ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0448.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Spiritual leadership; Knowledge hiding behavior; Professional Commitment; Agriculture research institutes
Online: 6 June 2023 (11:36:49 CEST)
Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of spiritual leadership on knowledge hiding behavior of employees in agriculture research institutes of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The study also aims to analyze theoretically and then investigate empirical evidence concerning the mediation pathway (namely, professional commitment) to clarify the significant association amid spiritual leadership and subordinate's knowledge hiding behavior. Design/methodology- The cross-sectional data using five point lickert scale was used in this survey based study to investigate the given hypotheses. In order to account for the prim effect and any potential for common method bias, data was gathered at two different time points with a gap of four weeks. Smart PLS4 was used to assess a sample of 298 complete and valid responses for hypotheses testing. Findings – The results show that spiritual leadership impacts negatively the employees’ knowledge hiding behavior. Moreover, this relationship is mediated by professional commitment. Originality/value – First, in contrast to the majority of past studies that concentrated on antecedents of knowledge sharing, the present study examined the impact of spiritual leadership on employee’s knowledge hiding behaviors, which are two opposing concepts. Secondly, the study examined empirically, the mediation effect of professional commitment. These three variables have not been studied together previously.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0422.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Industry 4.0; corporate strategy; Industry 4.0 readiness; digital technology; industrial digitalisation
Online: 6 June 2023 (08:56:14 CEST)
The contemporary discourse focuses on the fourth industrial revolution and its impact on compa-nies. An explicative, quantitative, questionnaire survey was conducted with managers of 101 companies in Hungary and 54 in Austria. Our study focused on assessing their preparedness for Industry 4.0 and the key factors they take into account when implementing Industry 4.0 initiatives. We also examined whether there is a correlation between the areas in which companies have made improvements to support Industry 4.0. To complement our quantitative analysis, we conducted a series of four semi-structured interviews with two Hungarian and two Austrian companies. The aim of the interviews was to further investigate the digital readiness of companies and to formulate recommendations for companies venturing into the field of digitalisation. A particular focus was put on comparing the digital maturity of these two neighbouring Central European countries, given the significant differences in their digital maturity as shown by the macro indicators of the Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI). Therefore, we conducted a micro-level analysis to investigate the extent to which DESI scores correspond to the digital performance of companies at the orga-nisational level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0373.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: agricultural products; bundle pricing; consumer organic preference
Online: 6 June 2023 (03:58:56 CEST)
Compared with the traditional bundle pricing strategy with fixed products, this paper proposes a more flexible interactive bundle pricing strategy (IBPS) for agricultural e-retailers. Since more and more consumers tend to buy more environmentally friendly and healthy organic agricultural products, we consider consumers' organic preferences and build a mixed bundle pricing model for organic and inorganic agricultural products. A free shipping strategy is introduced to maximize retailer profit and optimize consumer surplus. Through numerical analysis, we find: (1) Compared with the traditional online retailing method, IBPS can effectively stimulate consumption and higher retailer profit; (2) As the free shipping threshold increases, the total profit shows a trend of first increasing and then decreasing, indicating that a suitable free shipping threshold can optimize the retailer profit; (3) As the consumer green preference increases, the total sales of agricultural products decrease, but the organic sales improve, while total profit rises; (4) The higher the level of consumption, the higher the sales volume of organic products and there is an upward trend in the profits of e-retailers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0328.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: ESG; State-owned equity; Top management incentives; Sustainability; Digital transformation
Online: 5 June 2023 (13:38:27 CEST)
This study examines the unique circumstances surrounding state-owned equity participation in non-state-controlled enterprises in China. Specifically, this study examines the impact of state-owned equity participation on the environmental, social, and governance (ESG) performance of non-state-controlled enterprises. Focusing on A-share listed firms on the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges and using data from 2013 to 2021, empirical testing shows that state-owned equity participation can significantly improve the ESG performance of non-state-controlled enterprises, with this conclusion remaining reliable after a series of robustness tests. Top management incentives is a mediating mechanism for state-owned equity participation in enhancing ESG performance. This study also finds that when state-owned equity participates in large enterprises or companies with a high degree of digital transformation, the effect on ESG performance is greater than that of small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) or enterprises with a low level of digital transformation. The findings of this study add to the current body of the existing field of research on the factors influencing corporate ESG performance and the impact of state-owned equity on corporate non-financial performance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0280.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: sustainable leadership; sustainability leadership; environmental leadership; sustainability; leadership
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:46:16 CEST)
Leadership and sustainability have been researched and examined concurrently. We know much about sustainable, sustainability and environmental leadership as separate areas of research and the leadership behaviours and practices that facilitate achievement of sustainability outcomes. Whilst these research streams have developed alongside each other, we know little about the similarities and differences of each of these three leadership approaches. The purpose of this paper is to review and compare which sustainable, sustainability and environmental leadership approaches are predictive of improved organizational performance with a view to understanding leadership towards sustainability. Through a comprehensive review of the extant literature, we integrate the three leadership approaches and highlight areas of similarity and difference. From a theoretical perspective, this paper seeks to make a significant contribution to the scholarly literature by building on current knowledge and developing a unified framework that combines our findings on leadership practices and behaviours in terms of the types of leadership required for achieving sustainability outcomes. By unifying existing frameworks and clarifying points of integration and differentiation under the umbrella of ‘leadership towards sustainability’, this paper seeks to advance research on leadership approaches. From a practical perspective, a cohesive set of leadership behaviours and practices will be emphasized so that leaders can adapt these to suit the context of their organization, thus helping leaders make sense of the literature to inform their practice and reach sustainability goals. Thus, the main goal of this paper is to identify a range of leadership behaviours and practices that are required to improve the performance of sustainability in organizations thus informing the broader leadership field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0151.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: forest landowner; management willingness; forest ecological products; minority regions; Sustainable Livelihoods Framework
Online: 2 June 2023 (08:00:27 CEST)
Forest resources are an important material basis for ecological protection and economic devel-opment, and are responsible for the dual mission of guaranteeing national ecological safety and grain safety. Forest land is an important carrier of forest resources, and forest landowner is a direct component of forest land management. Forest landowners’ willingness to engage in forest man-agement affects whether the important value function of forest resources can be implemented. Are there differences in the willingness and behavior of forest management between ethnic minority foresters and ordinary foresters? How to stimulate the forest management willingness and behavior of forest farmers in ethnic minority areas?These questions will be about the realization of the value of forest resources. Through the analysis of 185 questionnaires in Yunnan Province, this paper clarifies the current situation of forest management of forest farmers in minority areas. Then, using the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework, we select three indicators including the socio-economic at-tributes of individual farmers, the cognition and experience of forest landowners, and policy guidance. And we use the binary logistic regression model to analyze the factors affecting the willingness of forester to participate in forest management. Through the above analysis, we find that: (1) Forest landowners' willingness to engage in forest management in minority regions is relatively high, at 71.98%. (2) Individual farmers’ socioeconomic attributes have the most significant degree of influence on willingness to engage in forest management, while forest landowners' cognitive and related experiences, policy guidance and other related variables influence willingness to engage in forest management at the macro level. (3) Literacy has a significant positive contribution to man-agement intentions, while forest land area, living standard, whether they are compensated by public welfare forest, and whether they participate in the project of returning farmland to forest and grass have a significant negative effect on management intentions. (4) There are significant differences between forest landowners' willingness to engage in forest management and the influencing factors between minority regions and non-minority regions. Finally, we suggest to improve the willingness to engage in forest management and forestry industry development in minority regions through innovative management methods, concentrated and continuous large-scale management, en-couraging capital investment and driving forest landowners to "nearby employment", optimizing the logging quota system and raising the compensation standard for public welfare forests. This study has important practical significance for promoting the realization of forest ecological products value, consolidating the achievement of poverty alleviation in forest areas and realizing rural re-vitalization in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0089.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: green finance; green loans; sustainable banking; social responsibility; renewable energy; poverty reduction
Online: 1 June 2023 (12:44:54 CEST)
Concept sustainable of banking is based on principle realization growth and profit for the bank and shareholders, but only with achievement social goals, as and care for conservation life environment. Providing new ones banking service and creation new ( green ) banking jobs, except for _ profitable, they achieve and spreads social and ecological goals, chances are with creation competitive advantages, both in countries Western Balkans observed in the work, so and in all countries of the world In this one work we will focus on analysis macroeconomic parameters in countries Western Balkans works tests influence selected indicators on performance banking system, with special in retrospect on social and component protection life environment. The results indicate that rate unemployment the most significant indicator potentially risky events for bankers, as and banks they are not recognized in national conservation strategies _ life environment which are in WB countries currently on strength. Accordingly, the former is necessary to carry out education foreign affairs, and in parallel to promote green loans like they live and in the long term more favorable of traditional loans, with update the existing one regulatory frame in the domain protection life environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0205.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Public Administration; electrification; concessions
Online: 1 June 2023 (08:29:12 CEST)
This study aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of the More Light for Amazon (MLA) program, examining the roles played by each stakeholder involved in the concession process and identifying the limitations faced for program success. The research employs a content analysis methodology, analyzing a variety of documents, including the Program Operational Manual, Commitment Terms, news articles, and concessionaires' notes. The findings reveal the crucial role of the government as an inducer of actions, establishing objectives and guiding norms for the private sector. Conversely, concessionaires assume the role of program implementers but encounter specific limitations in remote locations, challenging the provision and maintenance of the electrical system in beneficiary communities. The implementation of microgrid systems through concessions enhances coordination and integration between generation and distribution services, allowing for increased government control and ensuring transparency, efficiency, and program effectiveness. These identified elements represent significant challenges for the implementation of public policies in remote regions of the Amazon. Overcoming these challenges take coordinated and strategic actions involving both the government and concessionaires to ensure the complete fulfillment of energy needs in MLA program beneficiary communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0005.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: new ways of working; sector comparison; job goal clarity; red tape; autonomy; NWW-attribution
