ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0060.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Alcaligenes faecalis; Diabetic foot ulcer; extensive-drug resistant
Online: 4 March 2020 (10:34:23 CET)
Background: Diabetic foot ulcers are an increasingly common complex problem and are associated with a very considerable health care burden. Diabetic foot ulcer with Alcaligenes faecalis infection is rarely reported in the literature. We report a case series of diabetic foot ulcer with Alcaligenes faecalis infection treated at our facility. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients with diabetic foot ulcer with Alcaligenes faecalis infection seen from January 2014 to April 2019. We analyzed the clinical characteristics, ulcer lesion classification, comorbidities, prior intravenous antibiotic use within three months, wound culture, antibiotics sensitivity test, and clinical outcomes of these patients. Results: Eight cases of diabetic foot ulcer with Alcaligenes faecalis infection were seen in five males and three females. The mean age was 54.6 years. All patients had other comorbidities, and all ulcer lesions were of chronic duration ( more than 14 days ). All wound cultures revealed polymicrobial infection, with two cases of diabetic foot with extensive-drug resistant Alcaligenes faecalis infection found in 2019. All patients needed intravenous antibiotic therapy and surgical interventions for the chronic ulcer lesion. The wound failed to heal in three patients. Conclusions: All diabetic foot ulcers with Alcaligenes faecalis infection were of chronic duration ( more than 14 days ) and had polymicrobial infection. Extensive-drug resistant Alcaligenes faecalis emerged in 2019. Definitive antibiotic therapy is necessary for all infected wounds and should be based on both the culture results and susceptibility data. All patients will need appropriate wound care, and most will need rapid surgical intervention for an optimal outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0385.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: antibiotic resistance; antimicrobial susceptibility testing; novel diagnostics; polymicrobial; sputum; drug resistant
Online: 14 April 2021 (14:21:15 CEST)
For polymicrobial infections, AtbFinder utilizes a novel paradigm of the population response to antibiotics, enabling bacterial growth in the form of a mixed microbial community and selecting the antibiotics targeting not only the principal pathogen, but also those bacteria that support their growth. TGV medium allowed culturing a more diverse set of bacteria from polymicrobial biospecimens, compared with that achieved with the standard media and enabled, already within 4h, accurate selection of the antibiotics that completely eliminated all cultivatable bacteria from clinical samples. In conclusion, AtbFinder system may be a valuable tool in improving antibiotic selection, enabling targeted empirical therapy and accurate antibiotic replacement, which is especially important in high-risk patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0236.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: essential oils; drug resistant microorganisms; antimicrobial activity; antifungal activity; medicinal plants
Online: 11 October 2018 (11:51:16 CEST)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a recurring global problem, which constantly demands new antimicrobial compounds to challenge the resistance. It is well known that essential oils (EOs) have been known for biological activities including antimicrobial properties. In this study, EOs from seven aromatic plants of Asir region of southwestern Saudi Arabia were tested for their antimicrobial efficacy against four drug resistant pathogenic bacterial isolates (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus typhimurium) and one fungal isolate (Candida albicans). Chemical compositions of EOs were determined by Gas chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The results revealed that EOs from Mentha cervina, Ocimum basilicum and Origanum vulgare proved most active against all isolates with inhibitory zone range between17 to 45 mm. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.025mg/ml was observed for Staph. aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes with EO of Origanum vulgare. All the three EOs showed significant anti candida activity. Together form the results the EOs from Mentha cervina, Ocimum basilicum and Origanum vulgare demonstrated a significant antimicrobial efficacy against drug resistant microorganisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0448.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: acetyleugenol; Acacia nilotica; anti-tuberculosis; Serine/Threonine kinases; multi-drug resistant TB
Online: 24 April 2020 (14:12:33 CEST)
Acetyleugenol is a phytochemical compound with broad effect against infectious diseases and tumors. Here, we extracted, characterized and elucidated the structure of acetyeugenol, for the first time, from the leaves of Acacia nilotica (L.)―a well-known medicinal plant. The broad antibacterial potential of acetyleugenol was first confirmed against seven bacterial pathogenic isolates with best activity against Proteus sp., Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcu aureus, and Streptococcus pneumonia, which showed similar or better zone of inhibition to that of the control amoxicillin. To further investigate its effect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, acetyleugenol and its indole and phenyl analogs were subjected to molecular docking experiments against two potential tuberculosis drug targets―MtPknE and MtPknB Ser/Thr protein kinases. The results reveal that all of the analogs have improved docking scores comparing to the acetyleugenol. The indole analogs EUG-1 and EUG-3 were more effective with better docking scores for MtPknE with –11.08 and –10.05 kcal/mol, respectively. Similar results were obtained for the MtPknB. In contrast, only the EUG-2 phenyl analog has given rise to similar docking scores for both targets. This opens the door for further comprehensive studies on these acetyleugenol analogs with in vitro and in vivo experiments to validate and get more insights into their mechanisms of action.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0179.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: globular set; category theory; multidimensional; visual recognition; drug-resistant epilepsy; transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Online: 13 December 2019 (10:37:03 CET)
Once a wheat sheaf has been sealed and tied up, its packed down straws display the same orientation and zero-divergence. This observation brings us to the mathematical notion of presheaf, i.e., a topological structure in which diverging functions are locally superimposed. We show how the concepts of presheaves and the correlated globular sets, borrowed from category theory and algebraic topology, allow a well-founded mathematical approach to otherwise elusive activities of the brain. The mathematical assessment of brain functions in terms of presheaves: a) explains why spontaneous random spikes synchronize; b) leads to the counterintuitive intuition of antidromic effects in neuronal spikes: when an entrained oscillation propagates from A to B, changes in B lead to changes in A. We provide testable previsions: a) we suggest the proper locations of transcranial magnetic stimulation’s coils to improve the clinical outcomes of drug-resistant epilepsy; b) we advocate that axonal stimulation by external sources backpropagates and alters the neuronal electric oscillatory frequency. Further, we describe how the hierarchical information transmission inside globular sets provides fresh insights concerning different issues at various coarse-grained scales, such as object persistence, memory reinforcement in spite of random noise, Bayesian inferential circuits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0358.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: multidrug-resistant (MDR); Nanotechnology; Antimicrobial
Online: 19 November 2021 (14:31:33 CET)
The global spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) microbial infections is currently one of the most severe risks to global public health, with 10 million fatalities expected by 2050 unless action is taken. Nanotechnology has revolutionized science and medicine. The reliance on nanotechnology is growing. Nanoparticles have distinct properties that improve biological, chemical, and physical properties studied for various uses. A significant area of attention in the synthesis of nanoscale modulators is the utilization of crude formulations, retro-synthesized, and pure chemicals, mainly from herbal sources, with fewer adverse effects. Green chemistry has devised a tangential technique for synthesizing metals and metal oxides to produce nanoparticles. Plant extracts (leaves, stems, and shoots) and microorganisms (bacteria, fungus, and yeast) are used as reducing intermediates to make nanoparticles. Studies in microbiology have shown that nanoparticles kill bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa. These green nanoparticles contain antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory effects. Most nanoparticles have high antibacterial properties, indicating they may be used to combat diseases and biological contaminants. These nanoparticles have antibacterial action against pathogenic microorganisms that cause serious illnesses, including multidrug-resistant pathogens. The current research will pave the way for future applications and improved methods for producing nanoparticles, paving the way for an innovative route in nano-life sciences with widespread recognition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0119.v1
Online: 10 October 2019 (15:02:17 CEST)
The aim of this study was to establish the blood glucose response to different cooking methods of pasta. Participants consumed three identical meals in a random order that were freshly cooked (hot), cooled and reheated. Blood glucose concentrations were assessed before, and every 15 minutes after ingestion of each meal for 120 minutes. There was a significant interaction between temperature and time (F(8.46-372.34) = 2.75, p = 0.005), with the reheated (90 minutes) condition returning to baseline faster than both cold (120 minutes) and hot conditions. Blood glucose AUC was significantly lower in the reheated (703 ± 56 mmol L-1 min-1) compared with the hot condition (735 ± 77 mmol L-1 min-1, t(92) = -3.36, pbonferroni = 0.003), with no significant difference with the cold condition (722 ± 62 mmol L-1 min-1). To our knowledge, the current study is the first to show that reheating pasta causes changes in post-prandial glucose response, with a quicker return to fasting levels in both the reheated and cooled conditions compared with the hot condition. The mechanisms behind the changes in post-prandial blood glucose seen in this study are most likely related to changes in starch structure and how these changes influence glycaemic response.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0037.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii; Phage therapy
Online: 2 September 2022 (09:51:24 CEST)
Acinetobacter baumannii is a multidrug-resistant and invasive pathogen associated with the etiopathology of both an increasing number of nosocomial infections and of relevance to poultry production systems. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has been reported in connection to severe challenges to clinical treatment, mostly due to an increase rate of resistance to carbapenems. Amid the possible strategies aiming to reduce the insurgence of antimicrobial resistance, phage therapy has gained particular importance for the treatment of bacterial infections. This review summarises the different phage-therapy approaches currently in use for multiple-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, including single phage therapy, phage cocktails, phage -antibiotic combination therapy, phage coding Acinetobacter baumannii and the novel phage enzyme treatment. Although phage therapy represents a potential treatment solution for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, further research is needed to unravel some unanswered questions especially in regard to its in vivo applications, before possible routine clinical use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0132.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: beetle elytra; snap-through; puncture-resistant
Online: 14 February 2019 (10:57:06 CET)
Beetles are by far one of the most successful and diverse insect species. A part of this success is attributed to their elytra which provide various functions such as protection to their bodies from mechanical forces and the harmful environmental factors. In this study, Stag beetle (Lucanus cervus) elytra were first examined for their overall flexural properties and were observed to have a localized shape retaining snap-through mechanism which could play a crucial role in energy absorption, e.g. during battles and falls from heights. The snap-through mechanism was validated using theoretical calculations and also finite element simulations. Elytra were also characterized to examine their puncture and wear resistance. Our results show that elytra resisted puncture up to a force of 1.8±0.4 N and have puncture resistance compared to that of commercially available puncture resistant gloves. The measured values of modulus and hardness of elytra exocuticle were 10.3±0.8 GPa and 0.7±0.1 GPa. Using the hardness to modulus ratio as an indicator of wear resistance, the estimated value was observed to be in the range of wear resistant biological materials. Thus, our study demonstrates different mechanical properties of the stag beetle elytra which can be explored to design shape retaining bio-inspired composites with enhanced puncture and wear resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0384.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: prebiotics; resistant starch; inulin; polydextrose; farinography; extensography
Online: 26 September 2022 (08:32:33 CEST)
The addition of prebiotics is one of the most important ways to improve the techno-functional properties of bread. In this study, the effects of resistant starch, polydextrose, and inulin on the wheat flour, dough, and bread properties were investigated. In farinography results, resistant starch significantly increased the development time (2:18) with a boosting effect, but polydextrose (1:48) and inulin (1:36) weakened the dough (P <0.05). Inulin, polydextrose, and resistant starch had the most effect on reducing water absorption (40, 43.2, and 48.9) respectively (P <0.05). According to extensography data, inulin had the best result in baking compared to other polysaccharides. In terms of baked breads, samples containing resistant starch had high moisture that could be due to starch gelatinization and moisture-retaining, which delays the staling process of bread. Inulin, polydextrose, and resistant starch prebiotic ingredients affected dough rheological properties and bread quality, and organoleptic characteristics, however, resistant starch was the best.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0173.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: pandrug-resistant; treatment; carbapanemase; Acinetobacter; Klebsiella; Pseudomonas
Online: 14 June 2020 (13:19:32 CEST)
The management of carbapenem-resistant infections is often based on colistin, tigecycline, aminoglycosides and their combinations. However, in a recent systematic review we found that Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) co-resistant to carbapanems, aminoglycosides, colistin and tigecycline (CACT-resistant) are increasingly being reported worldwide. Clinical data to guide the treatment of CACT-resistant GNB are scarce and based exclusively on few case reports and small case series but seem to indicate that appropriate (in vitro active) antimicrobial regimens, including newer antibiotics and synergistic combinations, may be associated with lower mortality. In this review we consolidate the available literature to inform clinicians dealing with CACT-resistant GNB about treatment options by considering the mechanisms of resistance to carbapenems. In combination with rapid diagnostic methods that allow fast detection of carbapenemase production, the approach proposed in this review may guide a timely and targeted treatment of patients with infections by CACT-resistant GNB. Specifically, we focus on the three most problematic species, namely Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. Several treatment options are currently available for CACT-resistant K. pneumonia. Newer β-lactam-β-lactamase combinations, including the combination of ceftazidime/avibactam with aztreonam against metallo-β-lactamase-producing isolates, appear to be more effective compared to combinations of older agents. Options for P. aeruginosa (especially metallo-β-lactamase-producing strains) and A. baumannii remain limited. Synergistic combination of older agents (e.g. colistin- or fosfomycin-based synergistic combinations) may represent a last resort option but their use against CACT-resistant GNB requires further study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0670.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: turbine jet engine; material tests; ember-resistant alloys
Online: 26 November 2020 (11:20:45 CET)
The structural and strength analysis of the material used to construct such an important engine element as the turbine is of great significance, both at the design stage as well as during tests and expertises related to emergency situations. Bearing in mind the conditions above mentioned, the paper presents the results of research on the chemical composition, morphology and phased structure of the metallic construction material used to produce the blades of the high and low pressure turbine of the RD-33 jet engine, which is the propulsion unit of the MiG-29 aircraft. The data obtained as a result of the material tests of the blades allowed, on the basis of the analysis of chemical composition and phased structure, to determine the grade of the alloy used to construct the tested elements of the jet engine turbine. The structural stability of the material was found to be lower in comparison with engine operating conditions, which manifested itself as a clear decrease in the resistance properties of the blade material. The results obtained can be used as a basis for analyzing the life span of an object or a selection of material replacements, which enable to produce the analyzed engine element.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0137.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: trimethoprim-resistant dihydrofolatereductases, antimicrobial resistance, biocuration, nomenclature, phylogeny
Online: 10 May 2019 (15:14:41 CEST)
With the increasing use of genome sequencing as a surveillance tool for molecular epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), databases and clear nomenclature for AMR gene families are critical. Due to the convoluted nomenclatural history of the integron-associated trimethoprim-resistant dihydrofolatereductase (dfr) gene family, we decided to conduct a literature review, comparative sequence analysis, and phylogenetic investigation of the dfr family, the results of which are presented here and available at the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database (CARD). Overall, literature review and phylogenetic analysis resolved gene name synonyms based on sequence. We recommend adoption of phylogenetic methods to help guide AMR gene naming efforts and relegation of misleading names to synonyms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0435.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Respiratory tract infections (RTI); antibiotic; sensitivity; resistant; bacteria
Online: 24 August 2018 (11:46:41 CEST)
