HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0069.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: aging; anti-inflammaging helminth hypothesis; evolutionary medicine; helminth therapy; hygiene theory; inflammaging; old friends
Online: 2 December 2020 (15:25:37 CET)
Evolutionary medicine argues that disease can arise because modern conditions do not match those in which we evolved. For example, a decline in exposure to commensal microbes and gastrointestinal helminths in developed countries has been linked to increased prevalence of allergic and autoimmune inflammatory disorders (the hygiene hypothesis). Accordingly, microbial and helminthic probiotic therapies have been explored as Darwinian treatments for these disorders. A further possibility is that loss of old friend commensals also increases the sterile, aging-associated inflammation known as inflammaging, that contributes to a range of age-related diseases, including cardiovascular disease, dementia and cancer. Interestingly, Crowe et al. (2020) recently reported that treatment with a secreted glycoprotein from a parasitic nematode can protect against murine aging by induction of anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Here, we explore the hypothesis that restorative helminth therapy would have anti-inflammaging effects. Could worm infections provide broad-spectrum protection against age-related disease?
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0182.v2
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; comorbidity; aging; hallmarks of aging; anti-aging
Online: 16 May 2020 (18:25:28 CEST)
Within the past several decades, the emergence of new viral diseases with severe health complications and mortality is evidence of an age-dependent, compromised bodily response to abrupt stress with concomitantly reduced immunity. The new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2, causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It has increased morbidity and mortality in persons with underlying chronic diseases and those with a compromised immune system regardless of age and in older adults who are more likely to have these conditions. While SARS-CoV-2 is highly virulent, there is variability in the severity of the disease and its complications in humans. Severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, lung fibrosis, cardiovascular events, acute kidney injury, stroke, hospitalization, and mortality have been reported that result from pathogen–host interactions. Hallmarks of aging, interacting with one another, have been proposed to influence health span in older adults, possibly via mechanisms regulating the immune system. Here, we review the potential roles of the hallmarks of aging coupled with host–coronavirus interactions. Of these hallmarks, we focused on those that directly or indirectly interact with viral infections, including immunosenescence, inflammation and inflammasomes, adaptive immunosenescence, genomic instability, mitochondrial dysfunction, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, and impaired autophagy. These hallmarks likely contribute to the increased pathophysiological responses to SARS-CoV-2 among older adults and may play roles as an additive risk of accelerated biological aging even after recovery. We also briefly discuss the role of anti-aging drug candidates that require paramount attention in COVID-19 research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0011.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: SBSJ; polyphenolic constituents; antioxidants; anti-inflammatory, chemoprevention; immunomodulation; anti-aging; adaptogen
Online: 1 August 2022 (08:06:10 CEST)
Across different cultures around the globe, human beings have historically depended largely on medicinal plants for managing diseases that have hitherto threatened their optimal health, survival, and longevity. Evidently, the health-derived benefits of medicinal plants can be strongly attributed to the presence of secondary metabolites, particularly polyphenols. The health-promoting effects of Sorghum bicolor supplement Jobelyn® (SBSJ) —a unique supplement derived from the leaf sheaths of a West African variety of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench—have also been ascribed to its high levels of polyphenols. This review seeks to gather and synthesize findings from various experimental and clinical studies on the health benefits of SBSJ in arthritis, cancer, chronic viral infections, stroke, anaemia, and aging. SBSJ has been reported to contain potent bioactive polyphenolic compounds with polyvalent biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, chemopreventive, and neuroprotective activities. Moreover, the probable benefits of SBSJ in chronic viral infections (e.g., HIV/AIDS and COVID-19) have been attributed to its potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. As this supplement is increasingly becoming one of the fastest-selling herbal medicines in Nigeria, there is a need for more robust studies (including clinical trials) in order to replicate and validate the prior insights gleaned from experimental studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0084.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: dual anti platelet therapy; acute coronary syndrome; stents
Online: 12 February 2018 (05:13:18 CET)
Percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI) with stenting for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome(ACS) is the contemporary standard of care. Such treatment is followed by Dual anti-platelet therapy(DAPT) comprising of aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor. The efficacy of this therapy has been well established but the optimal duration of DAPT remains elusive, and has thus far attracted a prodigious deal of scientific attention. Decision regarding DAPT duration can be challenging clinically in the modern era with the evolution of newer stents, more potent antiplatelet agents and novel anticoagulant drugs in addition to an older patient population with multiple comorbidities. Major societal guidelines have emphasized comprehensive assessment of ischemic and bleeding risk, in turn recommending individualization of DAPT duration, thus encouraging "shared decision making". The following review is aimed at critically evaluating the available evidence to help make these crucial clinical decisions regarding duration of DAPT and triple therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0229.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Anti-aging therapy; lipofuscin; SENS; TFEB; intracellular microbe; and synthetic chemotaxis
Online: 21 September 2022 (03:36:55 CEST)
Lipofuscin is indigestible garbage that accumulates in the autophagic vesicles and cytosol of post-mitotic cells with age. Drs. Brunk and Terman postulated that lipofuscin accumulation is the main or at least a major driving factor in aging. They even posited that the evolution of memory is the reason why we get lipofuscin at all, as stable synaptic connections must be maintained over time, meaning that the somas of neurons must also remain in the same locale. In other words, they cannot dilute out their garbage over time through cell division. Mechanistically, their position certainly makes sense given that rendering a large percentage of a post-mitotic cell’s lysosomes useless must almost certainly negatively affect that cell and the surrounding microenvironment. Here, I explore the possibility that the accumulation of lipofuscin to some extent underlies all other categories of age-related damage as defined by Dr. Aubrey de Grey. I do not think that lipofuscin removal will reverse/prevent all forms of aging, just the major component facing us currently. It may suffice for the next few hundred years by itself. In this piece, I will review what is known about lipofuscin accumulation from evolutionary and mechanistic standpoints and discuss ways of removing it from post-mitotic cells (and then the body).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0028.v3
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Chenopodium formosanum; human dermal fibroblast; UV exposure; antioxidant activity; anti-aging; red djulis
Online: 13 November 2019 (11:02:35 CET)
Red djulis (Chenopodium formosanum) is a native cereal plant in Taiwan; it contains abundant polyphenols, betalian and dietary fiber. The appearance of red djulis is bright red. Therefore, it is also called the “ruby of cereals”. The antioxidative activity of red djulis extract is well-understood. However, the antiaging function still remains unclear. This study examined the potential of red djulis extract for enhancing collagen secretion and preventing cutaneous aging using red djulis extracts. The red djulis extracts are comprised of an abundant active component that can effectively enhance the ability of collagen secretion of dermal fibroblasts, prevent the glycation of collagen and resist the damage of ultraviolet light exposure. After fibroblast treatment with red djulis extracts, TGM1, KRT1, KRT10 and SOD2 genes were up-regulated significantly by 2.3, 4.3, 4.4 and 27.3 times, respectively, compared to those of the control group. Additionally, it can increase COL1A2 gene expression by 43% and decrease MMP9 gene expression 33%. Therefore, it was demonstrated that red djulis extracts affect gene expressions related to the skin barrier, antioxidation and collagen. Moreover, we found positive effects on skin barrier integrity, endogenous antioxidant activity and skin collagen-preservation. The preparation of the red djulis extracts is environmental friendly and can promote the economic value of Chenopodium formosanum; thus, the proposed extract is suitable for applications in the development of food products, especially beverages, skin care and cosmetic products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0252.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Silybum marianum; silymarin; flavonolignans; ultrasound-assisted extraction; design of experiement; antioxidant; anti-aging
Online: 23 July 2019 (09:51:35 CEST)
Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (aka milk thistle) constitute the almost exclusive source of silymarin, a mixture of different flavonolignans, and is thus considered as a unique model for their extraction. The present research deals with ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of S. marianum flavonolignans and their quantification using LC system. The optimal conditions for UAE were: aqueous EtOH 54.5% (v/v) as solvent, applying an ultrasound frequency of 36.6 kHz during an extraction time of 60 min at 45°C with a liquid to solid ratio of 25:1 ml/g DW. Following optimization, the extraction method was validated according to international standards of the association of analytical communities (AOAC) in order to ensure its precision and accuracy for the quantitation of the individual silymarin components. The efficiency of UAE was compared with maceration protocol of the same duration. The optimized and validated conditions allowed highest extraction yields of flavonolignans in comparison to maceration. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was confirmed by the CUPRAC assays and inhibition of advanced glycation end products. The skin anti-aging action was also confirmed toward the strong in vitro inhibition capacity of the obtained extract against collagenase and elastase enzymes. The procedure presented here allows a green efficient extraction and quantification of the main flavonolignans from the fruits of S. marianum with attractive antioxidant and anti-aging activities for future cosmetic applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0340.v1
Subject: Keywords: helminth; helminthic therapy; biological therapy; inflammation; anti-inflammatory
Online: 14 December 2020 (13:40:28 CET)
The virtually complete loss of intestinal worms, known as helminths, from Western society has resulted in elimination of a range of helminth-induced morbidities. Unfortunately, that loss has also led to inflammation-associated deficiencies in immune function, ultimately contributing to widespread pandemics of allergies, autoimmunity, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Several socio-medical studies have examined the effects of intentional reworming, or self-treatment with helminths, on a variety of inflammation-related disorders. In this study, the latest results from ongoing socio-medical studies are described. The results point toward two important factors that appear to be overlooked in some if not most clinical trials. Specifically, (a) the method of preparation of the helminth can have a profound effect on its therapeutic efficacy, and (b) variation between individuals in the effective therapeutic dosage apparently covers a 10-fold range, regardless of the helminth used. These results highlight current limits in our understanding of the biology of both hosts and helminths, and suggest that information from self-treatment may be critical in moving the field forward into mainstream medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0498.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Osteoporosis; anti-resorptive drugs; therapeutic adherence; bone mineral density; biochemical markers
Online: 21 December 2020 (10:42:15 CET)
Denosumab is a human monoclonal antibody that neutralizes RANKL, a cytokine able to interact with the RANK receptor on preosteoclasts and osteoclasts, decreasing their recruitment and differentiation, leading to a decreased bone resorption. The aim of this observational real-life study was to analyze adherence to denosumab therapy, its effectiveness in increasing bone mineral density (BMD) and in modulating biochemical skeletal markers upon previous treatments with bisphosphonates in a group of post-menopausal women affected by osteoporosis. Women were recruited in the specialized center from March 2012 to September 2019. Biochemical markers were recorded at baseline and every six months prior to subsequent drug injection. Dual X-ray Absorptiometry was requested at baseline and after 18/24 months. Comparing BMD at baseline and after denosumab therapy in naive patients and in those previously treated with bisphosphonates, a positive therapeutic effect was observed in both groups. The results of our real-life study demonstrate, as expected, that BMD values significantly increased upon denosumab treatment. Interestingly, denosumab showed an increased effectiveness in patients previously treated with bisphosphonates. Moreover, biochemical markers data indicate that osteoporotic patients, without other concomitant unstable health conditions, could be evaluated once a year, decreasing the number of specialistic center access.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0298.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Osteoarthritis; LithoLexal; Lithothamnion; Disease-modifying adjunctive therapy; Anti-inflammatory agents; Cytokine inhibitors
Online: 20 October 2021 (22:49:47 CEST)
Modern advances in molecular medicine have led to reframing osteoarthritis as a metabolically active, inflammatory disorder with local and systemic contributing factors. According to the ‘inflammatory theory’ of osteoarthritis, immune response to an initial damage is the key trigger that leads to progressive joint destruction. Several intertwined pathways are known to induce and govern articular inflammation, cartilage matrix degradation, and subchondral bone changes. Effective treatments capable of halting or delaying the progression of osteoarthritis remain elusive. As a result, supplements such as glucosamine and chondroitin sulphate are commonly used despite the lack of scientific consensus. A novel option for adjunctive therapy of osteoarthritis is LithoLexal®, a marine-derived, mineral-rich extract, that exhibited significant efficacy in clinical trials. LithoLexal® has a lattice microstructure containing a combination of bioactive rare minerals. Mechanistic research suggests that this novel treatment possesses various potential disease-modifying properties, such as suppression of nuclear factor kappa-B, interleukin 1β, tumour necrosis factor α, and cyclooxygenase-2. Accordingly, LithoLexal® can be considered a disease-modifying adjunctive therapy (DMAT). LithoLexal® monotherapy in patients with knee osteoarthritis has significantly improved symptoms and walking ability with higher efficacy than glucosamine. Preliminary evidence also suggests that LithoLexal® may allow clinicians to reduce the dose of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in osteoarthritic patients by up to 50%. In conclusion, the multi-mineral complex, LithoLexal®, appears to be a promising candidate for DMAT of osteoarthritis, which may narrow the existing gap in clinical practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0043.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: Skin Aging; Rejuvenation; Skin Cream; Retinoid formulation; RetileX-A; Vercilex
Online: 2 November 2021 (10:55:27 CET)
Skin ageing is a progressive but modifiable, multi-factorial disorder that involves all skin tissues. Pertaining to its wide range of physiological and psychosocial complications, skin ageing requires rigorous clinical attention. Topical retinoids and per-oral proteoglycans are promising, non-invasive, therapeutic modalities. To overcome the low bioavailability of conventional free retinoids, Nourella® cream with Retilex-A® (Pharma Medico, Aarhus, Denmark) was developed using a proprietary nano-encapsulation technology. The nano-encapsulation is a sophisticated ‘permeation/penetration enhancer’ that optimises topical drug delivery by increasing surface availability and net absorption ratio. Treatment adherence is also improved by minimising skin irritation. Interventional evidence supports the higher efficacy of Retilex-A® in improving skin thickness and elasticity compared with conventional free forms. It is also reported that the rejuvenating efficacy of Retilex-A® and tretinoin are comparable. Another skin anti-ageing approach is proteoglycan replacement therapy (PRT) with Vercilex®. Vercilex® in Nourella® tablet has the potential to ameliorate proteoglycan dysmetabolism in the aged skin by activating skin cells and improving collagen/elastin turnover. Replicated clinical trials evidenced that PRT can significantly enhance the density, elasticity and thickness of both intrinsically aged and photoaged skin. Evidently, Vercilex® and Retilex-A® share a range of bioactivities, which underlies their synergistic activity observed in a clinical trial. Dual therapy with Nourella® tablets and cream produced higher effect sizes on skin characteristics than monotherapy with each of the two treatments. In conclusion, Nourella® cream and tablets are safe and effective treatments for skin ageing; however, combining the two in a ‘dual skin rejuvenation system’ significantly improves treatment outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0112.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Epitranscriptomics, Immune checkpoint blockage (ICB) therapy, anti-PD-1/PD-L1 drug resistance, Personalized medicine, CISH, microRNAs
