REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0761.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: conservatio; , biodiversity; medicinal plants; smallholder farmer; strategy
Online: 30 December 2020 (15:26:11 CET)
South Africa has an abundant heritage of valuable indigenous plants with recognized medicinal value. The reported critical over-harvesting of wild populations is considered an urgent issue for biodiversity conservation. Growing demand for therapeutic products from indigenous medicinal plants have led to increased interest in its cultivation. Cultivation of these indigenous medicinal plants represent a viable option for improving smallholder farmers’ livelihoods, as well as sustaining the availability of these resources for future generations. Serious bottlenecks however exists for subsistent farmers in the cultivation of these valuable plants. It was pertinent to probe whether the cultivation of medicinal plants provide feasible solutions to rural poverty, while effectively conserving threatened indigenous biodiversity. The paper employed a comprehensive review of existing literature to explore relevant issues constraining smallholder farmers from involvement in a potentially lucrative medicinal plants value-chain. Findings indicate challenges such as inadequate domestication of valuable plants species, continued over-harvesting from wild populations, poor knowledge of required agronomic practices, low efficacy perception regarding derivatives from cultivated plants, among a multitude of others. These constraints exists alongside the conservation-oriented strategy driven by international conservation agencies and wholly adopted by the South African government. Recommendations to improve smallholder involvement in the cultivation of medicinal plants include support to research and extension, targeted inducement to smallholders, contracting and off-take agreements, aimed at promoting an alternative poverty-alleviation-focused economic development strategy. The review adds to the conceptual discourse related to plant diversity, resource conservation, poverty alleviation and economic development within the medicinal plants value-chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0292.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: African medicinal plants; Leishmaniasis; natural products; protozoal diseases; Schistosomiasis; Trypanosomiasis
Online: 31 January 2018 (05:28:15 CET)
Parasitic diseases continue represent a threat on a global scale, particularly among the poorest countries in the world. This is particularly because of the absence of vaccines, and in some cases, resistance against available drugs, currently being used for their treatment. In this review emphasis is laid on natural products and scaffolds from African medicinal plants (AMPs) for lead drug discovery and possible further development of drugs for the treatment of parasitic diseases. In the discussion, emphasis has been laid on alkaloids, terpenoids, quinones, flavonoids and narrower compound classes of compounds with micromolar range activities against Schistosoma, Trypanosoma and Leishmania species. Suggestions for future drug development from African medicinal plants have also been provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0181.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Ashwagandha; Chloroplast Genome; InDels; Medicinal plants; Mutational hotspots; Phylogenomics; Solanaceae; Substitutions; Withania
Online: 11 March 2020 (10:21:56 CET)
Within the family Solanaceae, Withania is a small genus belonging to the Solanoideae subfamily. Here, we report the de novo assembled, complete, plastomed genome sequences of W. coagulans, W. adpressa, and W. riebeckii. The length of these genomes ranged from 154,198 base pairs (bp) to 154,361 bp and contained a pair of inverted repeats (IRa and IRb) of 25,027--25,071 bp that were separated by a large single-copy (LSC) region of 85,675--85,760 bp and a small single-copy (SSC) region of 18,457--18,469 bp. We analyzed the structural organization, gene content and order, guanine-cytosine content, codon usage, RNA-editing sites, microsatellites, oligonucleotide and tandem repeats, and substitutions of Withania plastid genomes, which revealed close resemblance among the species. Both the substitution and insertion and deletion analyses confirmed that the IR region was significantly conserved compared with the LSC and SSC regions. Further comparative analysis among the Withania species highlighted 30 divergent hotspots that could potentially be used for molecular marker development, phylogenetic analysis, and species identification.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: medicinal plants; traditional knowledge; Himalayas; mountain plants; ethnobotany
Online: 29 November 2016 (06:35:45 CET)
The Himalaya is well known for high diversity and ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants. However, not all areas of the Himalayas are well studied. In particular, studies on ethnobotanical uses of plants from the Eastern Himalayas are rare and lacking for many tribes. Past studies primarily focused on listing plants name and their traditional medicinal uses. However, studies on traditional ethnopharmacological practices on medicine preparation had not yet been reported in published literature from the Eastern Himalaya. In this study, we are reporting the first time ethnopharmacological used 24 medicines, their procedures of preparation and listed 53 plant species used for those medicines for Monpa tribe. Such documentations had not yet been done for other tribes in India. Our research demonstrates the urgent need to documents traditional medicine preparation procedures from the local healers before rapid cultural modernization forgets them in transforming country like India. This study should motivate national and international researchers to do more works on ethnopharmacology and bioprospecting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0236.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: essential oils; drug resistant microorganisms; antimicrobial activity; antifungal activity; medicinal plants
Online: 11 October 2018 (11:51:16 CEST)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a recurring global problem, which constantly demands new antimicrobial compounds to challenge the resistance. It is well known that essential oils (EOs) have been known for biological activities including antimicrobial properties. In this study, EOs from seven aromatic plants of Asir region of southwestern Saudi Arabia were tested for their antimicrobial efficacy against four drug resistant pathogenic bacterial isolates (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus typhimurium) and one fungal isolate (Candida albicans). Chemical compositions of EOs were determined by Gas chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The results revealed that EOs from Mentha cervina, Ocimum basilicum and Origanum vulgare proved most active against all isolates with inhibitory zone range between17 to 45 mm. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.025mg/ml was observed for Staph. aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes with EO of Origanum vulgare. All the three EOs showed significant anti candida activity. Together form the results the EOs from Mentha cervina, Ocimum basilicum and Origanum vulgare demonstrated a significant antimicrobial efficacy against drug resistant microorganisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0262.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: value chain analysis; medicinal plants; Jiaogulan; ethnic minority; NTFPs; geopark; transboundary landscape; Vietnam
Online: 19 October 2022 (03:21:58 CEST)