Online: 1 June 2023 (03:00:11 CEST)
The diffusion of New Ways of Working (NWW) is an important trend in contemporary organi-zations. Many related empirical studies have been produced, but none have focused on differences in employees’ perceptions of the opportunity to use NWW according to organization sector (pri-vate, semi-public, public). This study, based on neoinstituionalism and HR attributions theory, investigated these differences via a survey (n=2693) of employees at private (n=358), semi-public (n=204), and public (n=2131) organizations. The results show that public employees reported less opportunity to use NWW than their private and semi-public counterparts. Furthermore, private sector employees were more likely to attribute well-being and productivity benefits to NWW than their public sector and semi-public counterparts. We also show that institutional and organiza-tional variables specific to the characteristics of organizations in the three sectors partially ex-plain the degree of perceptions with respect to the opportunity to use NWW.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2273.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: liner shipping; port management; Belt and Road (BRI); port hinterlands; shipping subsidies; autonomous ships; cruise shipping; shipping alliances; connectivity; e-fuels; emissions trading; Yangtze River; China; maritime logistics
Online: 31 May 2023 (14:57:44 CEST)
This paper presents and summarizes the applied research on Maritime Economics and Logistics (MEL), carried out by my teams in Europe and Asia in the past five years. Most of this state-of-the-art research has been funded by external organizations, thus showing the interest of society, and of the global maritime fraternity, in our results. The objective of the paper is to bring to the surface pertinent and ‘hot’ research questions, such as e-fuels and emissions trading, some of which we may have answered, others not; but questions that, nonetheless, open research doors to maritime researchers around the world. In so doing, I have stayed away from descriptive research (of limited value in university ecosystems), staying on our more rigorous output, published in top peer-review journals. It is hoped that the paper will be of value to the wider maritime community as well as, more importantly, to PhD researchers, postdocs and tenure-track university staff.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2221.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: consumer behavior; influential factors; buying habits
Online: 31 May 2023 (10:27:49 CEST)
The influence of numerous factors determines and changes the daily behavior of consumers. This paper aims to estimate and rank the weight of cultural, social, personal, and psychological factors that change the buying habits of individuals. The research was conducted on a sample of 559 re-spondents. Data from the survey were used to create a hierarchical model structure. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) as a decision-making method was used in the analysis to estimate and rank the factors that influence consumer habits. An analysis of results showed that the personal and psychological factors have the principal influence on consumer habits. Personal budget, as the dominant criterion in a group of set criteria, contributed to the fact that the personal factors have the dominant influence on consumer habits. The work showed that the choice of the method used is relevant to the results and that the analysis of the impact on consumer habits can be expanded by including several factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2208.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Social turn models; Sustainable development pillars; Neoliberal turn constructs; Model configurations; Collaborative perspective; Global, cluster, and country-level analyses
Online: 31 May 2023 (09:01:35 CEST)
This study explores several global and country cluster sustainable development (herein SD) models. It jointly examines constructs from the “Neoliberal-turn” ((e.g., Institutional Enhancers (e.g., business freedom, property rights, government integrity, and judicial effectiveness), Financial Enhancers (e.g., government spending and monetary, trade, investment, and financial freedoms), Foreign Direct Investment, Global Competitiveness-institutions, and Global Competitiveness-innovation-sophistication)), and the “Social-turn” (five SD pillars (e.g., Planet, People, Peace, Prosperity, and Resources), which synthesize the 17 United Nations SD goals); and Happiness and Life Satisfaction (herein H&LS). The study examines a large and diverse set of relationships encompassing 11 years of data of 108 social, economic, and environmental indicators from 129 countries at the global, country cluster, and country levels. We analyze data using structural equation modeling. Remarkably, Planet, an SD pillar constituted by biophysical variables, is the least of the five SD pillars positively related to the "neoliberal-turn" constructs and H&LS. Results show model configurations and scale effects. Furthermore, findings reveal both synergies between neoliberal and the five SD pillars as well as both negative and non-significant relationships among them. The diversity of results calls for further model integration and specificity. Diverse findings entail caution and difficulties in generalizing knowledge. Similarly, results suggest that it is not advisable, since there may be many different and partly legitimate alternatives, to rely on just one perspective (e.g., giving primacy to economic-based analyses) and or in analyses at only one scale. The perspective effects and the stakes involved in SD urgently call for more collaborative efforts at all levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2048.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: capital assets; formative indicators; PLS-SEM; rural livelihood; Sri Lankan rice farmers; sustainable agriculture
Online: 30 May 2023 (10:30:06 CEST)
This paper systematically identifies the constructs and indicators to measure Sri Lankan rice farmers’ Sustainable Agriculture potential (SAP) in the regions of Mahaweli Block H in Anuradhapura district, a dominant rice cultivation district in the country. Insights from Rural Livelihood Assessment Framework helped identify the primary constructs of SAP: The constructs of farmers’ SAP are derived as Human, Social, Financial, Physical, and Natural capitals. The principles of Sustainable Agriculture discussed in modern literature and the various research studies carried out in this domain are insightful to derive an exhaustive list of indicators that might adequately explain the constructs of SAP. The researcher adopted a quantitative descriptive approach, developed a comprehensive set of indicators (130), pre-tested them, and conducted a pilot survey with 64 samples. The measurement model analysis techniques in PLS-SEM helped shorten the Questionnaire with the most productive questions (87). This short-listed Questionnaire was again surveyed in a larger sample space, 386, to attest to their validity further. The study found five constructs and 87 productive questions that can explain farmers’ SAP, and the researcher believes that these compositions of SAP and the indicators will be helpful for future researchers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1996.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: collaborative consumption; Peer-to-Peer accommodation platforms; motivations; sustainability; tourism industry
Online: 30 May 2023 (05:46:20 CEST)
This research aims to contribute to the growing body of knowledge of Collaborative Consumption (CC) by exploring the motivations that influence the use of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) accommodation platforms from the demand side. There has been a significant increase in interest in sustainable choices regarding P2P accommodation in recent years. To address this gap and contribute to the collaborative consumption and P2P accommodation theory a quantitative study was conducted through a survey yielding 235 responses from both users and non-users of P2P platforms. The findings of this study suggest that P2P accommodation platform usage is influenced by multiple motivations, including sustainability, belonging, economic benefits, and convenience. Interestingly, the study also found that individuals with higher levels of academic qualifications are more likely to adopt this mode of consumption. Moreover, the study is the first of its kind to quantitatively address this topic and, therefore, contributes significantly to the field of collaborative consumption and P2P accommodation theory. By understanding the motivations of P2P platform users, policymakers and practitioners can develop targeted strategies to promote sustainable choices in this sector. Overall, this study provides a useful framework for future research on collaborative consumption and sustainable P2P accommodation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2054.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: Food Choice Motives (FCM); food insecurity (FI); food security (FS); college students
Online: 30 May 2023 (05:28:15 CEST)
We are already more than year away from the pandemic period, followed by a year within a global economic crisis and a war in Ukraine, with the marks and the changes caused in all parameters of life becoming clear now including food choice motives of citizens worldwide. In this study we investigate the changes in food choice motives caused by the pandemic to college students in Greece in the 10 key food motives namely health, convenience, sensory, appeal, nutritional quality, moral concerns, weight control, mood and stress, familiarity, price, and shopping frequency and behavior. A self-response questionnaire survey was carried out in January to February 2023 on a sample of 1017 college students’ participants through the Google platform. Basic statistical tools, combined with cross and Chi-square tests were used in order to analyze the collected data. The results show that students exhibit quiet and very important preferences on health, convenience, weight control, and mood and stress. Food choices related to sensory appeal, nutritional quality, and familiarity is of less importance for the students, similarly to ethical concerns expect the environmental impact of the food which is high to their concern. The motive which continues to have the highest concern for students before and after the pandemic is price looking for value for money food (88.8%), not to be expensive (80.7%), and be cheap (78.7%). The shopping frequency and behavior motives, which were changed during the pandemic, have now returned to the motives of the pre pandemic period, with purchase of foods from supermarket (29%), local grocery (37.6%), and only 12.3% via online, and 20.4% by delivery, weekly or every two weeks. They prefer to cook at home full meals is now very high reaching 74.4%, avoiding eating at a restaurant or fast food (only 27% positives answers). Our findings indicate that students have already returned to their food choice motives of the period before COVID-19 except the home cooking food which is now high in their preference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1984.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: retail sales; retail rents; shopping tourism; Covid-19; retail resilience; Hong Kong
Online: 29 May 2023 (06:47:07 CEST)
This research studies the impact of shopping tourism on retail sales and rents, using the Covid-19 pandemic as a quasi-experiment. Shopping tourism refers to individuals who travel primarily for shopping purposes, and their spending patterns can have significant effects on the retail sector. The Covid-19 pandemic disrupted global travel and resulted in a decline in shopping tourist arrivals, leading to a downturn in sales for retailers dependent on shopping tourism. Additionally, the decline in shopping tourism affected retail rents, as the reduced demand for retail spaces posed challenges for property owners in attracting tenants. The study focuses on Hong Kong, a prominent shopping destination, which experienced a significant decline in tourist arrivals and retail sales during the pandemic. The research analyzes the relationship between tourist arrivals, retail sales, and rents using time series analysis and identifies the impact of shopping tourism on retail spaces and rents. The findings suggest a positive association between tourist arrivals and retail sales, particularly during the period of shopping tourism growth. However, the pandemic severely reduced this effect, revealing the impact of shopping tourists on the retail sector. The study concludes by discussing the implications on retail resilience and highlighting the need for further research on the impacts of shopping tourists on retail sales and rents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1959.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: change management; resistance to change; organizational change; bibliometric analysis
Online: 29 May 2023 (04:14:09 CEST)
We are living in a business context characterized by change, which today behaves with an unprecedented intensity, driven by the technological revolution and increased competition. As a result, increasingly large and complex companies are facing profound transformation processes in which the role of the human factor and of managers in particular, due to their high capacity to impact the organization, is essential. In response to this reality, the literature has developed a large number of approaches from different areas of knowledge: from business economics to psychology, including technical disciplines. This article offers a classification of these approaches that provides an overview of research on the role of managers in change management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1944.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Inclusive Leadership; Psychological Contract Fulfillment; Employee Well-Being; Workplace Well-Being; Life Well-Being; Proactive Work Behavior; Business Services Sector professionals
