantum capacitance that has been proposed for a DNA hybridization detection method on wireless readout. These method shows, the strands of mismatched and complementary DNA have in different range of frequency to identify output efficiency. With respect to DNA concentration the output of silicene is almost sharply linear than graphene. In addition of field effect transistor, silicene opens a new opportunities due to its band gap whereas graphene indicates zero band gap. It can be stated that silicene is much more reliable as well as much stronger than multi-layered graphene.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0034.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: graphene; graphene derivative; biosensor; detection; biomarker
Online: 4 December 2019 (03:00:03 CET)
The development of biosensors with high sensitivity and low-detection limits provides a new direction for medical and personal care. Graphene and graphene derivatives have been used to prepare various types of biosensors due to their excellent sensing performance (e.g. high specific surface area, extraordinary electronic properties, electron transport capabilities and ultrahigh flexibility). This perspective review focuses on graphene-based biosensors for quantitative detection of cancer related biomarkers such as DNA, miRNA, small molecules and proteins by integrating with different signal outputting approaches including fluorescent, electrochemistry, surface plasmon resonance, surface enhanced Raman scattering etc. The article also discussed their challenges and potential solutions along with future prospects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1042.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: biosensor; electrochemistry; graphene; gold nanoparticles; DNA detection
Online: 17 July 2023 (10:31:38 CEST)
Currently available DNA detection techniques frequently require compromises between simplicity, speed, accuracy, and cost. Here, we propose a simple, label-free and cost-effective DNA detection platform developed at screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) modified with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The preparation of the detection platform involved a two-step electrochemical procedure based on GO reduction onto SPCEs followed by the electrochemical reduction of HAuCl4 to facilitate the post-grafting reaction with AuNPs. The final sensor was fabricated by the simple physical adsorption of a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probe onto AuNPs-RGO/SPCE electrode. Each preparation step was confirmed by morphological and structural characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Furthermore, the electrochemical properties of the modified electrodes have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results demonstrated that the introduction of AuNPs onto RGO/SPCEs led to an enhancement in surface conductivity, characteristic that favored an increased sensitivity in detection. The detection process relied on the change in the electrochemical signal induced by the binding of target DNA to the bioreceptor, and was monitored particularly by the change in the charge transfer resistance of a [Fe(CN)6]4−/3− redox couple added in the test solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1904.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: toxicity; microbial biosensor; oxygen electrode; mediator biosensor; microbial biofuel cell (MFC); EC50; toxicity index (T); bacteria Gluconobacter oxydans
Online: 30 October 2023 (12:35:01 CET)
Biosensors based on an oxygen electrode, a mediator electrode and a mediator microbial biofuel cell (MFC) using on the bacteria Gluconobacter oxydans B-1280 have been formed and tested to determine the integral toxicity. G. oxydans bacteria exhibit high sensitivity to the toxic effects of phenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, salicylic and trichloroacetic acid and a number of heavy metal ions. The system “G. oxydans bacteria – ferrocene – graphite-paste electrode” is superior in sensitivity to biosensors formed using an oxygen electrode and MFC, in particular regarding heavy metal ions (EC50 of chromium (II), manganese (II) and cadmium (II) was 0.8 mg/dm3, 0.3 mg/dm3 and 1.6 mg/dm3, respectively). It has been determined that the period of stable functioning of electrochemical systems during measurements is reduced by half due (from 30 to 15 days) due to changes in the enzyme system of microbial cells when exposed to toxicants. Samples of products made from polymeric materials were analyzed using developed biosensor systems and standard biotesting methods based on inhibiting the growth of duckweed L. minor, reducing the motility of bull sperm and quenching the luminescence of the commercial test system "Ecolum". The developed bioelectrocatalytic systems are comparable in sensitivity to commercial biosensors, which made it possible to correlate the results and identify by all methods a highly toxic sample containing diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate according to GC-MS data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0307.v1
Subject: Analytical Chemistry, Chemistry And Materials Science Keywords: Quaternary ammoniums; Biocides; Cholinesterases; Biosensor; Screen-printed electrodes
Online: 6 December 2023 (08:06:49 CET)
A sensitive and robust electrochemical cholinesterase-based sensor was developed to detect the quaternary ammonium (QAs) biocides most frequently found in agri-food industry wash waters: benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and didecyldimethylamonium chloride (DDAC). To reach the maximum residue limit of 2.8 10-8 M imposed by the European Union (EU), two types of cholinesterases were tested, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, from Drosophila melanogaster) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, from horse serum). The sensors were designed by entrapping AChE or BChE on cobalt-phthalocyanine-modified screen-printed carbon electrodes. The limits of detection (LOD) of the resulting biosensors were 3.8 10-8 M for DDAC and 3.2 10-7 M for BAC, using respectively AChE and BChE. A simple solid phase extraction step was used to concentrate the samples before biosensor analysis, allowing the accurate determination of DDAC and BAC in tap water with limits of quantification (LOQ) as low as 1.3 10-9 M and 5.3 10-9 M, respectively. The biosensor was shown to be stable during 3-months storage at 4°C.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1835.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Laser-scribed graphene; biosensor; nanobody; electrochemistry; COVID-19
Online: 29 November 2023 (09:57:13 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2 has been the greatest global threat to human health in the last three years. The most widely used methodologies for the diagnosis of COVID-19 are quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), used to detect the viral genome, and rapid antigen tests (RATs), also known as lateral flow tests, that employ specific antibodies to detect the viral spike protein. While PCR is considered the gold standard test in terms of specificity and sensitivity, it is time-consuming and requires specialized instrumentation operated by skilled personnel. In contrast, RATs can be used in-home or at point-of care but are less sensitive leading to a higher rate of false negative results. An alternative methodology for the detection of virus is the use of electrochemical biosensors that employ disposable strip electrodes to which binding of viral components elicits a change in electrical signal. Laser-scribed graphene (LSG) electrodes are attractive candidates for use as biosensors electrodes suitable for SARS-COV-2 detection due to their low-cost, patternability and ease of fabrication. In this work, we describe the development of a biosensor for COVID-19 detection that exploits a split-ester bond ligase system (termed ‘EsterLigase’) for immobilization of a virus-specific nanobody to maintain the out-of-plane orientation of the probe to ensure the efficacy of the probe-target recognition process. An anti-spike VHH E nanobody, genetically fused with the EsterLigase domain, was used as the specific probe for the spike receptor-binding domain (SP-RBD) protein as the target. The recognition between the two was measured by the change in the charge transfer resistance, determined by fitting the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) spectra. The developed LSG-based biosensor achieved a linear detection range for the SP-RBD from 15 pM to 150 nM with a sensitivity of 0.0866 [log(M)]-1 and a limit of detection (LOD) of 7.68 pM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1106.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: E. coli; Biosensor; D-Mannose; Gold Nanoparticle; eletrochemistry
Online: 28 April 2023 (04:29:01 CEST)
Controlling water and food contamination by pathogenic organisms requires quick, simple, and low-cost methods. using affinity between mannose and type I fimbriae in the cell wall of Escherichia coli bacteria as evaluation elements compared to the conventional plate counting technique enables a reliable sensing platform for the detection of bacteria. In this study, a simple new sensor based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for rapid and sensitive detection of Escherichia coli was developed. Biorecognition layer of the sensor was formed by covalent attachment of p-carboxyphenylamino mannose (PCAM) to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) electrodeposited on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The resultant structure of PCAM was characterized and confirmed using FTIR. The developed biosensor demonstrated a linear response with a logarithm of bacterial concentration (R2 = 0.998) in the range of 1.3 × 10 1~ 1.3 × 106 CFU.mL−1with the limit of detection of 2 CFU.mL−1 within 60 min. The sensor did not generate any significant signals with two non-target strains, demonstrating high selectivity of the developed biorecognition chemistry. Selectivity of the sensor and its applicability to analysis of the real samples was investigated in samples of tap water. Overall, the developed sensor has shown to be promising for the detection of E. coli pathogen in water due to its high sensitivity, short detection time, low cost, high specificity, and user-friendliness.