Non-timber forest products (NTFP) have contributed in various ways to the living, livelihoods, and trading of households and communities who live in rural and urban areas all over the world. This paper analyses the value chain of Jiaogulan (Gynostemma pentaphyllum) in the Cao Bang Geopark, Vietnam. 106 actors were surveyed using a semi-structured questionnaire: experts (agricultural extension officers, farmers' associations), harvesters, traders, primary processors, processors, distributors, and consumers. The results show that a map of Jiaogulan value chain, value added of households in main market channels, and impact of value added and distribution of Jiaogulan products on household income.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0270.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: MPDB2.0,; medicinal plant; medicinal plant database of Bangladesh; folk medicine
Online: 10 February 2021 (16:29:00 CET)
Medicinal plants are generally defined as rare herbals with potent medicinal activities that can be used as an alternative treatment for diseases. Recent studies exploring novel medicine developments, originating from folk-medicinal practices challenges this notion and suggests that both the circumference of the term medicinal plant and their potential application covers a substantially extensive verse than previously suggested. While medicinal plants are not limited to the borders of any country, Bangladesh and its south-east Asian neighbors do boast a huge collection of potent medicinal plants with considerable folk-medicine history compared to most other countries of the world. MPDB 2.0 is the continuation of MPDB 1.0, it serves as both a data repertoire for medicinal of Bangladesh and a user-friendly interface for researchers, health practitioners, drug developers, and students who wish to study the various medicinal & nutritive plants scattered around Bangladesh and the underlying phytochemicals contributing to their efficacy in folk medicine. While in developing MPDB 2.0 human diseases have been highly focused upon, the information in this database is not limited in its application for human diseases or diseases only, as many of the plants indexed here can serve in developing biofuel or bioremediation technologies or nutritive diets or cosmetics, etc. MPDB 2.0 comprises a collection of more than five hundred medicinal plants from Bangladesh along with a record of their corresponding scientific, family, and local names together with their utilized parts, information regarding ailments, active compounds, and PubMed ID of related publications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0195.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: phytotherapy; hyperglycemia; diabetes; medicinal plants
Online: 31 December 2017 (03:36:25 CET)
Phytotherapy has long been a source of medicinal products and many attempts to use herbal medicine for the treatment of diabetes has been done over the years. Several medicinal plants and their preparations demonstrated to act in key points of glucidic metabolism. The most common mechanisms of action found include the inhibition of α-glucosidase and of AGE formation, the increase of GLUT-4 and PPARs expression and the antioxidant activity.Despite the large amount of literature available, the actual clinical effectiveness of medicinal plants in controlling diabetes related symptoms is still controversial and there is a crucial need for stronger evidence-based data. In this review, an overview of the medicinal plants, which use in the management of diabetes is supported by authoritative monograph, is provided. References to some species which are currently under growing clinical investigation are also reported.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0205.v2
Online: 5 January 2022 (10:37:29 CET)
There are many medicinal plants that have various medicinal properties in their different parts. The medicinal plants are major backbone of pharmaceutical industries. In this article we compare the antioxidants properties from various plants parts (root, stem, leaf, flower and bark) of the most important medicinal plant, Justicia adhatoda L. Various plant parts showed the good amount of antioxidant properties. These results enhance the medicinal properties of this plant due to the presence of good amount of antioxidants; among all the plant parts leaves and flowers showed maximum natural antioxidants, hence the study could be saying that this plant has good efficacy of antioxidants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0179.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: medicinal plants; flavonoids; hypoglycemic; hypolipidemic; antiatherogenic
Online: 27 April 2017 (04:13:10 CEST)
Celtis iguanaea is popularly used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, thorough chemical and pharmacological investigations regarding its activity are lacking. In this study, we investigated the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract from C. iguanaea (CI) on markers of cardiovascular diseases and the glucose metabolism in cholesterol-fed rats. Therefore, hypercholesterolemic rats (1% cholesterol) were orally treated with CI (150, 300, or 600 mg/kg) or simvastatin (4 mg/kg) (n = 6) once a day for 30 days along with a hypercholesterolemic diet. A control group (C) was given saline solution. CI showed significant decreases in serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HMG-CoA-reductase, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ when compared to group C (p ˂ 0.05). Hypoglycemic effects were observed along with a decrease of the activity of sucrase (CI 600), maltase (CI 150, CI 300), and an increase in muscle glycogen levels (CI 300). Antioxidant effects were observed in plasma, and the histopathological analysis showed a significant decrease in the liver fat area for CI compared to group C (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that the biological effects of CI could be related to the presence of flavonoids that possibly exert antioxidant, enzymatic inhibitory, and insulin-mimetic effects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0057.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: osteoarthritis; rheumatoid arthritis; medicinal plants; herbs
Online: 11 January 2017 (07:56:32 CET)
Chronic joint inflammatory disorders such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis have in common an upsurge of inflammation, and oxidative stress, resulting in progressive histological alterations and disabling symptoms. Currently used conventional medication (ranging from pain-killers to biological agents) is potent, but frequently associated with serious, even life-threatening side effects. Used for millennia in traditional herbalism, medicinal plants are a promising alternative, with lower rate of adverse events and an efficiency frequently comparable with that of conventional drugs. Nevertheless, their mechanism of action is in many cases elusive and/or uncertain. Even many of them have been proved effective in studies done in vitro or on animal models, there is a scarcity of human clinical evidence. The purpose of this review is to summarise the available scientific information on these joint-friendly medicinal plants, which have been already tested in human studies: Arnica montana, Boswelliaspp., Curcuma spp., Equisetum arvense, Harpagophytumprocumbens, Salix spp., Sesamumindicum, Symphytumofficinalis, Zingiberofficinalis, Panaxnotoginseng, Whitaniasomnifera.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0089.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Antimicrobial activities; Medicinal plants; Herbal medicines; WHO
Online: 6 December 2021 (15:40:36 CET)
Medicinal plants have antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities. More or less all plants have medicinal properties. In this research article, we have selected four economically important plants (three fruit plants and an economically important plant), Malus domestica Borkh., Prunus persica L., Ricinus communis L., and Carica papaya L. found in several areas of Indian state Uttarakhand. Using the methanolic extract of leaves, we have screened those four plants against four human pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus. For our experiment we have screened the methanolic leaf extracts of four plants against the above-mentioned bacteria. Statistical analysis was also performed for validation. Result revealed the said bacteria have potential antibacterial activities. So, these leaves can be used for clinical trial. These plants can also be used for making herbal medicines.