Online: 29 May 2023 (02:13:53 CEST)
Proactivity is a particularly important attribute of knowledge-intensive organizations, where the work required to increase the potential of knowledge-intensive employees is crucial. A priority challenge for these firms is also to understand the increasing importance of the functioning of cognitive mechanisms leading to increased knowledge workers' well-being following the implementation of the psychological contract. The aim of this article is to identify the relationship between inclusive leadership, the fulfillment of the psychological contract, two dimensions of well-being: workplace and life well-being and knowledge workers' proactivity. Based on survey data collected through the CAWI method from 1.000 knowledge workers employed in Polish companies in the business services sector, the research hypotheses were tested using a stepwise equation modelling (SEM) technique, leading to a model containing all the main constructs. The results obtained indicate that inclusive leadership positively impacts the fulfillment of the psychological contract. Furthermore, the fulfillment of the psychological contract positively affects proactive working behavior with and the wellbeing of knowledge workers. Along with proactive work behavior, two dimensions of well-being, were examined as outcome variables. The analysis also shows that knowledge-intensive organizations, intending to build the proactivity of their employees and nurture a high level of well-being in their lives and in the workplace, should take care to fulfil the expectations and obligations of the psychological contract. However, one way to achieve this is for managers to use an inclusive management style, which supports an atmosphere of a safe working environment in a diverse setting and leads to employees feeling comfortable sharing their opinions and ideas. The study of inclusive leadership in the context of knowledge-intensive organizations provides human resource professionals and employee man-agers with important insights into how inclusive leadership can effectively contribute to the psychological contract, which will consequently lead to proactive work behavior and also improve employees' workplace and life well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1929.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: digital inclusive finance; imbalance and insufficiency; weighted Dagum Gini coefficient; quantile standardization
Online: 26 May 2023 (11:11:26 CEST)
In the paper, we measure the digital financial inclusion index of 31 provinces in China from 2011 to 2020 based on three dimensions: coverage breadth, depth of use and digitalization degree. By means of weighted Dagum Gini coefficient and quantile standardization, we explored the degree of imbalance and insufficiency of the development of digital inclusive finance in China and four major regions and its structural causes. Using Kernel density estimation method and Markov chain analysis method, we further investigates the evolution trend of imbalance and insufficiency. The study finds that (1) the Digital Inclusive Financial Index in China and the four major regions rise significantly, with the COVID-19 epidemic reducing its growth rate. Of these, the eastern region has the highest development level. (2) The imbalance level of digital inclusive finance development obviously has reduced. The level of imbalance is highest within the eastern region, and the development gap between the eastern and western regions is the widest. The imbalance of overall development is mainly due to the regional imbalance. The imbalance of coverage breadth and depth of use is the main structural cause of unbalanced development in the four major regions. There is a trend of bipolarization or multipolarization in China and the other three major regions, with the exception of the central region. (3) The western region is the least developed. The development shortcoming of digital inclusive finance in China and the four major regions is the breadth of coverage. There are "Club Convergence" and "Matthew Effect" in the eastern, central and western regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1873.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Digital Economy; Digitalization; Fintech Scope; Principal Component Analysis; Sustainability
Online: 26 May 2023 (07:15:49 CEST)
The digital economy is a fundamental feature of sustainability. The economic, social, and environmental dimensions of sustainability stand up for digitalization and digital transformation projects. In order to understand and practice the digital economy, the goal of our paper is to evaluate accurate variables regarding fintech scope for discussing the efficient implication of these projects. The principal component analysis is used to investigate and evaluate the sustainable digital economy indicators. An empirical case from health care services in Africa from World Bank projects discusses this challenge. Results help produce an effective understanding of how the digital economy enables facing fintech challenges in Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1852.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: diagnostic instrument; employee wellbeing; harm; Negative Work Behavior (NWB); bystander roles
Online: 26 May 2023 (04:41:39 CEST)
Negative work behavior (NWB) threatens employee well-being. There are numerous constructs that reflect NWBs, such as bullying, aggression, and discrimination and they are often examined in isolation of each other, limiting scientific integration of these studies. We aim to contribute to this research field by developing a diagnostic tool with content validity on the full spectrum of NWBs. First, we provide a full description of how we tapped and organized content from 44 existing NWB measurement instruments and 48 studies. Second, we discussed our results with experts (N = 3) in this research field to check for missing studies and to discuss our integration results. This two-stage process yielded a questionnaire measuring physical, material, psychological, sociocultural, and digital NWB. Furthermore, the questions include a range of potential actors of NWB, namely internal (employees, managers) and external actors (clients, customers, public, family members) at work and their roles (i.e., target, perpetrator, perpetrator's assistant, target's defender, outsider, and witness of NWBs). Finally, the questionnaire measures what type of harm is experienced (i.e., bodily, material, mental, and social harm).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1820.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: audit committee, internal auditor, board’s experience, board size, financial statement fraud
Online: 26 May 2023 (02:55:19 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic had a wide-ranging impact, resulting in a global recession due to weakened purchasing power. This circumstance necessitates business organizations adapting to developments and being more conscious of the risk of financial statement fraud. The intention of this research is to investigate the way corporate governance affected financial statement fraud during the COVID-19 pandemic. To acquire empirical data for examining corporate governance variables on financial statement fraud, the research was examined using quantitative methods. The study takes advantage of secondary data acquired from annual reports of companies under special monitoring listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange of 2020-2021. The logistic regression method was used to evaluate 134 data sets, and financial statement fraud was measured using the Z-Score and F-Score models. The results indicate that using the Z-score, only the board size has a negative effect on financial statement fraud during the COVID- 19 pandemic. Meanwhile, using the F-Score, the corporate governance variables studied are not proven to have an influence on financial statement fraud during the COVID 19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1566.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: Determinants; Heckman; Milk; Value; Value chain
Online: 26 May 2023 (02:26:00 CEST)
Recently dairying becomes an important farming activity in the districts. Even if these districts are potential in milk production and marketing activities, little was known about determinates of participation and level of participation in milk value addition. This study was analyzing determinates of participation and level of participation in milk value addition in the study areas. Both primary and secondary data were used. Primary data were collected from 244 producers, 50 traders and 20 consumers by using semi-structured questionnaires. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and econometrics model. Results from Heckman selection model first step revealed that milk producers’ participation decision on milk value addition was significantly affected by religion, distance the market, cooperative membership, volume of milk produced per day and market access. Whereas milk producers’ participation decision on the volume of milk value addition was significantly affected by religion, level of education, number of children less than six years, membership for milk cooperatives, volume of milk produced per day, access to market information, access to credit and access to livestock extension. Therefore, dairy sector development programs should take in to account determinants of participation decision on milk value addition as well as on volume of milk production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1799.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Carbon tax; Carbon tax and NDC; CGE Cobb-Douglas model; Carbon tax and the United States Government
Online: 25 May 2023 (10:39:12 CEST)
Our study shows how the United States government can achieve its goal of Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) in 2025, 2030, and 2050 by reducing energy consumption through a pure carbon tax. To achieve its emissions reduction goals, it is necessary for the US to impose a long-term carbon tax that balances taxes on labour, capital, energy, and carbon. Therefore, in this study, through the two-layer CGE Cobb-Douglas model, the carbon tax rate is set while balancing the production and profit functions of government, businesses, and households. This study concludes that the carbon price will increase from US$ 0.4391/kg CO2 in 2020 to US$ 2.5671/kg CO2 in 2050 when the CO2 emissions reduction target is increased from 17% reduction in 2020 to 83% reduction in 2050 for the US.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1748.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Entrepreneurial enterprises; SME; economy; economic growth; job creation
Online: 25 May 2023 (07:10:40 CEST)
This article explores the Role and Contributions of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in a globalized and innovative economy, looking specifically at the challenges and opportunities. The establishment and expansion of new firms provides a sizable amount of net new jobs. While high-expectation entrepreneurial enterprises and gazelles are usually found among innovative and technology-based new organizations, it is also essential that there be a sizable supply for them to play a significant part in economic growth. In other words, encouraging all forms of en-trepreneurship is likely to increase the number of innovative, fast-growing enterprises as well as entrepreneurship. In many European countries, entrepreneurship needs to be encouraged. Findings show the crucial role the SME sector plays in the South African economy in tackling sustainable development. About 90% of all official firms in South Africa are thought to be small, medium, or micro-enterprises. The study concluded that one of the major contributions to the South African economy is the SME sector. The SME is not just viewed as a source of new jobs, but also as a sector that absorbs laid-off workers from both the private and public sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1743.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Willingness to accept compensation (WTA); expectation of compensation; horizontal/vertical differentiations of pastoral households
Online: 25 May 2023 (05:42:27 CEST)
China’s Grassland Eco-Subsidy Program has been implemented since 2011 to protect and sustain grassland resources and improve the economic situation of herders. In this case study, we evaluated the policy from the perspective of pastoral differentiations and their willingness to accept (WTA) the eco-subsidy. Using the contingent valuation method (CVM), we interviewed 410 herder households in the grass-livestock balance sub-policy zones across Inner Mongolia, and examined how their horizontal and vertical differentiation affected their WTA and compensation expectations in a sorted Logistic model and a Tobit model, respectively. Our findings suggest that horizontal differentiation of herders (variations of income sources and employments) promoted the WTA for eco-subsidy and inhibited the increase of compensation expectations. A large vertical differentiation extent (income disparity) lowered the WTA but raised expectations for payment levels. Besides, factors such as operating pasture area, precipitation, and supervision intensity had significant impacts. Grazing income remained the primary income source for most herder households, reflecting the characteristics of "the rational economic man." Our results suggest a need for policy improvements to guide herders towards becoming "rational ecological men.” By considering this differentiation, policymakers can better tailor the program to meet the needs and expectations of diverse herder households.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1733.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: PIWI; innovation; organic; sustainability; qualitative.