Online: 4 August 2021 (13:02:22 CEST)
Cellular immunotherapy has recently emerged as a fourth pillar in cancer treatment co-joining surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Where, the discovery of immune checkpoint blockage or inhibition (ICB/ICI), anti-PD-1/PD-L1 and anti-CTLA4-based, therapy has revolutionized the class of cancer treatment at a different level. However, still some cancer patient escape this immune surveillance mechanism and become resistant to ICB-therapy. Therefore, a more advanced or an alternative treatment is required instantly. Despite the functional importance of epitranscriptomics in diverse clinico-biological practices, its role in improving the efficacy of ICB therapeutics has been limited. Consequently, our study encapsulates the evidences, as a possible strategy, to improve the efficacy of ICB-therapy by co-targeting molecular checkpoints especially N6A-modification machineries which could be reformed into RNA modifying drugs (RMD). Here, we have explained the mechanism of individual RNA-modifiers (editor/writer, eraser/remover and effector/reader) in overcoming the issues associated with high-dose antibody toxicities and drug-resistance. Moreover, we have shed light on the importance of suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS/CISH) and microRNAs in improving the efficacy of ICB-therapy, with brief insight on the current monoclonal antibodies undergoing clinical trials or already approved against several solid tumor and metastatic cancers. We anticipate our investigation will encourage researchers and clinicians to further strengthen the efficacy of ICB-therapeutics by considering the importance of epitranscriptomics as a personalized medicine.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0601.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: aging; disability; healthy aging; osteoarthritis; pain, rehabilitation, successful aging
Online: 30 July 2018 (22:20:03 CEST)
Background: Aging is commonly accepted as a time period of declining heath. Aims: This review aimed to examine the research base concerning the use of term ‘successful aging’, a process and outcome deemed desirable, but challenging to attain. A second was to provide related information to demonstrate how health professionals as well as individuals can aim for a ‘successful aging’ process and outcome, despite the presence of disabling osteoarthritis. Methods: Information specifically focusing on ‘successful aging’ and the concept of improving opportunities for advancing ‘successful aging’ despite osteoarthritis was sought. Results: Among the many articles on ‘successful aging’, several authors highlight the need to include, a broader array of older adults into the conceptual framework. Moreover, conditions such as osteoarthritis should not necessarily preclude the individual from attaining a personally valued successful aging outcome. Conclusion: Pursuing more inclusive research and research designs, and not neglecting to include people with chronic osteoarthritis can potentially heighten the life quality of all aging individuals, while reducing pain and depression, among other adverse aging and disability correlates among those with osteoarthritis
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0051.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Tenofovir; Pre-exposure prophylaxis; anti-retroviral therapy; cardiovascular disease; LGBT
Online: 5 May 2022 (16:11:31 CEST)
The introduction of tenofovir-derived prodrugs has revolutionised the prevention and management of HIV, which has coincided with 23% reduction in new HIV incidences globally. To date, there are two formulations of tenofovir-derived nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI): tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) and tenofovir alafenamide fumarate/emtricitabine (TAF/FTC). Although these prodrugs have shown favourable safety profile, their effects on cardiovascular health are differ from one another: TDF/FTC exhibits potential lipid-lowering effect, TAF/FTC demonstrates potential lipid-inducing effect, which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, this issue has not been previously elucidated, especially among the marginalised populations [lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) and men who have sex with men (MSM)] who are likely be the main users of these prodrugs. This is of clinically significance as the cardiovascular health in these populations is often overlooked, in addition to a lack of appropriate cardiovascular risk prediction algorithm. Therefore, this review aims to (1) highlight the cardiovascular risks of tenofovir-derived prodrugs in the marginalized populations, and also to (2) establish the importance of having a cardiovascular risk prediction model that is specific to this particular populations so that their health management could be more comprehensive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0410.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: COVID-19 variants; COVID-19 vaccine; IBD; ulcerative colitis; Crohn’s disease; anti-TNF
Online: 29 June 2022 (15:02:36 CEST)
Management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often relies on biological and immunomodulatory agents for remission through immunosuppression, raising concerns regarding the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine's effectiveness. The emergent variants have hindered the vaccine neutralization capacity, and whether the third vaccine dose has the capacity to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 variants in this population remains unknown. This study aims to evaluate the humoral response of SARS-CoV-2 variants in patients with IBD 60 days after the third vaccine dose [BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna)].56 su bjects with IBD and 12 healthy subjects were recruited. 90% of patients with IBD (49/56) were receiving biologics and/or immunomodulatory therapy. 24 subjects with IBD did not develop effective neutralizing capability against the Omicron variant. 70% (17/24) of those subjects were receiving anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor therapy [10= adalimumab, 7= infliximab], two of them had a history of COVID-19 infection, and one subject did not develop immune neutralization against three other variants: Gamma, Epsilon, and Kappa. All subjects in the control group developed detectable antibodies and effective neutralization against all seven SARS-CoV-2 variants. Our study shows that patients with IBD might not be protected against SARS-CoV-2 variants, and larger studies are needed to evaluate optimal immunity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0488.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Sarcophyton; Sinularia; Lobophytum; new compounds; anti-microbial; anti-inflammatory; anti-tumoral
Online: 29 August 2018 (09:03:48 CEST)
Work reviews the new isolated isolated cembranoid diterpene derivatives from species belonging to the family Alcyoniidae, which comprises the genera Sarcophyton, Sinularia, and Lobophytum as well as their biological properties, during 2016–2017. The compilation permitted to conclude that much more new cembranoid diterpenes were found in the soft corals of the genus Sarcophyton sp. (33 new compounds) than in those belonging to the genera Lobophytum (17) or Sinularia (8). Several methods have been used for identifying these new compounds, after extraction with organic solvents and fractionation. The fractions obtained, in some cases, were followed by TLC, and again subjected to chromatographic procedures, including semi-preparative HPLC. Beyond the chemical composition, the biological properties were also evaluated, namely anti-microbial against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumoral against several types of cancer cells. Although the biological activities detected in almost all samples, they were not outstanding ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0343.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: anti-apoptosis; anti-oxidant; curcumin; hyperglycemia; hyperlipidemia
Online: 27 November 2019 (09:57:14 CET)
Curcumin is the main secondary metabolites of Curcuma longa and other Curcuma spp, and has been reported to have some potential in preventing and treating some physiological disorders. This study investigated the effect curcumin in inhibiting high-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in rats. Twenty-six male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (170-190 g) were randomly divided into a standard food pellet diet group (Control group), a high-fat diet and streptozotocin group (HF+STZ group), and a high-fat diet combined with curcumin and STZ group (HF+ Cur +STZ group). Compared with the HF+STZ group, the HF+Cur+STZ group exhibited significantly reduced fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), alanine aminotransferase (AST) and aspartate transaminase (ALT) levels, and liver coefficients; in the livers of these rats, the expression of malondialdehyde (MDA) and Bax was downregulated, whereas that of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Bcl-2 was upregulated. Moreover, the liver histology of these rats was improved and resembled that of the control rats. These results suggest that curcumin prevents high-fat diet and STZ-induced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, mainly via anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic mechanisms in the liver.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0342.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Anti-MDR strategies; anti-persistent treatments; drug repurposing
Online: 25 December 2019 (09:33:57 CET)
Antibiotic failure is one of the most worrying health problems worldwide. Nowadays we are facing an international crisis where several issues are involved: new antibiotics are not being discovered any longer, resistance mechanisms become spread in nearly every clinical isolate of bacteria and the appearance of recurrent infections caused by persistent bacteria complicates the overcoming of infections. In this context, it has been explored new anti-infectious strategies against MDR and persistent bacteria as well as the rescue of FDA-approved compounds (drug repurposing). Among the highlighted new anti-infectious strategies we find anti-microbial peptides, anti-virulence compounds, phage therapy and new molecules. On the other hand, as drugs of repurposing that have been described, we have anti-inflammatory compounds, anti-psychotics, anti-helmintic drugs, anti-cancerous and statins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0304.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Anti-counterfeiting; Anti-theft; RFID security; Tag cloning
Online: 23 December 2019 (12:17:40 CET)
Counterfeiting and theft have always been problems that incur high costs and results in considerable losses for the international markets. In this research paper, we will address the issue of counterfeiting while using RFID technology in retailer systems or other industries by presenting a new anti-counterfeiting and anti-theft system for the retailer market. This system will address the two above mentioned issues and provide a solution that can save the retailer systems millions of dollars yearly. This proposed system will achieve the objective of preventing or minimising the counterfeiting and theft of tagged products. At the same time, it will provide a strong indication for suspiciously sold or obtained items. Furthermore, we conducted a security analysis to prove the correctness of our protocol on the basis of the strand spaces.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0179.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: calorie restriction mimetics; anti-aging; lifespan extension; glucose metabolism modulation; chitosan; acarbose; SGLT2 inhibitor; 2-deoxy-D-glucose; D-allulose; D-glucosamine
Online: 7 November 2018 (15:26:42 CET)
Calorie restriction (CR) has been shown to prolong the lifespan of humans, but enforcing long-term CR is difficult. Therefore, a compound that reproduces the effect of CR without CR is needed. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on compounds with CR mimetic (CRM) effects. More than 10 compounds have been listed as CRMs, some of which are conventionally categorized as upstream-type CRMs showing glycolytic inhibition while the others are categorized as downstream-type CRMs that regulate or genetically modulate intracellular signaling proteins. Among these, we focus on upstream-type CRMs and propose their classification as compounds with energy metabolism inhibition effects, particularly glucose metabolism modulation effects. The upstream-type CRMs reviewed include chitosan, acarbose, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, and hexose analogs such as 2-deoxy-D-glucose, D-glucosamine, and D-allulose, which show anti-aging and longevity effects. Finally, we discuss the molecular definition of upstream-type CRMs.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0212.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: aging; antagonistic pleiotropy; biological constraint; hyperfunction; hypofunction; programmatic aging; trade-off
Online: 16 May 2022 (14:02:16 CEST)
Aging rate differs greatly between species, indicating that the process of senescence is largely genetically determined. Senescence evolves in part due to antagonistic pleiotropy (AP), where selection favors gene variants that increase fitness earlier in life but promote pathology later. Identifying the biological mechanisms by which AP causes senescence is key to understanding the endogenous causes of aging and its attendant diseases. Here we argue that the frequent occurrence of AP as a property of genes reflects the presence of constraint in the biological systems that they specify. This arises particularly because the functionally interconnected nature of biological systems constrains the simultaneous optimization of coupled traits (interconnection constraints), or because individual traits cannot evolve (impossibility constraints). We present an account of aging that integrates AP and biological constraint with recent programmatic aging concepts, including costly programs, quasi-programs, hyperfunction and hypofunction. We argue that AP mechanisms of costly programs and triggered quasi-programs are consequences of constraint, in which costs resulting from hyperfunction or hypofunction cause senescent pathology. Impossibility constraint can also cause hypofunction independently of AP. We also describe how AP corresponds to Stephen Jay Gould’s constraint-based concept of evolutionary spandrels, and argue that pathologies arising from AP are bad spandrels. Biological constraint is a missing link between ultimate and proximate causes of senescence, including diseases of aging. That this was not realized previously may reflect a combination of hyperadaptationism among evolutionary biologists, and the erroneous assumption by biogerontologists that molecular damage accumulation is the principal primary cause of aging.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0035.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: COVID-19; Chronic diseases; Aging; Immune response; Public health; Healthy Aging
Online: 3 May 2020 (08:15:24 CEST)
As the novel COVID-19 disease spreads around the world, the most affected population are those who suffer from the most common chronic diseases, such as obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes, which are quite associated with the so-called age-related diseases. On the other hand, since the Spanish influenza outbreak, humanity has not experienced an infectious disease that synergizes so quickly with chronic diseases, making it mortal for those individuals with comorbidities. In this context, COVID-19 is challenging for health systems all around the world due to the high prevalence of chronic diseases. Nowadays, we are facing the beginning of a new era in which health infectious and chronic diseases meet. Therefore, epidemiologic and biomedical researchers must work together to solve further contingencies, and politicians should direct science-centered decisions on public health. In the present paper, we make an urgent call to learn from the COVID-19 lessons in order to mitigate the chronic diseases prevalence and to address the influence of the infectious diseases on the aging process; since we are about to begin the Decade of Healthy Aging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0733.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: prefrontal cortex aging; meta-analysis of transcriptomic; synapsis aging; reactive astrogliosis
Online: 31 October 2018 (05:02:17 CET)
Prefrontal cortex (PFC) is one of the brain regions with more prominent changes in human aging. The molecular processes related to the aging cognitive decline and mood changes are not completely understood. In order to improve our knowledge, we integrated transcriptomic data of four studies of human PFC from old people -58-80 years old- compared with young people -20-40 years old- using a meta-analytic approximation combined with molecular signature analysis. We identified 1816 differentially expressed genes -561 up-regulated and 1256 down-regulated. Pathway analysis revealed down-regulation of synaptic genes with conservation of gene expression of other neuronal regions. Additionally, we identified up-regulation of markers of astrogliosis with transcriptomic signature compatible with A1 neurotoxic astrocytes and A2 neuroprotective astrocytes. Response to interferon is related to A1 astrocytes and the A2 phenotype is mediated in aging by activation of SHH pathway and up-regulation of metallothioneins I and genes of the family EZR -ezrin, radixin, and moesin-. The main conclusions of our study are the confirmation that in aged PFC there is a global dysfunction of the synapses and we reported for the first time opposite phenotypes of astrogliosis because of brain aging.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0182.v1