Online: 22 October 2020 (12:41:30 CEST)
Fibrosis is a condition characterized by thickening or/and scarring of various tissues. Fibrosis may develop in almost all tissues and organs, and it may be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. It provokes excessive scarring that excels the usual wound healing response to trauma in numerous organs. Currently, very little can be done to prevent tissue fibrosis, and it is almost impossible to reverse it. Therefore, fibrosis is frequently associated with premature aging. In turn, aging is associated with more frequent incidences of fibrosis. Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs are among the few treatments that may be efficient in preventing fibrosis. Numerous publications suggest that cannabinoids and extracts of Cannabis sativa have potent anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrogenic properties. In this review, we describe the types and mechanisms of fibrosis in various tissues and discuss various strategies for prevention and dealing with tissue fibrosis. We further introduce cannabinoids and their potential for the prevention and treatment of fibrosis, and therefore for extending healthy lifespan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0226.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: COVID-2019; Mpro; 6LU7; medicinal plant compounds; docking
Online: 13 March 2020 (03:19:02 CET)
COVID-19, a new strain of coronavirus (CoV), was identified in Wuhan, China, in 2019. No specific therapies are available and investigations regarding COVID-19 treatment are lacking. Liu et al. (2020) successfully crystallised the COVID-19 main protease (Mpro), which is a potential drug target. The present study aimed to assess bioactive compounds found in medicinal plants as potential COVID-19 Mpro inhibitors, using a molecular docking study. Molecular docking was performed using Autodock 4.2, with the Lamarckian Genetic Algorithm, to analyse the probability of docking. COVID-19 Mpro was docked with several compounds, and docking was analysed by Autodock 4.2, Pymol version 126.96.36.199 Edu, and Biovia Discovery Studio 4.5. Nelfinavir and lopinavir were used as standards for comparison. The binding energies obtained from the docking of 6LU7 with native ligand, nelfinavir, lopinavir, kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin-7-glucoside, demethoxycurcumin, naringenin, apigenin-7-glucoside, oleuropein, curcumin, catechin, epicatechin-gallate, zingerol, gingerol, and allicin were -8.37, -10.72, -9.41, -8.58, -8.47, -8.17, -7.99, -7.89, -7.83, -7.31, -7.05, -7.24, -6.67, -5.40, -5.38, and -4.03 kcal/mol, respectively. Therefore, nelfinavir and lopinavir may represent potential treatment options, and kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin-7-glucoside, demethoxycurcumin, naringenin, apigenin-7-glucoside, oleuropein, curcumin, catechin, and epicatechin-gallate appeared to have the best potential to act as COVID-19 Mpro inhibitors. However, further research is necessary to investigate their potential medicinal use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0589.v1
Online: 26 July 2021 (15:30:30 CEST)
The wide use of cadmium (Cd) in industry causes great environmental health problems to humans and animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of Xylopia aethiopica fruit ethanol extract (XAFEE) on cadmium-induced inflammation and dyslipidemia in male albino rats. Thirty albino rats weighing 120–180 g were randomly selected into six groups (n = 5): control rats (administered distilled water only), Cd alone group (10 mg/ kg bw), Cd + 150 mg/kgbw XAFEE, Cd + 300 mg/kgbw XAFEE, 150 mg/kgbw XAFEE and 300 mg /kgbw XAFEE groups after 2-week acclimatization. The experiment lasted for 21 days, after which blood sample was collected by cardiac puncture. Changes in tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin 10 (IL-10), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), phospholipids and free fatty acids (FFAs) concentrations in serum were determined. The results of the present study indicated that Cd exposure remarkably increased (p < 0.05) the TC, TAG, phospholipids, FFAs and TNF-α concentrations, and significantly decreased IL-10 concentration (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that inflammatory changes and alterations in lipid metabolism might be one of the mechanisms underlying the subtle effects of Cd toxicity, “dyslipidemia.” XAFEE expressed protective role against toxic influence of Cd on affected parameters in rats. The results raised the possibility of Xylopia aethiopica fruit being considered as a condiment in soup, local drinks, supplements or herbs preparations in areas where there are chances of Cd exposure, occupationally or environmentally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0536.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Medicinal plant; spices; condiment; anti-dyslipidemic effect; Cd toxicity
Online: 23 July 2021 (10:43:35 CEST)
The wide use of cadmium (Cd) in industry causes great environmental health problems to humans and animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of Xylopia aethiopica fruit ethanol extract (XAFEE) on cadmium-induced inflammation and dyslipidemia in male albino rats. Thirty albino rats weighing 120–180 g were randomly selected into six groups (n = 5): control rats (administered distilled water only), Cd alone group (10 mg/ kg bw), Cd + 150 mg/kgbw XAFEE, Cd + 300 mg/kgbw XAFEE, 150 mg/kgbw XAFEE and 300 mg /kgbw XAFEE groups after 2-week acclimatization. The experiment lasted for 21 days, after which blood sample was collected by cardiac puncture. Changes in tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin 10 (IL-10), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), phospholipids, free fatty acids (FFAs) and HDL-TAG concentrations in serum were determined. The results of the present study indicated that Cd exposure remarkably increased (p < 0.05) the TC, TAG, phospholipids, FFAs, HDL-TAG, TNF-α concentrations, and significantly decreased IL-10 concentration (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that inflammatory changes and alterations n lipid metabolism might be one of the mechanisms underlying the subtle effects of Cd toxicity, “dyslipidemia.” XAFEE expressed protective role against toxic influence of Cd on affected parameters in rats. The results raised the possibility of Xylopia aethiopica fruit being considered as a condiment in soup, local drinks, supplements or herbs preparations in areas where there are chances ofCd exposure, occupationally or environmentally.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0556.v1
Online: 22 November 2020 (11:40:54 CET)