Online: 25 May 2023 (04:08:58 CEST)
This study investigated the factors that influence consumer acceptance of fungus-resistant grape varieties (FRGV) in Germany. The qualitative research methodology involved conducting semi-structured interviews including sensory evaluation test with focus groups consisting of 48 consumers, and the data were evaluated using content analysis. The findings revealed that the attractiveness of a grape variety is determined by four distinct attributes. Furthermore, FRGV can be made more attractive to consumers by using denominations based on established grape varieties or by using and associating them with their sensory patterns. The sensory acceptance of FRGV varies significantly across consumer segments and vinification methods. Providing relevant information about the benefits of resistant grape varieties has a positive impact on consumer acceptance, and the level of interest and relevance varies by the target group. The study suggests that it is possible to enhance consumer acceptance by offering attractive grape varieties, targeting group-specific sensory profiles and engaging in storytelling campaigns that educate consumers about the advantages of resistant grapes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1678.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Europe; Income Distrubution; Relative Distribution; RIF-regression
Online: 24 May 2023 (03:34:42 CEST)
The issue of polarization, as opposed to inequality, has been little explored for European countries. in this paper, using harmonized data produced by Luxembourg Income Study Database, observes income trends for 12 European countries, showing an increase in polarization in many of the countries considered. the drivers that led to this concentration of income are also analyzed, noting heterogeneous factors within countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1627.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Human Development Index; Education Index; Health Index; Standard of Living Index; Gross Domestic Product; Complex Adaptive Systems; Logarithmic Transformation; Sine Wave; Amplitude
Online: 23 May 2023 (08:40:39 CEST)
The complex adaptive systems (CAS) research study investigates into the theoretical link of a sustained economic growth as a critical pathway to lift people out of poverty and improve their quality of life. The results show a left-skewed global behavior of an economy-driven human development of 189 countries with 20% or 27 countries obtaining low human development; 80% or 162 countries obtaining medium to very high human development of which 21.16% or 39 countries with medium HDI, 53 or 28.04% or 53 countries with high HDI, and 31.22% or 59 countries with very high HDI. Using the Log (GDP) for visual transformation, closer investigation into the scatterplot diagram reveals that there are also bimodal patterns where countries in the high amplitude and low amplitude groups obtained different human development outcomes despite less or more on economic growth variances mirror on the government policy priorities resulting in four differentiating conditions. Very few countries experience virtuous cycles where both growth and human development are successful; few countries with vicious cycles where both are weak; and many countries with lopsided conditions where the economy is strong but human development is weak, or conversely ones where human development is strong but the economy is weak. The global pattern of economy and human development illustrated by an upward sinusoid or sine wave refutes the conventional linear approach. Uniquely and most importantly, the sinusoidal wave illustrates a decreasing amplitude and decreasing periods as countries manifest apparently complex behaviors that emerge as a result of often nonlinear spatio-temporal interactions among a large number of component systems at different levels of organizations and governments leading to an emergence of a behavior characterizing of a complex adaptive system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1626.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: FAFT; AML/CFT; Money laundering; FinTech; RegTech; Banking Regulation
Online: 23 May 2023 (08:35:49 CEST)
Money launderers prefer to use financial services as the ideal medium to launder. The study aimed to provide an overview of the global AML/CFT regulations, application and how they should evolve in this dynamic environment. To gather more insight, a qualitative study was undertaken with relevant documents analysed. The main findings were: country implementation of the global AML/CFT regulations differed due to political and economic factors amongst others. While the various AML/CFT enforcements done by sampled countries were mainly cease and desist orders and monetary penalties which were publicized; and drawbacks of global AML/CFT regulations centered on application of these regulations and emerging trends. These include among other definitions of money laundering, reference to the three stage of money laundering, link between penalty and violations, technological innovations and regulations paradigm shift, cyber-attacks and data privacy. The study contributes to application and growing body of knowledge in that the advent of technology has resulted in better consumer experiences, new payment platforms, products, and services. However, these innovations have broadened emerging money laundering risks and risks in general to the financial system. Hence the need to conduct research based FATF Recommendations as risk is dynamic and not static.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1565.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Data Strategies and learning approaches; Challenges and Opportunities; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:36:17 CEST)
The use of artificial intelligence (AI) is becoming more prevalent across industries as diverse as healthcare, finance, and transportation. Artificial intelligence is based on the analysis of large data sets and requires a continuous supply of high-quality data. However, using data for AI is not without its challenges. This paper comprehensively reviews and critically examine the challenges of using data for AI, including data quality, data volume, privacy and security, bias and fairness, interpretability and explainability, ethical concern, and technical expertise and skills. This paper examines e these challenges in details and offers advices on how companies can address them. By understanding and addressing these challenges, organizations can harness the power of AI to make smarter decisions and gain a competitive advantage in the digital age.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1543.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Fintech; abnormal fintech; bank performance; ROA; net interest margin; income mix; cost structure
Online: 23 May 2023 (03:28:16 CEST)
Using the World Bank Global Findex Database for 91 countries in 2014, 2017, and 2021, we examine whether fintech levels influence bank performance and whether fintech’s interaction with GDP per capita causes differential effects on bank performance globally. Since fintech levels were already very high for rich countries when the World Bank started providing fintech development statistics in 2014, we estimate AbFintech by regressing fintech levels on GDP per capita by year. AbFintech is the difference between the fintech level and its fitted values. Then, using multiple regression analyses, we investigate the impact of AbFintech on bank performance worldwide, focusing on the differential effects of AbFintech and GDP levels on bank performance. We find AbFintech significantly increases bank performance, primarily in less developed countries. Specifically, AbFintech increases banks’ ROA in the least developed countries and net interest margin in the 75th percentile countries. Also, AbFintech decreases the cost-to-income ratio in the 75th percentile countries, while it increases the ratio in the most developed countries. AbFintech does not affect the ratio of noninterest income to total income, regardless of the level of economic development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1467.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Economic Policy Uncertainty; Tobin's Q; Market Price Per Share; Investment in Intangible Assets; Fixed Assets; Financial Leverage; Cash Flow From Operations
Online: 22 May 2023 (05:35:13 CEST)
This study seeks to determine how economic policy uncertainty (EPU) influences investment decisions and the market value of the Pakistan Stock Exchange. The study examines investment and operational data from 249 energy and petroleum companies between 2015 and 2020, in addition to macroeconomic variables such as EPU. This study investigates the moderating effects of EPU on investments in fixed and intangible assets, as well as its effect on Tobin's Q and the market price per share. The outcomes demonstrate that EPU reduces the costs of both tangible and intangible assets for businesses. In addition, companies with a greater Tobin's Q and market price per share are more impacted by uncertain corporate investment policies. However, financial leverage is found to be negatively correlated with share price and positively correlated with earnings per share and earnings per unit. Tobin's Q is positively correlated with financial leverage, indicating that firms that raise capital through debt are more likely to create value for investors. The research indicates that market-dependent enterprises are more susceptible to the unpredictability of monetary policy. Eventually, the findings suggest that consistent and transparent economic policies may increase the efficiency of corporate investment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1451.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: goodwill impairment; IFRS; earnings management; company-specific factors; fixed effects
Online: 19 May 2023 (16:49:55 CEST)
The main issues of accounting reporting regarding goodwill are whether a firm’s management reliably conveys their private information about future earnings, and whether they disclose value-relevant and useful information to accounting users. In the current International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) regulations, the goodwill impairment test is based on management’s discretionary assessments. This study examines how goodwill impairment is reported under IFRS considering company- and industry-specific economic factors, proxies for earnings management, and macroeconomic crisis years. We extend previous research using Tobit and Logit regression, by employing a fixed-effects model. This approach is possible because of a panel data set comprising 449 of 600 active companies sampled from the STOXX Europe 600 index from 2005 to 2018. We find that goodwill impairments are largely concentrated in certain companies, industries, and years. The regression models show a significant negative correlation between companies’ return on total assets and goodwill impairments. Moreover, we discover that goodwill impairments have a significant positive correlation with goodwill intensity, debt ratio, and the proxy for reporting a one-off big bath charge. In addition, we find that the global financial crisis in 2008-2009 and the European debt crisis in 2011 differ significantly from other fiscal years
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1434.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Customer predictive ability; Customized enterprises; Sustainable Innovation
Online: 19 May 2023 (10:52:06 CEST)
With the disruption of digital technologies, customers have emerged as co-producers in order to reduce costs and enhance productivity. Customer-driven business logic recognizes customer capabilities and sustainable innovation as key factors in the performance of customized manufacturing enterprises. The potential relationship between customers and producers has become a new area of inquiry. Existing research rarely delves into the impact of customer predictive ability on the process of customized production activities, particularly in relation to sustainable innovation, which remains inadequately characterized. Ships serve as a typical representation of customized enterprises. This study explores the underlying drivers of sustainable innovation through customer demand orientation by examining 20-year historical patterns in the global shipping and shipbuilding markets, considering the environmental dependency and temporal correlation characteristics of the shipbuilding market (producers) and the shipping market (consumers). By employing time series and panel data in a machine learning algorithm, specifically the random forest model, the study reveals a strong and statistically significant correlation between new ship deliveries and the Baltic Dry Index (BDI), with larger value ships having a more pronounced impact on the consumer market. The correlation analysis confirms that these two variables, in combination, can comprehensively reflect customer predictive ability and serve as crucial decision criteria for customer investment in new ship production. Furthermore, based on principal component analysis of customer predictive ability and ship innovation levels, as well as Granger causality tests, the study demonstrates that customer predictive ability is a Granger cause of sustainable innovation in customized production. Customer predictive ability influences sustainable innovation in customized enterprises to varying degrees. This research provides valuable insights for shipbuilding companies in terms of engaging in sustainable innovation in international markets and understanding the value of international market customers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1417.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Ebola; EVD; cost-analysis; cost-benefit analysis;
Online: 19 May 2023 (09:40:54 CEST)
Background: Significant national and global costs were incurred from recent emerging infectious disease outbreaks, notably H1N1 highly pathogenic influenza, Zika and Severe Acute Respiratory Disease (SARS), both in the medical sphere and within the socioeconomic context around it. With forecasts expecting an increase in direct and indirect burden of novel infectious disease events, costs of future outbreak events are likely to be exacerbated. In this scope, it is critical for countries to identify this trend and work towards minimizing costs while continuing to improve prevention, treatment and mitigation. Objectives: The impacts of the West Africa Ebola crisis have largely focused on the response to the outbreak abroad. The aim of this paper was to determine the direct and indirect domestic costs of the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) introduction into the United States (U.S.), compare the economic consequences of the epidemic with other disease outbreaks and identify the primary drivers of such costs to leverage more global health preparation to prevent, prepare for, and respond to disease threats more effectively. Methods: I conducted a literature review of 1) EVD cases documented by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO), 2) scientific articles identifying the costs of Ebola for the U.S. and countries around the world and 3) grey literature on treatments and public reactions. Extrapolating data from these sources, I then performed a cost-analysis of direct costs (preparation, treatment and contact tracing) and indirect costs (loss of productivity owing to disease, death, and risk avoidance behaviors) of the disease. Findings: The country spent between $300-$700 million in direct costs. Additionally, roughly $200-$340 million were forgone as results of loss of productivity from to disease, death or social risk avoidance behaviors. The cost-per-case for the United States was vastly higher than for any other country. Conclusions: High direct costs suggest that either the United States took disproportionate preparative measures to mitigate a potential American outbreak or were unprepared for a potential outbreak of this magnitude. The significant risk avoidance behavior estimates hint that forces having the ability to shape social attitudes and norms – namely traditional and online media – played a significant role in driving social behavior towards fear of exposure to others. The findings reinforce that outbreaks occurring in a single part of the world can have dramatic economic effects globally, even in areas with existing public health capacity and other preventive measures, highlighting the need for change in global health systems to shift from a passive responder and incorporate other societal actors to effectively reduce the ever-increasing costs of disease threats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1415.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Digital Financial Inclusion; Policy; Practices; challenges; developing economy
