Preprint Review Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Calorie Restriction Mimetics: Upstream-Type Compounds for Modulating Glucose Metabolism

Version 1 : Received: 6 November 2018 / Approved: 7 November 2018 / Online: 7 November 2018 (15:26:42 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Shintani, H.; Shintani, T.; Ashida, H.; Sato, M. Calorie Restriction Mimetics: Upstream-Type Compounds for Modulating Glucose Metabolism. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1821. Shintani, H.; Shintani, T.; Ashida, H.; Sato, M. Calorie Restriction Mimetics: Upstream-Type Compounds for Modulating Glucose Metabolism. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1821.

Journal reference: Nutrients 2018, 10, 1821
DOI: 10.3390/nu10121821

Abstract

Calorie restriction (CR) has been shown to prolong the lifespan of humans, but enforcing long-term CR is difficult. Therefore, a compound that reproduces the effect of CR without CR is needed. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on compounds with CR mimetic (CRM) effects. More than 10 compounds have been listed as CRMs, some of which are conventionally categorized as upstream-type CRMs showing glycolytic inhibition while the others are categorized as downstream-type CRMs that regulate or genetically modulate intracellular signaling proteins. Among these, we focus on upstream-type CRMs and propose their classification as compounds with energy metabolism inhibition effects, particularly glucose metabolism modulation effects. The upstream-type CRMs reviewed include chitosan, acarbose, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, and hexose analogs such as 2-deoxy-D-glucose, D-glucosamine, and D-allulose, which show anti-aging and longevity effects. Finally, we discuss the molecular definition of upstream-type CRMs.

Subject Areas

calorie restriction mimetics; anti-aging; lifespan extension; glucose metabolism modulation; chitosan; acarbose; SGLT2 inhibitor; 2-deoxy-D-glucose; D-allulose; D-glucosamine

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