1) Background: Respiratory tract infections (RTI) has been known to be a significant health concern for mortality and morbidity since many years. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of bacterial pathogen causing upper respiratory tract (URTIs) and the susceptibility patterns to frequently used antibiotics among patients attending Abusetta hospital in Tripoli district; 2) Methods: A total of 1,110 throat swabs were collected between Jan, 2011 to December, 2014 and inoculated onto Blood agar, MacCkonkey agar and Chocolate agar then incubated at 37 oC for 24 hours. Bacterial pathogens were determined by bacteriological culture methods and antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was identified following Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines (CLSI); 3) Results: Of the 1,110 respiratory samples tested, 71.1% (n = 789) of specimens were positive cultures with the dominant bacterial pathogens being streptococcus pneumonia 43.3% (n = 342), followed by pseudomonas aeruginosa 22.8% (n = 180), staphylococcus aurous 13.8% (n = 109), Escherichia Coli 6.9% (n = 55), Enterobacter spp 6.2% (n = 49), Citrobacter 4.5% (n = 36), and Klebsiella 2.2% (n = 18). Most isolates exhibited resistance against the commonly used antibiotics and to at least one antibiotic; and 4) Conclusions: The level of antibiotic resistance in this study is alarming and brings to light the timely and suitable diagnosis of the common bacteria causes of URTIs and proper antibiotic administration based on susceptibility test.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0358.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: MDR typhoid; metal resistant genes; water toxicity; gut microbiome
Online: 20 April 2020 (02:27:07 CEST)
AMR and drug void have caused huge panic today with few thousand death per year. MDR Typhoid was a serious old disease and caused serious health hazard in humen and animals demanding an update on molecular biology of the status on transferable genetic elements. R-plasmids combined in F’-plasmid and the new MDR conjugative plasmids were shown abundant in Sanmonella ranging 70-440kb with similarities. BlaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaOXA, blaNDM mdr genes were abundant in >50 plasmids analyzed and metal resistant gene clusters are predominant in most large plasmids. Among the acetyltransferase all catA1, aacA1 and aac-1b-cr genes were located. Abundant streptomycin phosphotransferases (StrAB) and rarely colistin resistant Mcr-5/9 phosphoethanolamine–lipid A transferase were detected. Altered isomeric dihydropterote synthases (Sul1/2/3) were present giving sulfamethoxazole resistance and dhfr gene frequently associated giving trimethoprim resistance. Metal resistant gene clusters like SilABC (CusABC), PcoAB, RcnA, terABC, and merABCXT etc were found in many Salmonella enterica plasmids. Toxin genes like HipA and virulence genes like spvABD were located in few plasmids increasing virulence and pathogenesis. Drug efflux genes tetA or tetB and OqxB, floR, CmlA were frequent where as QepA and EamA genes were rarely seen. Thus, Salmonella metal resistant genes combined with antibiotic resistant genes has tried to overcome the both toxic antibiotics and metalions causing Typhoid AMR. Such acquisition spreads salmoniasis in the live stocks (pig, cow, chicken) where toxic soil and water dominate increasing chance of MDR typhoid in human.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0144.v6
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: virus; antiviral drug; drug discovery; drug development; broad-spectrum antivirals
Online: 14 February 2020 (02:27:24 CET)
Viral diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Virus-specific vaccines and antiviral drugs are the most powerful tools to combat viral diseases. However, broad-spectrum antiviral agents (BSAAs, i.e. compounds targeting viruses belonging to two or more viral families) could provide additional protection of general population from emerging and re-emerging viral diseases reinforcing the arsenal of available antiviral options. Here, we reviewed discovery and development of BSAAs and summarized the information on 120 safe-in-man agents in freely accessible database (https://drugvirus.info/). Future and ongoing pre-clinical and clinical studies will increase the number of BSAAs, expand spectrum of their indications, and identify drug combinations for treatment of emerging and re-emerging viral infections as well as co-infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0183.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: resistant TNBC; intra-tumoral heterogeneity; breast cancer relapse; breast cancer epigenome; me-tastasis prevention; intrinsic resistance of cancer; tumor adaptability; targeting resistant cancer
Online: 20 April 2022 (04:16:31 CEST)
We previously described a model of deep intrinsic resistance of breast cancer wherein we used a function-based approach to selection of cancer cells that can survive a variety of challenges in prolonged but reversible quiescence. Our experimental results suggested that resistant cancer cells possess a variety of mechanisms, including modifications of the epigenome and transcriptome, for generating a high degree of cellular heterogeneity. In the present study, we evaluated JIB-04, a small-molecule epigenetic inhibitor initially discovered to inhibit cancer growth, to determine its ability to affect deep intrinsic resistance in our breast cancer model. We found that long pretreatment with JIB-04 sensitized resistant triple-negative inflammatory breast cancer cells and their parental cell line SUM149 to the chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin and paclitaxel. Resistant cancer cells derived from another inflammatory breast cancer cell line, FC-IBC02, were considerably more sensitive to JIB-04 than was the parental cell line. Investigating a mechanism of sensitization, we found that JIB-04 exposure increased the expression of PD-L1 in resistant cells, suggesting that JIB-04 may also sensitize resistant breast cancer cells to anti-PD-L1 immune therapy. Finally, these results support the usefulness of our experimental strategy for evaluating anticancer agents such as JIB-04 that may halt cancer evolution and prevent development of cancer resistance to currently used therapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0011.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: computational drug repositioning; drug repositioning; drug repurposing; machine learning; deep learning; crowdsourcing; open innovation; drug discovery
Online: 1 May 2018 (12:27:22 CEST)
Maximizing the indications potential and revenue from drugs that are already marketed offers a new take on the famous mantra of the Nobel Prize-winning pharmacologist, Sir James Black, “The most fruitful basis for the discovery of a new drug is to start with an old drug”. However, rational design of drug mixtures poses formidable challenges because of the lack of or limited information about in vivo cell regulation, mechanisms of genetic pathway activation, and in vivo pathway interactions. Most of the repositioned drugs therefore are the result of “serendipity” - based on late phase clinical studies of unexpected findings. One of the reasons that the connection between drug candidates and their potential adverse drug reactions or new applications could not be identified earlier is that the underlying mechanism associating them is either very intricate and unknown or dispersed and buried in a sea of information. Discovery of such multi-domain pharmacomodules - pharmacologically relevant sub-networks of biomolecules and/or pathways - from collection of databases by independent/simultaneous mining of multiple datasets is an active area of research. Here, while presenting some of the promising bioinformatics approaches and pipelines, we summarize and discuss the current and evolving landscape of computational drug repositioning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0372.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: 3MDR; treatment-resistant PTSD; military; veterans; mental health; emotional regulation
Online: 26 October 2021 (09:51:46 CEST)
Multi-modal Motion-assisted Memory Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy (3MDR), an interactive, virtual-reality assisted, exposure-based intervention for PTSD, has shown promising results for treatment-resistant Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (TR-PTSD) among military members (MMs) and Veterans in Randomized Controlled Trials. Previous research has suggested that emotional regulation (ER) and emotional dysregulation (ED) may be factors which are correlated with symptom severity and maintenance of TR-PTSD. This embedded mixed-methods pilot study (n=9) sought to explore the impact of 3MDR on ER and ED of MMs and Veterans. Difficulties in Emotional Regulation Scale (DERS-18) data was collected at baseline, prior to each session, and at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months post-intervention and analyzed using a Wilcoxon signed-ranks test. Qualitative data collected from sessions, debriefs, and follow-up interviews were transcribed and descriptively analyzed. Results demonstrated statistically significant decreases in DERS-18 scores from pre-intervention to post-intervention at each timepoint. Qualitatively, participants perceived improvements in ER within specified DERS-18 domains. We describe how 3MDR’s unique and novel approach may address ED through cognitive-motor stimulation, narration, divergent thinking, reappraisal of aversive stimuli, dual-task processing, and reconsolidation of traumatic memories. Further investigation is underway to better understand the underlying neurobiological mechanisms by which 3MDR addresses ER and PTSD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0566.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Varroa destructor; mite; resistant populations; acaricide residues; tau-fluvalinate; varroosis
Online: 21 April 2021 (09:42:13 CEST)
Varroa destructor is considered one of the most devastating parasites of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, and a major problem for the beekeeping industry. Currently, the main method to control Varroa mites is the application of drugs that contain different acaricides as active ingredients. The pyrethroid tau-fluvalinate is one of the acaricides most widely used in beekeeping due to its efficacy and low toxicity to bees. However, the intensive and repetitive application of this compound produces a selective pressure that, when maintained over time, contributes to the emergence of resistant mites in the honey bee colonies, compromising the acaricidal treatments efficacy. Here we studied the presence of tau-fluvalinate residues in hives and the evolution of genetic resistance to this acaricide in Varroa mites from honeybee colonies that received no pyrethroid treatment in the previous four years. Our data revealed the widespread and persistent tau-fluvalinate contamination of beeswax and beebread in hives, an overall increase of the pyrethroid resistance allele frequency and a generalized excess of resistant mites relative to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations. These results suggest that tau-fluvalinate contamination of the hives may seriously compromise the efficacy of pyrethroid-based mite control methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0287.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: resistant; microRNA-21; doxorubicin; PTEN; MCF-7/Dox cell line
Online: 30 March 2019 (06:46:35 CET)
Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality and morbidity among Indonesian women. Identification of biological pathways leading into therapeutic resistance through in vitro model is an important step to develop alternative effective therapy in breast cancer. Loss of PTEN expression has been associated with resistance to chemotherapy by involving PI3K/PTEN- dependent apoptosis pathway. We conducted in vitro experiment to investigate the association of hsa-miR-21 and PTEN expression in Doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7 cell line. Methods: Parental MCF-7 cells were periodically incubated with Doxorubicin to obtain specific Dox-resistant variant determined by IC50 using MTT assay. PTEN protein expression was analyzed using immunocytochemistry. Expression of mature has-miR-21 was measured using qRT-PCR. Results: The IC50 of Doxorubicin in parental MCF-7 and Doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7 cells (MCF-7/Dox) was 0.68 and 5.78 µg/ml, respectively. Hsa-miR-21 was significantly overexpressed in MCF-7/Dox cells compared to parental MCF cells (7.94 fold changes). Conclusion: PTEN and hsa-miR-21 expression levels were negatively correlated in Doxorubicin resistant-MCF cells. Further study to confirm the causal relationship of miR-21 overexpression and PTEN downregulation in MCF-7/Dox is required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0420.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: PFAD; urethane acrylate; crosslinking, UV curing, chemical resistant; film hardness
Online: 19 November 2018 (06:40:22 CET)
Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) is a by-product from the refining of crude palm oil. It comprises mainly of free fatty acids, having around 45% of palmitic and 33% oleic acids as the major components. Ultra-violet (UV) curable urethane acrylate (UA) oligomers could be synthesized from PFAD by the following procedure. A hydroxyl terminated macromer was first prepared by reacting PFAD with a mixture of isophthalic acid, phthalic anhydride, neopentagylcol (NPG) and pentaerythritol. The macromer is then reacted with 2-hydroxylethylacrylate (2HEA) and toluene diisocynate (TDI) to generate a resin containing acrylate side chains for UV curable application. A series of UA resins were prepared by using 15, 25, 45, 55 and 70% of PFAD respectively. The UA resin has Mw in the range of 3200 to 27,000. They could be cured by UV irradiation at intensity of 225mW/cm2. Glass transition temperature (Tg) of the cured film was measured by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and hardness of the film was determined by pendulum hardness tester according to ASTM4366. The resins were used in wood coating application. All of the cured films showed good adhesion, hardness and chemical resistant for resins using up to 55% PFAD; however the resin at 70% did not cure properly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0335.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: Heat-resistant; Nylon 6; P(N-phenylmaleimide-alt-styrene); Blends;
Online: 16 November 2018 (15:01:35 CET)
In this work, nylon 6/ P(N-phenylmaleimide-alt-styrene) blends were prepared by melt blending, and the mechanical, heat-resistant, crystallographic and dynamical mechanical properties of nylon 6/ P(N-phenylmaleimide-alt-styrene) blends with different contents were investigated and analyzed. The results showed that the mechanical properties decreased with increasing PNS, while the heat deflection temperature (HDT), relative crystallinity (Xn), and storage modulus (G’) increased with increasing PNS. The results of differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) proved the PNS played the positive role of nucleating PA6. And the results of dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) proved the PNS could improve the rigidity of PA6/PNS blends. From the SEM, these PNS domains were between 0.2 and 4 μm in diameter. The experimental results indicated that the addition of PNS improved the rigidity of PA6/PNS blends, and then improved the heat-resistant property.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0232.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Adverse drug reactions; Anti-COVID drugs; Coronavirus; Drug repurposing; Drug toxicity; Pharmacotherapy
Online: 18 June 2020 (12:43:43 CEST)
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is the current global public health threat with no specific, effective, and approved treatment available till date. The outbreak of COVID-19 has led the world into an unimagined and uncertain situation by disrupting the economies, claiming human lives, and leaving many into secondary mental health problems. As per the latest WHO report, approximately 8.2 million people are infected, and nearly 0.44 million lives are lost to COVID. The infection has spread to over 200 countries and territories around the world. The world is in search of efficient diagnostics and therapeutics, including vaccines, biologics and drugs. With the rapid increase in rates of infection and time constraints, drug repurposing seems to be a potential and viable option to find the promising anti-COVID therapeutics. In the wake of a rapid increase in the number of clinical trials involving drugs for repurposing, we aim to provide information on the safety concerns related to the drugs currently investigated in trials. This review also highlights the possible mechanisms of actions, adverse drug reactions, and contraindications of the drugs under repurposing evaluation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0036.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Electrophile; Drug Design; Covalent Drug; Chemical Biology
Online: 19 October 2021 (10:28:15 CEST)
Of the manifold concepts in drug discovery and design, covalent drugs have re-emerged as one of the most promising over the past 20-or so years. All such drugs harness the ability of a covalent bond to drive an interaction between a target biomolecule, typically a protein, and a small molecule. Formation of a covalent bond necessarily prolongs target engagement, opening avenues to targeting shallower binding sites, protein complexes, and other difficult to drug manifolds, amongst other virtues. This opinion piece discusses frameworks around which to develop covalent drugs. Our argument, based on results from our research program on natural electrophile signaling, is that targeting specific residues innately involved in native signaling programs are ideally poised to be targeted by covalent drugs. We outline ways to identify electrophile-sensing residues, and discuss how studying ramifications of innate signaling by endogenous molecules can provide a means to predict drug mechanism and function and assess on- versus off-target behaviors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0166.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: microbiological characterization; safety; VanZ; isolation; vancomycin resistant gene; genome; bee; honey
Online: 11 February 2022 (21:17:45 CET)
Bifidobacteria have long been recognized as bacteria with probiotic and therapeutic features. The aim of this work is to characterize the Bifidobacterium asteroides BA15 and BA17 strains, isolated from honeybee gut. An in-depth assessment was carried out on safety properties (antibiotic resistance profiling, β-haemolytic, DNAse and gelatinase activities and virulence factor presence) and other properties (antimicrobial activity, auto-aggregation, co-aggregation and hydrophobicity). Based on phenotypic and genotypic characterization, both strains satisfied all the safety requirements. More specifically, genome analysis showed the absence of genes encoding for glycopeptide (vanA, vanB, vanC-1, vanC-2, vanD, vanE, vanG), resistance to tetracycline (tet-M, tet-L and tetO), and virulence genes (asa1, gelE, cylA, esp, hyl).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0193.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: bioassay; chromatography; folkloric medicine; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Senna alata; spectroscopy
Online: 13 September 2021 (07:21:28 CEST)
Senna alata (Linn) Roxb. plant is widely used to manage various infections in folkloric medicine. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection continues to be a major global public health problem. This study aims to investigate the bioactive components of S. alata leaves active against MRSA. The leaves of S. alata were sequentially extracted and fractionated using standard methods and screened for activities against MRSA. The diethyl ether active thin layer chromatography (TLC) spot was subjected to infrared (IR) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopic (GC-MS) studies. The aqueous extract and diethyl ether fraction of S. alata leaves elicited the highest activity against the MRSA. The GC-MS analysis of the fraction produced 15 eluates; only the sub-fraction 13 was effective. The TLC analysis of the sub-fraction 13 revealed three spots; only the second spot produced activity. The GC-MS result of the spot showed six peaks. The spectral results for peak 3 match the data from the IR study suggestive of 9-octadecenoic acid methyl ester. Senna alata leaves possess bioactive compounds closely related to 9-octadecenoic acid methyl ester with potent antibacterial activity against MRSA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0147.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Candida sp.; head - neck tumor; innovative antifungals; azole-resistant; Ruta graveolens.