Online: 10 September 2021 (11:07:13 CEST)
The biology of aging is focused on the identification of novel pathways that regulate the underlying processes of aging to develop interventions aimed at delaying the onset and progression of chronic diseases to extend lifespan. However, the research on the aging field has been conducted mainly in animal models, yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans and cell culture. Thus, it is unclear to what extent this knowledge is transferable to humans since they might not reflect the complexity of aging in people. Organoid culture is an in vitro 3D cell-culture technology that reproduces the physiological and cellular composition of the tissues and/or organs. This technology is being used in the cancer field to predict the response of a patient-derived tumor to a certain drug or treatment serving as patient stratification and drug-guidance approaches. Modeling aging with patient-derived organoids has a tremendous potential as a preclinical model tool to discover new biomarkers of aging, to predict adverse outcomes during aging and to design personalized approaches for prevention and treatment of aging-related diseases and geriatric syndromes. This could represent a novel approach to study chronological and/or biological aging paving the way to personalized interventions targeting the biology of aging.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: aging; microRNA; sarcopenia; cytokine
Online: 20 August 2020 (07:39:53 CEST)
Age-related sarcopenia meaningfully increases the risks of functional limitations and mortality in the elderly. Although circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) are associated with aging-related cellular senescence and inflammation, the relationships between c-miRNAs and sarcopenia in the elderly remain unclear. This study investigates whether circulating myo-miRNAs and inflammation-related miRNAs are associated with sarcopenia in the elderly. This study recruited 77 eligible subjects (41 males and 36 females) from 597 community-dwelling older adults, and then divided into normal (n=24), dynapenic (loss of muscular function without mass, n=35), and sarcopenic groups (loss of muscular function with mass, n=18). Moreover, myo-miRNAs (c-miRNA-133a and c-miRNA-486), inflammation-related miRNAs (c-miRNA-21 and c-miRNA-146a), and inflammatory-related cytokine levels in plasma were determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and ELISA, respectively. The results demonstrated that sarcopenic group exhibited lesser skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), handgrip strength, and gait speed, as well as, lower c-miR-486 and c-miR-146a levels, compared to those of normal and dynapenic groups. Moreover, c-miR-486 level was positively related to SMI (r=0.334, P=0.003), whereas c-miR-146a level was positively associated with SMI (r=0.240, P=0.035) and handgrip strength (r=0.253, P=0.027). In the receiver operating characteristic analysis for predicting sarcopenia, the area under the curve in c-miR-486 was 0.708 (95% confidence interval: 0.561-0.855, P=0.008) and c-miR-146a was 0.676 (95% CI: 0.551-0.801, P=0.024). However, no significant relationships were observed between SMI/ handgrip strength/gait speed and plasma myeloperoxidase/interleukin-1?/interleukin-6 levels. In conclusion, myo-miRNA (c-miR-486) and inflammation-related miRNA (c-miR-146a) are superior to inflammatory peroxide/cytokines in plasma for serving as critical biomarkers of age-related sarcopenia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0077.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: anti-oxidant activity; anti-oxidant enzymes, anti-proliferative activity; maslinic acid; melanoma; Olea europaea; ROS levels
Online: 4 August 2020 (04:57:13 CEST)
Maslinic acid (MA) is a natural triterpene from Olea europaea whose pharmacological functions have been showed. The objective of this study was to examine MA effect on cell viability (by MTT assay), reactive oxygen species (ROS levels, by flow cytometry) and key anti-oxidant enzyme activities (by spectrophotometry) in murine skin melanoma (B16F10) cells compared to healthy cells (A10). MA induced cytotoxic effects in cancer cells (IC50 42 µM) whereas no effect was found in A10 cells treated with MA (up to 210 µM). In order to produce a stress situation in cells, 0.15 mM of H2O2 were added. Under stressful conditions, MA protected both cell lines against oxidative damage, decreasing intracellular ROS, being higher in B16F10 than in A10 cells. The treatment with H2O2 and without MA produced different responses in anti-oxidant enzymes activities depending on cell line. In A10 cells, all enzymes were up-regulated, but in B16F10 cells only superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase increased their activities. MA restored the enzyme activities to similar levels than control group in both cell lines, highlighting that in A10 cells the highest MA doses induced values lower than control. Overall, these findings demonstrate the great anti-oxidant capacity of MA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0328.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Phytobioactive compounds; anti-inflammatory; anti-oxidant; methotrexate; hepatotoxicity; oxidative stress
Online: 16 August 2021 (11:37:17 CEST)
Methotrexate (MTX) is a potent drug for the treatment of various diseases globally amidst being a chemotherapeutic and immunosuppressant agent. However, hepatotoxicity induced by MTX could be life-threatening if left untreated. Folate supplementation is concurrently applied to reduce the adverse effects of MTX, albeit efficacy compromise. Therefore, there is the need to understand the process for the prevention and treatment strategies for MTX induced hepatotoxicity (MIH). In recent times, preliminary preclinical and clinical findings indicate the potential of natural phytobioactive compounds for MIH prevention and treatment. This mini review therefore summarizes proposed mechanisms of MIH and recent advances in the prevention and treatment prospects of natural phytobioactive compounds on MIH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0286.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Moringa oleifera; bismuth nanoparticles; polyphenolics; anti-bacterial; anti-fungal; antioxidant
Online: 21 December 2019 (12:28:21 CET)
The use of plant extracts in the synthesis of metal nanoparticles is a very attractive approach in the field of green synthesis. To benefit from the potential synergy between the biological activities of the Moringa oleifera leaves extract and metallic bismuth, our study aimed at synthesizing bismuth nanoparticles using a hydroalcoholic extract of M. oleifera leaves as a means of green synthesis that yields nontoxic products and reduces the production of wasteful material. To this end, the M. oleifera leaves extract was treated with a bismuth nitrate pentahydrate solution. A color change from light brown to dark brown indicates the synthesis of bismuth nanoparticles. The total phenolic content in the M. oleifera leaves extract used was 23.0 ± 0.3 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dried M. oleifera leaves powder. Antioxidant property of MO synthesised bismuth Nanoparticles was evaluated and in line with the extract used in the synthesis of NPs. The physical properties of the synthesized bismuth nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FT-IR spectrometer, TEM, SEM, and XRD. The synthesized bismuth nanoparticles have a size in the range of 40.4-57.8 nm with amorphous morphology. Using DPPH and phosphomolybdate assays, our findings revealed that the M. oleifera leaves extract and the synthesized bismuth nanoparticles possess antioxidant properties. Using resazurin microtiter assay, we also demonstrate that the M. oleifera leaves extract and the synthesized bismuth nanoparticles exert potent anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, similarly to the inhibition exerted by Moringa extract, especially against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC values for the extract: 500, 250, 250, and 250 µg/mL; MIC values for the bismuth nanoparticles: 500, 500, 500, and 250 µg/mL, respectively). Similarly, the M. oleifera leaves extract and the synthesized bismuth nanoparticles display relatively stronger anti-fungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans, and Candida glabrata (MIC values for the extract: 62.5, 62.5, 125, and 250 µg/mL; MIC values for the bismuth nanoparticles: 250, 250, 62.5, and 62.5 µg/mL, respectively). Thus, the hydroalcoholic extract of M. oleifera leaves was successfully used in the synthesis of bismuth nanoparticles, showing a positive antioxidant, anti-bacterial, and anti-fungal activity. Therefore, the synthesized bismuth nanoparticles can potentially be employed in the alleviation of symptoms associated with oxidative stress and in the topic treatment of Candida infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0305.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Moringa oleifera; copper nanoparticles; polyphenolics; anti-bacterial; anti-fungal; antioxidant
Online: 26 November 2019 (03:45:52 CET)
The synthesis of metal nanoparticles using plant extracts is a very promising method in green synthesis. The medicinal value of Moringa oleifera leaves and the anti-microbial activity of metallic copper were combined in the present study to synthesize copper nanoparticles having a desirable added-value inorganic material. The use of a hydroalcoholic extract of M. oleifera leaves for the green synthesis of copper nanoparticles is an attractive method as it leads to the production of harmless chemicals and reduces waste. The total phenolic content in the M. oleifera leaves extract was 23.0 ± 0.3 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dried M. oleifera leaves powder. The M. oleifera leaves extract was treated with a copper sulphate solution. A color change from brown to black indicates the formation of copper nanoparticles. Characterization of the synthesized copper nanoparticles was performed using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FT-IR spectrometer, TEM, SEM, and XRD. The synthesized copper nanoparticles have an amorphous nature and particle size of 35.8-49.2 nm. We demonstrate that the M. oleifera leaves extract and the synthesized copper nanoparticles display considerable antioxidant activity. Moreover, the M. oleifera leaves extract and the synthesized copper nanoparticles exert potent anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis (MIC values for the extract: 500, 250, 250, and 250 μg/mL; MIC values for the cooper nanoparticles: 500, 500, 500, and 250 μg/mL, respectively). Similarly, the M. oleifera leaves extract and the synthesized copper nanoparticles exert relatively more potent anti-fungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans, and Candida glabrata (MIC values for the extract: 62.5, 62.5, 125, and 250 μg/mL; MIC values for the cooper nanoparticles: 125, 125, 62.5, and 31.2 μg/mL, respectively). Our study reveals that the green synthesis of copper nanoparticles using a hydroalcoholic extract of M. oleifera leaves was successful. In addition, the synthesized copper nanoparticles can be potentially employed in the treatment of various microbial infections due to their potent antioxidant, anti-bacterial, and anti-fungal activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0193.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: multi-agent system; decision support; anti-money laundering; anti-fraud
Online: 22 January 2018 (04:46:20 CET)
The anti-money laundering (AML) process has failed both in identifying suspicious cases in due time as in assisting the AML analysts in decision making. Starting from a new generic anti-fraud approach, this article presents the main aspects related to the development of a multi-agent system that goes beyond the capture of suspicious transactions, seeking to assist the human expert in the analysis of suspicious behaviour. First, a transactional behavioural profile of clients is obtained in a data mining process. A set of rules, obtained through data mining over a real database, in conjunction with specific rules based on legal aspects and in the expertise of the AML analysts make up the agents' knowledge base. The cases for which the system was unable to suggest a decision are flagged as requiring more detailed analysis. The system analysed 6 months of real transactions and indicated several suspicious profiles, a set of these suspects was investigated by the AML analysts who proved the suspicion of several cases, including some that had not been identified by the systems in execution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0409.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Macrophages; Senescence; Immunosenescence; Immunometabolism; Aging
Online: 18 May 2021 (10:15:20 CEST)
An intricate relationship between impaired immune functions and the age-related accumulation of tissue senescent cells (SC) is rapidly emerging. The immune system is unique as it undergoes mutually inclusive and deleterious processes of immunosenescence and cellular senescence with advancing age. While factors inducing immunosenescence and cellular senescence may be shared, however, both these processes are fundamentally different which holistically influence the aging immune system. Immunosenescence is a well-characterized phenomenon, but our understanding and biological impact of cellular senescence in immune cells, especially in the innate immune cells such as macrophages, is only beginning to be understood. Tissue-resident macrophages are long-lived, and while functioning in tissue-specific and niche-specific microenvironments, senescence in macrophages can be directly influenced by senescent host cells which may impact organismal aging. In addition, evidence of age-associated immunometabolic changes as drivers of altered macrophage phenotype and functions such as inflamm-aging is also emerging. The present review describes the emerging impact of cellular senescence vis-à-vis immunosenescence in aging macrophages, its biological relevance with other senescent non-immune cells, and known immunometabolic regulators. Gaps in our present knowledge, as well as strategies aimed at understanding cellular senescence and its therapeutics in the context of macrophages, have been reviewed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0362.v1
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:05:38 CET)
Polyamines are nitrogen-rich polycationic ubiquitous bioactive molecules with diverse evolutionary-conserved functions. Their activity interferes with numerous genes' expression resulting in cell proliferation and signaling modulation. The intracellular levels of polyamines are precisely controlled by evolutionary-conserved machinery. Their transient synthesis is induced by heat stress, radiation, and other traumatic stimuli in a process termed the polyamine stress response (PSR). Notably, polyamine levels decline gradually with age; and external supplementation improves lifespan in model organisms. This corresponds to cytoprotective and reactive oxygen species scavenging properties of polyamines. Paradoxically, age-associated neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by an upsurge in polyamine levels, indicating polyamine pleiotropic, adaptive, and pathogenic roles. Specifically, arginase overactivation and arginine brain deprivation have been shown to play an important role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. Here, we assert that a universal short-term PSR associated with acute stimuli is beneficial for survival. However, it becomes detrimental and maladaptive following chronic noxious stimuli, especially in an aging organism. Furthermore, we regard cellular senescence as an adaptive response to stress and suggest that PSR plays a central role in age-related neurodegenerative diseases' pathogenesis. Our perspective on AD proposes an inclusive reassessment of the causal relationships between the classical hallmarks and clinical manifestation. Consequently, we offer a novel treatment strategy predicated upon this view and suggest fine-tuning of arginase activity with natural inhibitors to preclude or halt the development of AD-related dementia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0432.v1
Online: 22 January 2021 (08:40:26 CET)
We have previously demonstrated that the acute ingestion of essential amino acids may augment net protein balance in the elderly. Using a double blind, randomized controlled trial, our objective was to compare an experimental meal replacement enriched with essential amino acids (EMR) compared to a commercial meal replacement (Optifast®) provided once/day (q.d.) for four weeks on body composition and physical function in older, obese participants. Twenty-seven individuals (69±5 yrs; body mass index of 32±4 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to EMR (n=13) or Optifast® (n=15) supplementation. Measurements of body composition, skeletal muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), intrahepatic lipid and physical function were completed pre- and post-supplementation. Body mass, fat mass, and visceral fat mass were reduced with EMR but not altered with Optifast®. Thigh muscle CSA increased ( 4.1 ± 1.9 cm2, P = 0.03) with EMR but not Optifast®. There was a significant increase in the distance covered during the six-minute walk test with EMR ( 21±26 m) but no change in Optifast® ( 22±54 m). Improvements in body composition and physical function support the efficacious use of EMR-based meal replacements in the obese elderly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0741.v1
Online: 31 July 2020 (09:55:18 CEST)