There has been very widespread contagion of covid-19 in Kichwa indigenous communities in Ecuadorian Amazonia, but the peak of contagion has already passed, and total mortality has been remarkably low. The Kichwa people themselves typically attribute this to the widespread use of medicinal plants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0614.v1
Subject: Keywords: Triple-negative breast cancer; cannabinoid; marijuana; cell signalling; medicinal plants
Online: 28 July 2021 (08:56:32 CEST)
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer characterized by the lack of estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors, and HER-2 receptors. Thus, TNBC tumours do not benefit from the current therapies targeting ER or HER-2. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel treatment for this subtype of breast cancer. Marijuana is a common name given to Cannabis plants, a group of plants in the Cannabis genus of the Cannabaceae family. Cannabis plants are among the oldest cultivated crops, traced back at least 12,000 years and are well known for their multi-purpose usage, including medicinal purposes. The main active compounds extracted from Cannabis plants are 21-carbon-containing terpenophenolics, which are referred to as phytocannabinoids. Of these, the tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) group contains highly potent cannabinoids, including delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC) and delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆8-THC), which are the most abundant THCs and are largely responsible for psychological and physiological effects of marijuana. The use of Cannabis plants for medicinal purposes was first recorded in 2337 BC in China, where Cannabis plants were used to treat pains, rheumatism, and gout. Recently, several cannabinoids have been approved for a number of treatments, one of which is the treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy in cancer patients. Furthermore, increasing evidence shows that cannabinoids not only attenuate side effects due to cancer treatment, but might also potentially possess direct antitumor effects in several cancer types, including breast cancer. However, anti-tumour activity of marijuana has been variable in different studies and even promoted tumour growth in some cases. In addition, the mechanisms of cannabinoid action in cancer remain unclear. This review summarizes evidence about the mixed actions of cannabinoids in cancer in general and triple-negative breast cancer in particular.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0103.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: medieval gardening; horticulture; monastery garden; herb; relict plants; medicinal plants
Online: 5 April 2021 (11:47:51 CEST)
Gardening was an important part of the daily duties within several of the religious orders in Europe during the Middle Ages. The rule of Saint Benedict specified that the monastery should, if possible, contain a garden within itself, and before and above all things, special care should be taken of the sick, so that they may be served in very deed, as Christ himself. The cultivation of medicinal and utility plants was important to meet the material needs of the monastic institutions, but no physical garden has yet been found and excavated in either Scandinavia or Iceland. Especially the Cistercians were well known for being pioneer gardeners, but also other orders like the Benedictines and Augustinians practised gardening. The monasteries and nunneries operating in Iceland during medieval times are assumed to have belonged to either the Augustinian or the Benedictine orders. In Norway in addition other orders included the Dominicans, Fransiscans, Premonstratensians and Knights Hospitallers. Based on botanical investigations at all the Icelandic and Norwegian monastery sites, it is concluded that many of the plants found may have a medieval past as medicinal and utility plants, and with all the evidence combined, most probably were cultivated in monastery gardens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0383.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: meprin α; meprin β; zinc metalloproteinase; medicinal chemistry; probe development
Online: 15 December 2020 (12:56:31 CET)
Meprin α is a zinc metalloproteinase (metzincin) that has been implicated in multiple diseases, including fibrosis and cancers. It has proven difficult to find small molecules that are capable of selectively inhibiting meprin α, or its close relative meprin β, over numerous other metzincins which, if inhibited, would elicit unwanted effects. We recently identified possible molecular starting points for meprin α-specific inhibition through an HTS effort (see part I, preceding paper). In part II we report the optimization of a potent and selective hydroxamic acid meprin α inhibitor probe which may help define the therapeutic potential for small molecule meprin α inhibition and spur further drug discovery efforts in the area of zinc metalloproteinase inhibition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0076.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Weed science; Plant-microbe interactions; Medicinal plants; shotgun metagenomics; soil metabarcoding
Online: 3 November 2021 (09:19:12 CET)
The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the roles that microbes may be playing in the rootzone of the medicinal plant Datura inoxia. We hypothesized that rhizospheric and endophytic microbes would be found that were capable of performing the same secondary metabolic functions of the plant rootzone they inhabited. We also hypothesized that the microbial functions would be co-operative with and supportive to plant secondary metabolite production, for example, by providing precursors to important plant bioactive molecules. The methods employed were mi-crobial barcoding, tests of essential oils against antibiotic resistant bacteria and other soil bacterial isolates, 16S Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) metabarcoding, and Whole Genome Shotgun (WGS) taxonomic and functional. A few of the main bacterial genera of interest that were dis-covered in the Datura root microbiome were Flavobacterium, Chitinophaga, Pseudomonas, Strepto-myces, Rhizobium, and Bacillus. In the context of known interactions, and current results, plants and microbes influence the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways of one other, in terms of the regulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway. This is important because these compounds are phyto-protective antioxidants and are precursors to many aromatic bioactive compounds that are relevant to human health. There was strong evidence to support the notion that synergistic production of plant de-rived secondary metabolites by microbes occurred, as well as the ability for the compounds to enter plant cells. There are possible biopharmaceutical and agricultural applications of the natural interplay that was discovered during this study of the Datura inoxia rhizosphere.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0488.v1