Online: 4 March 2021 (09:18:46 CET)
The problem of drug resistance in terms of antifungal therapy, unknown until a few years ago, is assuming increasing importance. Particularly in immunosuppressed patients and subject to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In the last years the use of essential oils as approach to improving the effectiveness of antifungal agents and reducing the antibiotic resistant has been proposed. Our research aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of Colombian essential oil of Ruta graveolens (REO) against clinical strains of Candida albicans, Candida parapsilopsis, C. glabrata and Candida tropicalis. The data obtained showed that Candida tropicalis and Candida albicans were most sensible strains showing minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 0.5 and 1.0 µg/ml of REO. The Time Kill Kinetics assay demonstrated that REO showed fungicide effect against C. tropicalis and fungistatic effect against C. albicans. In addition, the 40% of the biofilm formed by C. albicans was eradicated using 1% of REO after 1 hour of exposure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0561.v1
Subject: Keywords: cheminformatics, drugs, drug-likeness, drug discovery, natural products
Online: 23 November 2018 (13:56:32 CET)
We discuss further details on the concepts of “drug-likeness”, “lead-likeness”, and “natural product-likeness”. The discussion will first focus on natural products as drugs, then a discussion of previous studies in which the complexities of the scaffolds and chemical space of naturally occurring compounds have been compared with synthetic, semi-synthetic compounds and FDA-approved drugs. This is followed by guiding principles for designing “drug-like” natural product libraries for lead compound discovery purposes. We end up by presenting a tool for measuring “natural product-likeness” of compounds and a brief presentation of machine learning approaches and a binary quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) for classifying drugs from non-drugs and natural compounds from non-natural ones, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0429.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: drug repurposing; drug repositioning; computational biology; drug discovery; computational pharmacology; malaria; multitargeting; malaria treatment
Online: 19 November 2018 (07:31:08 CET)
Drug repurposing is a valuable tool for combating the slowing rates of novel therapeutic discovery. The Computational Analysis of Novel Drug Opportunities (CANDO) platform performs shotgun repurposing of 2030 indications/diseases using 3733 drugs/compounds to predict interactions with 46,784 proteins and relating them via proteomic interaction signatures. An accuracy is calculated by comparing interaction similarities of drugs approved for the same indications. We performed a unique subset analysis by breaking down the full protein library into smaller subsets and then recombining the best performing subsets into larger supersets. Up to 14% improvement in accuracy is seen upon benchmarking the supersets, representing a 100–1000 fold reduction in the number of proteins considered relative to the full library. Further analysis revealed that libraries comprised of proteins with more equitably diverse ligand interactions are important for describing compound behavior. Using one of these libraries to generate putative drug candidates against malaria results in more drugs that could be validated in the biomedical literature than the list suggested by the full protein library. Our work elucidates the role of particular protein subsets and corresponding ligand interactions that play a role in drug repurposing, with implications for drug design and machine learning approaches to improve the CANDO platform.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0524.v5
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: elementary dimensions; absolute void; early universe; universe at zero second; Void resistant
Online: 5 January 2022 (10:35:44 CET)
In this study, we discuss the properties of absolute vacuum space and how these properties can play a vital role in creating a mechanism in which the very first particle gets created simultaneously everywhere and we find the limit in which when the absolute vacuum volume reaches will lead to the collapse that leads to the creation of the first particle. This discussion is made following to the elementary dimensions theory study that was peer-reviewed at the end of 2020, everything in the universe is made from four elementary dimensions, these dimensions are the three spatial dimensions (X, Y, and Z) and the Vacuum resistant as the factor of change among the four, time itself wasn’t considered as the fourth dimension, rather time corresponds to a factor of change, and during the research it was found out that the Vacuum resistant is the factor of change in the Absolute Vacuum space, where time is a hypothetical concept, that represents changes during certain events compared to a constant change rate event.Therefore, time does exist, but as a factor of change, and as the Vacuum resistant in the absolute vacuum space, Time= factor of change= Vacuum resistant. In the study, the internal and external vacuum resistant volume equivalent is found, External Vacuum resistant=3.2857602*10^15 *mass. This equation is used to identify the amount of Free external vacuum resistant created during nuclear fission and fusion: Initial mass of the excited nucleuses mass of the created new nucleuses+ 3.2857602*10^15 * the lost Mass. In elementary dimensions, the energy created during nuclear reactions is equivalent to the free External vacuum resistant created through nuclear reactions, and mass is equivalent to the internal Vacuum resistant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0024.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Multidrug resistance; mecA gene; Frozen chicken meat; Bangladesh
Online: 1 March 2021 (13:56:33 CET)
Infections by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are continuously expanding within the community. Chicken meat is usually contaminated by MRSA, and this contaminated chicken meat is an important source of foodborne infections in humans. In this study, a cross-sectional supershop survey was conducted to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of MRSA in 113 domestic frozen chicken meat samples purchased from nine branded supershops available in five divisional megacities of Bangladesh. The study also focused on the determination of methicillin resistance gene in MRSA isolates. S. aureus was identified by standard culture-based and molecular methods, and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. MRSA was screened by cefoxitin disk diffusion test. Methicillin resistance gene was identified by PCR. Of samples, 54.9% were positive for S. aureus, and, of these, 37.1% isolates were identified as MRSA. All the isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR): 52.2% were resistant to 6−8 antimicrobial classes, and 47.8% isolates to 9−12 classes. Three (3.2%) isolates of S. aureus were possible extensively drug resistant. The highest rates of resistance were observed against cefoxitin (100%), followed by nalidixic acid, ampicillin and oxacillin (97.7%), colistin (91.3%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and amoxicillin (87%), penicillin-G and cloxacillin (82.6%), oxytetracycline (78.3%) and cefixime (73.9%). Screening of methicillin resistance gene revealed that 43.5% isolates of MRSA were positive for mecA gene. The high prevalence of MDR MRSA in frozen chicken meat samples in this study emphasizes the need for better sanitary education of food handlers in hygienic practices focusing on their potential role as reservoirs and spreaders of MRSA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0142.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: NGF/TrkA signaling; mitogenesis; invasiveness; EMT; 3D models; castrate-resistant prostate cancers
Online: 11 April 2019 (12:55:18 CEST)
Resistance to hormone therapy and disease progression is the major challenge in clinical management of prostate cancer (PC). Drugs currently used in PC therapy initially show a potent antitumor effect. Nevertheless, PC gradually develops resistance, relapses and spreads. Most patients develop, indeed, castrate-resistant PC (CRPC), which is almost incurable. The nerve growth factor (NGF) acts on a variety of non-neuronal cells by activating the NGF tyrosine-kinase receptor, TrkA. NGF signaling is deregulated in PC. In androgen-dependent PC cells, TrkA mediates the proliferative action of NGF through its cross talk with the androgen receptor (AR). Epithelial PC cells, however, acquire the ability to express NGF and TrkA, as the disease progresses, indicating a role for NGF/TrkA axis in PC progression and androgen-resistance. We here report that once activated by NGF, TrkA mediates proliferation, invasiveness and epithelial-mesenchyme transition (EMT) in various CRPC cells. NGF promotes organoid growth in 3D models of CRPC cells, and specific inhibition of TrkA impairs all these responses. Thus TrkA represents a new biomarker to target in CRPC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0059.v1
Subject: Keywords: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus; statistics; superbug; hormone; prevention
Online: 5 April 2019 (11:46:16 CEST)
In California, an average of 41,900 patients are diagnosed annually with Staphylococcus bacterial infection; out of these, 24,090 patients have methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection and 17,810 patients have methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infection. The aim of this paper is to find out whether there is a significant difference in strain dominancy and in what direction. The paper gathered and analyzed data for period of five years of infection rate due to Staphylococcus aureus. This study indicates that a significant difference in dominancy exists, the MRSA infection rate (an average of five years period) is 1.35 times higher than the MSSA infection rate (P-value < 0.05, CI: 95%), but the gap between the two infection rates is decreasing. The infection rate of both MRSA and MSSA is in a path of decline.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0067.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Antimalarial Drug; Malaria Vaccine; Drug Discovery; Artimisnine; K13; Malaria
Online: 4 February 2022 (10:22:34 CET)
Mosquitoes conveying Plasmodium store parasites into the skin of the mammalian host. Parasites make a trip through the circulation system to the liver, where they cross a few hepatocytes prior to building up a disease. Inside the last hepatocyte the parasite goes through morphogenesis and afterward abiogenetically partitions to become more than 20,000 blood-infective parasites, called merozoites. On account of P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. cynomolgi, the parasites can stay lethargic in the liver in structures called hypnozoites. The merozoites are delivered once again into the circulation system, where they start the repetitive blood stage. Inside erythrocytes, a little division of parasites separate into male or female gametocytes. These gametocytes are ingested by the mosquito during blood taking care of, where they will duplicate explicitly, in the long run prompting the arrangement of sporozoites
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0440.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: electrophiles; signaling; profiling; drug mechanism; drug discovery; T-REX
Online: 28 January 2022 (14:57:08 CET)
Our bodies produce a host of electrophilic species that can label specific endogenous proteins in cells. The signaling roles of these molecules are underactive debate. However, in our opinion it is becoming increasingly likely that electrophiles can rewire cellular signaling processes at endogenous levels. Attention is turning more to understanding how nuanced electrophile signaling in cells is. In this perspective, we describe recent work from our laboratory that has started to inform on different levels of context-specific regulation of proteins by electrophiles. We discuss the relevance of these data to the field, and to the broader application of electrophile signaling to precision medicine development, beyond the traditional views of their pleiotropic cytotoxic roles.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0146.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Nanomedicine; drug resistance; lung cancer; chemotherapeutic agents; drug delivery
Online: 11 January 2022 (13:48:22 CET)
Lung cancer (LC) is one of the leading causes of cancer occurrence and mortality worldwide. Treatment of patients with advanced and metastatic LC presents a significant challenge as malignant cells use different mechanisms to resist chemotherapy. Drug resistance (DR) is a complex process that occurs due to a variety of genetic and acquired factors. Identifying the mechanisms underlying DR in LC patients and possible therapeutic alternatives for more efficient therapy is a central goal of LC research. Advances in nanotechnology resulted in the development of targeted and multifunctional nanoscale drug constructs. The possible modulation of the components of nanomedicine, their surface functionalization, and encapsulation of various active therapeutics provide promising tools to bypass crucial biological barriers. These attributes enhance the delivery of multiple therapeutic agents directly to the tumor microenvironment (TME), resulting in reversal of LC resistance to anticancer treatment. This review provides a broad framework for understanding the different molecular mechanisms of DR in lung cancer; presents novel nanomedicine therapeutics aimed to improve the efficacy of treatment of various forms of resistant LC; outlines current challenges in using nanotechnology for reversing DR; and discusses the future directions for clinical application of nanomedicine in management of LC resistance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0287.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: drug screening; monodrug or combinatorial drug screening; anti-cancer
Online: 16 September 2021 (13:46:49 CEST)
The up-and-coming microfluidic technology is the most promising platform for designing anti-cancer drugs and new point-of-care diagnostics. Compared to conventional drug screening methods based on Petri dishes and animal studies, drug delivery in microfluidic systems has many advantages. For instance, these platforms offer high throughput drug screening, require a small amount of samples, provide an in vivo-like microenvironment for cells, and eliminate ethical issues associated with animal studies. Multiple cell cultures in microfluidic chips could better mimic the 3D tumor environment using low reagents consumption. The clinical experiments have shown that combinatorial drug treatments have a better therapeutic effect than monodrug therapy. So many attempts were performed in this field in the last decade. This review highlights the applications of microfluidic chips in anti-cancer drug screening and systematically categorizes these systems as a function of sample size and combination of drug screening. Finally, it provides a perspective on the future of the clinical applications of microfluidic systems for anti-cancer drug development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0770.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: BRF2; cancer; molecular dynamics simulation; drug repurposing; drug discovery
Online: 16 July 2021 (11:40:34 CEST)
Overexpression of BRF2, a selective subunit of RNA polymerase III, has been shown to be crucial in the development of several types of cancers, including breast cancer and lung squamous cell carcinoma . Predominately, BRF2 acts as a central redox-sensing transcription factor (TF) and is involved in rescuing oxidative stress (OS) -induced apoptosis. Here, we showed a novel link between BRF2 and DNA damage response. Due to the lack of BRF2 specific inhibitors, through virtual and molecular dynamics screening, we identified potential drug candidates that interfere with BRF2-TATA-binding Protein (TBP)-DNA complex interactions based on binding energy, intermolecular, and torsional energy parameters. We experimentally tested Bexarotene as a potential BRF2 inhibitor. We found that Bexarotene (Bex) treatment resulted in a dramatic decline in oxidative stress (Tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ))-induced levels of BRF2 and consequently, lead to a decrease in cellular proliferation of cancer cells which may in part be due to drug pretreatment induced reduction of ROS generated by the oxidizing agent. Our data thus, provide the first experimental evidence that BRF2 is a novel player in DNA damage response pathway and Bexarotene can be used as a potential inhibitor to treat cancers with the specific elevation of oxidative stress.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Drug Safety Surveillance; Adverse Drug Reaction; Ophthalmic; Ciprofloxacin; Dexamethasone
Online: 5 January 2021 (11:51:06 CET)
Background: drugs provide a significant benefit; however, their use implies an intrinsic potential danger, with the possibility to cause unwanted effects. These effects are known as adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Post-marketing drug safety surveillance detects unknown risks that have not been identified in clinical trials and it is necessary to monitor marketed medications under real-life practice. Due to the scarce information about fixed combination of ciprofloxacin 0.3% / dexamethasone 0.1% (SDO), we performed a drug safety surveillance study. (2) Methods: A prospective non-controlled drug safety surveillance study was conducted in Peruvian population. A total of 236 patients prescribed SDO were included derivates from 12 sites. Patients' standardized information was collected through two phone calls, including demographics, medical history, prescribing patterns of SDO, concomitant medication, and ADRs in detail. The ADRs were classified by causality and severity, followed by outcome measures to identify new risk. (3) Results: 236 patients prescribed with SDO participated in the study and 220 were included. A total of 82 ADRs/220 patients were reported after the use of SDO, presenting a ratio 0.37 ADR/patient. The most frequent ADR with SDO administration was eye irritation (30%). The totality of the ADR was classified as non-serious, and the 97.5% (n=80) was classified as mild and 2.5% as moderate (n=2). No cases under the severe category were identified. (4) Conclusion: No new risks were found in the population where this study was conducted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0032.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: artificial intelligence; machine learning; drug design; covid-19; structure-based drug design; ligand-based drug design