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: biosensor; optical fiber sensor; two-mode fiber; sensitivity
Online: 20 February 2020 (05:33:03 CET)
Conventional method for monitoring the IgG levels suffered from some apparent problems such as long assay time, multistep processing, and high overall cost. An effective and suitable optical platform for label-free biosensing has been investigated by the implementation of antibody/antigen immunoassays. Thus, the ultrasensitive detection of IgG levels can be achieved by exploiting the dispersion turning point (DTP) existed in the tapered two-mode fibers (TTMFs) due to the sensitivity will reach ±∞ on either side of the DTP. Tracking the resonant wavelength shift it was found that the fabricated TTMF device exhibited limits of detection (LOD) down up to concentrations of 10 fg/mL of IgG in PBS solution. Such immunosensors based on the DTP have great significance on trace detection of IgG due to simple detection scheme, quick response time, and miniaturation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0206.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: adnectin; biosensor; Fibronectin; monobody; non-antibody scaffold; therapeutic
Online: 19 January 2020 (03:25:24 CET)
As a non-antibody scaffold, monobodies based on the fibronectin type III (FN3) domain overcome antibody size and complexity while maintaining analogous binding loops. However, antibodies and their derivatives remain the gold standard for design of new therapeutics. In response, clinical therapeutic proteins based on the FN3 domain are beginning to use native fibronectin function as a point of differentiation. The small and simple structure of monomeric monobodies confers increased tissue distribution and reduced half-life, whilst the absence of disulphide bonds improves stability in cytosolic environments. Where multi-specificity is challenging with an antibody format that is prone to mis-pairing of chains, FN3 domains in the fibronectin assembly already interact with a large number of molecules. As such, multiple monobodies engineered for interaction with therapeutic targets are being combined in a similar beads-on-a-string assembly which improves both efficacy and pharmacokinetics. Furthermore, full length fibronectin is able to fold into multiple conformations as part of its natural function and a greater understanding of how mechanical forces allow for the transition between states will lead to advanced applications that truly differentiate the FN3 domain as a therapeutic scaffold.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0103.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: alcohol; biosensor; cartridge; disposable; transdermal; Alcohol Use Disorder
Online: 8 April 2019 (15:07:30 CEST)
Transdermal alcohol biosensors have the ability to detect the alcohol that emanates from the bloodstream and diffuses through the skin. However, they have suffered from long-term fouling of the sensor element and drift in the resulting sensor readings over time. Here, we report a disposable cartridge platform that solves the problem of sensor fouling, and an enzymatic detection pathway that minimizes baseline drift for sensitive detection. Laboratory characterization of the enzymatic alcohol sensor demonstrates a linear sensor range of between 0 and 50 mM. Further, we show continuous transdermal alcohol data recorded with a human subject over 48 hours.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0107.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: alcohol oxidase (AOX); biosensor; halal products; cyclic voltammetry
Online: 25 October 2016 (09:46:35 CEST)
Determining halal product of fermented foods and bevearages becomes important for muslim consumers due to religious codification of halal. In order to help on site analysis, an alcohol biosensor was under development. The biosensor was constructed using bacteria producing alcohol oxidase (AOX). Bacteria from apple juice was isolated in advance to obtain pure bacteria. The bacteria was cultured in two solid media. Bacteria on the Acetobacter media had a resistance in a solution containing alcohol with a higher concentration. Acetobacter was cultured on solid and liquid media for measuring at various ethanol concentrations (0.01%-3%) with different absorbance value. Bacteria with absorbance value 0.500 had the highest oxidation current peak. Later, it was used as bioreceptor for measuring ethanol by cyclic voltammetry method. The linearity of measurement later was compared with spectrophotometric measurement. By using cyclic voltammetry the linearity had higher R2 value than spectrophotometric method. However, it only had stability for two days, there fore it needs more improvement for lasting its lifetime. Basically, electrochemical method has potency for further being improved fur as an alternative method of ethanol on-site measurement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1207.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: surface plasmon resonance biosensor; graphene plasmon; chemical potential sensing
Online: 20 November 2023 (07:42:45 CET)
A tunable near-infrared surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on gate-controlled graphene plasmons is investigated theoretically. The novel characteristics of chemical potential sensing make the proposed sensor promising in the application of ultra-sensitive and highly specific biosensing technology. The sensitivity of chemical potential sensing in wavelength interrogation mode can be calculated to be 1.5, 1.89, 2.29, 3.21, 3.73 and 4.68 nm/meV respectively at the central wavelength of 1100, 1200, 1310, 1550, 1700 and 1900 nm. The much smaller full width half maximum (FWHMs) comparing with that of 2D nanomaterial-enhanced metal SPR sensors indicates higher figure of merit. The sensitivity of chemical potential sensing in gate voltage interrogation mode also can be calculated to be 156.9822, 143.6147, 131.0779, 111.0351, 101.3415 and 90.6038 mV/meV respectively at the incident wavelength of 1100, 1200, 1310, 1550, 1700 and 1900 nm. It can be estimated theoretically that the limit of detection (LOD) in DNA sensing of the proposed sensor can reach femtomolar level and even attomolar level, comparable to and even lower than that of 2D nanomaterial-enhanced metal SPR sensors with AuNPs as a sensitivity enhancement strategy. The feasibility of preparation and operation of this new concept SPR biosensor is also analyzed and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0942.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: DNA biosensor, functionalized carbon nanodots, multiplex potentiostat, bacteria detection
Online: 14 September 2023 (08:53:53 CEST)
An advanced, cost-effective and portable DNA biosensor capable of detecting multiple bacteria simultaneously have been developed. The biosensor consists of a fast and inexpensive potentiostat that controls the applied potential to a screen-printed electrochemical array platform functionalized with MoS2 flakes and bacteria DNA probes, and monitors the current response obtained by the use of à la carte thionine functionalized carbon nanodots (Ty-CDs) as electrochemical indicator of the hybridization event. The design of the potentiostat prioritizes achieving an optimal signal-to-noise ratio and incorporates a user-friendly interface compatible with various devices such as computers, mobile phones and tablets. The device is compact, lightweight, and manufactured at a low cost. The key components of the potentiostat include a data acquisition board capable of analyzing multiple samples simultaneously and a controller board. The results obtained confirm the ability of the developed device to successfully detect specific bacteria DNA sequences, demonstrating the reliability and performance of the developed multiplexing portable biosensor with better sensibility than using a traditional, more complex and laboratory oriented potentiostat.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2151.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: bimolecular fluorescence complementation; BiFC; influenza A virus; IAV; biosensor
Online: 29 June 2023 (12:46:13 CEST)
Herein, we developed a highly sensitive and specific bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC)-based influenza A virus (IAV) sensing system created by combining a galactose/glucose-binding protein (GGBP) with an N-terminal large domain (YN1-172) and a C-terminal small domain (YC173-239) of enhanced yellow fluorescence protein (eYFP). The GGBP-based BiFC reporter exhibits the fluorescence reconstitution as a result of conformational changes in GGBP when lactose, derived from 6’-silalyllactose used as a substrate for neuraminidase (NA), binds to GGBP in the presence of IAV. The system showed a linear dynamic range from 1 x 100 TCID50/mL to 1 x 107 TCID50/mL, with a detection limit of 4 x 101 TCID50/mL for IAV (H1N1), demonstrating ultra-high sensitivity. Our system exhibited fluorescence intensity enhancements in the presence of IAV, while displaying weak fluorescence signals when exposed to NA-deficient viruses such as RSV A, RSV B, adenovirus and rhinovirus, thereby indicating selective responses for IAV detection. Taken together, our system provides a simple, highly sensitive and specific IAV detection platform based on BiFC capable of detecting the ligand-induced protein conformational changes, obviating the need for virus culture or RNA extraction processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1236.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: biosensor; SOI-FET; transistor; detection; virus; particles; probability; plausibility
Online: 16 June 2023 (11:49:20 CEST)
Detection of virus in sample is an actual problem in biotechnology, virology, medicine using biosensor. History of problem dates back to middle of last century and is associated with development of an ion-sensitive solid-state device for neurophysiological measurements. Aim of work is theoretical investigation process of detection antibody+antigen (AB+AG) complexes using SOI-FET biosensor. On example of crystal with ten biosensors, estimates of probability detection AB+AG complexes influenza virus are made. In detection process, following four results are possible: – target complex is present in test sample, and it was correctly detected; – target complex is present in sample, but it was not detected; – target complex is absent in sample, but background particles are mistakenly detected as target complex; – target complex is absent in sample, background particles present in sample and are correctly detected as noise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0006.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Neural network; Biochemical Oxygen demand; Biosensor; Microbial Fuel Cell
Online: 1 November 2022 (01:22:10 CET)
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is one of the most important factors to consider when evaluating water contamination. BOD5 is the amount of oxygen consumed in five days by microorganisms that oxidize biodegradable organic materials in an aerobic biochemical manner. The primary objective of this effort is to use microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to shorten the time required for BOD5 measurements. We created a regression artificial neural network (AI), and the predictions we obtained for BOD5 measurements were taken over 6 – 24 hours with an average error of just 7%. The outcomes demonstrated by our AI MFC/BES BOD5 sensor’s viability for use in real-world scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0242.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: multimode interferometer; MMI; thermo-optical switch; SOI technology; biosensor