Loss of muscle mass and strength are progressing with aging. Exercise is a beneficial method to prevent physical disfunction and habitual exercise improve the muscle quality. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of a long-term habitual exercise on the senescence-accelerated mice prone8 (SAMP8). 27wk SAMP8 were used in this study. Mice were classified into 28 (28w) and 44 weeks old. The 44-week group was divided into the sedentary group (44w) and a group exercising for 16 weeks (44w+Ex). The 44w+Ex performed habitual exercise from 28 to 44 weeks. Additionally, grip strength tests were performed with mice aged 28 and 44 weeks. Mice were dissected and collected muscle samples and measured muscle weight at 44w. Gastrocnemius was decreased in 44w but were unchanged in 44w+Ex. Grip strength in 44w was lower trend, but there was no change in 44w+Ex. The phosphorylation levels of Akt and p70S6K as a protein synthesis marker were decreased in 44w. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV(COXIV) mRNA and protein levels decreased in 44w. These results suggested that long-term habitual exercise attenuated muscle mass and strength decline through improving muscle protein synthesis and mitochondrial function. In conclusion, long-term habitual exercise attenuated muscle mass and strength decline.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0672.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: aging; telomeres; senescence; mortality; disease
Online: 28 July 2020 (10:07:22 CEST)
The last 20 years have seen a surge in scientific activity and promising results in the study of aging and longevity. Many researchers have focused on telomeres, which are composed of a series of TTAGGG repeat nucleotide sequences at the ends of each chromosome. Measurements of the length of these telomere strands show that they decrease in length with increasing age, leading many authors to propose that when the length of these telomere strands decreases sufficiently, the cells enter into a state of replicative senescence, eventually leading to disease and death. These ideas are supported by evidence that short telomere length is correlated with increased mortality. In this paper, we extend this idea to make an actual calculation of the predicted mortality rate caused by short telomere length induced senescence (STLIS). We derive a simple equation for the mathematical relationship between telomere length and mortality rate. Using only 3 parameters based on telomere length measurement data of Canadians, we have calculated both the magnitude and the age dependence of the mortality rate, for both men and women. We show that these calculated data are in good quantitative agreement with the actual number of Canadians that die. This agreement provides strong evidence (but not proof) that the mechanism of STLIS plays an important role in the major diseases of aging (e.g., cardiovascular disease, many cancers, and diabetes mellitus) which dominate human mortality. This result represents significant progress in our understanding the factors behind the cause of aging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0146.v1
Online: 8 July 2020 (11:03:10 CEST)
Fenugreek seeds are widely used in Asia and other places of the world for their nutritive and medicinal properties. In Asia, Fenugreek seeds are also widely recommended for the geriatric populations. Here, we evaluated for the first time the effect of fenugreek seed feed supplementation on the liver antioxidant defense systems in aging mice. The study was conducted on 12 months aged mice which were given fenugreek seed dietary supplement. We have evaluated the activities of various antioxidant defense enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and estimated the phenolics and free radical scavenging properties in mice liver upon fenugreek supplementation. The estimation of SOD, GPx and GR activities in aged mice liver revealed a significant (P<0.01) difference among all the liver enzymes. Overall, this study reveals that fenugreek seed dietary supplementation has a positive effect in on the activities of the hepatic antioxidant defense enzymes in the aged mice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0490.v1
Online: 25 September 2018 (15:43:11 CEST)
Background: Melatonin is a potent mitochondrial, cytoprotective and antioxidant molecule with potentially strong anti-aging properties. Topical melatonin has shown to improve the clinical signs of skin aging. Melatosphere™ is a new lipid-based delivery system able to improve stability and skin penetration of melatonin when used in topical formulations. No clinical studies, using objective instrumental data, are available so far regarding the positive effect of Melatosphere™ in improving wrinkles in women with mild-to-moderate skin aging. Study Aim: We evaluate, in an open prospective, evaluator-blinded trial, the effects on skin texture of 2 months treatment with a Melatosphere™ based cream. Subjects and Methods: 15 women aged >45 years with mild to moderate facial skin aging (Glogau score ≥2) participated in the trial, after their informed consent. An ANTERA 3D computer-assisted skin analysis evaluation for the assessment of coarse and fine wrinkles of the periorbital area and melanin content was performed at baseline and after two months of treatment. An evaluator-blinded Investigator Global assessment of skin elastosis, roughness, level of dyscromia, skin dryness and presence of actinic damage was also performed at the same time points using a 4-grade score from 0 (no sign) to 3 (severe sign). Results: At baseline the mean (SD) IGA score was 8.2(1.0). After 2 months the IGA score significantly decrease to 4.2(1.4) (49% reduction) (P=0.0007). ANTERA 3D evaluations showed a significant reduction in skin coarse and fine wrinkles volume in the target area of -31% and -18%, respectively. Melanin content was reduced significantly by -17%. Conclusion: Topical melatonin carried in Melatosphere improves in the short-term signs of skin aging evaluated clinically and by ANTERA 3D device in women with mild to moderate skin aging.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0552.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: antagonistic pleiotropy; insulin/IGF-1 signalling; hyperfunction; quasi-programs; mTOR; theories of aging; programmatic aging
Online: 30 August 2021 (16:11:02 CEST)
The process of senescence (aging) is largely determined by the action of wild-type genes. For most organisms, this does not reflect any adaptive function of senescence, but rather evolutionary effects of declining selection against genes with deleterious effects later in life. To understand aging requires an account of how evolutionary mechanisms give rise to pathogenic gene action and late-life disease, that integrates evolutionary (ultimate) and mechanistic (proximate) causes into a single explanation. A well-supported evolutionary explanation by G.C. Williams argues that senescence can evolve due to pleiotropic effects of alleles with antagonistic effects on fitness and late-life health (antagonistic pleiotropy, AP). What has remained unclear is how gene action gives rise to late-life disease pathophysiology. One ultimate-proximate account is T.B.L. Kirkwood’s disposable soma theory. Based on the hypothesis that stochastic molecular damage causes senescence, this reasons that aging is coupled to reproductive fitness due to preferential investment of resources into reproduction, rather than somatic maintenance. An alternative and more recent ultimate-proximate theory argues that aging is largely caused by programmatic, developmental-type mechanisms. Here ideas about AP and programmatic aging are reviewed, particularly those of M.V. Blagosklonny (the hyperfunction theory) and J.P. de Magalhães (the developmental theory), and their capacity to make sense of diverse experimental findings is described.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Cd36; mass spectrometry; NAFLD; anti-lypase activity; anti-amylase activity; insulin resistance
Online: 9 April 2018 (08:28:02 CEST)
Rhizophora mangle L. is a well-known medicinal plant found in mangroves worldwide used to treatment diabetes. This study evaluated the chemical composition of the acetonic extract from Rhizophora mangle barks (AERM), by HPLC-PDA and FIA-ESI-IT-MS/MS and the effects on high-fat diet induced obesity in mice and its mechanism of action by gene expression of inflammatory markers (Pparg, Ppara, Srebf1, Cd36, Tnf, Ccl2, Lep, Il10, Il6, Fasn, 18s). High-fat diet fed mice during 12 weeks was used as model of obesity and associated alterations. The results were very satisfactory, the extract, rich in polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids and phenolic acids, displayed intense antioxidant activity in vitro (608 µmol Trolox/g), and showed excellent activity against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and reverse insulin resistance in a model of diet-induced obesity. We can registered a modulatory effect of AERM in liver PPAR-γ mRNA expression associated to an important inhibition of CD36 mRNA expression suggesting that AERM induces the down regulation of CD36 mRNA via PPAR-gamma inhibition. These results support the traditional knowledge about the use of R. mangle for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and reveal the potential of AERM for the treatment of NAFLD and management of obesity and comorbidities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0319.v1
Online: 24 March 2022 (02:20:36 CET)
We have developed a self-consistent model for predicting velocity of 1/2 screw dislocation in binary iron--carbon alloys gliding by a high-temperature Peierls mechanism. The methodology of modelling includes: (i) Kinetic Monte-Carlo (kMC) simulation of carbon segregation in dislocation core and determination the total carbon occupancy of the core binding sites; (ii) Determination of kink-pair formation enthalpy of a screw dislocation in iron---carbon alloy; (iii) KMC simulation of carbon drag and determination of maximal dislocation velocity at which the atmosphere of carbon atoms can follow a moving screw dislocation; (iv) Self consistent calculation of average velocity of screw dislocation in binary iron--carbon alloys gliding by a high-temperature kink-pair mechanism under constant strain rate. We conduct a quantitative analysis of the conditions of stress and temperature at which screw dislocation glide in iron--carbon alloy is accomplished by a high-temperature kink-pair mechanism. We estimate the dislocation's velocity at which screw dislocation brakes away from the carbon cloud and thermally-activated smooth dislocation propagation is interrupted by sporadic bursts controlled by athermal dislocation activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0082.v1
Online: 3 November 2021 (14:08:46 CET)
PSD-95 (Dlg4) is an ionotropic glutamate receptor scaffolding protein essential in synapse stability and neurotransmission. PSD-95 levels are reduced during aging and in neurodegenerative diseases like Huntington’s disease (HD), and it is believed to contribute to synaptic dysfunction and behavioral deficits. However, the mechanism responsible for PSD-95 dysregulation under these conditions is unknown. The Heat Shock transcription Factor 1 (HSF1), canonically known for its role in protein homeostasis, is also depleted in both aging and HD. Synaptic protein levels, including PSD-95, are influenced by alterations in HSF1 levels and activity, but the direct regulatory relationship between PSD-95 and HSF1 has yet to be determined. Here, we showed that HSF1 chronic or acute depletion in cell lines and mice decreased PSD-95 expression. Furthermore, HSF1(+/-) mice had reduced PSD-95 synaptic puncta that paralleled a loss in thalamo-striatal excitatory synapses, an important circuit disrupted early in HD. We demonstrated that HSF1 binds to regulatory elements present in the PSD-95 gene and directly regulates PSD-95 expression. HSF1 DNA-binding on the PSD-95 gene was disrupted in an age-dependent manner in WT mice and worsened in HD cells and mice, leading to reduced PSD-95 levels. These results demonstrate a direct role of HSF1 in synaptic gene regulation that has important implications in synapse maintenance in basal and pathological conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0004.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: cycle aging; Lithium battery; stochastic algorithm
Online: 29 October 2021 (12:08:24 CEST)
The prediction of capacity degradation, and more generally of the behaviors related to battery aging, is useful in the design and use phases of a battery to help improve the efficiency and reliability of energy systems. In this paper, a stochastic model for the prediction of battery cell degradation is presented. The proposed model takes its cue from an approach based on Markov chains, although it is not comparable to a Markov process, as the transition probabilities vary as the number of cycles that the cell has performed varies. The proposed model can reproduce the abrupt decrease in the capacity that occurs near the end of life condition (80% of the nominal value of the capacity) for the cells analyzed. Furthermore, we illustrate the ability of this model to predict the capacity trend for a lithium-ion cell with nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) at the cathode and graphite at the anode subjected to a life cycle in which there are different aging factors, using the results obtained for cells subjected to single aging factors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0310.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: aging; geroscience; hallmarks; paradigm; senescence; theory
Online: 13 May 2021 (14:29:48 CEST)
With the goal of representing common denominators of aging in different organisms López-Otín et al. in 2013 described nine hallmarks of aging. Since then, this representation has become a major reference point for the biogerontology field. The template for the hallmarks of aging account originated from landmark papers by Hanahan and Weinberg (2000, 2011) defining first six and later ten hallmarks of cancer. Here we assess the strengths and weaknesses of the hallmarks of aging account. As a checklist of diverse major foci of current aging research, it has provided a useful shared overview for biogerontology during a time of transition in the field. It also seems useful in applied biogerontology, to identify interventions (e.g. drugs) that impact multiple symptomatic features of aging. However, while the hallmarks of cancer provide a paradigmatic account of the causes of cancer with profound explanatory power, the hallmarks of aging do not. A worry is that as a non-paradigm the hallmarks of aging have obscured the urgent need to define a genuine paradigm, one that can provide a useful basis for understanding the mechanistic causes of the diverse aging pathologies. We argue that biogerontology must look and move beyond the hallmarks to understand the process of aging.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: aging; aerobic exercise; vascular occlusion; electromyography
Online: 19 March 2021 (11:11:26 CET)
Background and Objectives: Blood flow restriction (BFR) has been investigated as an alternative method combined with resistance training or AT to promote different health benefits for older people. Nevertheless, no study analyzed chronic effects of BFR on muscle activation in this population, and in some investigations, the application of BFR has been employed arbitrary pressures, which can be a serious methodological error, both from the results and of the risk to the health of the older. Thus, this study analyzed the effect of 24 weeks of walking with BFR on activation and muscle strength in elderly women with osteoporosis. Materials and Methods: Thirty older women (66.0±4.6 years) performed randomly to one of three training groups: WALK (moderate-intensity walking), WALK+BFR (low-intensity walking with BFR), or BFR (BFR alone). Muscle activation (sEMG) and strength of knee flexors and extensors were measured pre-intervention and after 12 and 24 weeks. Results: Only a trivial effect size (ES) for the WALK+BFR (ES= 0.16) was observed in sEMG of the knee flexors compared to WALK. A moderate effect was observed in sEMG of the knee extensors (ES= 0.65) for the WALK+BFR compared to the WALK. However, adverse effects were found in the strength of the knee flexors for the BFR (ES= −0.86) and WALK+BFR (ES= −0.69) compared to WALK. Adverse and null effects, respectively for the BFR (ES= −0.16) and WALK+BFR (ES= 0.06) groups, were also observed on the strength gain of the knee extensors. Conclusions: Low-intensity walk combined with BFR does not provide relevant chronic effects on strength gain or even limit muscle strength gain, however, due to greater activation of knee extensors over 24 weeks, it is possible to benefit from the use of similar strategies to obtain neuromuscular gains in the long‐term for elderly women with osteopenia and osteoporosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0127.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Osteoporosis; Senescence; SASP; Aging; Radiation; Senotherapeutic
Online: 3 February 2021 (17:00:00 CET)
Bone is a dynamic organ maintained by tightly regulated mechanisms. With old age, bone homeostasis which is maintained by an intricate balance between bone formation and bone resorption, undergoes deregulation. Oxidative stress-induced DNA damage, cellular apoptosis, and cellular senescence are all responsible for this tissue dysfunction and the imbalance in bone homeostasis. These cellular mechanisms have become a target for therapeutics to treat age-related osteoporosis. Pharmacological and genetic mouse models have shown the importance of senescent cell clearance in alleviating age-related osteoporosis. Senescent cells have an altered secretome, which may have an autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine function. The current review discusses the current and potential pathways which lead to a senescence profile in an aged skeleton. The review was written following an extensive literature survey of published studies, mostly excluding articles published on pre-print servers. The review discusses potential therapeutics targeting cellular senescence and the senescent secretome as underlying pathogenesis of an aging bone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0162.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: behaviour; BPSD; cognitive decline; aging; SAMP8.