Online: 2 March 2022 (03:00:37 CET)
The recent covid crisis has proven important lessons for academia and industry regarding digital reorganization. Among fascinating lessons from these times is the huge potential of data analytics and artificial intelligence. The crisis exponentially accelerated the adoption of analytics and artificial intelligence, and this momentum is predicted to continue into the 2020s and over. Moreover, drug development is a costly and time-consuming business, and only a minority of approved drugs return the revenue that exceeds the research and development costs. As a result, there is a huge drive to make drug discovery cheaper and faster. With modern algorithms and hardware, it is not too surprising that the new technologies of artificial intelligence and other computational simulation tools can help drug developers. In only two years of covid research, many novel molecules have been designed/identified using artificial intelligence methods with astonishing results in terms of time and effectiveness. This paper will review the most significant research on artificial intelligence in the de novo drug design for COVID-19 pharmaceutical research.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: DPTM; Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); Antibacterial activity; Murine skin wound model; MIC
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:18:08 CEST)
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major human pathogen that requires new antibiotics with unique mechanism. A new pleuromutilin derivative, 14-O-[(4,6-Diaminopyrimidine-2-yl) thioacetyl] mutilin (DPTM), has been synthesized and proved as a potent antibacterial agent using in vitro and in vivo assays. In the present study, DPTM was further in vitro evaluated against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from dairy farms and outperformed tiamulin fumarate, a pleuromutilin drug used for veterinary. Moreover, a murine skin wound model caused by MRSA infection was established and the healing effect of DPTM was investigated. The results showed that DPTM could promote the healing of MRSA skin infection, reduce the bacterial burden of infected skin MRSA and decrease the secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α inflammatory cytokines in plasma. These results provided the basis for further in-depth drug targeted studies of DPTM as a novel antibacterial agent.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0219.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: Preterm infant; Necrotizing pneumonia; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA); Pneumatoceles; Linezolid; Vancomycin; Rifampicin
Online: 11 July 2020 (02:10:45 CEST)
Necrotizing pneumonia due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) is devastating and difficult to treat in preterm infants. We report a case of severe MRSA necrotizing pneumonia in a preterm infant. As an add-on rescue therapy to vancomycin, linezolid rapidly cured this case after the failure of vancomycin plus rifampicin. This rapid cure suggests that adjunctive rather than rescue linezolid may be considered in such cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0293.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: MRSA, MSSA, Staphylococcus aureus, mortality, gender, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, infectious disease, prevention
Online: 15 October 2018 (09:35:59 CEST)
Average of 41,900 patients are diagnosed annually with staphylococcus bacterial infection in California, 24,089 patients have Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) and 17,810 patients have Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus (MSSA). This paper demonstrates that there is a difference in mortality rate due to staphylococcus infection between males and females (P-value<0.05, CI 95%). Male patient diagnosed with S. aureus has 1.3 chance of mortality incidence than female patient. In addition, MRSA infection rate is 1.4 times MSSA infection (P-value<0.05, CI 95%), but the gap of infection is decreasing; however, mortality of both infections combined are more than threefold greater compared to three decades ago.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0224.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; drug discovery; multitargeting; computational drug repurposing
Online: 26 April 2022 (03:39:06 CEST)
The worldwide outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in early 2020 caused numer- ous deaths and unprecedented measures to control its spread. We employed our Computational Analysis of Novel Drug Opportunities (CANDO) multiscale therapeutic discovery, repurposing, and design platform to identify small molecule inhibitors of the virus to treat its resulting indication, COVID-19. Initially, few experimental studies existed on SARS-CoV-2, so we optimized our drug candidate prediction pipelines using results from two independent high-throughput screens against prevalent human coronaviruses. Ranked lists of candidate drugs were generated using our open source cando.py software based on viral protein inhibition and proteomic interaction similarity. For the former viral protein inhibition pipeline, we computed interaction scores between all compounds in the corresponding candidate library and eighteen SARS-CoV proteins using an interaction scoring protocol with extensive parameter optimization which was then applied to the SARS-CoV-2 proteome for prediction. For the latter similarity based pipeline, we computed interaction scores between all compounds and human protein structures in our libraries then used a consensus scoring approach to identify candidates with highly similar proteomic interaction signatures to multiple known anti-coronavirus actives. We published our ranked candidate lists at the very beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. Since then, 51 of our 276 predictions have demonstrated anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity in published clinical and experimental studies. These results illustrate the ability our platform to rapidly respond to emergent pathogens and provide greater evidence that treating compounds in a multitarget context more accurately describes their behavior in biological systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0327.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: pregnancy; medicines; drug information; drug safety; pharmacovigilance; pharmacoepidemiology; pharmaceutical industry; stakeholders
Online: 25 February 2022 (08:54:01 CET)
Although marketing authorization holders (MAHs) are involved in monitoring medication safety, it was unclear how they experience their role and current monitoring activities in pregnancy. Therefore, a qualitative study using online focus groups with MAHs and the Belgian umbrella organisation of MAHs was conducted in June-July 2021. In total, 38 representatives of nine organisations participated. Overall, participants reported multiple difficulties with data collection, including underreporting, collection of incomplete information and loss to follow-up. The limited number of high-quality data collected, the unknown denominator and the lack of comparator data complicate MAHs’ data processing activities, preventing them to timely provide evidence in the pregnancy label. Three ‘conflicts’ inherent to the specific position of MAHs were identified explaining the difficulties they experience, i.e., 1) mistrust from patients and healthcare professionals (HCPs); 2) MAHs’ legal obligations and regulatory framework; 3) MAHs’ position outside the healthcare context. To overcome these barriers, MAHs suggested that data registration should occur in close collaboration with patients and HCPs, organized within the healthcare context and performed by using a user-friendly system. In conclusion, the reported difficulties and underlying conflicts of MAHs highlight the need for more effective, collaborative data collection strategies to generate new evidence on this topic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0076.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Limit analysis of domes; Concrete caps; experiment comparison; Not Tensile Resistant Materials; Finite element
Online: 3 August 2022 (07:20:00 CEST)
The calculation of the collapse load of spherical domes is addressed using a semi-analytical approach under the hypotheses of small displacements and perfect plasticity. The procedure is based on the numerical approximation of the self-stress that represents the projection of the balance equilibrium null space on a finite dimensional manifold. The so obtained self-equilibrated stress span is superimposed to a finite element linear elastic solution to the prescribed loads yielding to the statically admissible set accordingly to Melan’s theorem. The compatibility of the stress with the constitutive law of the material has been enforced using linearized limit domain in terms of generalized stress, namely axial force and bending moment along the local spherical curvilinear coordinates. The procedure has been tested with reference to numerical and experimental data from the literature confirming the accuracy of the proposed method. The comparison with the literature confirms that the buckling load is much greater than the plastic collapse loads both calculated through the proposed procedure and reported in the quoted literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0211.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: lipoprotein; extracellular vesicles; exosome; ectosome; stress response; resistant cancer; metastatic cancer; heat shock stress
Online: 10 October 2018 (09:44:17 CEST)
Resistant cancer often shows a particular secretory trait such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) and extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and oncosomes surrounded by lipid bilayers. Lipoproteins are biochemical assemblies that transport hydrophobic lipid (a.k.a. fat) molecules in body fluid and are composed of a single-layer phospholipid and cholesterol outer shell, lipids molecules within the particles, and apolipoproteins embedded in the membrane. However, lipoprotein storage and secretion by cancer cells have not well-investigated yet. We found lipoproteins were stored and abundantly secreted by neuroendocrine, castration-resistant prostate cancer (NEPC / CRPC) cells but barely secreted by colon cancer cells and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. In addition, large EVs (approx. 300 nm diameter) and potential oncosomes were released by CRPC and OSCC cells. Proteomics revealed that CRPC cells secreted EVs enriched with tetraspanins and extracellular matrices which were reduced upon heat shock stress and alternatively lipoproteins and HSPs were secreted upon stress. Heat shock stress triggered secretion of lipoprotein-EV complexes that contained apolipoprotein A, B, C and E. These data suggested that vesicular assembly composed of EVs and lipoproteins enriched with cholesterols and phospholipids may be stored in resistant cancer cells but released upon cell stress that is increased in cancer therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0017.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: green synthesis; silver nanoparticles; trimethylchitosan nitrate; catalytic activity; antibacterial activity; multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii
Online: 2 March 2017 (08:49:35 CET)
We report a facile route for the green synthesis of trimethylchitosan nitrate-capped silver nanoparticles (TMCN-AgNPs) with positive surface charge. In this synthesis, silver nitrate, glucose, and trimethyl chitosan nitrate (TMCN) were used as silver precursor, reducing agent, and stabilizer, respectively. The reaction was carried out in a stirred basic aqueous medium at room temperature without the use of energy-consuming or expensive equipment. We investigated the effects of the concentrations of NaOH, glucose, and TMCN on the particle size, zeta potential, and formation yield. The AgNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, photon correlation spectroscopy, laser Doppler anemometry, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The catalytic activity of the TMCN-AgNPs was studied by the reduction of 4-nitrophenol using NaBH4 as a reducing agent. We evaluated the antibacterial effects of the TMCN-AgNPs on Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus using the broth microdilution method. The results showed that both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were killed by the TMCN-AgNPs at very low concentration (< 6.13 μg/mL). Moreover, the TMCN-AgNPs also showed high antibacterial activity against clinically isolated multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was ≤ 12.25 μg/mL.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0346.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: drug discovery; drug repurposing; bioinformatics; machine learning; artificial intelligence; biomedical discoveries etc.
Online: 14 May 2021 (15:17:50 CEST)
Artificial intelligence AI or machine learning has proven to be a potential activity in the health and biomedical sciences. Previous research it has found that AI can learn new data and transform it into the useful knowledge. In the field of pharmacology, the aim is to design more efficient and novel vaccines using this method which are also cost effective. The underlying fact is to predict the molecular mechanism and structure for increased likelihood of developing new drugs. Clinical, electronic and high resolution imaging datasets can be used as inputs to aid the drug development niche. Moreover, the use of comprehensive target activity has been performed for repurposing a drug molecule by extending target profiles of drugs which also include off targets with therapeutic potential providing a new indication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0316.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Valproic acid; Drug-induced liver injury; Adverse drug reaction; Case-control study
Online: 18 January 2021 (11:11:04 CET)
Introduction: Valproic acid (VPA) is an antiepileptic drug extensively used for treating partial and generalised seizures, acute mania and as prophylaxis for bipolar disorder. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) persists as a significant issue related to fatal outcomes by VPA. The aim of this study was to increase our knowledge about this condition and to better identify patients affected. Methods: We conducted an observational retrospective case-control study that identified cases of DILI by VPA from the Pharmacovigilance Programme from our Laboratory Signals at La Paz University Hospital from January 2007 to December 2019. From the Therapeutic VPA Monitoring Programme, two control groups were assigned, VPA-tolerant patients and the other with patients who developed mild VPA-related hepatitis but who did not meet the DILI criteria, matched for date, age and sex. Results: A total of 60 patients were included in the study: 15 cases of DILI, 30 VPA-tolerant controls and 15 controls with mild hepatitis. Mean age for the cases was 45.7 years, 4(26.7%) were women and 5(33.34%) were children under 18 years, of them 3(20%) were fatal. Polytherapy with other antiepileptic drugs (p=0.047) and alcohol consumption (p<0.001) were associated with a greater risk of developing DILI by VPA. A diagnosis of epileptic seizure was more frequently related to DILI when compared with the VPA-tolerant controls (p<0.001). The cases developed hepatocellular hepatitis (p<0.001), while the mild hepatitis controls had a higher rate of cholestatic hepatitis (p<0.001). The laboratory lactate dehydrogenase values were statistically higher (even at baseline) in patients with DILI than in both control groups (p= 0.033 and p=0.039). Conclusions: VPA hepatotoxicity remains a considerable problem. This study offers interesting findings for characterising VPA-induced liver injury and at-risk patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0349.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: novel coronavirus; COVID-19; protease; molecular docking; drug designing; ADME; drug repurposing
Online: 23 March 2020 (09:47:49 CET)
The Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA ((+)ssRNA) virus. The COVID-19 Main Proteases play very important role in the propagation of the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19). It has already killed more than 8000 people around the world and thousands of people are getting infected every day. Therefore, it is very important to identify a potential inhibitor against COVID-19 Main Proteases to inhibit the propagation of the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19). We have applied a drug repurposing approach of computational methodology, depending on the synergy of molecular docking and virtual screening techniques, aimed to identify possible potent inhibitors against Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) from FDA approved antiviral compounds and from the library of active phytochemicals. On the basis of recently resolved COVID-19 Main Protease crystal structure (PDB:6LU7), the library of 100 FDA approved antiviral compounds and 1000 active components of Indian Medicinal Plants extracted for screening against COVID-19 Main Protease. The compounds were further screened using Pyrex virtual screening tool and then best inhibitors, top 19 compounds optimally docked to the COVID-19 Main Protease structure to understand the participation of specific amino acids with inhibitors at active sites. Total 19 best compounds were identified after screening based on their highest binding affinity with respect to the other screened compounds. Out of 19, 6 best compounds were further screened based on their binding affinity and best ADME properties. Nelfinavir exhibited highest binding energy -8.4 kcal/mol and strong stability with the TRP207, ILE281, LEU282, PHE3, PHE291, GLN127, ARG4, GLY283, GLU288, LYS5, LYS137, TYR126, GLY138, TYR126, SER139 and VAL135 amino acid residues of COVID-19 Main Protease participating in the interaction at the binding pocket. In addition to Nelfinavir (-8.4), Rhein (-8.1), Withanolide D (-7.8), Withaferin A (-7.7), Enoxacin (-7.4), and Aloe-emodin (-7.4) also showed good binding affinity and best ADME properties. Our findings suggest that these compounds can be used as potential inhibitors against COVID-19 Main Protease, which could be helpful in inhibiting the propagation of the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19). Moreover, further in vitro and in vivo validation of these findings would be very helpful to bring these inhibitors to next level study.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0507.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: liposomes, exosomes, extracellular vesicles, drug delivery, drug targeting, bioinspired systems, engineered systems.