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:33:15 CEST)
This paper reports design of a 2 × 4 hybrid multimode interferometer-Mach-zehnder interferometer (MMI-MZI) configuration and compact thermo-optical switch consisting of slab waveguides on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI), platform. The device consisted of two identical MMIs as power splitters and couplers that are connected with two identical MMI-based phase shifters, and linear tapers at both ends of the MMIs to minimize the power coupling loss. A thin Al pad is used as a heating element, and a trench is created around this pad to prevent heat from spreading and to minimize loss. The calculated average thermo-optical switching power consumption, excess loss, and power imbalance are 1.4 mW, 0.9 dB, and 0.1 dB, respectively. The overall footprint of the device is 6 × 304 μm2. The new heating method has advantages of compact size, ease of fabrication on SOI platform with the current CMOS technology, and offers low excess loss and power consumption as demanded by devices based on SOI technology. The device can act as two independent optical switches in one structure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0668.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: photosynthesis; nutrient and water absorption; abiotic stress resistance; yield; biosensor
Online: 11 September 2023 (10:11:28 CEST)
Carbon dots are carbon based nanoparticles, which have the characteristics of simple preparation process, photoluminescence, biocompatibility, adjustable surface function, water solubility, and low toxicity. They are widely used in biological applications such as imaging, biosensing, photocatalysis, and molecular transfer. It has also aroused great interest among researchers in agriculture and has made significant progress in improving crop growth and production. This review presents the physiological functions of carbon dots for crop growth and development, photosynthesis, water and nutrient absorption, and abiotic stress resistance and their applications in improving ecological environment and agriculture as biosensors, and the future application prospects and research directions of carbon dots in agriculture were prospected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1010.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: pH; Biosensor; Silicon Nanowires; Human Interstitial Fluid; Constant Current; ISFETs
Online: 14 August 2023 (08:55:29 CEST)
In this paper, we propose a novel approach to utilize silicon nanowires as high-sensitivity pH sensors. Our approach works based on fixing the current bias of silicon nanowires Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistors (ISFETs) and monitor the resulting drain voltage as the sensing signal. By fine tuning the injected current levels, we can optimize the sensing conditions according to different sensor requirements. This method proves to be highly suitable for real-time and continuous measurements of biomarkers in human biofluids. To validate our approach, we conducted experiments, with real human sera samples to simulate the composition of human interstitial fluid (ISF), using both the conventional top-gate approach and the optimized constant current method . We successfully demonstrated pH sensing within the physiopathological range of 6.5 to 8, achieving an exceptional level of accuracy in this complex matrix. Specifically, we obtained a maximum error as low as 0.92\% (equivalent to 0.07 pH unit) using the constant-current method at the optimal current levels (1.71\% for top-gate). Moreover, by utilizing different pools of human sera with varying total protein content, we demonstrated that the protein content among patients does not impact the sensors' performance in pH sensing. Furthermore, we tested real-human ISF samples collected from volunteers. The obtained accuracy in this scenario was also outstanding, with an error as low as 0.015 pH unit using the constant-current method and 0.178 pH unit in traditional top-gate configuration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0412.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: sugar reaction; colorimetric biosensor; DNA target; RNA target; intercalator detection
Online: 4 August 2023 (09:42:11 CEST)
The development of biosensors for target detection plays a crucial role in advancing various fields of bioscience. This work presents the development of a genosensor that exploits the colorimetric phenol-sulfuric acid sugar reaction for the detection of DNA, and RNA as specific targets, and DNA intercalator molecules. The biosensor combines simplicity and reliability to create a novel bio-assay for accurate and rapid analysis. A 96-well microplate based on polystyrene polymer was used as the platform for an unmodified capture DNA immobilization via a silanization process and with (3-Aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES). After that, a hybridization step was carried out to catch the target molecule, followed by adding phenol and sulfuric acid to quantify the amount of DNA or RNA sugar backbone. This reaction generates a yellow-orange color on the wells measured at 490 nm that was proportional to the target concentration. Under the optimum conditions, a calibration curve was obtained for each target. The developed biosensor demonstrated high sensitivity, good selectivity, and linear response over a wide concentration range for DNA and RNA targets. Additionally, the biosensor was successfully employed for the detection of DNA intercalator agents that inhibit the hybridization of DNA complementary to the immobilized capture DNA. The developed biosensor offers a potential tool for sensitive and selective detection in various applications, including virus diagnosis, genetic analysis, pathogenic bacteria monitoring, and drug discovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2074.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: holographic recording; volume transmission grating; hydrogel layer; diffraction efficiency; biosensor
Online: 31 July 2023 (11:10:48 CEST)
The role of volume hydrogel holographic gratings as optical transducers in sensor devices for point-of-care applications is increasing due to their ability to be functionalized for achieving enhanced selectivity. The first step in the development of these transducers is the optimization of the holographic recording process. The optimization aims at achieving gratings with reproducible diffraction efficiency, which remains stable after reiterative washings, typically required when working with analytes of biological nature or several step tests. The recording process of volume phase transmission gratings within acrylamide/propargyl acrylate hydrogel layers reported in this work was successfully performed and the obtained diffraction gratings were optically characterized. Unslanted volume transmission gratings were recorded in the hydrogel layers and using the optimized conditions, diffraction efficiencies of up to 80% were achieved. Additionally, the recorded gratings demonstrated to be stable in water after multiple washings. The hydrogels, after functionalization with oligonucleotide probes yields specific hybridization response, recognizing the complementary strand as demonstrated by fluorescence. Analyte-sensitive hydrogel layers with holographic structures are a promising candidate for the next generation of in vitro diagnostic tests.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2103.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: DNA aptamer; biosensor; Cell-SELEX; in vitro diagnostic; Rikenella microfusus
Online: 31 July 2023 (10:42:24 CEST)
Rikenella microfusus is an essential intestinal probiotic with great potential. The latest research shows that its imbalance in the intestinal flora is related to the occurrence of various diseases, such as intestinal diseases, immune diseases, and metabolic diseases. Rikenella may be a target or biomarker for some diseases, providing a new possibility for preventing and treating these diseas-es by monitoring and changing the abundance of Rikenella in the intestine. However, the current detection methods have disadvantages such as long detection time, complicated operation, and high cost, which seriously limit the possibility of clinical application of this new treatment method. Therefore, developing rapid and low-cost detection methods has become an urgent problem to be solved. In this study, we used Rikenella as the target bacterium, meanwhile including five other prominent gut bacteria Akkermansia muciniphila, Allobaculum stercoricanis, Blautia producta, Rose-buria intestinalis and Parabacteroides distasonis as control organisms. The aptamer library R.m-R13 was evolved with high specificity and strong affinity (Kd = 9.597 nM) in an iterative Cell-SELEX process after 13 rounds of selection. R. microfusus can efficiently be discriminated from other major gut bacteria in complex mixtures in different analysis techniques including fluorescence micros-copy or fluorometric suspension assays and even in human stool samples. These preliminary re-sults open new avenues towards the development of aptamer-based microbiome bio-sensing ap-plications for fast and reliable R. microfusus monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1357.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Electrochemical Biosensor; High-risk human papillomavirus; Gold Nanoparticles; 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane
Online: 20 July 2023 (02:41:09 CEST)
Cervical cancer is the most common female reproductive tract tumor and is currently the only cancer that can be prevented by vaccination. Early detection and treatment of cervical cancer can be achieved through regular screening for human papillomavirus (HPV). Therefore, in this paper, an electrochemical sensor was designed to detect HPV 16 using a dual signal amplification technique. APTES modified glassy carbon electrode to improve stability. Combining gold nanoparticles and chain amplification reactions for signal amplification purposes. The limit of detection (LOD) was 1.731×10-16 mol/L, and the detection range of this electrochemical sensor was increased in comparison to previous research, with a linear response range from 1.0×10-13 mol/L to 1.0×10-5 mol/L (R2 = 0.99232) for the target detector.In addition, the sensor showed equally good recovery in sophisticated human serum samples. It shows that it has good interference resistance and the designed biosensor can be a powerful and reliable tool for clinical disease diagnosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0084.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: microdevice; aptamer; biosensor; SELEX; lab-on-chip; point-of-care
Online: 7 April 2018 (12:10:02 CEST)
Since the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) method was developed, aptamers have made significant contributions as bio-recognition sensors. Microdevice systems allow for low reagent consumption, high-throughput of samples, and disposability. Due to these advantages, there has been an increasing demand to develop microfluidic-based aptasensors for analytical technique applications. This review introduces the principal concepts of aptasensors and then presents some advanced applications of microdevice-based aptasensors on several platforms. Highly sensitive detection techniques such as electrochemical and optical detection have been integrated into lab-on-a-chip devices and researchers have moved towards the goal of establishing point-of-care diagnoses for target analyses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1398.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Magnetic nanoparticles; biosensor; bioassay; functionalization; nanomaterial synthesis; electrochemical detection; optical detection