Online: 8 January 2021 (13:48:22 CET)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by cognitive impairment and different non-cognitive deficits called “Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia” (BPSD) related to neurotrophin alterations, which differ from those presented in normal aging. Mouse models, both transgenics and inbreed mice models of AD, are a useful tool in understanding the underlying mechanisms of the disease. The SAMP8 (senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8) mice line was generated from AKR/J strain by Professor Toshio Takeda at the University of Kyoto. This strain exhibited a particular early-onset and accelerated aging phenotype. The present study characterizes and provides information regarding the non-cognitive and cognitive states as well as molecular alterations and their relationship, demonstrating the AD-like symptoms presented in older SAMP8 males. The cognitive impairment presented was accompanied by a reduction in sociability and an increase in aggressive as well as anxiety behaviours. Furthermore, changes in three of the most important neurotrophins, such as NT3, BDNF, and NGF as well as their receptors TrkA and TrkB, were found. Thus, the present results reveal new insights in this useful inbred mouse model of neurodegeneration and AD, demonstrating the potential relationship between neurotrophin alterations, cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric disorders (ND).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0079.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Mitochondria; Alzheimer’s Disease; mitophagy; neurodegeneration; aging
Online: 3 December 2020 (10:36:29 CET)
Stress mechanisms have long been associated with neuronal loss and neurodegenerative diseases. The origin of cell stress and neuronal loss likely stems from multiple pathways. These include (but are not limited to) bioenergetic failure, neuroinflammation, and loss of proteostasis. Cells have adapted compensatory mechanisms to overcome stress and circumvent death. One mechanism is mitophagy. Recent studies have implicated mitophagy in several neurodegenerative diseases and clinical trials are underway which target mitophagy pathways. Here, we review mitophagy pathways, the role of mitophagy in neurodegeneration, potential therapeutics, and the need for further study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0485.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: DEXA; BMD; BMC; Osteoporosis; BMI; Aging
Online: 21 August 2020 (11:29:10 CEST)
Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) measuring tool is a reliable and accurate technology to measure bone density and bone mineral composition. This research examined the composition and bone density (bone mineral composition and bone mineral density) of the whole body and representative body parts using DEXA. The participants were 240 healthy adult men and women who were divided into three groups based on age. The total bone mineral density (BMD) of women amounted to an average of 1.14 g/㎠ in Group A, 1.14 g/㎠ in Group B, and 0.98 g/㎠ in Group C. For men, the average BMD was 1.25 g/㎠ in Group A, 1.20 g/㎠ in Group B, and 1.17 g/㎠ in Group C. As a result, the reduction of age-specific BMD was shown to have a correlation with aging and body mass index(BMI), and it is determined that exercising on a regular basis can prevent reduction in BMD by maintaining appropriate muscle mass.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: osteosarcopenic obesity; exercise; diet; aging; fall
Online: 2 May 2018 (08:02:13 CEST)
Osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) is described by the simultaneous presence of osteopenia/osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and increased adiposity. Over time, older adults with OSO syndrome might be at greater risk for loss of physical function and bone fractures. Furthermore, a sedentary lifestyle, inadequate nutrition, pharmaceutical drugs and chronic conditions encompass the multifactorial nature of OSO syndrome. Physical activity and a healthy diet play a crucial role in management and treatment of OSO syndrome. Research has shown that even low-intensity physical activity or daily habitual activity can maintain bone mineral density, muscle strength and improve muscle quality, and reduce adiposity. However, older adults with high risk of fall and injuries require tailored exercise intensity. Also, balanced daily intake of vitamin D, calcium and protein is important in prevention and treatment of OSO syndrome in postmenopausal women. Effective measurement of bone mass, muscle mass and strength is required when detecting OSO syndrome and to evaluate the balance, strength and endurance of elder individuals and severity of the condition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0099.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: aging; bioactive nutrients; dietary; nutrigenomics; Oxiinflammaging
Online: 19 December 2016 (09:37:23 CET)
The increase in the average lifespan and the consequent proportional growth of the elderly segment of society has furthered the interest in studying ageing processes. Ageing may be considered a multifactorial process derived from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors including lifestyle. There is ample evidence in many species that the maximum age attainable (maximum lifespan potential, MLSP) is genetically determined and several mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms are associated with longevity. Many studies have shown that most of the phenotypic characteristics observed in the aging process are the result of the occurrence, with age, of a low grade chronic pro-inflammatory status called "inflammaging", partially under genetic control. The term indicate that aging is accompanied by a low degree of chronic inflammatory, an up-regulation of inflammatory response and that inflammatory changes are common to many age-related diseases. Therefore, the theory of oxidation-inflammation was proposed as the main cause of aging. Accordingly, the chronic oxidative stress, that appears with age, affects all cells and especially those of the regulatory systems, such as the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems and the communication between them. This prevents an adequate homeostasis and, therefore, the preservation of health. It was also proposed that the immune system plays a key role in the aging process, specifically in the rate of aging, since there is a relationship between the redox state and functional capacity of immune cells and longevity of individuals. Moreover, the role of the immune system in senescence could be of universal application. A confirmation of the central role of the immune system in oxi-inflamm-aging is that the administrationintake? of adequate amounts of antioxidants in the diet improves immune function, decreases their oxidative stress, and consequently increases longevity. The promotion of healthy lifestyles is one of the major goals of governments and international agencies all over the world. Human molecular processes are influenced by both physiological pathways and exogenous factors which include, for instance, those originating from diet. Dietary intake has substantive effects on molecular processes of metabolic health. Nutrients can directly regulate physiological changes in human body. In fact, in addition to have an energetic and structural value, nutritional intake provides bioactive molecules which are selectively able to modulate specific metabolic pathways, noticeably affecting cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases development or progress. Numerous bioactive nutrients are being progressively identified and their chemopreventive effects are being described at clinical and molecular mechanism levels. Systematic analyses comprise all “omics” technologies (such as transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) and the goal is to investigate bioactive molecules effects derived from the diet. Nutrigenomic knowledge on physiologic status and disease risk will provide both developments of better diagnostic procedures and of new therapeutic strategies specifically targeted on nutritionally relevant processes. The present review was aimed to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying beneficial effects of bioactive nutrients and nutrigenomics on age-related diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0728.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: mitochondrial permeability transition; aging; longevity; aging-driven degenerative disease; Reactive Oxygen Species; mitophagy; autophagy; Parkinson’s disease
Online: 30 November 2020 (12:53:43 CET)
The activity of the mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore, mPTP, a highly regulated multi-component mega-channel, is enhanced in aging and in aging-driven degenerative diseases. mPTP activity accelerates aging by releasing large amounts of cell-damaging Reactive Oxygen Species, Ca2+ and NAD+. The various pathways that control the channel activity, directly or indirectly, can therefore either, inhibit, or accelerate aging, retards, or enhance the progression of aging-driven degenerative diseases, and determine lifespan and healthspan. Autophagy, a catabolic process that removes and digests damaged proteins and organelles protects the cell against aging and disease. However, the protective effect of autophagy depends on mTORC2/SKG1 inhibition of mPTP. Autophagy is inhibited in aging cells. Mitophagy, a specialized form of autophagy, which retards aging by removing mitochondrial fragments with activated mPTP, is also inhibited in aging cells, and this inhibition leads to increased mPTP activation, which is a major contributor to neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Diseases. The Increased activity of mPTP in aging turns autophagy/mitophagy into a destructive process leading to cell aging and death. Several drugs and lifestyle modifications that enhance healthspan and lifespan enhance autophagy and inhibit the activation of mPTP. Therefore, elucidating the intricate connections between pathways that activate and inhibit mPTP, in the context of aging and degenerative diseases, could enhance the discovery of new drugs and lifestyle modifications that slow aging and degenerative disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0003.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Anti-platelets; Anti-rheumatic drugs; Bisphosphonates; Oral anticoagulants; Oral contraceptives; Vitamin K antagonist
Online: 2 May 2020 (11:50:24 CEST)
More than 15,000 prescriptions and over the counter drugs are available according to the US Food and Drug Administration website. Moreover, several herbal medicines and dietary supplements are readily available to add to the list of possible drugs, which can potentially cause adverse drug interactions. These are a pressing concern for all as they can interfere with many dental procedures. Additionally, the number of geriatric patients seen in routine dental practice has increased over time. This implies that there are more patients with multiple diseases and health conditions like hypertension, diabetes, problems associated with the cardiovascular, renal and gastrointestinal systems, arthritis, osteoporosis, etc. All these require patients to be on certain medications. Furthermore, advancement in the dental field has led to more complex dental procedures (implants, grafts) being carried out in a general dental practice. These advanced and slightly more invasive treatments require the use of certain drugs before, during and after the treatment like local anesthetics, vasoconstrictors, anxiolytics, analgesics and antibiotics. All of these can possibly interact with medications a patient is already taking and can also interfere with the current dental treatment and create complications. This article aims to provide necessary information about commonly encountered systemic diseases and associated treating medications, their mechanism of action, possible complications and their management. The classes of drugs discussed include anti-platelet agents, vitamin K antagonists, novel oral anticoagulants, bisphosphonates, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and oral contraceptives.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0042.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: glucosinolate; sulphopharane; allyl isothiocyanate; phase II detoxification enzymes; anti-tumour agents; anti-bacterials.
Online: 27 July 2019 (08:40:12 CEST)
Abstract: This study reviewed aspects of the biology of two members of the glucosinolate family, namely sinigrin and glucoraphanin and their anti-tumour and anti-microbial properties. Sinigrin and glucoraphanin are converted by the β-sulphoglucosidase myrosinase or the gut microbiota into their bioactive forms, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and sulphoraphanin (SFN) which constitute part of a sophisticated defence system plants developed over several hundred million years of evolution to protect them from parasitic attack from aphids, ticks, bacteria or nematodes. Delivery of these components from consumption of cruciferous vegetables rich in the glucosinolates also delivers many other members of the glucosinolate family so the dietary AITCs and SFN do not act in isolation. In-vitro experiments with purified AITC and SFN have demonstrated their therapeutic utility as antimicrobials against a range of clinically important bacteria and fungi. AITC and SFN are as potent as Vancomycin in the treatment of bacteria listed by the World Health Organisation as antibiotic-resistant "priority pathogens" and also act as anti- cancer agents through the induction of phase II antioxidant enzymes which inactivate potential carcinogens. Glucosinolates may be useful in the treatment of biofilms formed on medical implants and catheters by problematic pathogenic bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and are potent antimicrobials against a range of clinically important bacteria and fungi. The glucosinolates have also been applied in the prevention of bacterial and fungal spoilage of food products in advanced atmospheric packaging technology which improves the shelf-life of these products.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0124.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Senescence; EMT; NF-κB; Inflammation; Epigenetics; Aging
Online: 13 April 2022 (10:22:37 CEST)
The origin of cancer remains one of the most important enigmas in modern biology. This paper presents a hypothesis for the origin of carcinomas in which cellular aging and inflammation enable the recovery of cellular plasticity that may ultimately result in cancer. The process is described as the result of dedifferentiation undergone by epithelial cells in hyperplasia due to replicative senescence towards a mesenchymal cell state with potential cancerous behavior. In support of the hypothesis, the molecular, cellular, and histopathological evidence was critically reviewed and reinterpreted when necessary to postulate a plausible generic model for the origin and progression of carcinomas. In addition, the implications of this theoretical framework for the current strategies of cancer treatment are discussed against recent evidence of the molecular events underlying the epigenetic switches involved in the resistance of breast carcinomas. Subsequently, is proposed an epigenetic landscape for their progression and a potential mechanism to restrain the degree of dedifferentiation and malignant behavior. Finally, is suggested a novel understanding of the involution and carcinogenesis of tissues associated with aging as a perspective that might inspire integrative approaches in the study and management of chronic diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0380.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: Exercise training; arrhythmias; Drosophila; apolipoprotein B; aging
Online: 29 March 2022 (10:07:13 CEST)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) places a heavy burden on older patients and the global healthcare system. A large body of evidence suggests that exercise training is essential in preventing and treating cardiovascular disease, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we used the Drosophila melanogaster animal model to study the effects of early-life exercise training (ELET) on the aging heart and lifespan. We found in flies that age-induced arrhythmias are conserved across different genetic backgrounds. The fat body is the primary source of circulating lipoproteins in flies. Inhibition of fat body apoLpp (the flies apoB homolog) demonstrated that low expression of apoLpp reduced the development of arrhythmias in aged flies but did not affect average lifespan. At the same time, ELET can also reduce the expression of apoLpp mRNA in aged flies and have a protective effect on the heart, which is similar to the inhibition of apoLpp mRNA. Although treatment of apoLppRNAi and ELET alone had no significant effect on lifespan, the combination of apoLppRNAi and ELET extended the average lifespan of flies. Therefore, we conclude that apoLppRNAi and ELET are sufficient to resist age-induced arrhythmias, which may be related to the decreased expression of apoLpp mRNA, and that apoLppRNAi and ELET have a combined effect on prolonging the average lifespan.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0468.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: aging; elderly; pain; opioids; dementia; cognitive impairment
Online: 29 December 2021 (13:42:02 CET)
Background: Assessment and management of pain in elderly people with cognitive impairment is particularly challenging. Physiological changes due to aging as well as comorbidities and polypharmacy are responsible for a complex clinical approach. Concomitantly, in cognitive impairment, including advanced dementia, changes in central nervous system along with changes in the peripheral nervous system due to aging have a significant impact in pain perception. Often clinicians decide to prescribe opioids in order to relief pain, also without a clear indication. Aim: This review aims to investigate the effect of opioids in elderly patients with cognitive impairment. Methods: A literature search of PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane databases was conducted using keyword searches to generate lists of articles which were screened for relevance by title and abstract to give a final list of articles for full-text review. Further articles were identified by snowballing from the reference lists of the full-text articles. Results: This review discuss the complex physiological and pharmacological changes in elderly as well as the neurological changes that affect pain perception in this population. Additionally, it focuses on cognitive impairment and pain in Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, the pain assessment in the elderly with cognitive impairment as well as the safety of opioid use in elderly. Information regarding opioid prescription in nursing homes as well as recorded indications for opioids use, type and dosing of opioid and compliance of treatment in advanced dementia are also provided. Conclusions: Opioid prescription in elderly population with cognitive impairment is particularly complex. All healthcare professionals involved in the care of such patients, need to be aware of the challenges and strive to ensure analgesic use is guided by appropriate and accurate pain assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0387.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Aging; Accidental Falls; Frail Elderly; Postural Balance
Online: 22 November 2021 (11:50:39 CET)