Online: 22 October 2018 (15:35:20 CEST)
The similarities between exosomes and liposomes, together with the high organotropism of several types of exosomes, have recently prompted the development of engineered-exosomes or exosome-mimetics, which may be artificial (liposomal) or cell-derived vesicles, as advanced platforms for targeted drug delivery. Here we provide the current state-of-the-art of using exosome or exosome-inspired systems for drug delivery. We review the various approaches investigated and the shortcomings of each approach. Finally the challenges identified up-to-date in this field are summarized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0025.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: drug repurposing; translational bioinformatics; transcriptomics; transcriptome analysis; drug discovery; protocol; gene expression
Online: 9 October 2016 (08:42:23 CEST)
Traditional methods for discovery and development of new drugs can be a very time-consuming and expensive process because it includes several stages such as compound identification, pre-clinical and clinical trials before the drug is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Therefore, drug repurposing, namely using currently FDA-approved drugs as therapeutics for other diseases than what they are originally prescribed for, is emerging to be a faster and more cost-effective alternative to current drug discovery methods. In this paper, we have described a three-step in silico protocol for analyzing transcriptomics data using online databases and bioinformatics tools for identifying potentially repurposable drugs. The efficacy of this protocol was evaluated by comparing its predictions with the findings of two case studies of recently reported repurposed drugs: HIV treating drug Zidovudine for the treatment of Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration and the antidepressant Imipramine for Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma. The proposed protocol successfully identified the published findings, thus demonstrating the efficacy of this method. In addition, it also yielded several novel predictions that have not yet been published, including the finding that Imipramine could potentially treat Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), a disease that currently does not have any treatment or vaccine. Since this in-silico protocol is simple to use and does not require advanced computer skills, we believe any motivated participant with access to these databases and tools would be able to apply it to large datasets to identify other potentially repurposable drugs in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0213.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: intermolecular binding affinity; drug target binding affinity; computer-aided drug design (CADD); artificial intelligence-integrated drug discovery (AIDD); machine learning
Online: 11 August 2022 (08:40:37 CEST)
Thanks to the continued development of experimental structural biology and the half-a-century old Protein Data Bank, 2021 saw a big step forward in the development of protein structure prediction with deep learning algorithms. Recently, DeepMinds AlphaFold has determined the structures of ∼ 200 million proteins from 1 million species. The speed of this progress raise the question of what becomes possible for computational drug discovery and design when we have a systems-wide account of the structures and motions of most proteins. Therefore, this article puts forward the concept of a general intermolecular binding affinity calculator (GIBAC): Kd = f(molA, molB, envPara), towards the acceleration of traditional computer-aided drug design (CADD) and artificial intelligence-integrated drug discovery (AIDD), for both small molecules and biologics such as therapeutic proteins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0086.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: DNA sensor; point of care diagnostics; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; label free biosensor; AC electrokicetics
Online: 5 April 2021 (10:11:51 CEST)
Biosensors have shown great potential in realizing rapid, low cost and portable on-site detection for diseases. This work reports the development of a new bioelectronic sensor called AC electrokinetics-based capacitive (ABC) biosensor, for the detection of genomic DNA (gDNA) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The ABC sensor is based on interdigitated microelectrodes biofunctionalized with oligonucleotide probes. It uses a special AC signal for direct capacitive monitoring of topological change on nanostructured sensor surface, which simultaneously induce dieletrophoretic enrichment of target gDNAs. As a result, rapid and specific detection of gDNA/probe hybridization can be realized with high sensitivity. It requires no signal amplification such as labelling, hybridization chain reaction, or nucleic acid sequence-based amplification. This method involves only simple sample preparation. After optimization of nano-structured sensor surface and signal processing, the ABC sensor demonstrated fast turnaround of results (~10 s detection), excellent sensitivity (a detection limit of 4.7 DNA copies /µL MRSA gDNA) and high specificity, suitable for point of care diagnosis. As a bioelectronic sensor, the developed ABC sensors can be easily adapted for detection of other infectious agents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0065.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE); E.coli; Antimicrobial Resistance; Multidrug resistance; Phylogenetic diversity; chicken; food animals; Antimicrobials
Online: 2 November 2020 (17:14:31 CET)
Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) has been public health risk in several countries and recent reports indicate the emergence of CRE in food animals. This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence, resistance patterns, and phylogenetic diversity of CRE E.coli from chicken. Routine bacteriology, PCR detection of E.coli species, multiplex PCR to detect carbapenemase encoding genes and phylogeny of CRE E. coli were conducted. The results show that 24.36 % (19/78) were identified as CRE based on the phenotypic identifications of which 17 were positive for the tested carabanemase genes. The majority, 57.99% (11/19) of the isolates harbored multiple carbapenemase genes. Four isolates harbored all blaNDM blaOXA, blaIMP, five and two different isolates harbored blaNDM and blaOXA, and blaOXA and blaIMP respectively. The Meropenem, Imipenem and Ertapenem MIC values for the isolates ranged from 2g/mL to ≥256g/mL. Phylogenetic grouping showed that the CRE E.coli isolates belonged to five different groups; groups A, B1, C, D and unknown. The detection of carbapenem resistant E.coli in this study shows that CRE is has become an emerging problem in farm animals, particularly, in poultry farms. This also implies the potential public health risks posed by CRE from chicken to the consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0179.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: polypharmacy; duplicate therapy; digital health; inappropriate prescribing; contraindicated drugs; drug-drug interactions; pharmacoepidemiology
Online: 13 September 2022 (12:25:42 CEST)
The primary purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of drug-drug interaction (DDI) and duplicate therapy in chronic patients in a completely random study population engaged in digital health apps. In this cross-sectional study, polypharmacy checks for 100 completely anonymous patients were analyzed for the occurrence of DDIs and duplicate therapy. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with DDIs and duplicate therapy. DDIs and duplicate therapy prevalence were 34% and 33%, respectively. Chi-Square test discovered a significant association between the DDIs and duplicate therapy variables. Logistic regression models showed a strong association between the number of medications taken and higher odds of DDIs occurring in our population only. In conclusion, our study shows that polypharmacy is a determining factor for the occurrence of unwanted DDIs, and the prevalence of duplicate therapy and DDIs is around 33%, increasing an issue regarding patient safety and its burden to the healthcare system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0717.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: hyperthyroidism; thyrotoxicosis; Graves’ disease; pregnancy; antithyroid drug; drug withdrawal; postpartum recurrence; birth defects
Online: 30 June 2021 (00:09:17 CEST)
Overt hyperthyroidism during pregnancy is associated with risk of maternal-fetal complications. The antithyroid drugs (ATD) have a potential risk for teratogenic effects and fetal–neonatal hy-pothyroidism. This study evaluated ATD treatment and thyroid function control during preg-nancy, and pregnancy outcome in women with hyperthyroidism. Patients and methods: retro-spective analysis of 36 single fetus pregnancies in 29 consecutive women (median age 30.3 ± 4.7 years) with hyperthyroidism diagnosed before or during pregnancy; a control group of 39 healthy euthyroid pregnant women was used. Results: 26 women had Graves’ disease (GD, 33 pregnan-cies), 1 had a hyperfunctioning autonomous nodule, 2 had gestational transient thyrotoxicosis (GTT). Methimazole (MMI) was administered in 22 pregnancies (78.5%), Propylthiouracil (PTU) in 2 (7.1%), switch from MMI to PTU in 4 (14.2%), no treatment in 8 pregnancies (3 with subclinical hyperthyroidism, 5 euthyroid with previous GD remission before conception). One spontaneous abortion at 5 weeks (3.4% of pregnancies) and 1 premature delivery at 32 weeks with perinatal death in 24h (3.4%) were recorded in 2 of the 8 pregnancies of GD patients diagnosed shortly before (< 6 weeks) or during gestation. In women treated more than 6 months until conception (20 pregnancies): a) median ATD doses were lower than those in women diagnosed shortly before or during pregnancy; b) ATD was withdrawn in 40% of pregnancies in trimester (T) I, all on MMI < 10 mg/day (relapse in 14.2%), and in up to 55% in TIII; c) TSH level was below normal in 37%, 35% and 22% of pregnancies in T I, II and III respectively; FT4 was increased in 5.8% (T I) and sub-normal in 11.75% in TII and III; d) one fetal death due to a true umbilical cord knot was recorded. Hyperthyroidism relapsed postpartum in 83% of GD patients (at median 3 ± 2.6 months). One child had neonatal hyperthyroidism (3.3% of live children in GD women) and a small atrial sept defect (4% of live children in ATD treated women). Mean birth weight did not differ from that of the control group. Conclusion. In hyperthyroid women with long-term ATD control before con-ception, drugs could be withdrawn in TI in a third of them, and fetal complications were rare. Frequent serum TSH and FT4 monitoring is needed in order to maintain optimal thyroid function during pregnancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0196.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: drug discovery; artificial intelligence; protein discovery; binding prediction; synthetic molecule generation; synthetic drug
Online: 20 November 2020 (11:30:03 CET)
In this paper we propose the generation of synthetic small and more sophisticated molecule structures that optimize the binding affinity to a target (ASYNT-GAN). To achieve this we leverage on three important achievements in A.I.: Attention, Deep Learning on Graphs and Generative Adversarial Networks. Similar to text generation based on parts of text we are able to generate a molecule architecture based on an existing target. By adopting this approach, we propose a novel way of searching for existing compounds that are suitable candidates. Similar to question and answer Natural Language solutions we are able to find drugs with highest relevance to a target. We are able to identify substructures of the molecular structure that are the most suitable for binding. In addition, we are proposing a novel way of generating the molecule in 3D space in such a way that the binding is optimized. We show that we are able to generate compound structures and protein structures that are optimised for binding to a target.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0286.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: HIV-1 Gag; Gag inhibitors; Protease; Protease inhibitors; drug resistance mutations; drug design
Online: 25 July 2019 (10:05:03 CEST)
HIV treatment strategies against viral enzymes are continuously hampered by viral drug resistance. Recent findings show that viral substrate Gag contributes to HIV-1 Protease Inhibitor (PI) resistance, leading to demands for new strategies in HIV treatment where Gag is recognized as a drug target. To successfully target Gag, there is a need of in-depth understanding of the Gag polyprotein and the effects of Gag mutations. Here, we propose new strategies in designing novel Gag inhibitors against existing and novel emerging Gag mutations via a structural understanding of the Gag-Protease relationship in PI resistance. In this review, we discuss the role of both novel and previously reported mutations, revealing insights to how they aid in PI resistance, and how new Gag inhibitors can be designed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0315.v1
Online: 20 December 2021 (14:18:53 CET)
Nanotechnology is making significant transformation to our world, especially in healthcare and the treatment of diseases. It is widely used in different medical applications, such as in treatment and detection. Targeting diseased cell with nanomedicines is one of the numerous applications of nanotechnology. Targeted drug delivery systems for delivering various types of drugs to specific sites are such a dynamic area in pharmaceutical biotechnology and nanotechnology. Compared to conventional drugs, nanomedicines have a higher absorption and bioavailability rate, improving efficacy and minimizing side effects. There are several drug delivery systems including metallic nanoparticles, polymers, liposomes, and microspheres, but one of the most important is the niosomes, which are produced by nonionic surfactants. Because of the amphiphilic nature and structure, hydrophilic or hydrophobic drugs can be loaded into niosome structures. Other compounds, including cholesterol, can also be applied to the niosomes' backbone to rigidize the structure. Several variables such as the type of surfactant in niosome production, the preparation method, and the hydration temperature can affect the structure of the niosomes. Nevertheless, in-silico design of drug delivery formulations requires molecular dynamic simulation tools, molecular docking, and ADME (absorption; distribution; excretion; metabolism) properties, which evaluate physicochemical features of formulation and ADME attitudes before synthesis, investigating the interaction between nano-carriers and specific targets. Hence, experimenting in-vitro and in-vivo is essential. In this review, the basic aspects of niosomes are described including their structure, characterization, preparation methods, optimization with in-silico tools, factors affecting their formation, and limitations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0506.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Drug repositioning; Molecular modelling; Beauvericin
Online: 22 July 2021 (07:48:33 CEST)
Drug discovery has been initially attributed to coincidence or trial and error where the traditional approach was complex, lengthy, and expensive. Conventional drug discovery methods require the costly random screening of synthesized compounds or natural products. Another downside for this approach is the wide dependency on the experimental use of animals for in vi-vo testing. Currently, in silico modeling has become a vital tool for drug discovery and repurposing, and molecular docking is being used to find the best matching between a ligand and a molecule. Practical application of in silico docking will predict the biomolecular interactions between the drug and the target host. Beauvericin (BEA) is an emerging mycotoxin produced by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. Originally investigated for its pesticide capability, BEA is now considered as a molecule of interest for its potentially diverse biotechnological applications in the pharmacological industry and the field of medicine. In this manuscript, we will provide an overview of the repurposing of BEA into a potentially superior therapeutic molecule in a broad range of diseases. Furthermore, considerable attention has been given to the fundamental role of in silico techniques to i) further investigate the spectrum of this secondary metabolite and ii) elucidate the pathways of BEA for its promising therapeutic action
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0084.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: peritoneal, HIPEC, intraperitoneal, drug transport
Online: 6 May 2021 (12:58:55 CEST)
With increasing awareness amongst physicians and improved radiological imaging techniques, the peritoneal cavity is increasingly recognized as an important metastatic site in various malignancies. Prognosis of these patients is usually poor as traditional treatment including surgical resection or systemic treatment is relatively ineffective. Intraperitoneal delivery of chemotherapeutic agents is thought to be an attractive alternative as this results in high tumor tissue concentrations with limited systemic exposure. The addition of hyperthermia aims to potentiate the anti-tumor effects of chemotherapy, resulting in the concept of heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) for the treatment of peritoneal metastases as it was developed about 3 decades ago. With increasing experience, HIPEC has become a safe and accepted treatment offered in many centers around the world. However, standardization of the technique has been poor and results from clinical trials have been equivocal. As a result, the true value of HIPEC in the treatment of peritoneal metastases remains a matter of debate. The current review aims to provide a critical overview of the theoretical concept and preclinical and clinical study results, to outline areas of persisting uncertainty, and to propose a framework to better define the role of HIPEC in the treatment of peritoneal malignancies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0327.v1
Online: 12 November 2020 (08:24:40 CET)
Introduction Tuberculosis is common in Pakistan. Due to various factors including socioeconomic factors, compliance is poor to anti-tuberculosis drugs, leading to resistance. We aim to determine the prevalence of Multidrug resistance (MDR) tuberculosis in Pakistani population.Methods A prospective observational study was conducted from April 1, 2019, to December 31, 2019, in the Pulmonology department of a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Culture and sensitivity were assessed using a sputum sample or, in cases of an absent sputum sample, from Broncho alveolar lavage.ResultsApproximately 71.3% percent patients who had tuberculosis were found to be resistant to Isoniazid and around 48.6% did not respond to Rifampin. Multi-drug resistant was found in 29.4% participants.ConclusionMulti-drug resistance tuberculosis is very prevalent in Pakistan, which may increase burden on health care system and may lead to various complications of tuberculosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0297.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: lignin; drug release; paracetamol; disintegration
Online: 24 May 2019 (12:40:01 CEST)