Online: 20 July 2023 (09:49:51 CEST)
Biosensors are analytical devices that utilize biological interactions to detect and quantify clinical biomarkers, contaminants, allergens, and microorganisms. They combine different disciplines including analytical chemistry, molecular biology, and electrical engineering. Biosensors operate by coupling a bioreceptor, such as nucleic acid or proteins, with a transducer that converts the biological interaction into an electrical signal. Electrochemical and optical transduction are commonly used approaches due to their high detection capability and compatibility with miniaturization. Biosensors provide both high specificity and sensitivity and can be integrated into low-cost microfluidic platforms for rapid and point-of-care applications. These attributes make these devices valuable tools in analytical chemistry, particularly for early diagnostic applications. However, conventional biosensors face challenges related to the immobilization of biorecognition elements on the transducer surface, leading to issues like lost of sensitivity and selectivity. To address these problems, the introduction of nanomaterials, particularly magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and magnetic beads (MBs), has been implemented. MNPs combine their magnetic properties with other interesting characteristics such as small size, high surface-to-volume ratio, and excellent biocompatibility. They can be tailored for specific applications and have been extensively used in various fields, including biosensing and clinical diagnosis. Furthermore, MNPs simplify sample preparation by isolating target analytes through magnetic separation, thus improving sensitivity, and reducing analysis time and interference phenomena. The synthesis and modification of MNPs play a crucial role in adjusting their properties for different applications. This review presents an overview of the synthesis and surface modifications of magnetic nanoparticles, their role in the development of biosensors and bioassays, and their applications across various scientific areas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0526.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: colorimetric; dual ratiometric; biosensor; enzymatic; acetylcholinesterase; plant and animal derived-food
Online: 10 July 2023 (11:12:40 CEST)
Pesticides are chemical products are used to protect crops to prevent or eliminate undesirable organisms. Pesticides can contaminate continental waters, air, soil and food products. The presence of pesticide residues must therefore be monitored in water and food using sensitive, reliable and broad-spectrum analytical methods, as there is a huge variety of pesticides. Biosensors are one of the screening methods with great potential for detecting residues below the maximum residue limits. The different sensing principles of enzymatic biosensors for pesticide analysis will be described. This review highlights the great potential of colorimetric, enzymatic biosensors for detecting pesticide residues in water and food. Moreover the development of dual colorimetric and fluorimetric sensors during the past years is presented. These methods are most often based on the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, whose activity is inhibited by pesticides. The different approaches used in the development of these biosensors will be detailed, based on different chemical substrates, fluorophores and nanomaterials. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach will be discussed. Finally, the development prospects for improving these biosensors will be presented.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2085.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: autoantibodies; autoimmune; biomarker; biosensor; chronic disease; cytokines; microRNAs; Point-of-Care
Online: 30 May 2023 (08:25:35 CEST)
Although relatively rare, affecting 8% of the general population, autoimmune disorders are causative linked with chronic diseases and morbidity. Control of the course of the disease is closely dependent on the ability to monitor its onset as well as response to treatment. In the present report, we review the progress in the development of biosensor-based approaches and related tools for the Point-of-Care diagnosis and monitoring of biomarkers related to several autoimmune diseases, such as Myasthenia Gravis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Multiple Sclerosis, Systemic Erythematosus Lupus, Crohn’s Disease, Diabetes Mellitus, Behcet’s disease, Psoriasis and Celiac Disease. Various biosensing technologies are discussed, including electrochemical, optical and mechanical ones, along with the use of advanced nanomaterials and immobilization techniques for the biorecognition elements. The need for innovative devices with unique features of rapid, low-cost, real-time detection is considered in the context of preventing permanent organ and tissue damage from chronic autoimmune diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0200.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: microRNAs; Precision livestock science; animal welfare; livestock health; biomarkers; biosensor; pandemics
Online: 13 July 2022 (13:12:32 CEST)
Early disease detection in livestock allows for target treatment decreasing antibiotics use and allow advancements in precision veterinary medicine. MicroRNA (miRNA) -driven signaling cascades play a crucial role in the context of farm animal disease diagnostics and prediction, and their proper understanding remains a challenge. In livestock farm animals, only a small number of miRNAs have been fully validated with respect to disease conditions and physiological or behavioral traits. Low abundance of miRNAs in blood and bodily fluids, along with a small number of nucleotides, makes detection and discrimination tedious and challenging task in. miRNAs usually are homologous, owing to which detection specificity becomes next to impossible when screening for multiple miRNAs in the same analyte sample. Hence, a concurrent, multiplexing, approach becomes crucial for the development of on-farm point-of-care based detection systems. Comprehensive screening methods demand broad dynamic range and enhanced specificity. For on-farm handheld platform development, the ability to screen for multiple varieties of miRNA is essential. In this review paper, I provide an overview of the recent developments of miRNA sensing and the current bottlenecks in the realization of the sensors for detecting miRNAS as target analyte for various livestock disease detection applications. Due to the nascent stages of this research, the possibilities of exploiting miRNAs as a biomarker opens up ways to move from reactive to predictive possibilities in diseases detection in the modern digital livestock farming.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0177.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Sensor; Smart machine; Internet of Things (IoT); Arrhythmia; Arrhythmic Signs; Biosensor
Online: 3 February 2021 (10:51:22 CET)
It is important to increase the quality of health and medicine. A wearable system for continuous monitoring of the patient is important to overcome this issue. Thus a patient with Arrhythmia due to its low cost and success in saving the life of the patient was the right option for the care partner. In addition, the device will provide a consumer with a smart smartphone application with accurate pulse beat and body temperature data in real time. MAX 30100 and LM35 are primarily used for the detection of human heart and temperature. The performance of these sensors is generated by an arrhythmia algorithm in the esp32 segment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0012.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Other Keywords: surface functionalization; biosensor functionalization; protein immobilization; protein structure analysis; protein immobilization
Online: 1 March 2018 (16:43:35 CET)
Proteins play a major role in biosensors in which they provide catalytic activity and specificity in molecular recognition. The immobilization process is however far from straightforward as it often affects the protein functionality. An extensive interaction of the protein with the surface or a significant surface crowding can lead to changes in the mobility and conformation of the protein structure. This review will provide an insight of how the analysis of the physico-chemical features of the protein surface features before the immobilization process can help to identify the optimal immobilization approach to preserve the functionality of the protein when on the surface of the biosensor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0205.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Tamm Plasmon Polariton; Optical Biosensor; Porous Silicon; Nucleocapsid Protein; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 3 November 2023 (04:49:57 CET)
Tamm Plasmon Polariton (TPP) is a nanophotonic phenomenon that has attracted much attention due to its spatial strong field confinement, ease of mode excitation and polarization independence. TPP has applications in sensing, storage, lasing, perfect absorber, solar cell, nonlinear optics, and many others. In this work, we demonstrate a biosensing platform based on TPP resonant mode. Both theoretical analyses based on Transfer Matrix Method and experimental validation through nonspecific detection of liquids of different refractive indices and specific detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (N-protein) are presented. Results show that TPP biosensor has high sensitivity and good specificity. For N-protein detection, the sensitivity is 1.5 nm/(µg/ml) and the limit of detection can reach down to below 7 ng/ml with spectrometer of 0.01 nm resolution of wavelength shift. This work paves the way for design, optimization, fabrication, characterization, and performance analysis of TPP based biosensors
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0988.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Electrochemical biosensor; animal virus; detection; diagnostic assay, nucleic acid; antigen; antibody; aptamer
Online: 14 August 2023 (10:19:15 CEST)
Animal viruses are a significant threat to animal health and are easily spread across the globe with the rise of globalization. The limitations in diagnosing and treating animal virus infections have made the transmission of diseases and animal deaths unpredictable. Therefore, early diagnosis of animal virus infections is crucial to prevent the spread of diseases and reduce economic losses. To address the need for rapid diagnosis, electrochemical sensors have emerged as a promising tool. Electrochemical methods present numerous benefits, including heightened sensitivity and selectivity, affordability, ease of use, portability, and rapid analysis, making them suitable for real-time virus detection. This paper focuses on the construction of electrochemical biosensor, as well as promising biosensor models, and expounds its advantages in virus detection, which is a promising research direction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0126.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: glucose biosensor; chitosan matrix; screen-printed electrode; Glucose Oxidase (GOx); glutaraldehyde crosslinker