This study aimed to characterize the risk of falling in low, moderate and high risk participants from two different geographical locations using a portable force-plate. A sample of 390 older adults from South and North America were matched for age, sex, height and weight. All participants performed a standardized balance assessment using a force plate. Participants were classified in low, moderate and high risk of falling. No differences were observed between South and North American men, nor comparing North American men and women. South American women showed the significantly shorter center of pressure path length compared to other groups. The majority of the sample was categorized as having low risk of falling (male: 65.69 % and female: 61.87 %), with no differences between men and women. Also, no differences were found between North vs. South Americans, nor for falls risk levels when male and female groups were compared separately. In conclusion, South American women had better balance compatible with the status of the 50-59 years’ normative age-range. The prevalence of low falls risk was ~ 61-65 % and the prevalence of moderate to high risk was ~ 16-19 %. The frequency of fall risk did not differ significantly between North and South Americans, nor between males and females.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: skin aging; punicalagin; niosomes; UV radiation; collagen
Online: 24 March 2021 (17:35:18 CET)
Skin aging is one of the most common problems facing humanity. It occurs because of altering the balance between free radicals and antioxidants and increasing the amount of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skin cells, which leads to oxidative stress especially when exposed to UV radiation. Antioxidants can neutralize the harmful effects of ROS, and secondary plant metabolites can help protect against UV radiation. In this study, punicalagin was extracted from pomegranate and concentrations of total polyphenolics and flavonoids were determined and antioxidant activities measured. Punicalagin was loaded onto niosomes and its morphology and release were studied. An in vitro study was performed on human fibroblast cell line HFB4 cells with aging induced by H2O2 and UV radiation. Cell cycle arrest was studied and different genes (MMP3, Col1A1, Timp3, and TERT) involved in the skin aging process were selected to measure punicalagin's effect. Punicalagin succeeded in reducing the growth arrest of HFB4 cells, activated production of the Col1A1 and Timp3 genes, maintained collagen level, and lowered of MMP3. Punicalagin increased human TERT concentration in skin cells. Punicalagin is promising as a natural antioxidant to protect human skin from aging.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0491.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: mTORC1; mTORC2; rapamycin; rapalog; aging; lifespan; longevity
Online: 22 February 2021 (15:34:25 CET)
Inhibition of mTORC1 (mechanistic Target Of Rapamycin Complex 1) signaling promotes health and longevity in diverse model organisms. Over the past decade, excitement has built over the possibility that treatment with the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin can be utilized to treat or prevent age-related disease in humans. However, concerns over the side effects of rapamycin on immunity and metabolism have precluded the routine use of rapamycin as a geroprotective therapy. Here, we discuss the evidence that these negative side effects of rapamycin are largely mediated by off-target inhibition of a second mTOR Complex (mTORC2). Further, we discuss how intermittent treatment with rapamycin, specific dietary regimens, and new molecules may provide routes to the safer and more selective inhibition of mTORC1. We conclude that the time is ripe for the development of therapies based on the safe and selective inhibition of mTORC1 for the treatment or prevention of diseases of aging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0336.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: behaviour; BPSD; cognitive decline; aging; correlations; SAMP8
Online: 12 November 2020 (09:46:48 CET)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by cognitive impairment and different non-cognitive deficits called “Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia” (BPSD) related to neurotrophin alterations, which differ from those presented in normal aging. Mouse models, both transgenics and inbreed mice models of AD, are a useful tool in understanding the underlying mechanisms of the disease. The SAMP8 (senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8) mice line was generated from AKR/J strain by Professor Toshio Takeda at the University of Kyoto. This strain exhibited a particular early-onset and accelerated aging phenotype. The present study characterizes and provides information regarding the non-cognitive, cognitive and neurotrophin alterations and their correlation, demonstrating the AD-like symptoms presented in older males SAMP8. The cognitive impairment presented was accompanied by a reduction in sociability and an increase in aggressive as well as anxiety behaviours. Furthermore, changes in two of the most important neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT3) were found. Thus, the present results reveal new insights in this useful inbred mouse model of neurodegeneration and AD, demonstrating the potential relationship between neurotrophin modifications, cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric disorders (ND).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0539.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: brain aging; energy metabolism; neurodegeneration; neurodegenerative disorders
Online: 23 September 2020 (04:55:21 CEST)
A growing body of evidence indicates that aging of the brain is strictly related to the decline of energy metabolism. In particular, in older adults, the neuronal metabolism of glucose declines steadily resulting in a growing deficit of ATP production. The decline is evoked by deficient NAD recovery in the salvage pathway and subsequent impairment of the Krebs cycle. NAD deficit impairs also the activity of NAD-dependent enzymes. All these open vicious circles of neurodegeneration and neuronal death. Some brain structures are particularly prone to aging and neurodegeneration. These are pathological foci of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. This review article summarizes the impacts and mutual relationships between metabolic processes both on neuronal and brain levels. It also provides directions on how to reduce the risk of neurodegeneration and protect the elderly against neurodegenerative diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0532.v1
Online: 30 April 2020 (13:58:41 CEST)
The disproportionate incidences of COVID-19-related hospitalization and mortality for different age groups and various underlying health conditions is a result of a complex social predisposition to the exposure, resistance, and tolerance for the infection. Based on the observed data as well as the molecular mechanisms for viral entry and replication, cellular senescence related to aging, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes appears to be strongly correlated with the SARS-CoV-2 infections resulting in higher COVID-19 related complications and mortality. Establishing such a correlation may allow us to better explain the pathobiology as well as the differential nature of the SARS-CoV-2 infections and consider targeted control and therapeutic strategies to combat the disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0025.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: terminology, health, aging, biological age, wellbeing, biomarker
Online: 1 August 2018 (15:00:47 CEST)
Despite increasing research efforts, there is a lack of consensus on defining aging or health. To understand the underlying processes, and to foster the development of targeted interventions towards increasing one’s health, there is an urgent need: (1) to find a broadly acceptable and useful definition of health, based on a list of features (which may or may not be molecular); (2) to operationalize features of health so that it can be measured; (3) to identify predictive biomarkers and (molecular) pathways of health, and (4) to suggest interventions, such as nutrition and exercise, targeted at putative causal pathways and processes. Based on a survey of the literature, we propose to define health as a state of an individual characterized by the core features of (a) physiological function, (b) cognitive function and (c) physical function, amended, specifically in case of humans, by (d) lack of disease, and by (e) reproductive function. Often used concepts such as lack of frailty, allostatic load, or self-reported health (in case of human), and indices such as the Healthy Aging Index can be viewed as projections or surrogates of our definition. We further define aging as the set of all processes in an individual that reduce its “wellbeing”, that is, its health or survival or both. We define biomarkers of health by their attribute of predicting future health better than chronological age. We define healthspan pathways as molecular features of health that relate to each other, specifically by belonging to the same molecular pathway. Our conceptual framework may integrate diverse operationalizations of health and guide precision prevention efforts that are a key to reducing the need for medical and nursing care.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0023.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: physical exercise; irisin; neurodegeneration; aging; Alzheimer’s disease
Online: 11 February 2018 (04:28:07 CET)
Irisin, a skeletal muscle-secreted myokine, produced in response to physical exercise, has protective functions in both the central and the peripheral nervous systems, including the regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factors and modification of telomere length. Such beneficial effects may inhibit or delay the emergence of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This review is based on the hypothesis that irisin produced by physical exercise helps control AD progression. Herein, we describe the physiology of irisin and its potential role in delaying or preventing AD. Although current and ongoing studies on irisin show promising results, further research is required to clarify its potential as a meaningful therapeutic target for treating human diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0036.v1
Subject: Keywords: Sorghum bicolor leaf extract; SBLS; Jobelyn®; antioxidant; Immune-modulatory; anti-inflammatory; anti-anemia; HIV
Online: 7 December 2017 (04:37:20 CET)
The West-African variety of Sorghum bicolor leaf sheath (SBLS) Jobelyn® is a natural remedy, which has gained international recognition for its anti-anemic effect and energy boosting qualities in debilitating diseases. The widespread use of traditional medicine in the region usually confirms its safety, but not its efficacy or deep assessment of their pharmacological properties. The other major issue for herbal-based treatments is the lack of definite and complete information about the composition of the extracts. Despite limitations, efforts have been made in isolation and characterisation of active compounds in this specie of sorghum showing various subclasses of flavonoids including apigeninidin, a stable 3-deoxyanthocyanidin and potential fungal growth inhibitor, which accounts for 84% of the total extract. Non-clinical in vitro and in vivo studies support previous indications that this variety of Sorghum bicolor possesses several biologically active compounds with potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging and neuro-protective properties. Clinical studies show that SBLS has the ability to boost hemoglobin concentrations in anemic conditions and most remarkably to increase CD4 count in HIV-positive patients. The multiple effects and high safety profiles of this extract may encourage its development as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of anemia, chronic inflammatory conditions or in the symptomatic management of HIV infections. This review describes the potential therapeutic aspects of SBLS extract and its potential benefits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Pediatrics; Gait; Rehabilitation; Anti-gravity; Treadmill
Online: 1 December 2021 (12:57:48 CET)
The purpose of this scoping review was to examine the literature on the use of anti-gravity treadmill and its effects on lower limb motor functions in children and adolescents with locomotor impairments. Four databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Web of Science) were searched for articles from inception to August 2021. Inclusion criteria were: (1) experimental or quasi-experimental studies using the anti-gravity training as the primary intervention; (2) studies conducted in paediatricpediatric participants; (3) articles reporting outcomes related to the lower limb functions; and (4) studies published in French or English. Fifteen articles were included in the review. Studies included children and adolescents aged 4–18 years with locomotor impairments. The intervention duration was ranged from 2 and to 12 weeks, with 2-5 sessions per week. Included studies showed reported that anti-gravity training induces improvements in muscle strength, balance, spatiotemporal gait parameters, and walking endurance in children with locomotor impairments. This review provides relevant information about the modalities, outcomes and limits associated with the anti-gravity training protocol reported in the literature. Overall, the anti-gravity treadmill training could be viewed as a valuable training modality for children with cerebral palsy. However, more precise, and comprehensive description of anti-gravity rehabilitation protocols would be useful.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0230.v1
Online: 21 January 2020 (03:15:50 CET)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) which is chiefly originated by a retrovirus named Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), has influenced about 70 million populations worldwide. Even though several advancements have been invented in the field of antiretroviral combination therapy, still HIV has become the dominant reason for death in South Africa, for example. The current antiretroviral therapies have achieved success in providing instant HIV suppression but with countless undesirable adverse effects. In the present day, the biodiversity of the plant kingdom is being explored by several researchers for the discovery of potent anti-HIV drugs with different mechanisms of action. The primary challenge is to afford a treatment that is free from any sort of risk of drug resistance and serious side effects. Hence, there is a strong demand to evaluate the drugs obtained from natural plants as well as the synthetic derivatives that have been derived from the natural compounds by various chemical reactions. Several plants such as Andrographis paniculata, Dioscorea bulbifera, Aegle marmelos, Wistaria floribunda, Lindera chunii, Xanthoceras sorbifolia and others have displayed significant anti-HIV activity showing more potent anti-HIV activity along with their structures, SARs & important key findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0060.v1
Subject: Keywords: mobile app, software quality anti-patterns
Online: 5 December 2019 (04:16:35 CET)
As the time passes the modification in technology world lead to the evaluation in mobile application as well. With evaluation in mobile industry it is an open challenge for software quality researcher that how to enhance software quality to meet the needs of changes? Quality assurance play a key role in differentiating good application from bed application. With the continuous evaluation of mobile application developing process should be quick and efficient to comply with user requirements and satisfaction. While the listed requirement leads to bad design choices known as antipatterns, which in turn affect the reliability of the code. A tool based method PAPRIKA is used in the proposed re-search to identify and monitor these antipatterns together with a two-step assessment model for software quality assurance and object oriented software quality matrix.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0170.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Scandoside; NF-κB; MAPK; Anti-inflammation
Online: 18 January 2018 (07:03:53 CET)
The iridoids of H. diffusa play an important role in the anti-inflammatory process, but the specific iridoid with anti-inflammatory effect and its mechanism is lack of study. An iridoid compound named scandoside (SCA) was isolated from H. diffusa and its anti-inflammatory effect was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Its anti-inflammatory mechanism was confirmed by in intro experiment and molecular docking analysis. As results, SCA significantly decreased the productions of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and inhibited the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. SCA treatment suppressed the phosphorylation of inhibitor of nuclear transcription factor kappa-B alpaha (IκB-α), p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The docking data suggested that SCA had great binding abilities to COX-2, iNOS and IκB. Taken together, the results indicated that the anti-inflammatory effect of SCA is due to inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators via suppressing the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, which provided useful information for its application and development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0174.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: steroid; metabolism; anti-inflammatory drug; inhibition
Online: 24 May 2017 (08:25:26 CEST)
In vitro studies show that diclofenac inhibits enzymatic steroid glucuronidation. This study was designed to investigate the influence of diclofenac on the excretion of stanozolol and 3'-hydroxystanozolol via analyses in hair, blood and urine in vivo in a rat study. Brown Norway rats were administered with stanozolol (weeks 1-3) and diclofenac (weeks 1-6). Weekly assessment of steroid levels in hair was complemented with spot urine and serum tests. Levels of both stanozolol and 3'-hydroxystanozolol steadily increased in hair during stanozolol treatment and decreased post-treatment, but remained readily detectable for 6 weeks. In contrast, compared to control rats, diclofenac significantly reduced urinary excretion of 3’-hydroxystanozolol which was undetectable in most samples. This is the first report of diclofenac altering steroid metabolism in vivo, detrimentally affecting detection in urine, but not in hair which holds considerable advantages over urinalysis for anti-doping tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0236.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; BBIBP-CorV; children 3-12 years old; the anti-spike; Anti-nucleocapsid; Neutralizing antibody
Online: 16 March 2022 (15:24:51 CET)
Background and Objectives: In the current Covid-19 pandemic, children below the age of 12 could manifest Covid-19 symptoms and serve as a reservoir for the virus in the community. The present study was conducted to evaluate the reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of BBIBP-CorV, prior to involving this age group in the vaccination program in the kingdom of Bahrain. Subjects and Methods: The study included 582 children from 3 to 12 years old of Bahraini and non-Bahraini nationality, all of which contributed to the reactogenicity study. Of those, 401 contributed to the immunogenicity study. All children received 2 doses of BBIBP-CorV inactivated virus 3 weeks apart. To assess reactogenicity, children were followed up for 5 weeks to evaluate any vaccine-related adverse events (AE). To assess immunogenicity, blood was collected on day 0 and day 35 to assess antibody titer against S, N, and neutralizing antibody. Results: Of the 582 participants, (45.4%) were female, (54.61%) were male, with 49% in 9-12 age group. Of the 401 children contributing to the immunogenicity study, 274 (68.3%) had no prior exposure to Covid-19. The overall incidence of AE was 27.7%. No significant difference was found among different age groups. The most frequent AE was local (at the injection site) and occurred in 16% of children, followed by fever in 9.3%. No serious adverse events were reported. The Seroconversion rate was 100% among children with no prior exposure to Covid-19. Children with previous Covid-19 exposure had higher averages of anti-S (2379 U/ml compared to 409.1), anti-N (177.6 U/ml compared to 30.9) and neutralizing antibody (93.7 U/ml compared to 77.1) than children with no prior exposure at day 35. Conclusions: Two doses of COVID-19 BBIBP-CorV on the subjects aged between 3 to 12 has good safety and tolerance and can induce an effective immune response and neutralizing antibody titer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0454.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Carica papaya; fermented papaya preparation (FPP); free radical scavenging; antioxidant; oxidative stress; anti-diabetic; anti-carcinogenic