Online: 19 May 2023 (09:02:23 CEST)
Globally, over 1.4 billion adult people remain unbanked. This worrisome phenomenon was exacerbated by the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, which further created a new dimension of inequality in accessing financial services. Digital financial inclusion promises to be an effective tool for addressing this socioeconomic ill and propelling economic development. Given the limited studies on the subject in the context of the developing economies, it is imperative to understand the existing policies, practices, and barriers to digital financial inclusion in the developing economies so as to provide cutting-edge interventions for redress. It is against this background that this study seeks to address the following research questions: (1) What is the state of digital financial inclusion in the developing economy? (2) What are the policies and practices regarding digital financial inclusion in the developing economy? (3) What are the barriers to digital financial inclusion and innovative interventions for redress? Findings reveal that about 44% of the adult population in developing countries does not have access to financial services, with only a few countries that have made significant progress and gains through policy and practice such as mobile financial services, mobile money interoperability, native connectivity, human capital development, and digitalization of public services for digital financial inclusion. The findings also identify challenges and implications with recommendations, which are discussed in detail in the paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1383.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: lead users; process; partnership; innovation
Online: 19 May 2023 (05:22:27 CEST)
: The objective of this work is to elucidate the role of partnerships and the number of partners necessary for lead user innovation outcomes. Lead user theory identifies these users as being ahead of market trends and experiencing significant benefits from innovating. So far, most lead user research has concentrated on firms and not individual lead users’ perspective. Data were obtained using a quantitative design during which 321 respondents participated. The SPSS software was used to analyze the data and determine significance. These findings indicate a connection between number of partners and lead user innovation success. This demonstrates that number of partners is significant in determining the success or failure of an innovation. This study provides empirical evidence that the number of partners is an essential factor that influences the success of innovation, and establishes the absolute numbers for achievement of successful innovation. Future studies must investigate the possible implications of integrating the partner variables with other characteristics of the lead user.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1362.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: VUCA meter; probability; black swans; risk management
Online: 19 May 2023 (03:08:03 CEST)
The VUCA world is the epitome of the challenges linked with some of the undercurrents currently shaping businesses in the projectified society. The terms volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity (VUCA) are used as descriptive for the continuous flux project managers and project planners are forced to keep at bay. In this article, the authors present an idea to connect the VUCA concept as a risk identification platform to access, identify and isolate low-probability but high-impact events often called black swans or fat tail events. It is argued that the assumptions of conventional risk assessment in the domain of project management can lead to skewed general outcomes due to limitations of the intellect to assess probability. The outline of the VUCA meter is drafted and argued that the meter can augment the conventional risk assessment
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1320.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: job crafting; work-life balance; job design; mature organization
Online: 18 May 2023 (10:03:51 CEST)
The study is focused on identifying areas of individualization in those mature organizations in which employees are free to make changes. In addition, factors affecting work-life balance and overlap between the jobs employees do and would like to do are determined. A critical review of the literature and a diagnostic survey, including interviews, questionnaires and observations, were used in the research process, together with the analysis of data concerning working conditions. Employees' opinions (n=300) on individualization areas, job crafting and overlap between performed and preferred jobs were analyzed. Calculations were done using IBM SPSS. According to the results, the maintenance of work-life balance (WLB) and the implementation of job crafting positively affect employee efficiency, counteracting professional burnout and a decrease in motivation. It turns out that employees of mature organizations are familiar with the areas of individualization and in some cases have freedom to implement job crafting. They like the work they do, which translates into well-maintained work-life balance. However, a big challenge for mature organizations is the constantly changing economic environment, the long-term nature of work-life balance programmes and their deferred effects. The results of the research can be an important starting point for extended studies.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1281.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Corporate Governance; Earnings Management; Industry-wise
Online: 18 May 2023 (05:50:50 CEST)
This study investigates the impact of governance variables on the earnings quality based on the industry the firm is in. it has been identified that earnings management have been practised differently by different industries. Most of the research under earnings management have focussed on holistic impacts of corporate governance variables on discretionary accruals while this study has categorised the firms based on what industry they fall on while identifying the impacts of the variables of corporate governance on discretionary accruals. Initially, this paper has studied the estimation of the value of discretionary accruals and identified that performance matched discretionary accruals as the best model as per the explanatory power of the model is higher than other models. Hence, the estimation of the earnings management has been calculated based on performance matched discretionary accruals in this research. This research has studied the impacts of the governance attributes on the earnings management categorising the firms based on the industry they are in; hence, the value of earnings management has been categorically separated; hereafter, the impact of the corporate governance factors on the value of categorically separated earnings management have been statistically analysed. This study has considered the descriptive study to compare the means, medians and standard deviations of the earnings management of various industries. Moreover, Pearson correlations and Spearman rank correlation have been used as a research tool to examine the correlation coefficients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1233.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: insurance; earthquake insurance; the compulsory earthquake insurance; insurance subsidy, vol-untary earthquake insurance; CEI; TNCIP
Online: 17 May 2023 (10:37:32 CEST)
As in other parts of the world, natural disasters are increasingly causing significant loss of life and economic damage in Turkey. Natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, storms, fires, and hailstorms have been occurring since ancient times, but now they are being compounded by factors such as climate change and the deterioration of natural environments. This has led to an increase in the frequency and severity of natural disasters and the resulting damage. It is important to finance the economic consequences of natural disasters that threaten individuals, commercial enterprises, and the country's administration. The frequency of the public's exposure to natural disasters, insurance awareness, the financial size of the disasters, the risk management policies of insurance companies, and the competence and willingness of the state and local governments to cover the damage are decisive factors. Prior to the increase in natural disasters, the country's administration was active and involved in first aid, rescue, and damage financing. However, it now has difficulty in financing the damage caused by natural disasters to individual, commercial, industrial, and agricultural assets and does not want to provide full assurance. This is because the dangers awaiting humanity in the future cannot be fully predicted. Private insurance companies undertake the task of taking over and distributing the risk in financing natural disaster losses and ensuring sustainability. Although this is a modern and rational solution, the problem is the insufficient number of insurance policies and insufficient premium production in countries where insurance awareness is not sufficiently developed. To increase premium production and geographical distribution of the risk, the state includes natural disaster insurances within the scope of compulsory insurances and mandates pre-disaster insurance policies. Following the earthquake disaster in the Marmara Region on 17.08.1999, compulsory insurance against earthquakes was introduced in Turkey with the Decree Law No. 587, which entered into force on 27.09.2000. This eliminated the obligation of the state to pay earthquake-related payments for the buildings determined by Turkish Natural Catastrophe Insurance Pool (TNCIP). Citizens have obtained modern, reliable, and regular insurance protection against earthquake damage. Naturally, the success or failure of Compulsory Earthquake Insurance (CEI) and Turkish Natural Catastrophe Insurance Pool (TNCIP) can be questioned after a major disaster. Since TNCIP is a new institution and other countries have not yet adopted it as an example, precedent institutions and past data cannot be included in the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1222.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Palm Oil; Performance; Sustainability Supply Chain; Systematic Literature
Online: 17 May 2023 (10:12:03 CEST)
Indonesia has emerged as one of the leading producers and exporters of palm oil, as supported by data from the Central Bureau of Statistics in 2021, which indicate that Indonesian palm oil exports reached an impressive value of US$ 18.44 billion, or IDR 258 trillion, in 2020, marking an 18.43 percent growth compared to the previous year. Furthermore, the domestic market for palm oil and palm kernel oil remains substantial, despite improvements in export quantities. Various industries, including cooking oil refineries, specialty fats, shortening, margarine, bath soaps, and oleochemicals, present potential markets for palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel oil (PKO). The palm oil industry encompasses four related sub-sectors, namely growers, millers, refiners, and oleochemicals, forming an integrated value chain from upstream to downstream. The current focus on environmental, economic, and social sustainability is driving companies to adopt internal green activities and expand their efforts into sustainability supply chain management (SSCM). Implementing SSCM practices is often seen as economically beneficial, as research has demonstrated their positive impact on firm performance from a resource perspective. Within the palm oil industry, a wide range of green management applications are being utilized. This study aims to examine and highlight the existing sustainable management practices across the entire palm oil supply chain, with a particular emphasis on producing high-quality palm oil. To achieve this objective, the paper utilizes a systematic review methodology, The number of papers analyzed were 62 articles published which involves an extensive review of relevant literature to identify research trends, gaps, and issues. The study seeks to contribute to the body of knowledge by expanding the theory of organizational readiness in preparing globally competitive palm oil products. The research findings hold practical significance for practitioners and academics, providing a comprehensive roadmap for implementing green management applications at the organizational level in the palm oil industry's upstream-to-downstream chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1214.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Lean Accounting; Lean Production; Just In Time; Ethical Standard; Cost Reduction; Sustainable Manufacturing; Backflush Costing, & Value Stream
Online: 17 May 2023 (09:40:53 CEST)
This article purposed to examine the impact of integration between Lean accounting (LA) tools & Just in Time (JIT) technique on Cost Reduction (CR) in modern manufacturing environment in Saudi establishments, these two variable moderated by Ethical Standards (ESs). A quantitative methodology was used for realizing the study objectives and answering study questions, the main tool exercised for producing the incipient data was a fully-structured questionnaire with closed ended questions, which was designed and passed around online among a selected sample of (109) managers and accountants in Saudi manufacturing firms. Descriptive and deductive statistics adopted to derive the findings, wherefore the compiled responses analyzed by SPSS & AMOS and the results showed that there is direct and indirect effect of LA tools & JIT technique on CR in Saudi industrial companies, especially when using ESs. These findings could provide decision makers in Saudi manufacturing companies with the acuity of adopting both methods in a combined way to maximize the profits of these firms. The results of this study also suggest that the application of LA tools & JIT technique has a positive effect on the promotion of sustainable manufacture and consequent achievement of high sustainable performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1133.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Distributed Manufacturing; Supply Chain; Multi-attribute decision support; Sustainability; Construction
Online: 16 May 2023 (09:07:56 CEST)
Distributed Manufacturing (DM) is becoming increasingly important in operations management due to its potential to support sustainability goals, reduce risks in global supply chains, and boost local economies. However, previous analyses of the advantages and disadvantages of DM have mainly focused on operations, overlooking additional benefits across the supply chain. For example, DM can enable local sourcing, better serve end-users, and tackle reverse supply chain challenges. While economies of scale are essential for reducing costs and improving productivity, highly centralised manufacturing can increase transportation costs, vulnerability, and supply chain disruptions, particularly during pandemics or other times of restricted transportation. To address these challenges, this study introduces a Multi-attribute Decision Support System (MADSS) and assessment process that considers impacts across the supply chain and guides stakeholders, academics, and decision-makers. The MADSS handles quantitative and qualitative information, missing data, and uncertainty, and a team of experts from academia and industry in New Zealand has developed the evaluation. The MADSS was used to analyse DM and traditional construction alternatives from economic, social, environmental, and resilience perspectives in New Zealand. The research contributes to a better understanding of the impacts of DM across the entire supply chain. Also, it proposes a flexible decision-making framework to engage with stakeholders and support decision-making in other industries and regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1074.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: E-commerce integration; adoption determinants; Moroccan firms; innovation; logit; probit; conditional mixed process-probit model.