Online: 7 December 2022 (10:01:10 CET)
In this study, we designed a new biosensing membrane for the development of an electrochemical glucose biosensor. To proceed, we used a chitosan-based hydrogel that entraps glucose oxidase enzyme (GOx) and we crosslinked the whole matrix using glutaraldehyde, which is known for its quick and reactive crosslinking behavior. Then, the stability of the designed biosensors was investigated over time according to different storage conditions (in PBS solution at temperatures of 4 °C and 37 °C and in the presence or absence of glucose). In some specific conditions, we found that our biosensor is capable to keep its stability for more than six months of storage. We also included catalase to protect the biosensing membranes from the enzymatic reaction by-products (e.g., hydrogen peroxide). This design protects the biocatalytic activity of GOx and enhances the biosensor lifetime.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Drosophila melanogaster; fluorescence resonance energy transfer; Met-lead 1.44 M1; Pb biosensor
Online: 1 October 2021 (11:12:13 CEST)
The heavy metal lead (Pb) can irreversibly damage the human nervous system. To help understand Pb-induced damage, we applied a genetically encoded Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based Pb biosensor Met-lead 1.44 M1 to two living systems to monitor the concentration of Pb: induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes as a semi-tissue platform, and Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies as an in vivo animal model. Different FRET imaging modalities were used to obtain FRET signals, which represented the presence of Pb in the tested samples in different spatial dimensions. Using iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes, the relationship between beating activity (20–24 beats per minute, bpm) determined from the fluctuation of fluorescent signals and the concentrations of Pb represented by the FRET emission ratio values of Met-lead 1.44 M1 was revealed from simultaneous measurements. Pb (50 μM) affected the beating activity of cardiomyocytes, whereas two drugs that stop the entry of Pb differentially affected this beating activity: verapamil (2 μM) did not reverse the cessation of beating, whereas 2-APB (50 μM) partially restored this activity (16 bpm). The results clearly demonstrate a potential of this biosensor system as an anti-Pb drug screening application. In the Drosophila model, Pb was detected within the adult brain or larval central nervous system (Cha-gal4>UAS-Met-lead 1.44 M1) using fast epifluorescence and high-resolution two-photon 3D FRET ratio image systems. The tissue-specific expression of Pb biosensors provides an excellent opportunity to explore the possible Pb-specific populations within living organisms. We believe that this integrated Pb biosensor system can be applied to the prevention of Pb poisoning and advanced research on Pb neurotoxicology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0378.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: graphene; electrochemical; biosensor; heterostructure; non-enzymatic; schottky diode; glucose; glucometers; ald; pto
Online: 29 November 2019 (11:16:08 CET)
Non-enzymatic glucose sensing is a crucial field of study because of the current market demand. This study proposes a novel design of glucose sensor with enhanced selectivity and sensitivity by using graphene Schottky diodes, which is composed of Graphene/Platinum Oxide/n-Silicon heterostructure. The sensor was tested with different glucose concentrations and interfering solutions to investigate its sensitivity and selectivity. Different structures of the device were studied by adjusting the platinum oxide film thickness to investigate its catalytic activity. It was found that the film thickness plays a significant role in the efficiency of glucose oxidation and hence in overall device sensitivity. Moreover, theoretical investigations were conducted using Density Function Theory (DFT) to better understand the detection method and the origins of selectivity. The working principle of the sensors puts it in a competitive position with other non-enzymatic glucose sensors. DFT calculations provided a qualitative explanation of the charges distributed across the graphene sheet within a system of a platinum substrate with D-glucose molecules above. The proposed graphene/PtO/n-Si heterostructure has proven to satisfy these factors, which opens the door for further developments of more reliable non-enzymatic glucometers for continuous glucose monitoring systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1963.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: visible-signaling biosensor; localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR); food quality; food safety; nanotechnology
Online: 30 November 2023 (10:04:21 CET)
Ensuring safe, high-quality food is an ongoing priority, yet consumers face heightened risk from foodborne pathogens due to extended supply chains and climate change in food industry. Nanomaterial-based assays are popular and have recently been developed to ensure food safety and high quality. This review discusses strategies for using nanomaterials in colorimetric biosensors. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) biosensors are commonly utilized for colorimetric biosensing. Several emerging technologies aimed at simple and rapid immunoassays for onsite applications have been introduced in the food industry. In the foreseeable future, field-friendly colorimetric biosensors could be adopted in food monitoring systems. The onsite and real-time detection of possible contaminants and biological substances in food and water is essential to ensure human health safety.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0597.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19 detection; biosensor application; COVID-19 transmission styles; sensors interaction; artificial intelligence
Online: 27 August 2020 (08:01:55 CEST)
The global spread of coronavirus disease (COVID -19) worldwide has had a significant effect on social and economic growth. The contamination keeps on advancing quickly and eccentrically, representing a significant test to its recognition and conclusion. Coronaviruses are commonly recognized by seclusion from tests, regardless of whether natural or clinical, utilizing some atomic science procedures, which can take a few days. In this work an analytical review of virus transmission, methods of diagnosing COVID -19 using artificial intelligence techniques to classify images and types of biosensors. At long last, the deformities and points of interest of each kind of sensor are recognized and examined. This exploration gives an explanatory audit of the utilization of crown infection COVID-19 in 2019. Related examinations were led utilizing five dependable databases, for example, Science Direct, IEEE Xplore, Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed. An acceptable investigation is remembered for this audit, which can be depended upon as a logical database to put resources into another technique for recognizing COIVD-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0390.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: botulinum neurotoxin; biosensor; CANARY®, detection; B-cell based assay; immunoassay; food matrices
Online: 22 August 2018 (04:59:24 CEST)
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) intoxication can lead to the disease botulism, characterized by flaccid muscle paralysis that can cause respiratory failure and death. Due to the significant morbidity and mortality costs associated with BoNTs high toxicity, developing highly sensitive, rapid, and field-deployable assays are critically important to protect the nation’s food supply against either accidental or intentional contamination. We report here that the B-cell based biosensor assay (CANARY® Zephyr) detects BoNT/A in buffer and various food matrices rapidly in ≤ 40 min, in small volumes ≈ 50 μL, with minimal processing of samples, and is extremely portable (suitcase-sized equipment). BoNT/A was detected at limits of detection (LOD) < 0.075 ng ± 0.02 in assay buffer while milk matrices (non-fat, 2 %, whole milk) increased the LOD to < 0.175 – 0.314 ng. Limits of detection for the assay in complex foods were < 1 ng ± 0.0 (neutralized acidic juices-carrot, orange and apple); < 16.7 ng ± 7.7 (liquid egg); and varied from < 0. 39 – 3.125 ng for solid complex foods (ground beef, green bean baby puree, smoked salmon). These results show that the CANARY® Zephyr assay can be a highly useful tool in clinical, environmental, and food safety surveillance programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0832.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: G protein-coupled receptor; cell trafficking; endoplasmic reticulum; ERES; escort protein; gatekeeper; biosensor; BRET
Online: 14 November 2023 (07:48:13 CET)
The cell surface targeting of neo-synthesized G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) involves recruitment of receptor into COPII vesicles budding at Endoplasmic Reticulum Exit sites (ERES). This process is regulated for some GPCRs by escort proteins, which facilitate their export, or by gatekeepers that retain the receptors in the ER. PRAF2, an ER gatekeeper of the heterodimeric GABAB receptor protomer GB1, which interacts with a tandem di-leucine / RXR retention motif in the carboxyterminal tail of GB1, also inhibits the plasma membrane export of the chemokine receptor CCR5. PRAF2 / CCR5 interactions involve the transmembrane domains of both proteins. The di-leucine / RXR motif contained in the third intracellular loop of CCR5 does not affect PRAF2-mediated retention but impairs instead the interaction between CCR5 and its private escort protein CD4. PRAF2 and CD4 thus display opposite roles on the cell surface export of CCR5, likely at the level of its recruitment into COPII vesicles, PRAF2 inhibiting and CD4 promoting this process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0027.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Brugada syndrome; peptide nucleic acid-PNA, porous silicon; graphene oxide; optical biosensor; hybrid device
Online: 2 November 2020 (11:12:24 CET)
Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is a synthetic DNA mimic that outperforms the properties of traditional oligonucleotides (ONs). On account of its outstanding features, such as remarkable binding affinity towards complementary DNA or RNA as well as high thermal and chemical stability, PNA has been proposed as a valuable alternative to the ON probe in gene-sensor design. In this study, a hybrid transducer made-up of graphene oxide (GO) nano-sheets covalently grafted onto a porous silicon (PSi) matrix has been investigated for the early detection of a genetic cardiac disorder, the Brugada syndrome (BS). A functionalization strategy towards the realization of a potential PNA-based device is described. A peptide nucleic acid (PNA), able to detect the SCN5A associated with the BS has been properly synthesized and used as a bioprobe for the realization of a proof-of-concept label-free optical PNA-biosensor. PSi reflectance and GO photoluminescence (PL) signals were simultaneously exploited for the monitoring of the device functionalization and response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0181.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: SERS; biosensor; gold nanoparticles; aptamers; toxins; hemeprotein; optical forces; optical tweezers; optical patterning; colloids.