Online: 24 July 2018 (11:39:50 CEST)
The simplistic morphological characteristics of the Carica papaya, papaya or ‘pawpaw’ should not be the cause for underestimating its potential as a nutraceutical. The market for papaya has been expanding at a staggering rate, partly due to its applicability as a biofortified product, but mostly for its phytochemical properties and traditional health benefits. Recent characterization studies have showed that the entirety of papaya or using a formulation of fermented papaya promotion (FPP) displays effective free radical scavenging abilities, thought to be influenced by its phenolic, carotenoids, flavonoid or amino acid profile. Aiming at reducing the impact of free radical-induced oxidative damage in the human system, the antioxidant properties of FPP have been found to potently target a broad spectrum of diseases ranging from neurological impairments such as senile dementia to systemic diseases, to its interference at the cellular level and support of normal biological ageing processes. FPP has thus been extensively investigated for its ability to exert cellular protective effects and reduce oxidative stress via mitigation of genetic damage, lipid peroxidation and enzymatic inactivation in diseases. Oxidative stress reduction strategies using FPP and its holistic approach in disease prevention and management, with a focus on diabetes, cancer and cognitive health, contributes unequivocally to wellness in an aging population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0091.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: calorie restriction; aging; inflammation; autophagy; senescence.; skeletal muscle
Online: 6 September 2022 (11:01:40 CEST)
Calorie restriction (CR), defined as a reduction of the total calorie intake of 30% to 60% without malnutrition, is the only nutritional strategy that has proven to extend lifespan, prevent or delay the onset of age-associated diseases, and delay the functional decline in a wide range of species. However, little is known about the effects of CR when started early in life. We sought to analyze the effects of CR in the skeletal muscle of young Wistar rats. For this, 3-month-old male and female rats were subjected to 40% CR or fed ad libitum for 3 months. Gastrocnemius muscles were used to extract RNA and total protein. Western blot and RT-qPCR were performed to evaluate the expression of key markers/pathways modulated by CR and affected by aging. CR decreased body and skeletal muscle weight in both sexes. No differences were found in most senescence, antioxidant, and nutrient sensing pathways analyzed. However, we found a sexual dimorphism in markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and mitochondrial function in response to CR. Our data show that young female rats treated with CR exhibit similar expression patterns of key genes/pathways associated with healthy aging when compared to old animals treated with CR, while in male rats these effects are reduced. Additional studies are needed to understand how early or later life CR exerts positive effects on health- and lifespan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0424.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Aging; Attitudes; Subjective Well-being; Ageism; Psychometric Validation
Online: 25 August 2022 (03:17:06 CEST)
Scientific literature shows increased interest in the aged and the aging phenomenon. The Aging Attitudes Questionnaire - AAQ was validated for the Portuguese population to understand the importance of attitudes towards old age and their impact on the subjective well-being of the elderly. A sample of 400 subjects (from 18 to 93 years) answered a socio-demographic questionnaire, and the AAQ was composed of three subscales (psychosocial losses, physical change, and psychological growth). The CFA confirmed the tri-factorial structure with very good adjustment of the model to the data with the Cronbach alpha of the total scale scoring .84 and ranging from .65 to .77 for each factor. A total of 9 items were omitted both for poor factor loadings (<0.50. Notwithstanding, 3 items below the criteria were maintained, as they conceptually fit into the factor. Of the final 15 AAQp items, 5 belong to the Psychosocial Loss factor, 6 to Physical Change, and 4 to Psychosocial Growth. This tree factor model explained 50.1 % of the total variance. In conclusion, this study supports that AAQ has acceptable validity, confirming the composite reliability and the discriminant validity, but not the convergent validity. Through multi-group analysis, the invariance of the scale was confirmed. This validation is of pivotal importance once it allows measuring the attitudes towards aging, thus facilitating the promotion of wellbeing across the lifespan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0208.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: aging; intestinal microbiota; dysbiosis; probiotics; microbial co-occurrences
Online: 17 February 2022 (10:59:55 CET)
Age-related alterations in the gut microbiome composition and its impacts on the host’s health have been well described; however, detailed analyses of the gut microbial structure defining ecological microbe-microbe interactions is limited. One of the ways to determine these interactions is by understanding microbial co-occurrence patterns. We previously showed promising abilities of Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1 on the aging gut microbiome and immune system. However, the potential of the DDS-1 strain to modulate microbial co-occurrence patterns is unknown. Hence, we aimed to investigate the ability of L. acidophilus DDS-1 to modulate the fecal, mucosal and cecal-related microbial co-occurrence networks in young and aging C57BL/6J mice. Our Kendall’s tau correlation measures of co-occurrence revealed age-related changes in the gut microbiome, which were characterized by reduced number of nodes and associations across sample types when compared to younger mice. After four-week supplementation, L. acidophilus DDS-1 differentially modulated the overall microbial community structure in fecal and mucosal samples as compared to cecal samples. Beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Akkermansia acted as connectors in aging networks in response to L. acidophilus DDS-1 supplementation. Our findings provided the first evidence of the DDS-1-induced gut microbial ecological interactions revealing the complex structure of microbial ecosystems with age.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0263.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: drug resistance; ABC transporter; efflux pump; cryptococcosis; aging
Online: 18 January 2022 (15:56:02 CET)
Cryptococcus neoformans causes meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised individuals, which is treated with Fluconazole (FLC) monotherapy when resources are limited. This can lead to azole resistance, which can be mediated by overexpression of ABC transporters, a class of efflux pumps. ABC pump-mediated efflux of FLC is also augmented in 10-generation old C. neoformans cells. Here, we describe a new ABC transporter Afr3 (CNAG_06909), which is overexpressed in C. neoformans cells of advanced generational age, that accumulate during chronic infection. The delta-afr3 mutant strain showed higher FLC susceptibility by FLC E-Test strip testing and also by a killing test that measured survival after 3 h FLC exposure. Furthermore, delta-afr3 cells exhibited lower Rhodamine 6G efflux compared to the H99 wild type cells. Afr3 was expressed in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae AD-delta strain, which lacks several drug transporters, thus reducing background transport. The AD-delta + Afr3 strain demonstrated a higher efflux with both Rhodamine 6G and Nile Red, even though the FLC MICs were not changed. Characterization of the delta-afr3 mutant revealed unattenuated growth but a prolongation (22%) of the replicative life span. In addition, delta-afr3 exhibited decreased resistance to macrophage killing and attenuated virulence in the Galleria mellonella infection model. In summary, our data indicate that a novel ABC pump Afr3p, which is upregulated in C. neoformans cells of advanced age may contribute to their enhanced FLC tolerance, by promoting drug efflux. Lastly, its role in macrophage resistance may also contribute to the selection of older C. neoformans cells during chronic infection.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0075.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: DNA methylation; epigenetic aging; bottlenose dolphin; chronological age
Online: 5 July 2021 (07:59:15 CEST)
Epigenetics, specifically DNA methylation, allows for estimation of animal age from blood or remotely sampled skin. This multi tissue epigenetic aging clock uses 110 longitudinal samples from 34 Navy bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), identifying 195 cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites associated with chronological aging via leave-one-individual-out-cross-validation (R2=0.95). With a median absolute error of 2.5 years this clock improves age estimation capacity in wild dolphins, expanding conservation efforts, enabling better understanding of population demographics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0701.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: retina; neurodegeneration; AMD; aging; neurogenesis; development; transcription factor
Online: 29 June 2021 (12:41:56 CEST)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex, multifactorial neurodegenerative disease that constitutes the most common cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly in developed countries. Incomplete knowledge about its pathogenesis prevents the search for effective methods of prevention and treatment of AMD, primarily its “dry” type, which is by far the most common (90% of all AMD cases). In recent years, AMD became younger: late stages of the disease are now detected in relatively young people. It is known that AMD pathogenesis—according to the age-related structural and functional changes in the retina—is linked with inflammation, hypoxia, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and an impairment of neurotrophic support, but the mechanisms that trigger the conversion of normal age-related changes to the pathological process as well as the reason for early AMD development remain unclear. In the adult mammalian retina, de novo neurogenesis is very limited. Therefore, the structural and functional features that arise during its maturation and formation can exert long-term effects on further ontogenesis of this tissue. The aim of this review is to discuss possible contributions of the changes/disturbances in retinal neurogenesis to the early development of AMD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0372.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Aging; Microbiome; Probiotics; Cellular senescence; SASP; Stress; Immunity
Online: 17 May 2021 (08:51:53 CEST)
The significance of diversity, composition, and functional attributes of the gut microbiota is recognized in human health and disease. Studies have also shown that the gut microbiota is related to human aging, and a causal relationship between gut microflora dysbiosis and chronic age-related disorders is also becoming apparent. Further, emerging evidence indicates that age-associated changes in the gut microbiome are predictors of human survival and longevity. Recent advances in our understanding of the cellular and molecular aspects of biological aging have revealed a cellular senescence-centric view of the aging process. However, the association between gut microbiome and cellular senescence is only beginning to be understood. The present review provides an integrative view of the emerging relationship between the gut microbiome and cellular senescence in aging and disease. Evidence relating to microbiome-mediated modulation of senescent cells, as well as senescent cells-mediated changes in intestinal homeostasis have been discussed. Unanswered questions and future research directions have also been deliberated to truly ascertain the relationship of the gut microbiome and cellular senescence for developing microbiome-based age-delaying and longevity promoting therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0542.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: action unit; aging; emotion; facial expression; facial recognition
Online: 20 April 2021 (12:47:43 CEST)
The ability to express and recognize emotion via facial expressions is well known to change with age. The present study investigated the differences in the facial recognition and facial expression of the elderly (n = 57) and the young (n = 115) and measure how each group uses different facial muscles for each emotion with Facial Action Coding System (FACS). In facial recognition task, the elderly did not recognize facial expressions better than young people and reported stronger feelings of fear and sad from photographs. In making facial expression task, the elderly rated all their facial expressions as stronger than the younger, but in fact, they expressed strong expressions in fear and anger. Furthermore, the elderly used more muscles in the lower face when making facial expressions than younger people. These results help to understand better how the facial recognition and expression of the elderly change, and show that the elderly do not effectively execute the top-down processing concerning facial expression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0021.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: COVID-19; metastasis; lung adenocarcinoma; smoking; aging; ACE2
Online: 6 July 2020 (10:14:03 CEST)
The recent COVID-19 outbreak in China led to a worldwide pandemic associated with a severe acute respiratory illness. A higher incidence of COVID-19 infection was demonstrated in cancer patients, including patients with lung cancer. This study was conducted to get insights into the reasons for this enhanced frequency of COVID-19 infection. Methods: Using different bioinformatic tools, the expression and methylation pattern of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 gene were analyzed in healthy and malignant tissues with a focus on lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and correlated to clinical parameters and smoking history. Results: ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were heterogeneously expressed across 36 healthy tissues with the highest expression in digestive, urinary and reproductive organs, while their expression was significantly lower in 36 cancer tissues. In LUAD, ACE2, but not TMPRSS2 was overexpressed, which inversely correlated to the promoter methylation. An age-dependent upregulation of ACE2 expression was found in LUAD compared to normal lung tissues. In a healthy lung, TMPRSS2 expression was dependent on sex and smoking history and downregulated in LUAD of smokers. Cancer progression was associated with decreased TMPRSS2, but unaltered ACE2 expression, while ACE2 expression in lung metastases of different cancers was higher than in metastasis of other sites. TMPRSS2, but not ACE2 expression, was associated with LUAD patients’ survival. Conclusions: Comprehensive molecular analyses revealed a heterogeneous, distinct expression and methylation profile of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in healthy lung vs LUAD tissues across sex, age and smoking history, which is associated with clinical parameters and might have implications for COVID-19 disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0305.v1
Online: 27 October 2019 (11:04:31 CET)
Collagen type I production decreases with aging, leading to wrinkles and impaired skin function. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a lipid-derived signaling molecule produced from arachidonic acid by cyclo-oxygenase, inhibits collagen production and induces matrix metallopeptidase 1 (MMP1) expression by fibroblasts in vitro. PGE2-induced collagen expression inhibition and MMP1 promotion are aging mechanisms. This study investigated the role of E-prostanoid 1 (EP1) in PGE2 signaling in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). When EP1 expression was inhibited by EP1 small interfering RNA (siRNA), there were no significant changes in messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of collagen, type I, alpha 1 (COL1A1)/MMP1 between siRNA-transfected NHDFs and siRNA-transfected NHDFs with PGE2. This result showed that EP1 is a PGE2 receptor. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation after PGE2 treatment significantly increased by ~2.5 times. In addition, PGE2 treatment increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in NHDFs. These results indicated that PGE2 is directly associated with EP1 pathway–regulated ERK1/2 and inositol trisphosphate (IP3) signaling in NHDFs.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: eyetracking, eye movements, gaze, memory, retrieval, vision, aging
Online: 20 May 2019 (12:25:44 CEST)
Eye movements support memory encoding by binding distinct elements of the visual world into coherent representations. However, the role of eye movements in memory retrieval is less clear. We propose that eye movements play a functional role in retrieval by reinstating the encoding context. By overtly shifting attention in a manner that broadly recapitulates the spatial locations and temporal order of encoded content, eye movements facilitate access to, and reactivation of, associated details. Such mnemonic gaze reinstatement may be obligatorily recruited when task demands exceed cognitive resources, as is often observed in older adults. We review research linking gaze reinstatement to retrieval, describe the neural integration between the oculomotor and memory systems, and discuss implications for models of oculomotor control, memory, and aging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0510.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: limits of stability; coactivation; EMG signal; falls; aging
Online: 22 October 2018 (16:07:16 CEST)
The results of this study offer a potential to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the falls in the elderly. The results were recorded for a group of 27 women in a control group (CON) and 16 women in an experimental group (EXP), aged 60-70. Participants took part in the six-weeks Elderly Recreation Movement Program (ERMP) with the difference, that the EXP group practiced twice as often as the CON group. The measurement of variations in the index called limits of stability (LOS) was performed by application of Kistler force plate and the coactivation index (CI) was registered by means of sEMG. The results demonstrate the existence of statistically significant differences in terms of the principal outcome of the exercise time in the measurements of LOS (F (1.42) = 10.0, p = 0.003), and CI (F (1.42) = 10.5, p = 0.002). The effect of the program was associated with an increase the level of the maximum LOS, and a decrease of the CI level, especially in the experimental group. Hence, the implementation of an innovative ERMP exercise program results in the improvement of the physical capabilities of senior subjects and a reduction of the risk of falls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0541.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Codium fragile; marine algae; anti-obesity; prebiotics