Subject: Keywords: Antioxidant activity; Reactive oxygen species; Medicinal plants; Cancer cell lines; Cytotoxicity
Online: 29 September 2021 (11:11:19 CEST)
This review article seeks to provide relevant information about the applicability of cell-based assays in assessing cytotoxicity of phytochemicals in light of several traditional methods available. Phenolic compounds and other phytochemicals are significant resources for drug discovery and development, thus underlining the enormous potentials of plant-derived natural products for the prevention and management of oxidative stress associated with cancer and other diseases. These effects have been linked to the content of phytochemicals such as phenolic compounds and their antioxidant properties. The abundance and complexity of these bio-constituents highlight the need for well-defined methods for the in vitro characterization and quantification of extracts and/or preparations that can translate to in vivo effects. Cell culture systems provide a useful model for basic research and a wide range of clinical in vitro studies and physiological processes as well as assessing the toxicity and therapeutic potential of compounds including plant extracts with potential medicinal benefits. Their use in cancer research provide a useful insight into possible therapeutic properties of phytochemicals at the cellular level. This approach has been instrumental in the initial stages of developing chemotherapeutic agents where human cancer cell lines are used as experimental models. These models have continued to contribute to elucidating specific requirements for certain biochemical events associated with proliferation, metabolism, loss of cell viability/apoptosis. Cell culture systems remain a promising tool in natural product development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0351.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: cytoprotection; cytotoxicity; ferns; oxidative stress; Polypodiaceae; Polypodium vulgare L.; medicinal plants
Online: 14 May 2021 (16:03:00 CEST)
Pteridophytes, represented by ferns and allies, are an important phytogenetic bridge between lower and higher plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms). Ferns have evolved independently of any other species in the plant kingdom being its secondary metabolism a reservoir of phytoconstituents characteristic of this taxon. The study of the possible medicinal uses of Polypodium vulgare L. (Polypodiaceae), PV, has increased particularly when in 2008 the European Medicines Agency published a monograph about the rhizome of this species. Thus, our objective is to provide scientific knowledge on the methanolic extract from the fronds of P. vulgare L., one of the main ferns described in the Prades Mountains, to contribute to the validation of certain traditional uses. Specifically, we have characterized the methanolic extract of PV fronds (PVM) by HPLC-DAD and investigated its potential cytotoxicity, phototoxicity, ROS production and protective effects against oxidative stress by using in vitro methods. Our results show that PVM is not cytotoxic against the different cell lines assessed, but we found potential cytoprotective and cellular repair activity in 3T3 fibroblast cells. This biological activity could be attributed to the high content of polyphenolic compounds; thus, this extract is positioned as a potential candidate for pharmaceutical uses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0358.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Antitumor agents; Fluorescence lifetime imaging; Medicinal chemistry; Metabolic drug; Mitochondrial carrier
Online: 15 December 2020 (08:35:30 CET)
Recently, it was proposed that the thiophene ring is capable of promoting mitochondrial accumulation when linked to fluorescent markers. As a noncharged group, thiophene presents several advantages from a synthetic point of view, making it easier to incorporate such a side moiety into different molecules. Herein, we confirm the general applicability of thiophene group as mitochondrial carrier for drugs and fluorescent markers, based on a new concept of nonprotonable, noncharged transporters. We implemented this concept in a medicinal chemistry application by developing an anti-tumoral, metabolic chimeric drug, based on PDHK inhibitor dichloroacetate (DCA). The promising features of the thiophene moiety as a noncharged carrier for targeting mitochondria may represent a starting point for the design of new metabolism-aimed drugs.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0668.v1
Subject: Keywords: marijuana; medicinal cannabis (MC); chronic pain (CP); cannabidiol (CBD); tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
Online: 26 November 2020 (11:22:28 CET)
Rationale:First discovered in 1990, the endocannabinoid system (ECS) was initially shown to have an intimate relationship with central areas of the nervous system associated with pain, reward, and motivation. Recently, however, the ECS has been extensively implicated in the cardiovascular system with contractility, heart rate, blood pressure, and vasodilation. Emerging data demonstrates modulation of the ECS plays an essential role in cardio metabolic risk, atherosclerosis, and can even limit damage to cardiomyocytes during ischemic events.Patient Concerns:This case describes a 63-year-old male who presented to a primary care physician for a medical cannabis (MC) consult due to unstable angina (UA) not relieved by morphine or cardiac medications; having failed all first- and second-line poly-pharmaceutical therapies. The patient reported frequent, unprovoked, angina and exertional dyspnea.Diagnosis:Having a complex cardiac history, the patient first presented 22 years ago after a suspected myocardial infarction (MI). He re-presented in 2010 and underwent stent placement at that time for inoperable triple-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD) which was identified via percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. UA developed on follow up and, despite medical management over the past 6 years, his UA became progressively debilitating.Interventions and Outcomes:In conjunction with his standard cardiac care, patient had a gradual lessening of UA related pain, including frequency and character, after using an edible form of medical cannabis (MC) (1:1 CBD:THC). Following continued treatment, he ceased long term morphine treatment and describes the pain as no longer crippling. As demonstrated by his exercise tolerance tests, the patient experienced an improved functional capacity and reported an increase in his daily functioning, and overall activity.Lessons:This case uniquely highlights MC in possibly reducing the character, quality, and frequency of UA; while concordantly improving functional cardiac capacity in a patient with CAD. Additional case reports are necessary to verify this.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: traditional korean medicine; hippocampus; neuronal cell death; oxidative stress; medicinal herbs