The influence of lignin modification on drug release and pH-dependent releasing behaviour of oral solid dosage form was investigated using three different formulations. The first formulation contains microcrystalline cellulose (MCC101) as excipient and paracetamol as active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The second formulation includes Alcell lignin and MCC 101 as excipient and paracetamol, and the third formulation consists of carboxylated Alcell lignin, MCC 101 and paracetamol. Direct compaction was carried out in order to prepare the tablets. Lignin can be readily chemically modified due to the existence of different functional groups in its structure. The focus of this investigation is on lignin carboxylation and its influence on paracetamol control release behaviour at varying pH. Results suggest that carboxylated lignin tablets had the highest drug release, which is linked to their faster disintegration and lower tablet hardness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0752.v1
Online: 31 October 2018 (11:13:37 CET)
Objective: To evaluate the status of receiving education on rational drug use, the criteria in medical drug selection, and level of knowledge of dentists working in a dentistry faculty in Turkey. Material and Methods: This was a descriptive study based on a questionnaire. One hundred seventeen (74%) dentists volunteered to participate in the study. The questionnaire consisted of 20 questions investigating sociodemographic features and rational drug use. Results: The mean age of the dentists was 30.8 ± 7.2 years, and 62.4% were men. The mean period of professional experience was 8.9±7.1 years. The most frequently used resources of references while prescribing medicine were Vademecum (medical drug guide) (61.5%), the internet (59.0%), and colleagues (49.6%). The most frequently reported condition described as ‘good’ was drug indications (43.6%). The dentists had a moderate level of information about posology, and administration route (48.7%), pharmacologic features (48.7%), and contraindications (46.2%). The number of dentists who stated that they considered cost while prescribing was low [always (6%), and frequently (15.4%)]. Rational drug use education had been received by 23.9% of the dentists. Conclusions: The dentists were found to have a lack of adequate and effective education on rational use of drugs. Regular and continuous education before and after graduation is a necessity for dentists and for their patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0380.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: sex differences; drug repurposing; sex-bias; sex-aware; review; therapeutics; pharmaceuticals; computational drug repurposing
Online: 8 March 2022 (10:34:42 CET)
Sex differences are essential factors in disease etiology and manifestation in many diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and neurodegeneration (1). The biological influence of sex differences (including genomic, epigenetic, hormonal, immunological, and metabolic differences between males and females) and the lack of biomedical studies considering sex differences in their study design has led to several policies. For example, the National Institute of Health’s (NIH) sex as a biological variable (SABV) and Sex and Gender Equity in Research (SAGER)) policies to motivate researchers to consider sex differences (2). However, drug repurposing, a promising alternative to traditional drug discovery by identifying novel uses for FDA-approved drugs, lacks sex-aware methods that can improve the identification of drugs that have sex-specific responses (1,3–5). Sex-aware drug repurposing methods either select drug candidates that are more efficacious in one sex or deprioritize drug candidates based on if they are predicted to cause a sex-bias adverse event (SBAE), unintended therapeutic effects that are more likely to occur in one sex. Computational drug repurposing methods are encouraging approaches to develop for sex-aware drug repurposing because they can prioritize sex-specific drug candidates or SBAEs at lower cost and time than traditional drug discovery. Sex-aware methods currently exist for clinical, genomic, and transcriptomic information (3,6,7). They have not expanded to other data types, such as DNA variation, which has been beneficial in other drug repurposing methods that do not consider sex (8). Additionally, some sex-aware methods suffer from poorer performance because a disproportionate number of male and female samples are available to train computational methods (3). However, there is development potential for several different categories (i.e., data mining, ligand binding predictions, molecular associations, and networks). Low-dimensional representations of molecular association and network approaches are also especially promising candidates for future sex-aware drug repurposing methodologies because they reduce the multiple hypothesis testing burden and capture sex-specific variation better than the other methods (9,10). Here we review how sex influences drug response, the current state of drug repurposing including with respect to sex-bias drug response, and how model organism study design choices influence drug repurposing validation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0303.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: Inflammation; NF-κB; drug repurposing; drug development; autoimmunity; COVID-19; multiple sclerosis; rheumatoid arthritis
Online: 20 January 2022 (11:16:25 CET)
NF-κB is a central mediator of inflammation, response to DNA damage and oxidative stress. As a result of its central role in so many important cellular processes, NF-κB dysregulation has been implicated in the pathology of important human diseases. NF-κB activation causes inappropriate inflammatory responses in diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Thus, modulation of NF-κB signaling is being widely investigated as an approach to treat chronic inflammatory diseases, autoimmunity and cancer. The emergence of COVID-19 in late 2019, the subsequent pandemic and the huge clinical burden of patients with life-threatening SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia led to a massive scramble to repurpose existing medicines to treat lung inflammation in a wide range of healthcare systems. These efforts continue and these efforts continue to be con-troversial. Drug repurposing strategies are a promising alternative to de-novo drug development, as they minimize drug development timelines and reduce the risk of failure due to unexpected side effects. Different experimental approaches have been applied to identify existing medicines which inhibit NF-κB that could be repurposed as anti-inflammatory drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0222.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: ocular surface disease; dry eye disease; antioxidant; Xanthohumol; drug delivery; drug formulation; PLGA; nanoparticles
Online: 8 April 2021 (09:09:24 CEST)
Elevated levels of oxidative stress in the corneal epithelium contribute to the progression of dry eye disease pathology. Previous studies have shown that antioxidant therapeutic intervention is a promising avenue to reduce disease burden and slow disease progression. In this study, we evaluated the pharmacological efficacy of Xanthohumol in preclinical models for dry eye disease. Xanthohumol is a naturally occurring prenylated chalconoid that promotes the transcription of phase II antioxidant enzymes. Xanthohumol exerted a dose-response in preventing tert-butylhydroxide-induced loss of cell viability in human corneal epithelial (HCE-T) cells and resulted in a significant increase in expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), the master regulator of the endogenous antioxidant system. Xanthohumol-encapsulating poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA NP) were cytoprotective against oxidative stress in vitro, and significantly reduced corneal fluorescein staining in the mouse desiccating stress/ scopolamine model for dry eye disease in vivo by reducing oxidative stress-associated DNA damage in corneal epithelial cells. PLGA NP represent a safe and efficacious drug delivery vehicle for hydrophobic small molecules to the ocular surface. Optimization of NP-based antioxidant formulations with the goal to minimize instillation frequency may represent future therapeutic options for dry eye disease and related ocular surface disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0161.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: COVID-19; docking; drug repurposing; natural products; in silico drug design; viral replication inhibition
Online: 1 June 2020 (02:42:54 CEST)
We use state-of-the-art computer-aided drug design (CADD) techniques to identify prospective inhibitors of the main protease enzyme, 3CLpro of the SARS-CoV-2 virus causing COVID-19. From our screening of over one million compounds including approved drugs, investigational drugs, natural products, and organic compounds, and a rescreening protocol incorporating enzyme dynamics via ensemble docking, we have been able to identify a range of prospective 3CLpro inhibitors. Importantly, some of the identified compounds had previously been reported to exhibit inhibitory activities against the 3CLpro enzyme of the closely related SARS-CoV virus. The top- ranking compounds are characterized by the presence of multiple bi- and monocyclic rings, many of them being heterocycles and aromatic, which are flexibly linked allowing the ligands to adapt to the geometry of the 3CLpro substrate site and involve a high amount of functional groups enabling hydrogen bond formation with surrounding amino acid residues, including the catalytic dyad residues H41 and C145. Among the top binding compounds we identified several tyrosine kinase inhibitors, which include a bioflavonoid, the group of natural products that binds best to 3CLpro. Another class of compounds that decently binds to the SARS-CoV-2 main protease are steroid hormones, which thus may be endogenous inhibitors and might provide an explanation for the age-dependent severity of COVID-19. Many of the compounds identified by our work show a considerably stronger binding than found for reference compounds with in vitro demonstrated 3CLpro inhibition and anticoronavirus activity. The compounds determined in this work thus represent a good starting point for the design of inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 replication.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0032.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: cannabis; cannabinoids; THC; CBD, drug-drug interactions; pharmacokinetic; cytochrome P450; UDP- glucuronosyltransferases; glucoprotein-P
Online: 3 December 2018 (16:07:43 CET)
Endocannbinoids system (ECS) engrossed a considerable interest as potential therapeutic targets in various carcinomas and cancer related conditions alongside with neurodegenerative diseases. Cannabinoids are implemented in several physiological processes such as appetite stimulation, energy balance, pain modulation and the control of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). However, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics interactions could be perceived in drug combinations, so in this short review we tried to shed the light over the potential drug interactions of medicinal cannabis. Hitherto, few data have been provided to the healthcare practitioners about the drug-drug interactions of cannabinoids with other prescription medications. In general, cannabinoids are usually well tolerated, but the bidirectional effects may be expected with concomitant administered agents via affected membrane transporters (glycoprotein p, breast cancer resistance proteins) and metabolizing enzymes (Cytochrome P450 and UDP- glucuronosyltransferases). The caveats should be undertaken to closely monitor the responses of cannabis users with certain drugs to guard their safety, especially for the elderly and people with chronic diseases or kidney and liver conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0518.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: virus; antiviral agent; drug target; drug side effect; innate immunity; precision medicine; systems biology
Online: 26 July 2018 (15:33:03 CEST)
There are dozens of approved, investigational and experimental antiviral agents. Many of these agents cause serious side effects, which can be revealed only after drug administration. Identification of the side effects prior to drug administration is challenging. Here we describe an ex vivo approach for studying immuno- and neuro-modulatory properties of antiviral agents, which could be associated with potential side effects of these therapeutics. The approach combines drug toxicity/efficacy tests and transcriptomics, which is followed by cytokine and metabolite profiling. We demonstrated the utility of this approach with several examples of antiviral agents. We also showed that the approach can utilize different immune stimuli and cell types. It can also include other omics techniques, such as genomics and epigenomics, to allow identification of individual markers associated with adverse reactions to antivirals with immuno- and neuro-modulatory properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0709.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: drugs; perception of controlling drug use; drug use control strategies; risk and harm reduction approach
Online: 29 June 2021 (13:23:18 CEST)
Background: This article evaluates the perception of drug use control and strategies in Valencia City (Spain) in a general and clinical population, in two independent studies. Material and Methods: 1071 people participated. In the Study 1 (n= 924) the entire sample came from general population (GP), and in the Study 2 (n=147), 68 were drug users being treated in an Addictive Behaviors Unit (ABU), and 79 people of the GP. The drug use control perception and strategies in both subgroups were compared. The participants filled in the Drug Use Strategies Scale and a Drug Use Survey. Results: A high level of perception of drug control in GP was obtained (72,7% in the Study 1 and 67,5% in the Study 2), and 32.5% in ABU subgroup. People in the PG and drug users in treatment differ in some control strategies. A predictive profile of the perception of control was obtained for the Study 2. Conclusion: The high degree of perception of controlling drug use in the GP, and partially in drug users being treated, and the specific control strategies reported suggests that moderate use and drug control strategies are a great value alternative to bear in mind compared to abstinence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0305.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: dietary flavonoids; cardioprotective effects; ROS scavenging; myocardial dysfunction; bioavailability and drug metabolism; toxicity; drug discovery
Online: 11 June 2021 (08:44:01 CEST)
Flavonoids comprise a large group of structurally diverse polyphenolic compounds of plant origin and are abundantly found in human diet such as fruits, vegetables, grains, tea, dairy products, red wine and so on. Major classes of flavonoids include flavonols, flavones, flavanones, flavanols, anthocyanidins, isoflavones, and chalcones. Owing to their potential health benefits and medicinal significance, flavonoids are now considered as an indispensable component in a variety of medicinal, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and cosmetic preparations. However, flavonoids play a significant role in preventing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which could be mainly due to their antioxidant, antiatherogenic, and antithrombotic effects. Epidemiological and in vitro/in vivo evidences of antioxidant effects support the cardioprotective function of dietary flavonoids. Further, the inhibition of LDL oxidation and platelet aggregation following regular consumption of food containing flavonoids and moderate consumption of red wine might protect against atherosclerosis and thrombosis. A study suggests that daily intake of 100 mg of flavonoids through diet may reduce the risk of developing morbidity and mortality due to coronary heart disease (CHD) by approximately 10%. This review summarizes dietary flavonoids with their sources and potential health implications in CVDs including various redox-active cardioprotective (molecular) mechanisms with antioxidant effects. Pharmacokinetic (oral bioavailability, drug metabolism), toxicological and therapeutic aspects of dietary flavonoids are also addressed herein with future directions for the discovery and development of useful drug candidates/ therapeutic molecules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0157.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: National Centralized Drug Procurement; "4+7" policy; drug price; interrupted time series; volume-based procurement.
Online: 6 April 2021 (08:18:10 CEST)
In 2019, Chinese government implemented the first round of National Centralized Drug Procurement (NCDP) pilot (so-called "4+7" policy) in mainland China, achieved a prominent price reduction of 52% on average for 25 bidding winning products. Under cross-price elasticity theory, the price behavior of pharmaceutical enterprises for policy-related drugs might change. This study used drug purchasing data from the Centralized Drug Procurement Survey in Shenzhen 2019, and applied single-group Interruption Time Series (ITS) design to examine the impact of "4+7" policy on the drug price index (DPI) of policy-related drugs. The ITS analysis showed that the DPI of winning (-0.183 per month, p<0.0001) and non-winning (-0.034 per month, p=0.046) products significantly decreased after the implementation of "4+7" policy. No significant difference was found for the immediate change of DPI for alternative drugs (p=0.537), while a significant decrease in change trend was detected in the post-"4+7" policy period (-0.003 per month, p=0.014). The DPI of the overall policy-related drugs significantly decreased (-0.261 per month, p<0.0001) after "4+7" policy. These findings indicate that the price behavior of pharmaceutical enterprises changed under NCDP policy, while the price linkage effect is still limited. It is necessary to further expand the scope of centralized purchased drugs and strengthen the monitoring of related drugs regarding price change and consumption structure.
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: kinase inhibitors; pure drug nanoparticles; drug nanocrystals; bottom-up nanonization; nanoprecipitation; microfluidics; flow focusing technologies
Online: 2 March 2021 (11:29:18 CET)
Nanoprecipitation by liquid anti-solvent precipitation is one of the most versatile methods to produce pure drug nanoparticles (PDNPs) owing to the ability to optimize the properties of the product. Nevertheless, nanoprecipitation shows broad particle size distribution and low physical stability, leading to high batch-to-batch variability and challenging the bench-to-bedside translation. Microfluidics has emerged as a powerful tool to produce PDNPs in a simple, reproducible, and cost-effective manner with excellent control over NP size. In this work, we designed and fabricated T- and Y-shaped Si-made microfluidics device and used it to produce pure NPs of three kinase inhibitors of different lipophilicity and water-solubility, namely imatinib, dasatinib and tofacitinib, without the use of colloidal stabilizers. PDNPs display sizes in the 90-350 nm range (dynamic light scattering) and a rounded shape (high-resolution scanning electron microscopy). Analysis by X-rays diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry confirmed that this method results in highly amorphous NPs. In addition, we show that the flow rate of solvent, the anti-solvent, and the channel geometry of the device play a key role in the size of the generated NPs.