Online: 29 November 2021 (14:51:07 CET)
Polysaccharides from marine algae exhibit beneficial biological activities. In this study, we examined the effect of polysaccharides from Codium fragile (PCF) on prebiotic and anti-obesity activity. PCF increases the growth of specific beneficial microbial populations with concomitant decrease in pathogenic microbes. Further, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and DPPH radical scavenging activity (DPPH activity) after fermentation with PCF as carbon source were higher than for the glucose as control. Moreover, PCF inhibited adipocyte differentiation by inducing differentiation-related factors when the induction of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes was induced. Therefore, we suggest that PCF can be used as prebiotic material with anti-obesity for human health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; cardiovascular; Channa striatus; diabetes
Online: 9 August 2021 (14:59:08 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus remains a major risk factor for developing cardiovascular diseases, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular complications. Given the burden of diabetes-related cardiovascular complications, there is a need to identify strategies, safe and effective therapeutic agents that could effectively prevent and control diabetes. Presently, many patients living with diabetes depends on traditional medicines as an alternative cure. Channa striatus (Haruan) is a freshwater fish traditionally used to treat wounds, inflammations, and pains. Several pharmacological investigations have supported the folkloric claims of C. striatus extracts, including hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and pro-platelet aggregation activities. The therapeutic potentials of C. striatus were demonstrated to be associated with the presence of high content essential amino acids and good fatty acids known to improve cell growth and facilitate wound healing. Therefore, C. striatus bioactive compounds have great potentials to serve as lead candidates in developing novel therapeutic agents for the management of diabetes and related cardiovascular diseases. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the pharmacological properties and therapeutic potentials of C. striatus for the management of diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0620.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: adipogenesis; signaling pathways; anti-obesity treatment; obesity
Online: 25 June 2021 (12:09:51 CEST)
Abstract: As a risk factor, obesity is a threat to human well-being and related metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. adipogenesis is defined as the proliferation and maturation of adipocyte predecessor cells to adipocyte. As the adipogenesis process decides adipocyte production, it may be considered a therapeutic target for obesity and obesity-related disorders. White adipose tissue abnormal expansion increases the size and number of adipocytes. For that reason, this review aims to spot the molecular mechanisms implicated in adipogenesis that lead to application in the therapeutic targets. Keywords: adipogenesis, signaling pathways, anti-obesity treatment, obesity
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0013.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: anti-globalization; economic globalization; US-dominated globalization
Online: 1 February 2021 (11:28:16 CET)
Since the financial crisis in 2008, the U.S. economy has weakened, and the world economy has slowly developed. As the world's leading country, the United States has used many methods to restore the economy. But it does work efficiently. However, there are many issues in developed countries such as domestic social, economic, immigration in the United States/United Kingdom; those are not optimistic. Developed countries have entered a dilemma. The neoliberalism financial system has been unable to move forward. Populists have pointed out that those problems have been causing by globalization. Under the leadership of the Brexit Referendum, President Trump has caused a wave of anti-globalization. Under a series of systems such as the China-US trade war and the US-Mexico border wall repairs, the anti-globalization trend is getting stronger. This article mainly analyzes the in-depth reasons and mechanism research of globalization and anti-globalization alternately—the data obtained from an international method performance study. The results show that anti-globalization is temporary, along with globalization. There are three main factors affecting globalization: the situation of the dominant country, natural disasters, and wars. After so much literature review, I believe that the United States' globalization is gradually weakening, and globalization may return to regionalization under the United States' opposition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0360.v2
Online: 10 August 2020 (15:16:58 CEST)
Product counterfeiting is an on-going problem in supply chains and retail environments, Recently an anti-counterfeiting protocol to address this issue via cost-effective use of auto-identification technologies such as radio-frequency identification (RFID) was proposed by researchers.Yet the use case of re-selling the same product was not been fully addressed which might cause serious problem for the exciting and proposed schemes and transactions. This paper proposes an extended RFID-based anti-counterfeiting to address the use case of the original buyer reselling the same item to a second buyer. The extended scheme will be followed by a formal security analysis to show that the proposed protocol satisfies the requirements of security correctness and is resistant to compromise through security attacks.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0270.v1
Online: 16 May 2020 (16:51:36 CEST)
A novel approach has been suggested to use isoelectric points of viral and human proteins to quickly identify proteins that are effective in not allowing virus particles to attach to human receptor cells by virtue of their electrical charge. The method has been applied to SARS CoV-2 to suggest potentially important human proteins that can be suitable for making anti-viral drugs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0063.v1
Online: 5 December 2018 (07:40:27 CET)
Chaenomeles plants are adapted to diverse ecological zones particularly the temperate areas of Korea, Japan and China. In China, Chaenomeles speciosa mainly planted in Chongqing, Anhui and Hubei provinces. Most of the studies till date have been focused on the anti-inflammatory activities of C. speciosa fractions. The present study aimed to review the maximum literature reported for the presence of various phytochemicals in C. speciosa. In addition, the pharmacological properties of these chemical compounds of this plant shall also be discussed. The extracts of the various parts of the plant are rich in diversity of antioxidants, organic acids, phenolics, terpenoides and many different phytochemicals that bear strong anticancer, antioxidant, anti-viral, antibacterial properties, anti-inflammation, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-hyperglycemic and anti-parkinson properties. C. speciosa fruits have broad scope in industry as well as in medicines. Not only the leaves and fruits of C. speciosa plant, but various other parts including roots, seeds, bark twigs, and flowers all have long history of clinical trials in curing many human ailments. However, the maximum accessible data concerning the chemical composition and their broad pharmacological properties of C. speciosa plant parts is pretty restricted that make it more appealing for indepth investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0323.v1
Online: 17 September 2018 (16:11:45 CEST)
Fracking in the UK has yet to reach full industrial development but it is still subject to significant opposition. This study uses Beck’s Risk Society theory and anti-politics to examine the views voiced by opponents to fracking in Yorkshire, England. A qualitative approach was used; local newspaper reports were evaluated alongside semi-structured interviews with protesters to provide a thematic analysis. Although there are signs of post-materialist concerns with the environment these issues did not dominate the discussion. Scientists were not held responsible for the risks involved in fracking. Instead economic greediness of politicians and austerity measures were perceived as putting the environment and people’s health at risk. Interviewees thought fossil fuel energy production was economically advantaged over more sustainable energy and jobs in the low carbon economy. Protesters’ trust in politicians had been eroded but faith in democracy remained. It is suggested a citizen-led deliberative approach to all the concerns raised, not simply those relating to scientific risk, might achieve some level of resolution over fracking in the UK.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0282.v1
Online: 16 September 2018 (10:02:14 CEST)
Background. Nanotechnology is promising field for generating new applications. A green synthesis of nanoparticles through biological methods using plant extract have a reliable and ecofriendly approach to improve our global environment. Methods. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using aqueous extract of Anagalis arvensis L and silver nitrate and were physicochemically characterized. Results. The stability of AgNPs toward acidity, alkalinity, salinity and temperature showed that they remained stable at room temperature for more than two months. The SEM and TEM analysis of the AgNPs showed that they have a uniform spherical shape with an average size in the range of 40–78 nm. Further 1-Dibhenyl-2-Picrylhydrazl radical in Anagalis arvensis L.mediated AgNPs showed a maximum activity of 98% at concentration of 200μg/mL. Hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay in Anagalis arvensis L. mediated AgNPs showed a maximum activity of 85% at concentration of 200μg/mL. Reducing power of Anagalis arvensis L.Ag NPs exhibited a higher activity of 330 μg/mL at concentration of 200 μg/mL. These NPs have cytotoxic effects against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii with a value of 53% LD 178.04μg/mL. Conclusion. The AgNPs synthesized using Anagalis arvensis L. extract demonstrate a broad range of applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0011.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: chitosan; aldehydes; chalcone; MIC; anti-cancer activity
Online: 1 August 2018 (09:38:35 CEST)
Versatile hybrid organic polymers are prepared using two active intermediates such as cynuric chloride and chitosan derivatives. The prepared chalcones are characterized by using FT-IR, UV, and proton NMR, thermal analysis and Minimum inhibitory Concentration. Thermal stability of the synthesized hybrid polymer is found using TGA and the hybrid chitosan derivative chalcone is thermally stable up to 270 °C. The antimicrobial activity of the prepared chitosan containing chalcone moiety are find out using Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) method. The synthesized versatile chalcone shows excellent antimicrobial activity against gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa; and Gram-positive bacteria Chalcone containing halogen moiety shows high activity (MIC 7.8 µg/mL) than the hydroxyl containing chalcone. Cytotoxicity activity of the synthesized composites shows high activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0455.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Gonocaryum calleryanum; secoiridoid; structure identification; anti-inflammatory.
Online: 30 May 2018 (16:42:36 CEST)
Three new secoiridoid constituents Gonocarin A-C (1-3) and a new derivative Gonocarin A monoacetate (4), along with two known lignins pinoresinol (5) and paulownin (6) were isolated from the seed of Gonocaryum calleryanum (Baill.) Becc. The structures of the new metabolites were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, particularly mass spectroscopy and 2D NMR (1H–1H COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) spectroscopy. When mouse macrophages RAW264.7 were treated with compounds 1-6 together with LPS -stimulated, a concentration-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) productions were detected. The results confirmed that the Gonocaryum calleryanumrrg could be a potential anti-inflammatory agent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0033.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: cordycepin; adenosine A1 receptor; prolactin; anti-obesity
Online: 3 April 2018 (07:53:24 CEST)
Cordycepin is an extract from the insect fungus Cordyceps. militaris, which is a traditional medicine with various biological function. In previous studies, cordycepin had been reported with excellent anti-obesity effect, but the mechanism is unclear. A large quantity of evidences showed that prolactin plays an important part in body weight regulation, hyperprolactinemia can promote appetite and accelerate fat deposition. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanism of the anti-obesity effect of cordycepin by reducing prolactin release via an adenosine A1 receptor. In vivo, obese rats model was induced by high fat diet for 5 weeks, the serum and liver lipids coupling with serum prolactin were reduced by treatment of cordycepin, the results suggested that cordycepin is a potential drug for therapying obesity which could be related with prolactin. In vitro, cordycepin could inhibit prolactin secretion in GH3 cells via upregulating the expression of adenosine A1 receptor, the inhibition effect could be blocked by an antagonist of adenosine receptor A1 DPDPX, prolactin induced the upregulation of lipogenesis genes PRLR, and P-JAK2 in 3T3-L1 cells. Intriguingly, cordycepin would down-regulate the expression of prolactin receptor (PRLR). Thus, we concluded that cordycepin modulate body weight by reducing prolactin release via an adenosine A1 receptor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0208.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: oligonol; diabetes; pancreas; antioxidative stress; anti-inflammation
Online: 30 May 2017 (06:29:46 CEST)
Oligonol is a low-molecular-weight polyphenol derived from lychee fruit. This study was conducted to examine whether oligonol has an ameliorative effect on diabetes-induced pancreatic damage via oxidative stress-induced inflammation. Oligonol was orally administered at 10 or 20 mg/kg body weight/day for 10 days to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, and changes in serum glucose, C-peptide, insulin, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels as well as body weight and food and water consumption were assessed. Furthermore, rat pancreases were analyzed for weight, ROS generation, TBARS level, insulin content, and protein expressions of phosphor (p)-p38, p-extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2, p-inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa Bα, nuclear factor-kappa Bp65, cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. Markers of diabetes were shown to be decreased by oligonol administration and histological damage in the pancreas was also ameliorated. These results indicate that oligonol exerts antidiabetic activities, which may be mediated via antioxidative, stress-related, anti-inflammatory signaling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0023.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: anti-yeast; enzyme inhibitors; Terminalia mantaly; Combretaceae
Online: 3 November 2016 (09:35:17 CET)
The chemical investigation of the anti-yeast methanol extract from the stem bark of Terminalia mantaly led to the isolation of seven compounds: 3-O-methyl-4-O-α-rhamnopyranoside ellagic acid (1), 3-O-mehylellagic acid (2), arjungenin or 2,3,19,23-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oïc acid (3), arjunglucoside or 2,3,19,23-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oïc acid glucopyranoside (4), 2α,3α,24-trihydroxyolean-11,13(18)-dien-28-oïc acid (5), stigmasterol (6), stigmasterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7). Their structures were established by means of spectroscopic analysis and comparison with published data. Compounds 1-5 were tested in vitro for activity against three pathogenic yeast isolates, Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida krusei. The activity of compounds 1, 2 and 4 were comparable to that of the reference compound fluconazole (MIC values below 32 µg/ml) against the three tested yeast isolates. They were also tested for inhibitory properties against four enzymes of metabolic significance: Glucose-6-Phosphate Deshydrogenase (G6PD), human erythrocyte Carbonic anhydrase I and II (hCA I and hCA II), Glutathione S-transferase (GST). Compound 4 showed highly potent inhibitory property against the four tested enzymes with overall IC50 values below 4 µM and inhibitory constant (Ki) <3 µM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0307.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors; anti-PD-1/PDL-1; anti-CTLA-4; gender; sex; Nivolumab; Pembrolizumab; Atezolizumab; Ipilimumab; Durvalumab
Online: 15 November 2018 (07:02:24 CET)
Evidence has recently emerged on the influence of gender on the immune system. In this systematic review and meta-analysis of phase III randomized clinical trials (RCTs), we explored the impact of gender on survival in patients with advanced cancer treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). We performed a comprehensive search of the literature updated to April 2018, including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, and EMBASE. We extracted data on study characteristics and risk of bias in duplicate. Of 423 unique citations, 21 RCTs were included, inherently to 12,635 patients. Both males and females showed reduced risk of death associated with ICIs use (HR 0.73, p<0.001 and HR 0.77, p<0.001, respectively). Subgroup analyses by specific ICI showed similar OS in both genders for anti-PD-1/PDL-1. Anti-CTLA-4 use was associated with longer OS in men only (HR 0.77, p<0.012), with the exception of melanoma (in women, HR 0.80, p=0.006). PFS was longer in men than in women (HR 0.67, p<0.001 and HR 0.77, p=0.100, respectively). Conclusively, ICIs use was associated with more favorable outcomes in men, particularly for anti-CTLA-4 agents. In melanoma, not gender-related factors may influence the anti-tumor immune response evoked by ICIs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0130.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Twin paradox; Relativity; Space-time; Time dilation; Differential aging
Online: 9 February 2022 (10:20:33 CET)
Physicists have employed various approaches to solve the “paradox” and offered a consistent conclusion that the traveller twin is younger than the homebody twin. However, some authors attribute the cause of differential aging to acceleration, while others believe that acceleration should not be regarded as the source of differential aging, but frame switch is. So far there is no agreement on this issue. Actually, acceleration and frame switch should not be regarded as the source of differential aging. The author will introduce a thought experiment in which two very long spacecraft are moving in opposite directions at a speed close to the speed of light to discuss the real cause of differential aging. The author found that the real cause of differential aging in the twin “paradox” is because of the asymmetry of destination choice. People always choose their destinations in the universe rather than in spacecraft. The destinations are always stationary relative to the homebody twin and moving relative to the traveller twin. Once we choose a destination in a reference frame, the distance is the proper length in this reference frame, but the distance will contract in another moving reference frame, thus the recording time will be shorter.