Online: 10 November 2019 (14:53:14 CET)
Incident rates of neurodegenerative diseases have steadily increased globally, but there is no therapeutic access available. We newly prescribed medicinal herbal remedy including five different herbal plants called, Chen-Ma-Dan-Sam-Ga-Mi-Bang (CMST), purposed to prove for pharmacological properties and corresponded actions on hippocampus neuronal cell injury by hypoxia-induced mice model. Mice were adapted to normoxia or hypoxia with or without CMST for 5 days. We gathered pharmacological effects of CMST on cell injury by enhancement of dihydroethidium and 4-hydroxynonenal signals which were correlated with abnormal redox status in the protein or gene expression levels (abnormal elevations of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and deteriorations of total glutathione, total antioxidant capacity, and activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase) due to hypoxia. CMST also notably exerted to attenuates molecules for neuronal cell injury markers such as p-tau, cleaved caspase-3 due to DNA oxidations (53bp1and phosphor-histone H2AX), inflammatory cytokines, and hemeoxigenase-1. We further figured out the underlying actions of CMST by in vitro experiment through inactivation of microglial cell which can mediate neuronal cell injury. Collectively, CMST prevented from hippocampal neuronal cells via inactivation of microglial cell with normalization of redox status on hypoxia-induced hippocampus neuronal cell injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0340.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: dietary plants; medicinal plants; extraction; solvent; phytoconstituents; antioxidants; anti-nutrients; radical scavenging
Online: 22 July 2022 (13:16:10 CEST)
Sesamum indicum is considered an underutilized oil-bearing seed in the semi-arid regions of Ghana. Nonetheless, it is a promising source of food with both nutritional and therapeutic benefits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties S. indicum seeds using different extraction solvents. The seeds were obtained from the local farmers and prepared for analysis. The bioactive compounds present in the seeds were extracted using hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water and their yields quantified. Total phenolic content (TPC), Condensed tannin content (TTC) and Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) , and DPPH radical scaveging assay were analyzed using standard methods. Antinutrients such as saponins, alkaloids, phytates and oxalates were also analyzed from the powdered seeds. Two chemometric methods; hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and Pearson correlation were employed to evaluate the interdependence of the various parameters to result in their antioxidant properties. The re-sults revealed that the solvents utilized had a significant impact on the extraction yield, phyto-chemical component concentration, and antioxidant activities. Hexane extracts of S. indicum seeds significantly exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (p < 0.05). It was marked with the highest TAC value of 232.6 ± 6.267 mg/g AAE and a strong DPPH scavenging activity with an IC50 of 52.81 ± 2.30 µg/mL. Correlations (p < 0.05) was established between TPC,CTC, TAC and DPPH radical scavenging activity) of the extracts. Antinutrients such as; phytate, oxalate, saponins and alkaloids were found to be 7.691 ± 0.8576, 1.501 ± 0.1375, 21.33 ± 4.619 and 317.33 ± 30.29 mg/g respectively. Data obtained suggest that S. indicum possess rich bioactive compounds that can be used in neutraceuticals and food products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0102.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Medicinal plants; Mpro; 3CLpro; spike (S) glycoprotein; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 1 July 2020 (08:37:49 CEST)
Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 19) pandemic, researchers have been trying to investigate several active compounds found in plants that have the potential to inhibit the proliferation of SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2). The present study aimed to evaluate bioactive compounds found in plants by using a molecular docking approach to inhibit the Main Protease (Mpro) and Spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2. The evaluation was performed on the docking scores calculated using AutoDock Vina as a docking engine. A rule of five (RO5) was calculated to determine whether a compound meets the criteria as an active drug orally in humans. The determination of the docking score was done by selecting the best conformation of the protein-ligand complex that had the highest affinity (most negative Gibbs' free energy of binding / ΔG). As a comparison, nelfinavir (an antiretroviral drug), chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine sulfate (anti-malarial drugs recommended by the FDA as emergency drugs) were used. The results showed that hesperidin, nabiximols, pectolinarin, epigallocatechin gallate, and rhoifolin had better poses than nelfinavir, chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine sulfate as spike glycoprotein inhibitors. Hesperidin, rhoifolin, pectolinarin, and nabiximols had about the same pose as nelfinavir, but were better than chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine sulfate as Mpro inhibitors. These plant compounds have the potential to be developed as specific therapeutic agents against COVID-19. Several natural compounds of plants evaluated in this study showed better binding free energy compared to nelfinavir, chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine sulfate which so far are recommended in the treatment of COVID-19. As judged by the RO5 and previous study by others, the compounds kaempferol, herbacetin, eugenol, and 6-shogaol have good oral bioavailability, so they are also seen as promising candidates for the development lead compounds to treat infections caused by SARS-CoV-2.