COMMENTARY | doi:10.3390/sci2030070
Subject: Keywords: small molecule inhibitor; personalized medicine; precision medicine; oncology; targeted therapy; drug delivery; drug screening; chemotherapy
Online: 8 September 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
The development of targeted therapeutics for cancer continues to receive intense research attention as laboratories and pharmaceutical companies seek to develop drugs and technologies that improve treatment efficacy and mitigate harmful side effects. In the aftermath of World War I, it was discovered that mustard gas destroys rapidly dividing cells and could be used to treat cancer. Since then, chemotherapy has remained a predominant treatment for cancer; however, the destruction of dividing cells throughout the body yields devastating side effects including off-target damage of the digestive tract, bone marrow, skin, and reproductive tract. Furthermore, the high mutation rate of cancerous cells often renders chemotherapy ineffective long-term. Therapies with improved specificity, localization, and efficacy are redefining cancer treatment. Herein, we define and summarize the principal advancements in targeted cancer treatment and briefly comment on the march towards personalized medicine in the treatment of human cancer.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0043.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: lactation; physiology-based lactation models; drug exposure prediction; fasting; drug safety; newborn; infant; human milk
Online: 6 April 2020 (09:11:05 CEST)
There are guidelines on lactation following maternal analgo-sedative exposure, but these do not consider the effect of maternal fasting, nor fluid abstention on human milk macronutrient composition. We therefore performed a structured search (PubMed) on ‘human milk composition’ and screened title, abstract and full paper on ‘fasting’ or ‘abstention’ and ‘macronutrient composition’ (lactose, protein, fat, solids, triglycerides, cholesterol). This resulted in 6 papers and one abstract related to religious fasting (n=129 women) and observational studies in lactating women (n=23, healthy volunteers, fasting). These data reflect two different ‘fasting’ patterns: an acute (18-25h) model in 71 (healthy volunteers, Yom Kippur/Ninth of Av) women and a chronic fasting (Ramadan) model in 81 women. Changes were most related to electrolytes and were moderate, with almost no changes in macronutrients during acute fasting. We therefor conclude that neither short term fasting nor fluid abstention (18-25h) affect human milk macronutrient composition, so that women can be reassured when this topic were raised during consulting. Besides the nutritional relevance, this also matters as clinical research samples – especially to estimate analgo-sedative exposure by lactation - are commonly collected after maternal procedural sedation, associated with maternal fasting and physiology-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models assume stable human milk composition.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0418.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: virtual screening; molecular docking; drug repurposing; drug repositioning; anti-viral drugs; Coronavirus; COVID-19; 2019-nCoV; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 9 March 2020 (02:29:04 CET)
SARS-CoV-2 is the betacoronavirus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. It was listed as a potential global health threat by WHO due to high mortality, high basic reproduction number and lack of clinically approved drugs and vaccines for COVID-19. The genomic sequence of the virus responsible for COVID-19, as well as the experimentally determined three dimensional structure of the Main protease (Mpro) are available. The reported structure of the target Mpro was utilized in this study to identify potential drugs for COVID-19 using molecular docking based virtual screening of all approved drugs. The results of this study confirm preliminary reports that some of the drugs approved for treatment of other viral infections have the potential for treatment of COVID-19. Selected antiviral drugs, approved for human therapeutic applications, were ranked for potential effectiveness against COVID-19, based on predicted binding energy to the target Mpro of SARS-CoV-2, and novel candidates for drug repurposing were identified in this study. In addition, potential mechanisms for beneficial off target effects of some drugs in clinical trials were identified by using molecular docking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0131.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight; antibiotic susceptibility test; artificial intelligence
Online: 10 January 2022 (19:01:57 CET)
Combining Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) spectra data and artificial intelligence (AI) has been introduced for rapid prediction on antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) of S. aureus. Based on the AI predictive probability, the cases with probabilities between low and high cut-offs are defined as “grey zone”. We aimed to investigate the underlying reasons of unconfident (grey zone) or wrong predictive AST. A total 479 S. aureus isolates were collected, analyzed by MALDI-TOF, and AST prediction, standard AST were obtained in a tertiary medical center. The predictions were categorized into the correct prediction group, wrong prediction group, and grey zone group. We analyzed the association between the predictive results and the demographic data, spectral data, and strain types. For MRSA, larger cefoxitin zone size was found in the wrong prediction group. MLST of the MRSA isolates in the grey zone group revealed that uncommon strain types composed 80%. Amid MSSA isolates in the grey zone group, the majority (60%) was composed of over 10 different strain types. In predicting AST based on MALDI-TOF AI, uncommon strains and high diversity would contribute to suboptimal predictive performance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0379.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Montelukast; Leukotrienes; Adverse drug reactions; Repurposing
Online: 26 July 2022 (03:27:37 CEST)
Increasing environmental distress is associated with a growing asthma incidence and, with no treatments available, montelukast (MTK) – an antagonist of the cysteinyl leukotrienes receptor 1 – is widely used in the management of symptoms among adults and children. Recently, new molecular targets have been identified and MTK has been proposed for repurposing in other therapeutic applications, with several ongoing clinical trials. The proposed applications include neuroinflammation control, which could be explored in some neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases (AD and PD). However, this drug has been associated with an increasing number of reported neuropsychiatric adverse drug reactions. Besides, and despite being on the market since 1998, MTK metabolism is still poorly understood and the mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric ADRs remain unknown. We review the role of MTK as modulator of leukotriene pathways and systematize the knowledge about MTK metabolism. Known toxic effects of MTK are discussed, and repurposing applications are presented comprehensively, with a focus on AD and PD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0554.v1
Online: 24 May 2021 (10:24:20 CEST)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) is potentially a useful tool that can be employed to increase the efficacy and decrease the toxicity of antifungal drugs. The aim of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the current use of TDM in clinical practice, and to present the evidence available regarding its use in proactive clinical settings for preventing and managing treatment failure. This review also presents the existing evidence regarding the association of various clinical outcomes with specific thresholds of drug concentrations in everyday practice. Articles concerning the use of TDM of triazoles in the treatment of fungal infections were retrieved through an electronic search using PubMed. In clinical practice, TDM has an increasingly important role in the management of antifungal drugs as a consequence of the improvement in the knowledge of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of these drugs. The currently available evidence shows a direct exposure-response relationship for triazoles, though the PK/PD profile is unpredictable. Current guidelines and treatment consensus statements recommend the proactive TDM of voriconazole, posaconazole, and itraconazole to optimize dosage regimens and improve outcomes for adult and pediatric patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0265.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Peptides; Clinical Practice; Drug Therapy; Therapeutic
Online: 10 February 2021 (15:51:13 CET)
The treatment of peptides has played an important role in clinical practice since the discovery of insulin therapy in the 1920s. Over 60 peptide drugs are approved in the United States (US and other regional mar-kets, and peptides continue to undergo drug discovery steadily. Peptide research and development has lev-eraged a wider range of structures known from other plant sources, via pharmacology and medicinal molecular biology, beyond its conventional focus on individual endogenous peptides. We build a comprehensive database of peptides that have met scientific studies with more than 150 constantly evolving peptides. Here we provide a simple overview of the peptide-based drug therapy environment, comprising evolutionary points of view, structural properties, operational thresholds, and explanation of the therapeutic area.
Online: 13 September 2020 (11:20:13 CEST)
Randomized clinical trials represent the gold standard in therapeutic research. Nevertheless, observational cohorts of patients treated for multidrug-resistant (MDR) or rifampin-resistant (RR) tuberculosis (TB) also play an important role in generating evidence to guide MDR/RR TB Generally, summary exposure classifications (e.g., ‘ever versus never’, ‘exposed at baseline’) have been used to characterize drug exposure, in the absence of detailed longitudinal data on MDR-TB regimen These summary classifications, along with an absence of data on covariates that change throughout the course of treatment, constrain researchers’ ability to answer the most relevant questions while accounting for known This paper highlights the importance of regimen changes in improving inference from observational studies of longer MDR-TB treatment regimens and offers an overview of the data and analytic strategies required to do
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0283.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Adverse drug reaction; COVID-19 treatment
Online: 12 August 2020 (11:12:41 CEST)
BACKGROUND: From March to April 2020, Spain was the center of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, particularly Madrid with approximately 30% of the cases in Spain. The aim of this study is to report the suspected serious adverse drug reactions (SADRs) in COVID-19 patients versus non-COVID-19 patients detected by the prospective pharmacovigilance program based on automatic laboratory signals (ALSs) in the hospital (PPLSH) during that period. We also compared the results with the suspected SADRs detected during the same period for 2019. METHODS: All ALSs that reflected potential SADRs (including neutropenia, pancytopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, eosinophilia, leukocytes in cerebrospinal fluid, hepatitis, pancreatitis, acute kidney injury, rhabdomyolysis and hyponatremia were prospectively monitored in hospitalized patients during the study periods. We analyzed the incidence and the distribution of causative drugs for the COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: The incidence rate of SADRs detected in the COVID-19 patients was 760.63 (95% CI 707.89–816.01) per 10,000 patients, 4.75-fold higher than the SADR rate for non-COVID-19 patients (160.15 per 10,000 patients,95% CI 137.09–186.80), and 5.84-fold higher than the SADR rate detected for the same period in 2019 (130.19 per 10,000 patients, 95% CI 109.53–154.36). The most frequently related drugs were tocilizumab (59.84%), dexketoprofen (13.93%), azithromycin (8.43%), lopinavir-ritonavir (7.35%), dexamethasone (7.62%), and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (6.91%). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rate of SADRs detected by the PPSLH in patients with COVID-19 was 4.75-fold higher than that of the non-COVID-19 patients. Caution is recommended when using medications for COVID-19 patients, especially drugs that are hepatotoxic, myotoxic, and those that induce thromboembolic events.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0047.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: 2019-nCoV; therapeutic strategies; drug; ACE2
Online: 4 February 2020 (10:59:25 CET)
Most recently, an outbreak of severe pneumonia caused by the infection of 2019-nCoV, a novel coronavirus first identified in Wuhan, China, imposes serious threats to public health. Many important aspects about 2019-nCoV remain largely unknown, among which, the limitation of antiviral therapies represents one of the most critical problems. More recently, it was confirmed that human ACE2 is the receptor for the entry of 2019-nCoV into lower respiratory tract epithelial cells. Give this observation, it is thus expected that the virus could be inhibited if we decrease the expression of ACE2. Here by screening two databases, Connectivity Map (CMap) and our JeaMoon Map (JMap), we identified a number of candidate agents that decrease ACE2 expression. CMap analysis identified 5 compounds, among which, Azathioprine is a possible therapeutic strategy for anti-2019-nCoV. Moreover, JMap analysis revealed a number of comounds, biologics, and traditional Chinese medicine, among which, Andrographis, Urtica, Sambucus, Astragalus, valproic acid, butyrate, and epoxomicin represent the most significant and possible strategies for anti-2019-nCoV therapies. This study provides a number of clues and possible therapeutic strategies for 2019-nCoV prevention and treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0233.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: nanocrystals; poorly soluble drug; nanotechnology; stability
Online: 13 July 2018 (11:16:15 CEST)
Many approaches have been developed over time to counter the bioavailability limitations of poorly soluble drugs. With advances in nanotechnology in recent decades, science and industry have been approaching this issue through the formulation of drugs as nanocrystals, which consist of pure drugs and a minimum of surface active agents required for stabilization. They are carrier-free submicron colloidal drug delivery systems with a mean particle size in the nanometer range, typically between 10 and 800 nm. By reducing particle size to nanoscale, the particle surface area available for the molecule dissolution in the direction of dissolution medium is increased, and thus bioavailability is enhanced. This approach has proven successful, as demonstrated by the number of such drug products on the market. R&D and industry have offered many technological solutions to reduce the particle size to nanoscale, and also devised solutions for the handling of particle of nanodimensions, such as methods to accurately measure nanoparticle size and techniques to prevent physicochemical and stability related problems, such as aggregation. The present work provides an overview of the more recent achievements in improving the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs according to their administration route, and describes the methods developed to overcome physicochemical and stability related problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0102.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: drug screening； bone mineralization； osteoclast； zebrafish
Online: 21 September 2017 (06:34:11 CEST)
Currently, drug screening is primarily based on human cell culture for initial high-throughput screening, and subsequently, rodent model to confirm the biological effects. However, the mammalian system is known for time-consuming and highly-cost to be difficult to perform high-throughput drug screening, which exists a critical gap between in vitro cell-based models and the in vivo mammalian models. Therefore, the zebrafish could bridge this gap in preclinical toxicity screening along the drug development pipeline because of its efficiency. We aimed to develop an in vivo zebrafish platform for rapid drug screening. Zebrafish, due to its high genomic conservation with mammals and rapid development and differentiation, it has many advantages, such as short life span, large number of offspring and low cost, easy manipulation for generating transgenic species, to serve as animal model for disease-based research. In 96-well microplates, zebrafish embryos were incubated with small molecular compounds that affected bone mineralization. The level of osteogenic mineralization was evaluated by fluorescent dye staining and quantified by image analysis software. Quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to evaluate the biological pathways involved in bone metabolism at the molecular level. The system was validated by demonstrating that response to alendronate and Dorsomorphin in zebrafish. In our study, we screened for 24 compounds within the CYCU-1120~1152 chemical library and identified 3 compounds, pentamidine (CYCU-1140), BML-267 (CYCU-1147), and alendronate (CYCU-1152), increased embryonic mineralization; while 6 compounds, RWJ-60475 (CYCU-1126), levamisole HCL (CYCU-1128), tetramisole HCL (CYCU-1129), fenvalerate (CYCU-1132), NSC-663284 (CYCU-1138), and BML-267ester (CYCU-1148), were inhibitory to bone mineralization. We also found that alendronate enhanced the level of bone mineralization by inhibiting osteoclast-related genes. To sum up, our research showed that zebrafish may have potential to be a drug-screening and mechanism-analysis platform for bone mineralization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0174.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: steroid; metabolism; anti-inflammatory drug; inhibition
Online: 24 May 2017 (08:25:26 CEST)
In vitro studies show that diclofenac inhibits enzymatic steroid glucuronidation. This study was designed to investigate the influence of diclofenac on the excretion of stanozolol and 3'-hydroxystanozolol via analyses in hair, blood and urine in vivo in a rat study. Brown Norway rats were administered with stanozolol (weeks 1-3) and diclofenac (weeks 1-6). Weekly assessment of steroid levels in hair was complemented with spot urine and serum tests. Levels of both stanozolol and 3'-hydroxystanozolol steadily increased in hair during stanozolol treatment and decreased post-treatment, but remained readily detectable for 6 weeks. In contrast, compared to control rats, diclofenac significantly reduced urinary excretion of 3’-hydroxystanozolol which was undetectable in most samples. This is the first report of diclofenac altering steroid metabolism in vivo, detrimentally affecting detection in urine, but not in hair which holds considerable advantages over urinalysis for anti-doping tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0028.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: lanthanides; fluorapatite; drug loading; nano carrier