Online: 19 January 2018 (09:34:08 CET)
Optical forces are used to aggregate plasmonic nanoparticles and create SERS-active hot spots in liquid. When biomolecules are added to the nanoparticles, high sensitivity SERS detection is accomplished. Here we tailor this methodology to detect catalase and hemoglobin, two Raman resonant biomolecules, at concentrations down to 10 nM and 1 pM. Subsequently, we study the SERS signal in Bovine Serum Albumin as a function of the concentration, finding a monotonic dependence that suggests the possibility of quantitative detection. Finally, by exploiting nanoparticles functionalized with specific aptamers, we obtain first results on the SERS detection of Ochratoxin A, a fungal toxin found in food commodities and wine. This represents a first step towards the addition of molecular specificity to this novel biosensor strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0375.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; spike glycoprotein; epitope; electrochemical biosensor; point of care; immunological diagnostic
Online: 29 March 2022 (08:39:31 CEST)
The coronavirus disease of 2019, COVID-19, is caused by an infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It was recognized in late 2019 and has since spread worldwide leading to a pandemic with unprecedented health and financial consequences. There remains an enormous demand for new diagnostic methods that can deliver fast, low-cost, and easy-to-use confirmation of a SARS-CoV-2 infection. We have developed an affordable electrochemical biosensor for the rapid detection of serological immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibody in sera against the Spike protein. Materials and Methods: A previously identified linear B-cell epitope (EP) specific to SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and recognized by IgG in patient sera was selected for the target molecule. After synthesis, the EP was immobilized onto the surface of the working electrode of a commercially available screen-printed electrode (SPE). The capture of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgGs allowed the formation of an immunocomples that was measured by square wave voltammetry from its generation of hydroquinone (HQ). Results: An evaluation of the performance of the EP-based biosensor presented a selectivity and specificity for COVID-19 of 93% and 100%, respectively. No cross-reaction was observed to antibodies against other diseases that included Chagas disease, Chikungunya, Leishmaniosis, and Dengue. Differentiation of infected and non-infected individuals was possible even at high dilution factor that decreased the required sample volumes to a few microliters. Conclusion: The final device proved suitable for diagnosing COVID-19 assaying actual serum samples and the results displayed good agreement with the molecular biology diagnoses. The flexibility to conjugate other EPs to SPEs suggests that this technology could be rapidly adapted to diagnose new variants of SARS-CoV-2 or other pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0086.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: DNA sensor; point of care diagnostics; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; label free biosensor; AC electrokicetics
Online: 5 April 2021 (10:11:51 CEST)
Biosensors have shown great potential in realizing rapid, low cost and portable on-site detection for diseases. This work reports the development of a new bioelectronic sensor called AC electrokinetics-based capacitive (ABC) biosensor, for the detection of genomic DNA (gDNA) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The ABC sensor is based on interdigitated microelectrodes biofunctionalized with oligonucleotide probes. It uses a special AC signal for direct capacitive monitoring of topological change on nanostructured sensor surface, which simultaneously induce dieletrophoretic enrichment of target gDNAs. As a result, rapid and specific detection of gDNA/probe hybridization can be realized with high sensitivity. It requires no signal amplification such as labelling, hybridization chain reaction, or nucleic acid sequence-based amplification. This method involves only simple sample preparation. After optimization of nano-structured sensor surface and signal processing, the ABC sensor demonstrated fast turnaround of results (~10 s detection), excellent sensitivity (a detection limit of 4.7 DNA copies /µL MRSA gDNA) and high specificity, suitable for point of care diagnosis. As a bioelectronic sensor, the developed ABC sensors can be easily adapted for detection of other infectious agents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0456.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: H2O2 detection; cancer detection; super-porous CuO/Pt electrode; dynamic hydrogen bubble technique; biosensor kit
Online: 20 August 2020 (10:04:53 CEST)
A super-porous hybrid platform can offer significantly increased number of reaction sites for the analytes and thus can offer advantages in the biosensor applications. In this work, a significantly improved sensitivity and selectivity of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) cancer sensor is demonstrated by a super-porous hybrid CuO/Pt NP platform. The super-porous hybrid platform is fabricated by a physiochemical approach combining the physical vapor deposition of Pt NPs and electrochemical deposition of super-porous CuO structures by adopting a dynamic hydrogen bubble technique. Under an optimized condition, the hybrid CuO/Pt biosensor demonstrates a very high sensitivity of 2,205 µA/mM∙cm2 and a low limit of detection (LOD) of 140 nM with a wide range of H2O2 detection. This is meaningfully improved performance as compared to the CuO-based H2O2 sensors as well as to the previously reported metal oxide based H2O2 sensors. The hybrid CuO/Pt platform exhibits excellent selectivity against other interfering molecules such as glucose, fructose, dopamine, and ascorbic acid. Due to the synergetic effect of highly porous CuO structures and underlying Pt NPs, the CuO/Pt architecture offers extremely abundant active sites for the H2O2 reduction and electron transfer pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0071.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: biosensor; S-layer protein; crystalline 2D protein lattice; lipid membrane platform; linking matrix; bioreceptor; biomimetics
Online: 9 March 2018 (12:10:28 CET)
The present Feature Paper highlights the application of bacterial surface (S-) layer proteins as versatile components for the fabrication of biosensors. One technologically relevant feature of S‑layer proteins is their ability to self-assemble on many surfaces and interfaces to form a crystalline 2D protein lattice. The S-layer lattice on the surface of a biosensor becomes part of the interface architecture, linking the bioreceptor to the transducer interface, which may cause signal amplification. The S-layer lattice as ultrathin, highly porous structure with functional groups in a well-defined special distribution and orientation and an overall anti-fouling characteristics can significantly raise the limit in terms of variety and ease of bioreceptor immobilization, compactness of bioreceptor molecule arrangement, sensitivity, specificity, and detection limit for many types of biosensors. The present paper discusses and summarizes examples for the successful implementation of S-layer lattices on biosensor surfaces in order to give a comprehensive overview on the application potential of these bioinspired S-layer protein-based biosensors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1536.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Optical detection; Point-of-care; Lab-On-Chip; Microfluidic device; Paper-based device; Biosensor; Electrochemical detection
Online: 24 July 2023 (02:24:37 CEST)
Analytical chemistry applied to medical and diagnostic analysis, recently focused on the development of cost-effective biosensors able to monitor the health status or to assess the level of specific biomarkers that can be indicative for several diseases. The improvement of technologies relating to the possibility of non-invasive sampling of biological fluids, as well as sensors for the detection of analytical signals and the computational capabilities of the systems routinely employed in everyday life (e.g. smartphones, computers, etc.), make the complete integration of self-standing analytical devices more accessible. This review aims to discuss the biosensors that have been proposed in the last 5 years focusing on two principal detecting approaches, optical and electrochemical, which have been employed for quantifying different kind of target analytes reaching detection limits below the clinical sample levels required. These detection principles applied to Point-of-care (POC) devices, have been extensively reported in literature and even the limited examples found on the market are based on these strategies. This work will show the latest innovations considering the integration of optical and electrochemical detection with the most commonly reported analytical platforms for POC applications such as paper-based or wearable and implantable devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0457.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Peptide nucleic acid; microRNA detection; duplex specific nuclease; Early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer; Lateral flow biosensor
Online: 18 April 2023 (02:48:27 CEST)
Malignancy is a fatal disease with an increasing incidence with each passing year, and the early diagnosis of malignancy can significantly improve the cure rate of patients, which has profound implications for saving patients' lives. The changes of miRNA are closely related to the occurrence of malignant tumors. The expression of miRNA in many malignant tumors is obviously different and unique from that in normal tissues. In this study, a strategy for amplifying microRNA (miRNA) signal was designed using duplex specific nuclease (DSN), which was then combined with Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe hybridization technology to prepare a sensitive and efficient paper-based lateral flow biosensor (LFB) for the detection of pancreatic cancer (PC) associated microRNA-10b. The performance evaluation results of the LFB showed that the detection limit of miR-NA-10b is 5 nM/mL, and carries demonstrated well specificity, stability, reproducibility. The biosensor prepared in this paper can provide accurate and rapid detection of miRNA-10b. The detection results play a guiding role in the early diagnosis of PC. Meeting the clinical need for largescale screening of individuals at high risk of PC. Providing new avenues to achieve early mass screening in individuals at high risk of PC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Machine Learning; Support Vector Machine; Multilayer Perceptron; Photonic Biosensor; Signal Processing; Tamm Plasmon Polariton; Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance