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: fenugreek; medicinal plant; 4-hydroxy isoleucine; trigonelline; ecological condition; canonical correspondence analysis
Online: 15 August 2019 (08:15:09 CEST)
Trigonella foenum is one of the oldest medicinal plants that grow in many parts of Iran with the diverse ecological situation. Employing this plant for treating diabetes and high cholesterol has a long history, because of some metabolites. Due to the habitat of fenugreek is a wide range of climatic conditions, it may have power to cope with climate variation. The main intention of this inquiry was to understand the effect of the environmental variables on this therapeutic plant features. It was also interesting for us to understand which environment variables are more impressive for enhancing of trigonelline and 4-hydroxy isoleucine content as the most important metabolites of this plant. For achieving this goal, environmental information and vegetal data were analyzed to discover the role of nature on the seed part of fenugreek life in 50 different regions of Iran. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) displayed that high content of metabolites and some morphological characteristics happened in high temperature and solar irradiation. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) and path analysis used to find the best predictors and direct and indirect effect of all variables on 4-hydroxy isoleucine and trigonelline. Ecological condition were the best predictors and had the highest direct and indirect impact on 4-hydroxy isoleucine. However, for trigonelline, the environment did not play a senior role. It seems that the reaction of components of fenugreek does not follow the same way. Studying on morphological, primary and secondary metabolites, and surrounding environment of fenugreek, helped us to have a more precise judgment about the life of this plant.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0125.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: herbal medicinal products; food supplements; botanicals; normative; phytotherapy; Italian pharmaceutical market; parapharmaceuticals
Online: 28 October 2016 (08:06:07 CEST)
The Italian herbal products market is the most prosperous in Europe. The proof is represented by the use of these products in several marketing categories, ranging from medicine to nutrition and cosmetics. Market and legislation in Italy are at the same time cause and consequence of this peculiar situation. In fact, the legislation on botanical food supplements in Italy is very permissive and at the same time the market shows an overall satisfaction of users and strong feedback in terms of consumption, which brings a widening use of medicinal plants, formerly the prerogative of pharmaceuticals, to other fields such as nutrition. This review summarizes the market and normative panorama of herbal products in Italy, highlighting the blurred boundaries of health indications, marketing authorizations and quality controls between herbal medicines and non pharmaceutical products, such as food supplements, cosmetics and other herbal-based “parapharmaceuticals”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0308.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Oral health care products; cyclooxygenase; lipoxygenase; periodontal disease; Candida albicans; Candida glabrata; medicinal herbs
Online: 19 May 2020 (03:45:56 CEST)
Background: Given the increasing request for natural pharmacological molecules, this study assessed the antimicrobial capacity of Pistacia lentiscus L. essential oil (PLL-EO) obtained from the leaves of wild plants growing in North Sardinia (Italy), toward a wide range of periodontal bacteria and Candida including laboratory and clinical isolates sp., together with its anti-inflammatory activity and safety; Methods: PLL-EO was screened by gas chromatography / mass spectrometry. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The anti-inflammatory activity was measured by cyclooxygenase (COX 1/2) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition while the antioxidant capacity was determined electro-chemically and by the MTT assay. The WST-1 assay was used to ascertain cytotoxicity toward four line of oral cells; Results: According to the concentrations of terpens, PLL-EO is a pharmacologically active phytocomplex. MICs against periodontal bacteria ranged between 3.13 and 12.5 µg/ml, while against Candida sp. were between 6.25 and 12.5 µg/ml. Oxidation by COX 1/2 and LOX was inhibited by 80% and 20% µg/mL of the oil respectively. Antioxidant activity seemed negligible, and no cytotoxicity arose; Conclusions: PLL-EO exhibits a broad-spectrum activity against periodontal bacteria and Candida, with an interesting dual inhibitory capacity toward COX2 and LOX inflammatory enzymes and without side effects against oral cells.