Online: 5 April 2017 (11:26:48 CEST)
Europium (Eu)-doped fluorapatite (FA) nanorods has a similar biocompatibility with hydroxyapatite (HA) in terms, attracted much attention as cell imaging biomaterials due to their luminescent property. Here, we will discuss the new feature of europium doped fluorapatite (Eu-FA) nanorods as anticancer drug carrier. Eu-FA nanorods was prepared using a hydrothermal method. The morphology, crystal structure, fluorescence and composition are investigated. The specific crystal structure, enabling an effective loading of drug molecules. Doxorubicin (DOX), used as an anticancer model drug, was shown to be effectively loaded onto the surface of the nanorods. The DOX release was fairly pH-dependent, occurring more rapidly at pH 5.5 than pH 7.4 was observed. The intracellular penetration of the DOX-loaded Eu-FA nanorods (Eu-FA/DOX) can be imaged in situ due to the self-fluorescence property. Treatment of melanoma A375 cells with Eu-FA/DOX elicited a more effective apoptosis rate than direct DOX treatment. Overall, Eu-FA show great promise for tracking and treating tumor, may potentially useful as a multifunctional carrier system to effectively load and sustainably deliver drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0083.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: stroke; antioxidant; co-drug; animal model
Online: 20 October 2016 (08:46:38 CEST)
Background: Previously, our laboratory has provided evidence that pre-administration of the antioxidant, lipoic acid covalently bonded to various naturally occurring antioxidants, enhanced neuroprotective capacity compared to the administration of lipoic acid on its own. The naturally occurring compound scopoletin, a coumarin derivative, has been shown in various in vitro studies to have both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanism of actions. To date, the effect of scopoletin on neuronal cell death in an in vivo model of ischemia or ischemia-reperfusion has not been investigated. Therefore, the present investigation was designed to determine if scopoletin on its own, or a co-drug consisting of lipoic acid and scopoletin covalent bond, named UPEI-400, would be capable of demonstrating a similar neuroprotective efficacy. Methods: Using a rodent model of stroke in male rats (anesthetized with Inactin®; 100 mg/kg, iv), the middle cerebral artery was permanently occluded for 6 hours (pMCAO), or in separate animals, occluded for 30 min followed by 5.5 hrs of reperfusion (ischemia/reperfusion; I/R). Results: Pre-administration of either scopoletin or UPEI-400 significantly decreased infarct volume in the I/R model (p<0.05), but not in the pMCAO model of stroke. However, UPEI-400 was ~1000 times more potent as compared to scopoletin on its own. The optimal dose of UPEI-400 was then injected during the occlusion and at several time points during reperfusion and significant neuroprotection was observed for up to 150 mins following the start of reperfusion (p<0.05). Conclusion: The data suggest that synthetic combination of scopoletin with lipoic acid (UPEI-400) is a more effective neuroprotectant that either compound on their own. Also, since UPEI-400 was only effective in a model of I/R, it is possible that it may act to enhance neuronal antioxidant capacity and/or upregulate anti-inflammatory pathways to prevent the neuronal cell death.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0305.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: drug repurposing; combination therapeutics; PubMed; ChEBI; disease ontology; gene ontology; drug interaction; MeSH terms; COVID-19
Online: 17 August 2022 (05:51:53 CEST)
This paper presents a computational approach designed to construct and query a literature-based knowledge graph for predicting novel drug therapeutics. The main objective is to offer a platform that discovers drug combinations from FDA-approved drugs and accelerates their investigations by domain scientists. Specifically, the paper introduced the following algorithms: (1) an algorithm for constructing the knowledge graph from drug, gene, and disease mentions in the biomedical literature; (2) an algorithm for vetting the knowledge graph from drug combinations that may pose a risk of drug interaction; (3) and two querying algorithms for searching the knowledge graph by a single drug or a combination of drugs. The resulting knowledge graph had 844 drugs, 306 gene/protein features, and 19 disease mentions. The original number of drug combinations generated was 2,001. We queried the knowledge graph to eliminate noise generated from chemicals that are not drugs. This step resulted in 614 drug combinations. When vetting the knowledge graph to eliminate the potentially risky drug combinations, it resulted in predicting 200 combinations. Our domain expert manually eliminated extra 54 combinations which left only 146 combination candidates. Our three-layered knowledge graph, empowered by our algorithms, offered a tool that predicted drug combination therapeutics for scientists who can further investigate from the viewpoint of drug targets and side effects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0393.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer; cancer vaccines; immunotherapy; focal therapy; combination immunotherapy; tumor immune microenvironment; in vivo vaccination
Online: 26 July 2022 (08:01:20 CEST)
Due to slow progression and susceptibility to radical forms of treatment low-grade PC is associ-ated with high overall survival (OS). With the clinical progression of PC the therapy is getting more complex. The immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) makes PC a difficult target for most immunotherapeutics. Its general immune resistance is established by i.e. immune evasion through Treg cells, synthesis of immunosuppressive mediators, and defective expression of surface neoantigens. The success of sipuleucel-T in clinical trials initiated several other clinical studies that specifically target the immune escape of the tumor and eliminate the immunosuppres-sive properties of TME. In the settings of PC treatment, this can be commonly achieved with radi-ation therapy (RT). Also, focal therapies usually applied for localized PC, such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy, cryotherapy, photodynamic therapy (PDT), or irreversible electroporation (IRE) were shown to boost anti-cancer response. Nevertheless, the present guide-lines restrict their application to localized and low-grade PC. This review explains how RT and focal therapies enhance the immune response. We also provide data supporting the combination of RT and focal treatments with immune therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0004.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; drug repurposing; artificial intelligence; target-target similarity network; drug-target interaction network
Online: 1 July 2022 (05:33:16 CEST)
The COVID-19 was described as a respiratory illness, however further studies recognize it as a complex heterogeneous multisystemic disorder. Global efforts have been proposed to combat COVID-19, emerging diverse therapeutic options, in which discovering new drug therapies, development of vaccines and drug repurposing have been considered the most promising approaches to fight the virus. This study aimed to repurpose known drugs for use against the COVID-19, finding better therapeutic options. Seventeen biological databases were used in this study. The genetic algorithm (GA) was performed for a set of drug target classes and COVID-19 proteins as input, whose drug candidates are obtained according to the target similarities found in the target-target similarity predictive network, resulting in a drug-target interaction network. Thus, recommended drugs correspond to the union of the drug subsets found during each GA execution. Twenty-eight drugs were indicated to be the best therapeutic targets for the virus, in special, the Cyclosporine drug was administered as adjuvant to steroid treatment for COVID-19 patients which showed positive outcomes, reducing mortality in moderate and severe cases. The drugs found have used to treat other diseases, evidencing that the COVID-19 is a multisystemic disorder and suggests that the viruses’ mechanism of action presents some comorbidity with other human diseases. Evidence shows that the drugs found in this research might act together to fight the virus in a broader fashion, however further studies including in vitro and in vivo experiments are needed to find the best combination of these drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0475.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: drug repurposing; virtual screening; multiscale; multitargeting; polypharmacology; computational biology; drug repositioning; structural bioinformatics; molecular docking; proteomic signature
Online: 19 April 2021 (12:22:05 CEST)
Drug repurposing, the practice of utilizing existing drugs for novel clinical indications, has tremendous potential for improving human health outcomes and increasing therapeutic development efficiency. The goal of multidisease multitarget drug repurposing, also known as shotgun drug repurposing, is to develop platforms that assess the therapeutic potential of each existing drug for every clinical indication. Our Computational Analysis of Novel Drug Opportunities (CANDO) platform for shotgun multitarget repurposing implements several pipelines via large scale modelling and simulation of interactions between comprehensive libraries of drugs/compounds and protein structures. In these pipelines, each drug is described by an interaction signature that is then compared to all other signatures that are then sorted and ranked based on similarity. Pipelines within the platform are benchmarked based on their ability to recover known drugs for all indications in our library, and predictions are generated based on the hypothesis that (novel) drugs with similar signatures may be repurposed for the same indication(s). The drug-protein interactions in the platform used to create the drug-proteome signatures may be determined by any screening or docking method but the primary approach used thus far has been an in house similarity docking protocol. In this study, we calculated drug-proteome interaction signatures using the publicly available molecular docking method Autodock Vina and created hybrid decision tree pipelines that combined our original bio- and cheminformatic approach with the goal of assessing and benchmarking their drug repurposing capabilities and performance. The hybrid decision tree pipeline outperformed the corresponding two docking-based pipelines it was synthesized from, yielding an average indication accuracy of 13.3% at the top10 cutoff (the most stringent), relative to 10.9% and 7.1% for its constituent pipelines, and a random control accuracy of 2.2%. We demonstrate that docking based virtual screening pipelines have unique performance characteristics and that the CANDO shotgun repurposing paradigm is not dependent on a specific docking method. Our results also provide further evidence that multiple CANDO pipelines can be synthesized to enhance drug repurposing predictive capability relative to their constituent pipelines. Overall, this study indicates that pipelines consisting of varied docking based signature generation methods can capture unique and useful signal for accurate comparison of drug-proteome interaction signatures, leading to improvements in the benchmarking and predictive performance of the CANDO shotgun drug repurposing platform.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0047.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: silk fibroin; nanoparticles; drug loading content; quantification; infrared spectroscopy; FTIR spectroscopy.; nanotechnology; nanomedicine; drug delivery; controlled release
Online: 3 September 2020 (03:56:19 CEST)
Nanotechnology has enabled the development of novel therapeutic strategies such as targeted nanodrug delivery systems, control and stimulus-responsive release mechanisms, and the production of theranostic agents. As a prerequisite for the use of nanoparticles as drug delivery systems, the amount of loaded drug must be precisely quantified, a task for which two approaches are currently used. However, both approaches suffer from the inefficiencies of drug extraction and of the solid-liquid separation process, as well as from dilution errors. This work describes a new, reliable, and simple method for direct drug quantification in polymeric nanoparticles using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which can be adapted for a wide variety of drug delivery systems. Silk fibroin nanoparticles and naringenin were used as model polymeric nanoparticle carrier and drug, respectively. The specificity, linearity, detection limit, precision and accuracy of the spectroscopic approach were determined in order to validate the method. A good linear relation was observed within 0.00 to 7.89 % of naringenin relative mass with an R2 of 0.973. The accuracy was determined by the spike and recovery method. Results showed an average 104% recovery. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of the drug loading content were determined to be 0.3 and 1.0 %, respectively. The method's robustness is demonstrated by the notable similarities between the calibrations carried out in two different equipment and institutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0023.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: electrospinning; morphology structures; propolis; polycaprolactone; drug delivery
Online: 1 July 2022 (17:39:00 CEST)
The structure of wound dressing materials presents one of the most relevant characteristics for effective skin tissue repair. Electrospinning is a common technique used to produce polymeric fibres that can mimic fibrillar disposition of skin extracellular matrix, favouring cell migration, and thus regeneration of the damaged tissue. Moreover, beads, also known as by-products of electrospinning, have potential as reservoirs for sustained drug release. Processing parameters, such as molecular weight and viscosity of the polymer solution, can affect the desirable morphologies of electrospun films. Thereby, this work had the purpose of producing and characterized electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) mats loaded with propolis, a popular extract in traditional medicine with potential for skin repair aid. Films with different morphologies were obtained depending on the storage period of the solution prior to the lectrospinning, probably due to the PCL hydrolysis. FTIR analyses of the extract confirmed propolis composition. GPC and viscosity analyses demonstrated that the decrease in molar mass over the storage period was responsible for nanostructure diversity. Propolis acts as a lubricant agent, affecting the spun solutions' viscosity and the thermal properties and hydrophilicity of the films. All films are within the value range of the water vapour transpiration rate of the commercial products. The presence of beads did not affect the propolis release pattern. However, "in vitro" wound healing assay showed that propolis-loaded films composed by beaded fibres increased the cell migration process. Thus, it can be inferred that these films presented the potential for wound dressing application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0212.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: drug repurposing; cystic fibrosis; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; biofilm
Online: 22 April 2022 (10:55:32 CEST)
Drug repurposing is an attractive strategy for developing new antibacterial molecules. Herein, we evaluated the in vitro antibacterial, antibiofilm, and antivirulence activities of eight FDA-approved “non-antibiotic” drugs, comparatively to tobramycin, against selected Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains from cystic fibrosis patients. MIC and MBC values were measured by broth microdilution methods. Time-kill kinetics was studied by the macro dilution method, and synergy studies were performed by checkerboard microdilution assay. The activity against preformed biofilm was measured by crystal violet and viable cell count assays. The effects on gene expression were studied by real-time quantitative PCR, while the cytotoxic potential was evaluated against IB3-1 bronchial CF cells. Ciclopirox, 5-fluorouracil, and actinomycin D showed the best activity against P. aeruginosa planktonic cells and, therefore, underwent further evaluation. Time-kill assays indicated actinomycin D and ciclopirox, contrarily to 5-fluorouracil and tobramycin, have the potential for bacterial eradication, although with strain-dependent efficacy. Ciclopirox was the most effective against the viability of the preformed biofilm. A similar activity was observed for other drugs, although they stimulate EPS production. Ribavirin showed a specific antibiofilm effect, not dependent on bacterial killing. Exposure to drugs and tobramycin generally caused hyperexpression of the virulence traits tested, except for actinomycin D, which downregulated the expression of alkaline protease and alginate polymerization. Ciclopirox and actinomycin D revealed high cytotoxic potential. Ciclopirox and ribavirin might provide chemical scaffolds for anti-P. aeruginosa drugs. Further studies are warranted to decrease ciclopirox cytotoxicity and evaluate the in vivo protective effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0396.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: glioblastoma; signal transduction; xenograft model; drug repositioning
Online: 23 December 2021 (16:53:54 CET)
Multimodal therapy including surgery, radiation treatment and temozolomide (TMZ) is performed on glioblastoma (GBM). However, the prognosis is still poor and there is an urgent need to develop effective treatments to improve survival. Molecular biological analysis was conducted to exam-ine the signal activation patterns at GBM specimens and remains an open problem. Advanced macrolides, such as azithromycin, reduce the phosphorylation of p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), a downstream mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) effector, and suppress the proliferation of T-cells. We focused on its unique profile and screened for the antitumor activity of approved macrolide antibiotics. Clindamycin (CLD) reduced the viability of GBM cells in vitro. We assessed the effects of the candidate macrolide on the mTOR pathway through Western blotting. CLD attenuated p70S6K phosphorylation in a dose dependent manner. These effects of on GBM cells were enhanced by co-treatment with TMZ. Furthermore, CLD inhibited the expression of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) protein in cultured cells. In the mouse xenograft model, CLD and TMZ co-administration significantly suppressed the tumor growth and markedly decreased the number of Ki-67 (clone MIB-1) positive cells within the tumor. These results suggest that CLD suppresses GBM cell growth by the inhibiting mTOR signaling. Moreover, CLD and TMZ showed promising synergistic antitumor activity.