Online: 16 May 2023 (03:59:16 CEST)
E-commerce is a rapidly evolving global trend that is having a significant impact on consumer behavior and business strategies. Despite its growing impact, e-commerce adoption by Moroccan firms remains low and research on this topic in this context is scarce. This study aims to fill this gap by investigating the main determinants influencing e-commerce adoption by Moroccan firms. We use logit, probit, and conditional mixed process-probit models to identify the critical factors driving e-commerce adoption. Our results reveal five key findings. First, newer firms that are more open to innovation and change are more likely to adopt e-commerce. Second, firms with a higher proportion of highly educated employees are more likely to adopt e-commerce. Third, the digital skills of new employees do not directly influence the likelihood of e-commerce adoption. Fourth, being listed on digital platforms increases the likelihood of e-commerce adoption. Finally, there is a positive relationship between firms engaged in innovation activities and e-commerce adoption. These findings highlight the need for additional investment in promoting modern organizational practices, reskilling workers, and implementing advanced technologies to facilitate effective e-commerce integration among Moroccan SMEs. By addressing these challenges, Moroccan firms can harness the full potential of e-commerce and contribute to the country’s economic growth and digital transformation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0823.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Sustainable Development; Economic Growth; Innovation; Business Schools; Local Market.
Online: 16 May 2023 (03:18:54 CEST)
The purpose of this research was to examine the act of business schools in the Palestinian universities by their study plans in achieving sustainable development goals (SDGs) (G1, G4, G8, G9, G12, G16, G17), due to their strong relationship with business sector in the local market, in addition to examining whether the graduates of business schools have the required competencies and required skills for the local market. This research is descriptive in nature and a survey questionnaire was designed to collect data from faculty members and employers. The results indicate that business schools in the Palestinian universities have incorporated sustainable development goals in their study plans to a medium-to-high degree, with a higher emphasis on Quality Education. Graduates from these programs are perceived to possess the required competencies and skills by the employers in the local market, with a medium-to-high level of alignment with the SDGs, especially in the area Quality Education. There was no significant difference between the perceptions of university faculty members and employers in the local market regarding the fit of business school graduates' competencies and skills with the local market needs in relation to the SDGs. However, there were significant differences in the areas of accountability and transparency principles, economic and industrial challenges, partnerships for the goals, international standardization, and capacity building in operational expertise. It is recommended that business schools in Palestinian universities continue to prioritize the integration of sustainable development goals in their study plans and align the competencies and skills of their graduates with the needs of the local market. The areas of significant difference between university faculty members and employers in the local market present opportunities for further collaboration and dialogue to better meet the needs of the local market and achieve sustainable development goals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0275.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Sustainability; Corporate social responsibility
Online: 15 May 2023 (07:59:16 CEST)
At a basic level, entrepreneurship refers to an individual or a small group of partners that intend to create a new business. Entrepreneurship is at forefront of any competitive economy due to the creation of new products and services that comes from new ideas. In other words, entrepreneurship is associated with economic wealth, growth and innovation. The usage of resources in the creation of new businesses needs to be rational because investors normally are risk averse, and nowadays, the purpose of a new business needs to be for a long-term period, and the usage of resources has to take into mind the possible damage to the planet. In other words, entrepreneurs and the sustainability of the planet are interconnected. Beyond this, entrepreneurs need to take care of the corporate social responsibility of each new business, considering the interests of itself, its stakeholders, and the public. Nevertheless, existing research has not shown in full all the research streams, how they interact with each other and their potential knowledge development. Thus, a literature review on social entrepreneurship and corporate social responsibility in the last decade are opportune. This paper aims to identify research trends in the field through a Systematic Bibliometric Literature Review of social entrepreneurship and corporate social responsibility research. The review includes 69 articles published in the Scopus® database, presenting up-to-date knowledge on the topic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0988.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: COVID-19; Vaccine hesitancy; Implication; Consequences; Economic recovery
Online: 15 May 2023 (07:37:36 CEST)
The phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy is a growing threat to public health with far-reaching implications. The widening gap between the vaccinated and the proportion needed for herd immunity raises two critical research questions that are of interest to practitioners, researchers, and policymakers: (1) What determines one’s decision to be vaccinated? and (2) What is the implication of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy on economic recovery? In this study, we use empirical data in the context of South Africa to investigate factors affecting COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and their implications for economic recovery. Findings reveal key socio-demographic and institutional drivers of COVD-9 vaccine hesitancy, which include age (the youth are more hesitant), inadequate information on the vaccine (those who perceive they have adequate information are vaccinated), trust issues in government institutions, conspiracy beliefs, vaccine-related factors, and perceived side effects associated with the vaccine. Additionally, an individual’s decision to remain hesitant about COVID-19 vaccination has implications for businesses and the economy by limiting movement and trade, increasing unemployment, and causing a resurgence of new variants. Based on the findings, action plans such as information dissemination, convenience vaccination centers, consistency communications, and targeted campaign strategies are recommended for improving vaccine intakes and a positive economic recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0977.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: algorithmic trading; data-driven optimization; applied statistics; model-free feedback control; forward testing
Online: 15 May 2023 (05:27:00 CEST)
This paper proposes an optimal trading algorithm based on a novel application of the conventional Control Engineering (CE). We consider a fundamental CE concept, namely, the feedback control and apply it to the Algorithmic Trading (AT). The concrete feedback control strategy is designed in a form of the celebrated Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) model. The highly fluctuating nature of the modern financial markets has led to the adoption of a model-free realisation of the generic PID framework. The control theoretical methodology we propose is combined with the advanced statistics for the historical market data. We obtain a specific log-normal probability distribution function (pdf) associated with the specific quantities associated with the available stock data. The empirical log-normal pdf mentioned above makes it possible the necessary PID gains optimization. For this aim, we apply the data-driven optimization approaches and consider the corresponding Monte Carlo solution procedure. The optimized PID trading algorithm we propose is also studied in the Fourier analysis framework. This equivalent frequency domain representation involves a new concept in the financial engineering, namely, the "stock market energy" concept. For the evaluation, we implement the proposed PID optimal trading algorithm and develop a Python based prototype software. We finally apply the corresponding prototype software to a dataset from the Binance BTC / USDT stock market. The experimental result illustrates the implementability of the proposed optimal PID trading scheme and also shows the effectiveness of the proposed CE methods in the modern AT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0926.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Organizational Diagnosis; Special Education; Readiness for change; Weisbord’s model
Online: 12 May 2023 (10:28:18 CEST)
Organizational diagnosis (OD) is a comprehensive review of an organization's objectives, re-source allocation, and utilization to achieve those objectives. This study employed OD to en-hance the effectiveness of the Department of Special Education within the Government of Punjab. A questionnaire based on Weisbord's six-box organizational model called the Organ-izational Diagnostic Questionnaire (ODQ), was administered to N=1200 participants, consist-ing of heads of top, middle, and bottom tiers at district and tehsil levels of special education schools, centers, and the main office. Out of these, 506 participants voluntarily completed the ODQ survey. The study findings indicated that the employees of the department possess a good understanding of the organization's objectives. However, there is a lack of opportunities for employee participation in departmental discussions, centralized decision-making, irra-tional task distribution, and unsupportive allocation of human resources. Additionally, there is poor communication, unsatisfactory promotions, incentives, and a lack of knowledge shar-ing among employees, as well as poor inter-relationships, conflicts, and ineffective help-seeking mechanisms. The study also revealed low readiness for change in the organization. Respondents' opinions differed significantly based on their qualifications, job experience, years served, and gender. To improve the department's capacity to absorb change, the study recommends enhancing collaboration and inter-departmental communication, soliciting comprehensive input from all tiers, and promoting employee participation, supportive supervision, and communication. The study contributes to the body of knowledge on OD and highlights the need for improved communication, collaboration, and employee participation, as well as a supportive and supervisory support system to enhance the effectiveness of organizations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0860.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Cultural Distance; Formal Institutional Distance; Institutional Environment; Foreign subsidiaries; Latin America; Formal Institutions; Psychic Distance; Moderation; Asymmetry; Asymmetry of Distance; Financial Performance
Online: 11 May 2023 (13:36:28 CEST)
We investigate how formal institutional distance (FID) moderates the relationship between cul-tural distance (CD) and the financial performance of foreign subsidiaries firms. Following recent research, we estimate the asymmetric effects of CD by considering its size and direction towards host countries on the opposite poles of each cultural dimension` scale. We propose that a limited understanding of the formal institutions in the host country, as measured by the magnitude and direction of the FID, can have a positive moderating effect, increasing the impact of CD on finan-cial performance. This is mainly because foreign subsidiary firms may be more reliant on their ca-pacity to navigate the less formal (and more implicit) aspects of the host country's institutional environment, such as their ability to cope with the CD. We use foreign subsidiary data from the Orbis database including 22 developed and 22 developing home countries and over 1400 foreign subsidiaries during a period of 3 consecutive years operating in 10 of the largest economies (host countries) in Latin America including: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Findings confirm the asymmetric effects of CD, howev-er, by considering the direction of FID, our findings reveal that the higher the FID towards less developed host countries, the more significant the effects of CD on the financial performance. These findings contribute to the knowledge of how formal and informal institutional distances in-teract by showing that the greater the FID towards less developed host countries, to higher the impact of CD on the financial performance of foreign subsidiary firms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0841.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: financial markets; national regulatory models; principles and methods of supervision
Online: 11 May 2023 (10:45:42 CEST)
The purpose of this original study is to critically analyze the emergence and development of the national models of financial regulation; international standards and codes; regional and national financial regulation and supervision (the case of UK, USA, Sweden, EU and Finland). The research raises both academic and regulatory concerns. It aims at shaping changes (innovations) in the supervisory practices of national and international regulators in response to new developments in FinTech markets, digital products, financial instruments and risks. Secondly, it will stimulate more systematic work on regulatory databases, registration and reporting procedures in various economies in different financial markets. The author identifies five main systems of national financial regulatory markets: the multi-tiered, multi-agency US system; the Twin Peaks model (UK); the mega-regulatory model (Sweden). There is a thorough review of international standards and institutions that work for the stability of financial systems. The analysis of regional and national systems of financial regulation and supervision is based on the examples of the EU and Finnish institutions. National macro and microeconomic regulation and supervision have been examined with a focus on the US Federal Reserve and the US Treasury. National and international regulatory institutions have been evolving along several lines. First, minimum capital and credit risk requirements for banks (80s of the 20th century) are complemented in the 21st century by buffer reserves, liquidity and leverage standards. Second, regulation focuses on ensuring the sustainability of the national economy. The regulatory focus is on ensuring the sustainability of national and global financial systems. Third, there is an increase in the number of supervised institutions. Fourth, there is a division of functions between central banks (macroeconomic regulation) and one or two mega-regulators (microeconomic regulation and supervision). Fifth, there is a division of labour between the international financial institutions (BIS, IMF, WB) and national regulators. Sixth, the focus is on protecting consumers and investors, and countering money laundering and the financing of terrorism. Seventh, there is an understanding for a common approach by central banks to new financial technologies and cybersecurity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0820.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: reverse logistics; number of remanufacturing times; first remanufacturing cycle; time-varying parameters; demand dependent return rate