Online: 2 August 2023 (10:03:16 CEST)
We describe a machine learning (ML) approach to process the signals collected from Covid-19 optical-based detector. Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were used to process both raw data and feature engineering data, and high performances for qualitative detection of the SARS-CoV-2 virus with concentration down to 1 TCID50/ml has been achieved. Valid detection experiments contain 486 negative and 108 positive samples; and control experiments, in which biosensors without antibody functionalization were used to detect SARS-CoV-2, contains 36 negative samples and 732 positive samples. Data distribution patterns of the valid and control detection dataset, based on T-distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE), was used to study the distinguishability between positive and negative samples, and explain the ML prediction performances. This work demonstrates that ML can be a generalized effective approach to process signals and dataset of biosensors dependent on resonant modes as biosensing mechanism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0244.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: vertebrate retina, mouse, zebrafish, two-photon microscopy, biosensor, activity probes, visual stimulus-evoked activity, laser-evoked retinal activity
Online: 26 March 2019 (14:01:49 CET)
Two-photon imaging of light stimulus-evoked neuronal activity has been used to study all neuron classes in the vertebrate retina, from the photoreceptors to the retinal ganglion cells. Clearly, the ability to study retinal circuits down to the level of single synapses or zoomed out at the level of complete populations of neurons, has been a major asset in our understanding of this beautiful circuit. In this chapter, we discuss the possibilities and pitfalls of using an all-optical approach in this highly light-sensitive part of the brain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0031.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: cantilever; NiCr strain gauge; biosensor; liposome; amyloid beta; aggregation; fibrillization; interaction; human serum; digital low-pass filtering procedure
Online: 8 August 2017 (09:57:28 CEST)
We have successfully measured amyloid beta (Aβ) (1-40) protein added in human serum by a NiCr strain gauge cantilever biosensor immobilized with liposomes incorporating cholesterol. Importantly, we investigated the effect of incorporation of cholesterol in the liposome in order to suppress the interaction between the liposome and many different proteins included in human serum. It was revealed that incorporating cholesterol suppresses the interaction between the proteins other than Aβ in human serum and the liposome. Finally, we detected Aβ(1-40) in human serum with typical chronological behaviors due to Aβ aggregation and fibrillization. Furthermore, as a digital low-pass filtering procedure could reduce external noises, the cantilever sensor immobilized with liposome incorporating cholesterol can detect low-concentrated Aβ in human serum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0553.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Raman biosensor; Au-coated nanoparticles; hot-spot SERS substrate; anticancer drug nanocarriers; targeted drug delivery sensing; magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles.
Online: 20 April 2021 (17:43:09 CEST)
Safe administration of highly cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs is a challenging problem in cancer treatment due to the adverse side effects and collateral damage to non-tumorigenic cells. To mitigate these problems, new promising approaches, based on the paradigm of controlled targeted drug delivery (TDD), utilizing drug nanocarriers with biorecognition ability to selectively target neoplastic cells, are being considered in cancer therapy. Herein, we report on the design and testing of a nanoparticle-grid based biosensing platform to aid in the development of new targeted drug nanocarriers. The proposed sensor grid consists of superparamagnetic gold-coated core-shell Fe2Ni@Au nanoparticles, further functionalized with folic acid targeting ligand, model thiolated chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX), and a biocompatibility agent, 3,6,-dioxa-octanethiol (DOOT). The employed dual transduction based on electrochemical and enhanced Raman scattering detection have enabled efficient monitoring of the drug loading onto the nanocarriers, attached to the sensor surface, as well as the drug release under simulated intracellular conditions. The grid’s nanoparticles serve here as the model nanocarriers for new TDD systems under design and optimization. The superparamagnetic properties of the Fe2Ni@Au NPs aid in nanoparticles’ handling and constructing a dense sensor grid with high plasmonic enhancement of the Raman signals due to the minimal interparticle distance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0204.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: DNA origami; aptamer; DNA nanotechnology; protein nano array; biosensor; logic gate; enzyme cascade; drug delivery system; targeted therapy; molecular robotics
Online: 22 October 2018 (10:57:21 CEST)
DNA origami has emerged in recent years as a powerful technique for designing and building 2D and 3D nanostructures. While the breadth of structures that have been produced is impressive, one of the remaining challenges, especially for DNA origami structures intended to carry out useful biomedical tasks in vivo, is to endow them with the ability to detect and respond to molecules of interest. Target molecules may be disease indicators or cell surface receptors, and the responses may include conformational changes leading to release of therapeutically relevant cargo. Nucleic acid aptamers are ideally suited to this task and are beginning to be used in DNA origami designs. In this review we consider examples of uses of DNA aptamers in DNA origami structures and summarise what is currently understood regarding aptamer-origami integration. We review three major roles for aptamers in such applications: protein immobilisation, triggering of structural transformation, and cell targeting. Finally, we consider future perspectives for DNA aptamer integration with DNA origami.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0343.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: biosensor; aptasensor; aptamer; antibiotic; ampicillin; penicillin; gentamicin; kanamycin; neomycin; tobramycin; streptomycin; daunomycin; chloramphenicol; ciprofloxacin; danofloxacin; enrofloxacin; ofloxacin; lincomycin; oxytetracycline; tetracycline; sulfadimethoxine
Online: 27 April 2018 (16:11:09 CEST)
Antibiotic resistance and accordingly their pollution because of uncontrolled usage has emerged as a serious problem in recent years. Hence, there is an increased demand to develope robust, easy, and sensitive methods for rapid evaluation of antibiotic and their residues. Among different analytical methods, the aptamer-based biosensors (aptasensors) have attracted considerable attention because of good selectivity, specificity, and sensitivity. This review gives an overview about recent developed aptasensors for antibiotic detection. The use of various aptamer assays to determine different groups of antibiotics like β-lactams, Aminoglycosides, Anthracyclines, Chloramphenicol, (Fluoro)Quinolones, Lincosamide, Tetracyclines and Sulfonamides are presented in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0176.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: acute myocardial infarction (AMI); cardiac Troponin I (cTnI); chemiluminescence; biosensor; luminol; monoclonal antibody; flow injection assay; microfluidic system; monolithic column; protein expression
Online: 10 February 2023 (02:58:24 CET)
Cardiac vascular diseases, especially acute myocardial infarction (AMI), are one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Therefore cardio-specific biomarkers such as cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) play an essential role in diagnostics. In order to enable rapid and accurate measurement of cTnI with the potential of online measurements, a proof of concept of a chemiluminescence-based biosensor is presented. A flow cell was designed and combined with a sensitive CMOS camera allowing an optical readout. In addition, a microfluidic setup was established, and cTnI was determined selectively. The biomarker cTnI was expressed in E. coli, and its characterization and correct folding were investigated by different analytical methods. This recombinant cTnI was used for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), calibrated against commercially available recombinant cTnI, and applied for the biosensor measurements. Based on chemiluminescence detection, the biosensor was successfully tested, and the cTnI biomarker could be reproducibly determined in buffer, spiked blood serum, and plasma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0538.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: turnip vein clearing virus (TVCV); tobacco mosaic virus (TMV); tobamovirus; enzyme nanocarrier; protein A; antibody; enzyme cascade; glucose oxidase (GOx); horseradish peroxidase (HRP); biosensor
Online: 7 August 2023 (12:23:31 CEST)
