Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Residual Tau-Fluvalinate in Honey Bee Colonies is Coupled with Evidence for Selection for Varroa Destructor Resistance to Pyrethroids

Version 1 : Received: 19 April 2021 / Approved: 21 April 2021 / Online: 21 April 2021 (09:42:13 CEST)

How to cite: Benito-Murcia, M.; Bartolomé, C.; Maside, X.; Bernal, J.; Bernal, J.L.; Nozal, M.J.; Meana, A.; Botías, C.; Martín Hernández, R.; Higes, M. Residual Tau-Fluvalinate in Honey Bee Colonies is Coupled with Evidence for Selection for Varroa Destructor Resistance to Pyrethroids. Preprints 2021, 2021040566 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202104.0566.v1). Benito-Murcia, M.; Bartolomé, C.; Maside, X.; Bernal, J.; Bernal, J.L.; Nozal, M.J.; Meana, A.; Botías, C.; Martín Hernández, R.; Higes, M. Residual Tau-Fluvalinate in Honey Bee Colonies is Coupled with Evidence for Selection for Varroa Destructor Resistance to Pyrethroids. Preprints 2021, 2021040566 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202104.0566.v1).

Abstract

Varroa destructor is considered one of the most devastating parasites of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, and a major problem for the beekeeping industry. Currently, the main method to control Varroa mites is the application of drugs that contain different acaricides as active ingredients. The pyrethroid tau-fluvalinate is one of the acaricides most widely used in beekeeping due to its efficacy and low toxicity to bees. However, the intensive and repetitive application of this compound produces a selective pressure that, when maintained over time, contributes to the emergence of resistant mites in the honey bee colonies, compromising the acaricidal treatments efficacy. Here we studied the presence of tau-fluvalinate residues in hives and the evolution of genetic resistance to this acaricide in Varroa mites from honeybee colonies that received no pyrethroid treatment in the previous four years. Our data revealed the widespread and persistent tau-fluvalinate contamination of beeswax and beebread in hives, an overall increase of the pyrethroid resistance allele frequency and a generalized excess of resistant mites relative to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations. These results suggest that tau-fluvalinate contamination of the hives may seriously compromise the efficacy of pyrethroid-based mite control methods.

Subject Areas

Varroa destructor; mite; resistant populations; acaricide residues; tau-fluvalinate; varroosis

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