Online: 11 May 2023 (08:21:22 CEST)
The mathematical modelling of reverse logistics inventory systems ignores that returned items may arrive out of sequence, i.e. with different number of remanufacturing times. Moreover, such modelling assumes that the retuned items may retain the same quality upon recovery regardless of how many times they have been previously remanufactured. This paper develops a new mathematical expression of the percentage of retuned items that can be remanufactured a finite number of times. The proposed expression is modelled as a function of the expected number of times an item can be remanufactured on its life cycle and the number of times an item can be technologically (or optimally) remanufactured based on its quality upon recovery. The model developed in this paper considers joint production and remanufacturing options. The return rate is a varying demand dependent rate, which is a decision variable with demand, product deterioration, manufacturing and remanufacturing rates being arbitrary functions of time. The model considers the initial inventory of returned items in the mathematical formulation, which enables decision makers to adjust all functions and input parameters for subsequent cycles. Illustrative examples indicate that dependent purchasing price of recovery items and the incorporation of remanufacturing investment cost significantly impact on the optimal remanufacturing policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0818.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Management; Financial Performance; Corporate Diversification; Capital Structure; Conglomerate; Business Model
Online: 11 May 2023 (08:17:06 CEST)
Since the early 21st century, the globalization trend and technological innovations have changed the ways and speed of market growth. Rapid market expansion and the pressure for firms to achieve sustainable business growth via mergers and acquisitions have become the norms for acquiring the necessary competencies, expanding market shares and business integrations. This study explains the factors that correlate to the IJM's financial performance based on the market dynamics in recent years. This case study is a qualitative approach employing systematic review and content analysis. As a result, firms begin to diversify or venture into the business segments that might be related to or complement their core businesses, intentionally or unintentionally, which eventually evolved into the conglomerate form. This case study provides a financial performance analysis of IJM Corporation Berhad's success and challenges from its conglomerate business model. The fact that a well-diversified firm will have better risk management in the event of an economic downturn is also a primary driver for firms to embark on a corporate diversification strategy. This case study reveals IJM's conglomerate model has been successful during its rapid business growth; however, it has shown signs of diminishing in recent years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0817.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: machine learning; classification algorithms; logistic regression; feature selection; ensemble methods; optimization algorithms
Online: 11 May 2023 (08:14:03 CEST)
This study aims to determine the influence of selected social and health factors on the quality of inpatient treatments when regional health organizations use stacking ensemble model. The proposed procedure is based on the logistic regression method, which is used for direct prediction in the case of good fitting data and impossibility of including aggregation of classification algorithms but also in the opposite case, for fine calibration to obtain prediction. In opposite case, the procedure uses classification algorithms and several filter methods which initially rank individual factors according to their importance to reduce the dimensionality of problem and, in such way. obtaining one optimized classification prediction. The proposed procedure is trained using one part and tested using another part of dataset from case study which enables the generalization of the solution to the set goal and is verified by the Kaggle dataset Brest cancer. Case study was conducted using the real data acquired in the region connected to the city of Nis, Republic of Serbia. The obtained results show that the proposed model achieves better results that each of methods included in this stacking ensemble-regression and classification used individually.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0792.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Baltic Dry Index; Covid-19; Stepwise Regression
Online: 11 May 2023 (05:11:46 CEST)
The outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020 caused significant disruptions to global shipping and the world economy. This paper aims to investigate the impact of the pandemic on global shipping by analyzing the Baltic Dry Index (BDI). The BDI is a metric that reflects the worldwide shipping costs and directs related to supply and demand conditions, making it an indicator of economic production. The study utilizes data from 2019 to 2021, before and after the outbreak of COVID-19, and considers 13 independent variables, including raw materials, energy, stock market indexes, global port calls, and confirmed COVID-19 cases to investigate how to influent the BDI. The study employs stepwise regression to select variables and build models before and after the pandemic. The findings reveal that the key factors affecting the freight index BDI before the outbreak are: international scrap steel prices, iron ore prices, and the Commodity Research Bureau Index. However, after the COVID-19 outbreak, the factors affecting the BDI changed to the Shanghai Index, global port calls, and the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0727.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: carbon emissions trading; corporate financialization; financing constraints; difference-in-differences model
Online: 10 May 2023 (09:59:35 CEST)
This study examines whether and how carbon trading policy impacts the financialization of non-financial firms, using China emission trading scheme as a natural experiment. We show that the carbon trading policy has effectively long-term inhibitory effect on corporate financialization. Our findings are robust to possible result bias and more precise control group. In addition, we explore potential channels through which carbon trading policy can affect financialization, and find that it contributes to curb financialization by reducing financing constraints. Finally, we show that the relationship between carbon trading policy and financialization of non-financial companies is moderated by company’s ownership, region and industry competition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0699.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Stock Market; CBOE Volatility Index; S & P 500 Index; Investors; Sentiments
Online: 10 May 2023 (07:42:53 CEST)
The research is a deep study of the CBOE Volatility Index (VIX), which represent the market sentiments of the S & P 500 Index (SPX) over a period of 33 years. It evaluates how the two indexes perform in the stock market crash and how reliable VIX is in predicting market sentiments. The research distributes the market rally in two forms, and one is a trust rally, when investors are happy to see the market in a stable form, and investors' sentiments are positive towards the stock market. Second is a fear rally, where investors' sentiments are negative, and their outlook is bearish for various reasons. It observes the pattern of rallies, like the longest trust or fear rally, in which year and its duration. The research analyzes data to reach a meaningful conclusion and various inferences that can be drawn from the study of historical data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0687.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: livestock industry; livestock products; livestock powerhouse; issues and challenges; policy recommendations
Online: 10 May 2023 (04:50:22 CEST)
Accelerating the construction of livestock powerhouses is of great significance to better enhance the ability to guarantee the supply of livestock products and improve the quality, efficiency and competitiveness of the livestock industry. This study constructed an evaluation index system to assess the level of China’s livestock powerhouse and then performed an in-depth analysis of the issues and challenges facing the construction of livestock powerhouses. The research results showed that the level of China’s livestock powerhouse ranked 5th in the world, and the livestock industry was transitioning from being a large livestock country to a powerhouse, while there was still a large gap in terms of reaching the goal of constructing livestock powerhouses. There were significant differences in the level of livestock powerhouses across different livestock industries; the layer industry was the world leader in China, whereas the pig, sheep and goat, and broiler industries were stronger, while the beef cattle and dairy industries were weaker. There are still many challenges to accelerating the construction of livestock powerhouses in terms of supply security, scientific and technological support, operation systems, industry and supply chain resilience, international trade, policy support, etc. It is recommended to improve the institutional mechanism for the construction of livestock powerhouses, promote a high level of self-reliance and self-improvement in livestock science and technology, build a modern livestock operation system, enhance the resilience and security level of the industrial and supply chain, and consolidate and expand international trade and cooperation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0682.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: pig; animal disease; African swine fever; risk assessment; policy recommendations
Online: 10 May 2023 (04:12:16 CEST)
Strengthening the analysis and risk assessment of the pig epidemic will help to better prevent and mitigate epidemic risks and promote high-quality development of the pig industry. Based on the systematic grasp of the situation of live pig epidemics, a risk assessment index system was constructed, and the spatial and temporal variation characteristics of the risk of pig epidemics in China were explored by the entropy method. In recent years, the overall trend in pig epidemics in time first increased and then decreased, and in space, the trend in the acceleration of the spread across the country continued to weaken. China still faces challenges, such as many types and a wide range of diseases, large total livestock breeding and weak epidemic prevention and control capacity, and a large risk of introduction of foreign animal epidemics. The spatial and temporal variation in the pig epidemic risk was obvious; there was one high-risk area, two higher-risk areas and 10 medium-risk areas in recent years, and the epidemic risk was highest in Beijing, Hainan, Liaoning, Tibet and Zhejiang. However, there were significant differences in the regional distribution of the risk of pig epidemics in different years. To further build a secure “defense system” for the high-quality development of the pig industry, it is recommended to improve the monitoring and early warning system of pig epidemic risk, perfect the pig epidemic prevention and control system, and strengthen the regional collaboration mechanism of epidemic prevention and control.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0638.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Agile project management; Agile construction; Building adaptation; Built environment; Scaling agile
Online: 9 May 2023 (10:28:45 CEST)
The Agile Building Adaptation (AgiBuild) framework is the adoption and adaptation of the large-scale agile framework for building adaptation projects. The agile methodology is proven to drive innovation by focusing on adaptation to change and user centricity. Similarly, the authors envision that the AgiBuild framework can fundamentally change the way that buildings are re-designed, refurbished, and operated. The AgiBuild framework is developed from the need of the building adaptation industry to manage uncertainties, overcome communication barriers, and improve innovation. In this study, a literature review of Agile and its impact on building adaptation projects is undertaken. Based on this systematic literature review, this paper defines the AgiBuilt framework and provides its benefits and barriers to implementation. A key finding of the literature review is that leadership influence, and adequate training form the key foundation for the implementation of the AgiBuild Framework. In defining the AgiBuild framework, the paper describes its components and how its implementation is likely to proceed. The authors propose that by adopting the AgiBuild framework, the industry can transform itself into a highly innovative and user-centred industry to improve productivity and performance of the construction industry..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0632.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Society; Economy; Environment; Development; Maturity Model
Online: 9 May 2023 (10:03:22 CEST)
The Societal Patterns Evolution Model (SPEM) (Gakh, 2023a) has been developed to apply to socio-technical systems. It contains patterns representing stages of societal development. Mapping of these patterns to the development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and Information Systems was presented at FedCSIS 2022 conference (Gakh, 2022c). This paper discusses the application of SPEM to model the development of three pillars of sustainability: economic, social, and environmental (Purvis, et al., 2019; United Nations, 2023).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0594.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Value at Risk; over-the-counter foreign exhange (OTC FX) options; quantile regression; Machine Learning (ML)
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:08:24 CEST)