Immunosorbent turnip vein clearing virus (TVCV) particles displaying the IgG-binding domains D and E of Staphylococcus aureus protein A (PA) on every coat protein (CP) subunit (TVCVPA) were purified from plants via optimized and new protocols. The latter used polyethylene glycol (PEG) raw precipitates, from which virions were selectively re-solubilized in reverse PEG concentration gradients. This procedure improved the integrity of both TVCVPA and the wildtype subgroup 3 tobamovirus. TVCVPA could be loaded with more than 500 IgGs per virion, which mediated the immunocapture of fluorescent dyes, GFP and active enzymes. Bi-enzyme ensembles of cooperating glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase were tethered together on the TVCVPA carriers by a single antibody type, with one enzyme conjugated chemically to its Fc region, and the other one bound as target, yielding synthetic multienzyme-complexes. In microtiter plates, the TVCVPA-displayed sugar-sensing system possessed a considerably increased reusability upon repeated testing, compared to the IgG-bound enzyme pair in the absence of the virus. A high coverage of the viral adapters was achieved also on Ta2O5 sensor chip surfaces coated with a polyelectrolyte interlayer, as a prerequisite for durable, TVCVPA-assisted electrochemical biosensing through modularly IgG-assembled sensor enzymes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0067.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD); boron doping; nitrogen doping; nanowire (NW); gas sensor; ultraviolet (UV) photodetector; piezoresistance (PZR) sensor; biosensor; nitrogen-vacancy (NV); magnetic quantum sensor
Online: 5 January 2021 (09:09:09 CET)
The aim of this review is to provide a survey of the recent advances and the main remaining challenges related to the ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) nanowires and other nanostructures which exhibit excellent capability as the core components for many diverse novel sensing devices, due to the unique material properties and geometry advantages. The doping introduced in the gas phase during deposition promotes p-type or n-type conductivity. With the establishment of the UNCD nanofabrication techniques, more and more nanostructure based devices are being explored in measuring basic physical and chemical parameters via classic and quantum methods, as exemplified by gas sensors, ultraviolet photodetectors, piezoresistance effect based devices, biological applications, and nitrogen-vacancy color center based magnetic field quantum sensors. Highlighted finally are some of the remaining challenges and future outlook in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0207.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Antibody ID; antibody registry; Research Resource Identifier; RRID; reproducibility; quality control; documentation; traceability; clones; biochemical reagents; diagnostics; immunoassays; ELISA; western blot; immunohistochemistry; microarray; biosensor
Online: 15 February 2020 (15:46:27 CET)
Thousands of antibodies for diagnostic and other analytical purposes are on the market. However, it is often difficult to identify duplicates, reagent changes, and to assign the correct original publications to an antibody. This slows down scientific progress and might even be a cause of irreproducible research and a waste of resources. Recently, activities were started to suggest the sole use of recombinant antibodies in combination with the open communication of their sequence. In this case, such uncertainties should be eliminated. Unfortunately, this approach seems to be rather a long-term vision since the development and manufacturing of recombinant antibodies remain quite expensive in the foreseeable future. Also, nearly all commercial antibody suppliers may be reluctant to publish the sequence of their antibodies, since they fear counterfeiting. De-novo sequencing of antibodies is also not feasible today for a reagent user without access to the hybridoma clone. Nevertheless, it seems to be crucial for any scientist to have the opportunity to identify an antibody undoubtedly to guarantee the traceability of any research activity using antibodies from a third party as a tool. For this purpose, we developed a method for the identification of antibodies based on a MALDI-TOF-MS fingerprint. To circumvent lengthy denaturation, reduction, alkylation, and enzymatic digestion steps, the fragmentation was performed with a simple formic acid hydrolysis step. Eighty-nine unknown monoclonal antibodies were used for this study to examine the feasibility of this approach. Although the molecular assignment of peaks was rarely possible, antibodies could be easily recognized in a blinded test, simply from their mass-spectral fingerprint. A general protocol is given, which could be used without any optimization to generate fingerprints for a database. We want to propose that in most scientific projects relying critically on antibody reagents, such a fingerprint should be established to prove and document the identity of the used antibodies and to assign a specific reagent to a datasheet of a commercial supplier, a public database record or an antibody ID.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0150.v2
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: silicon photonics; evanescent optical field sensor; label-free SOI biosensor; Mach-Zehnder interferometer; ring resonator; photonic crystal; Bragg grating; sub-wavelength grating; lab-on-a-chip; microfluidics
Online: 10 October 2018 (08:45:49 CEST)
Thanks to advanced semiconductor microfabrication technology, chip-scale integration and miniaturization of lab-on-a-chip components, silicon-based optical biosensors have made significant progress for the purpose of point-of-care diagnosis. In this review, we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art in evanescent field biosensing technologies including interferometer, microcavity, photonic crystal, and Bragg grating waveguide-based sensors. Their sensing mechanisms and sensor performances, as well as real biomarkers for label-free detection, are exhibited and compared. We also review the development of chip-level integration for lab-on-a-chip photonic sensing platforms, which consist of the optical sensing device, flow delivery system, optical input and readout equipment. At last, some advanced system-level CMOS-chip packaging examples are presented, indicating the commercialization potential for the low cost, high yield, portable biosensing platform leveraging CMOS processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0039.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Aviation security; biosensor; flow injection assay; monoclonal antibody; fluorescence microscope; lab-on-a-chip; microfluidic systems; antibody labeling; CMOS; diode laser; monolithic column; laser-induced fluorescence detector (LIF)
Online: 3 July 2020 (12:26:26 CEST)
The illegal use of explosives by terrorists and other criminals is an increasing issue in public spaces, such as airports, railway stations, highways, sports arenas, theaters, and other large buildings. Security in these environments can be achieved by a set of different means, including the installation of scanners and other analytical devices to detect ultra-small traces of explosives in a very short time-frame to be able to take action as early as possible to prevent the detonation of such devices. Unfortunately, an ideal explosive detection system still does not exist, which means that a compromise is needed in practice. Most detection devices lack the extreme analytical sensitivity, which is nevertheless necessary due to the low vapor pressure of nearly all explosives. In addition, the rate of false positives needs to be virtually zero, which is also very difficult to achieve. Here we present an immunosensor system based on kinetic competition, which is known to be very fast and may even overcome affinity limitation, which impairs the performance of many traditional competitive assays. This immunosensor consists of a monolithic glass column with a vast excess of immobilized hapten, which traps the fluorescently labeled antibody as long as no explosive is present. In the case of TNT occurring, some binding sites of the antibody will be blocked, which leads to an immediate breakthrough of the labeled protein, detectable by highly sensitive laser-induced fluorescence with the help of a Peltier-cooled CMOS camera. Liquid handling is performed with high-precision syringe pumps and chip-based mixing-devices and flow-cells. The system achieved limits of detection of 1 pM (1 ppt) of the fluorescent label and around 100 pM (20 ppt) of the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). The total assay time is less than 8 min. A cross-reactivity test with 5000 pM solutions showed no signal by PETN, RDX, and HMX. This immunosensor belongs to the most sensitive and fastest detectors for TNT with no significant cross-reactivity by non-related compounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0521.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Online detection, security; biosensor; flow injection assay; monoclonal antibody; fluorescence microscope; lab-on-a-chip; microfluidic systems; antibody labeling; CMOS; diode laser; monolithic column; laser-induced fluorescence detector (LIF); low-cost; high-speed; non-competitive immunoassay; immunometric assay
Online: 22 July 2021 (14:13:46 CEST)
The trafficking of illegal drugs by criminal networks at borders, harbors, or airports is an increasing issue in public health as these routes ensure the main supply of illegal drugs. The prevention of drug smuggling, including the installation of scanners and other analytical devices to detect ultra-small traces of drugs within a reasonable time frame, remains a challenge. The presented immunosensor is based on a monolithic affinity column with a large excess of immobilized hapten, which traps fluorescently labeled antibodies as long as the analyte cocaine is absent. In the presence of the drug, some binding sites of the antibody will be blocked, which leads to an immediate breakthrough of the labeled protein, detectable by highly sensitive laser-induced fluorescence with the help of a Peltier-cooled complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) camera. Liquid handling is performed with high-precision syringe pumps and microfluidic chip-based mixing devices and flow cells. The biosensor achieved limits of detection of 23 pM (7 ppt) of cocaine with a response time of 90 seconds and a total assay time below 3 minutes. With surface wipe sampling, the biosensor was able to detect 300 pg of cocaine. This immunosensor belongs to the most sensitive and fastest detectors for cocaine and offers near-continuous analyte measurement.