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: medicinal plants; bioactive molecules; phenolic compounds; Oxidative stress; Antioxidants; chronic disorders; health maintenance; longevity
Online: 3 June 2019 (09:58:55 CEST)
Plants and its corresponding botanical preparations have been used for centuries due to their remarkable potentialities in both treatment and prevention of numerous affections. Hundreds of biologically active constituents are present in each whole plant matrice, working in synergism and conferring both its own protection against invaders and even providing promissory bioactive effects for human beings. The worldwide population has devoted increasing attention and preference by medicinal plants use for health promotion and disease prevention, and more recently for oxidative-stress related disorders protection. Indeed, oxidative stress-related disorders, like cardiovascular and (neuro) degenerative disorders, and even cancer have raised exponentially. Although oxidative stress is in itself intrinsic to our own metabolism, allarming sources of free radicals are daily affecting us. In fact, plant-derived bioactives present a broad spectrum of biological effects, and its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and more recently anti-aging effects have been considered a hot topic among the medical and scientific community. Nonetheless, and although its numerous biological effects, it should not also be forgotten that some bioactive molecules are prone to oxidation and can even exert pro-oxidant effects. In this sense, the objective of the present review is to provide a detailed overview on plant-derived bioactives in oxidative stress-related disorders. Specifically, the role of phytochemicals as antioxidants and pro-oxidant agents is carefully addressed, as is its therapeutic relevance in disease prevention. Finally, an eye-opening look in overall evidence in humans is also ensured.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0012.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Jivanti; Leptadenia reticulata; traditional medicine; herb; therapy; rasayana; galactagogue; pharmacology; biological activities; medicinal plant
Online: 1 May 2017 (10:25:26 CEST)
Leptadenia reticulata (Ritz.) Wight (Asclepiadaceae), a traditional medicinal plant species, is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments such as tuberculosis, hematopoiesis, emaciation, cough, dyspnea, fever, burning sensation, night blindness, cancer, and dysentery. In Ayurveda, it is known for its revitalizing, rejuvenating, and lactogenic properties. This plant is one of the major ingredients in many commercial herbal formulations, including Speman, Envirocare, Calshakti, Antisept, and Chyawanprash. The therapeutic potential of this herb is because of the presence of diverse bioactive compounds such as α-amyrin, β-amyrin, ferulic acid, luteolin, diosmetin, rutin, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, hentriacontanol, a triterpene alcohol simiarenol, apigenin, reticulin, deniculatin, and leptaculatin. However, most biological studies on L. reticulata are restricted to crude extracts, and many biologically active compounds are yet to be identified in order to claim the traditional uses of L. reticulata into evidence-based uses. At present, L. reticulata is a threatened endangered plant because of overexploitation, unscientific harvesting, and habitat loss. The increased demand from pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and veterinary industries has prompted its large-scale propagation. However, its commercial cultivation is hampered because of the non-availability of genuine planting material and the lack of knowledge on its agronomical practices. In this regard, micropropagation technique will be useful to obtain true-to-type L. reticulata planting materials from an elite germplasm to meet the current demand. Adopting other biotechnological approaches such as synthetic seed technology, cryopreservation, cell culture, and genetic transformation can warrant conservation as well as increased metabolite production from L. reticulata. The present review summarizes scientific information on the botanical, agronomical, phytochemical, pharmacological, and biotechnological aspects of L. reticulata. This comprehensive information will certainly allow better utilization of this industrially important herb towards the discovery of lead drug molecules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0349.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Hypoxia-inducible factor; cancer; hypoxia; drug discovery; medicinal chemistry; virtual screening; molecular dynamics simulation; MM-PBSA; Drug discovery
Online: 28 February 2022 (08:40:24 CET)
The main regulatory factors during the adaptation of cancer cells to hypoxic stress are the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), which are being increasingly recognized as an interesting and challenging target for the design of new chemotherapeutic molecules. HIF2A was found to have an large internal hydrophilic cavity within its PAS-B domain, unique to this sub-unit and is suggested to be a possible ligand-binding site. Regulation of HIF2A by cellular molecules is still greatly unknown. In This paper we have employed in-silico techniques, such as molecular docking and dynamic simulation, to design new direct inhibitors against HIF-2A subunit via targeting one of its critical domains and the final top screened molecules have been tested on hypoxic cancer cells for further validation of their inhibitory potential. we targeted the hydrophilic cavity inside the PAS-B domain of the HIF2A to identify novel molecules with a high binding capacity. Virtual Screening methodology was used for molecular docking of NSC library against the target domain inside the HIF2A PAS-B domain with the top 5% compounds with significant MolDock and Re-rank scores were selected for further analysis. The NSC 106416, NSC 217021, NSC 217026, and NSC 215639 compounds were selected based on their docking scores. NSC 215639 had the minimum polar solvation energy and also had a relative strong binding energy. NSC 217026 had the strongest binding energy among other compounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0043.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: ethnobotany; traditional ecological knowledge; Waorani; indigenous communities; Ecuadorian Amazon; medicinal plants; loss of knowledge; globalization; global change; acculturation; socio-cultural changes
Online: 6 May 2019 (08:59:53 CEST)
This paper explores how the medicinal plant knowledge of the Waorani indigenous society in Ecuador varies in accordance with both socio-economic and demographic factors. Medicinal plant knowledge was compared at both individual and community levels. Fifty-nine semi-structured interviews (men n = 30, women n = 29) were performed with people between fifteen and seventy years old in five Waorani communities located within the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve. Results show a positive correlation between an individual’s medicinal plant knowledge and age, a negative correlation between medicinal plant knowledge and the years of schooling, and differences among isolated and easily accessible communities. Reasons behind these findings are seen in the rapid socio-cultural changes of the Waorani society due to globalization processes. Increased accessibility to health centers, improved transportation infrastructure and changes in how knowledge is transmitted to young people all result in a loss of ethnobotanical knowledge. Policymakers need to take action in order to ensure the maintenance of ethnoecological knowledge among the Waorani.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0355.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: TLC screening of plants; TLC screening of psychoactive plants; TLC-direct bioautography; effect directed detection; chemotaxonomy of plants; quality control of medicinal plants; quality control of alimentary products; quality control of cosmetic products
Online: 25 July 2022 (07:50:57 CEST)
The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive overview of the main aims and scopes in screening of botanicals, a task which thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is on an everyday basis confronted with and engaged in. Stunning omnipresence of this modest analytical technique (both in its standard format (TLC) and the high-performance one (HPTLC), either hyphenated or not) for many analysts might at a first glance appear chaotic and random, with an auxiliary rather than leading role in research, and not capable of issuing meaningful final statements. Based on these reflections, our purpose is not to present a general review paper on TLC in screening of botanicals, but a blueprint rather (illustrated with a selection of practical examples), which highlights a sovereign and important role of TLC in accomplishing the following analytical tasks: (i) solving puzzles related to chemotaxonomy of plants, (ii) screening a wide spectrum of biological properties of plants, (iii) providing quality control of herbal medicines and alimentary and cosmetic products of biological origin, and (iv) tracing psychoactive plants under forensic surveillance.