In this study we propose a semi-parametric, parsimonious Value at Risk forecasting model, based on quantile regression and machine learning methods, combined with readily available market prices of option contracts from the over-the-counter foreign exchange rate interbank market. We aim at improving existing methods for VaR prediction of currency investments using machine learning. We employ two different methods - ensemble methods and neural networks. Explanatory variables are implied volatilities with plausible economic interpretation. The forward-looking nature of the model, achieved by the application of implied volatilities as risk factors, ensures that new information is rapidly reflected in Value at Risk estimates. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to utilize information in the volatility surface, combined with machine learning and quantile regression, for VaR prediction of currency investments. The proposed ensemble models achieve good estimates across all quantiles. The light gra-dient-boosting machine model and the categorical boosting model both yield estimates which are better than, or equal to, those of the benchmark model. The neural network models are in general quite unstable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0572.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Exhibitions; Brand Value; Evaluation; AHP Model
Online: 9 May 2023 (05:13:13 CEST)
With the branding development of the international exhibition industry and the increase in the number of mergers and acquisitions of exhibitions, the assessment of the brand value of exhibitions has gradually come into the view of governments, investment and financing institutions and researchers. Compared with the brand value assessment of consumer goods and industrial sectors, the brand value assessment of exhibitions, especially B2B exhibitions, has special characteristics. A model for brand value assessment of B2B exhibitions is proposed, which can not only provide a reference for decision-making on M&A behaviour of exhibitions, but also provide a decision-making tool for government exhibition brand promotion. The aim of this paper is to explore the feasibility of constructing an AHP-based conceptual model for brand value assessment of exhibitions in Shanghai through a hybrid study. The applicability of the conceptual model for exhibition brand value assessment is empirically demonstrated by analysing six steps, including establishing pairwise comparison matrices, calculating the maximum eigenvalues and normalised eigenvectors of each comparison matrix, conducting consistency checks, group decision matrix synthesis and weight allocation of exhibition brand value assessment indicators. On this basis, the three values of the model in practice and theory are explored separately. The research results can provide better brand value assessment and development support for exhibition stakeholders and improve the sustainability of exhibition brands.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0549.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Blockchain; Cryptocurrencies; Bitcoin; Fintech; Metaverse
Online: 9 May 2023 (03:29:29 CEST)
Within financial technology, Blockchain is a topic that is receiving a lot of attention and discussion. There has been a meteoric rise in engagement and recent studies on this technology. The mainframe, personal computers, the Internet, and mobile applications follow the breakthrough in the history of computing. In qualitative research, the investigation was synthesized utilizing the documentary approach, including content analysis for a review article. The results reveal that Blockchain Technology is getting a foothold not only in the financial industries but is also likely to disrupt other areas like healthcare, real estate, the legal industry, security, government, education, rentals and ride-sharing, charities and aid organizations, and politics. Currently, several projects are researching the possibility of implementing the Blockchain as a structure to support them; as a result, we will soon see that it truly becomes the technology of the future. Furthermore, qualitative interviews or focus group discussions could give more insight into details. In addition, a quantitative approach for further research could provide a generalized explanation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0263.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Agile; agility; scrum; culture; digital transformation; anti-patterns
Online: 8 May 2023 (15:40:36 CEST)
The search for growth and sustainability in any organization largely depends on its ability to carry out digital transformation and agility processes. These processes are essential to adapt to an increasingly changing and competitive business environment, allowing companies to be more efficient and effective in creating an unbreakable bond with their customers. This manuscript addresses the importance of detecting and eliminating anti-patterns in organizational culture for a successful digital and agile transformation. During the early stages of the transformation process, prejudices and paradigms rooted in the organization can become an obstacle to change. The goal of this writing is to offer a practical guide for leaders and teams in organizations seeking successful cultural transformation. Effective strategies are proposed to overcome the challenges faced by organizations during this early stage. In summary, the key steps to be followed in the initial stages of digital transformation with agility are described, including the importance of establishing strong leadership, defining a clear vision and scope of the transformational process, among others. A set of recommendations will be provided to overcome recurring anti-patterns, such as lack of stakeholder participation and commitment, lack of proper planning, and confusion of roles and responsibilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0540.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Game theory; Nash Equilibrium
Online: 8 May 2023 (12:32:07 CEST)
This paper presents a comprehensive investigation of a strategic game inspired by a notable scene from the movie "A Beautiful Mind." We explore the game's properties, equilibrium behavior, and its relationship with the classic Bertrand competition model. By employing the concept of Bayesian Nash equilibrium, we analyze the strategic behavior of players under incomplete information and assess the role of private valuations in determining the game's outcomes. Our findings reveal key similarities and differences between the game inspired by "A Beautiful Mind" and the Bertrand competition model, shedding light on the underlying strategic behavior and market competition dynamics in both settings. Our findings show that for a large number of competitors (n), the reasonable choice is to ignore the blonde. We also found that going for the brunette (the second attractive girl) is more reasonable compared to the blonde. Furthermore, we discuss the implications of our findings for market competition and economic theory, acknowledge the limitations of our analysis, and suggest potential avenues for future research. This in-depth examination significantly enhances our understanding of the game and its potential implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0539.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Sustainable Agriculture; Green Finance; Agricultural Industrial Structure; Fixed Effect Model; China
Online: 8 May 2023 (12:08:12 CEST)
This study utilized panel data from 31 Chinese provinces over a period of nine years to investigate the impact of green finance on the upgrading of the agricultural industrial structure. A fixed-effect model was employed, and the findings indicate that green financing has a positive effect on the growth of China's agricultural industry. However, regional disparities exist, particularly in the uneven distribution of green financing across the eastern, central, and western regions. Moreover, it emphasizes the need to consider regional differences and tailor development strategies accordingly. To promote further development and transformation of China's agricultural industrial structure, the study recommends innovative green financial products, improved regulations and policies, and the integration of digital technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0523.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Lightning Network; Business models; Narrative review
Online: 8 May 2023 (10:54:36 CEST)
The Lightning Network (LN), a second-layer protocol built on top of the Bitcoin blockchain, is an innovative digital payment solution that offers increased convenience, speed, and cost-effectiveness to consumers and businesses alike. However, there is limited literature available on the characteristics of this nascent technology, the depth and breadth of the various business LN-related applications as well as relevant adoption/implementation challenges. This study aims to contribute to the understanding of the LN’s characteristics, its potential in enhancing business operations and its applicability across different sectors, while taking into account adoption and implementation challenges. We apply a narrative review methodology using a semi-systematic approach to examine new and emerging business models empowered by the LN and its characteristics, topology, performance, privacy, and security. We analyze the data to identify key themes and trends in the literature, offering a critical analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the existing literature. Based on the findings, we provide several clusters of fruitful areas for future research directions. The findings of this study will help businesses make more informed decisions about adopting and leveraging the LN to improve their operations and enhance customer experience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0487.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Tourism promotion budget; Andalusia location; hotels; aiports; tourists; passenger arrivals; overnight stays
Online: 8 May 2023 (09:00:27 CEST)
The aim of this study is to analyse tourism promotion of eight provinces of Andalusia from 2010 to 2022, and to examine the ways that tourism promotion campaigns influence and stimulate the improving of tourism supply and demand at Andalusian provinces. The methodology used in this study collected data from Andalusian public organizations (secondary data), and information related to this topic from researchers and organizations (primary data) for the purpose of this research project. This research provides a new contribution to tourism industry and promotion strategies context. Findings of the current study prove that DMOs of Andalusian provinces increased the tourism promotion budgets and campaigns to revitalize the tourism demand and supply due to the pandemic crisis and Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. Indeed, results of this research suggest that Andalusia’s tourism promotion budgets and campaigns have to helped to improve the number of passenger arrivals, number of tourists, hotel occupancy rate, overnight stays at hotels by international and Spanish, and total overnight stay indicators in the period analysed, especially in the years 2021 and 2022. The contribution of this study has a great relevance to tourist destinations, DMOs, hotels, airports, and stakeholders where application of tourism promotion budgets, joint promotion campaigns, and new tourism products and services should be implemented to improve the tourism supply and demand, guarantee the regional and local economy and well-being of population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0476.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: microfinance institutions; sustainable development; key influencing factors
Online: 8 May 2023 (08:40:10 CEST)
Microfinance institutions (MFIs) play an significant role in financial inclusion and poverty alleviation activities. A critical challenge facing MFIs is how on all to build its own capacity for sustainable and healthy development. By using the data from the pilot survey of 65 microcredit companies in Zhejiang of China, this paper explores the factors affecting MFIs activities by principal component analysis and analyzes the key Influencing factors and sustainable development performance with the analysis of variance and multi-regression model.The results indicate that four key factors of operational technology, external environment, financial condition and institution size have a significant positive effect on the economic sustainability performance of MFIs, while the adjusted institution size is insignificant positive effect on operational sustainability performance,which means that key factors of MFIs sustainability have a greater impact on economic sustainability performance than operational sustainability performance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0465.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: new digital economy; sustainability
Online: 8 May 2023 (08:18:28 CEST)
This study aims to analyze the interconnection between the concepts of digital economy and sustainability. These concepts have become popular due to awareness of climate change and increased development and adoption of technologies. Researchers, business leaders and policymakers are exploring the many ways digital technologies can be used to address sustainability issues. Using a systematic literature review with a bibliometric analysis, we examined a sample of 92 studies indexed in SCOPUS to identify research activity on this topic through April 2023. We found that 2022 had the highest number of peer-reviewed papers on the subject, with 31 publications. During the research, we also identified multiple opportunities for this interconnection, such as developing renewable energy and sustainable technological solutions, smart cities and sustainable urbanization, and sustainable consumption. These opportunities enabled by digital technologies allow companies to adopt sustainable business strategies and develop sustainable products. Despite these opportunities, the digital economy presents several challenges that can hinder efforts to achieve sustainability goals, such as increased e-waste, high energy consumption and rising carbon emissions, digital divide, job insecurity, growing monopolies, and data protection. These issues must be addressed to enable optimal use of the opportunities presented in the digital economy to promote sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0407.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Claim management office (CMO); organisational project management (OPM); built environment; project-based organization (PBO); construction claim
Online: 6 May 2023 (09:45:55 CEST)
A claim management office (CMO) is a new intra-organisation fit based on an organisational project management (OPM) approach and deals specifically with improving claim performance. However, CMO is either misunderstood or often overlooked in construction companies, mainly due to ignorance of the OPM context but further exacerbated by a lack of real case study research on how to adopt CMO in these organisations. This study addresses this prevailing knowledge gap by investigating the nature of the construction industry from the CMO viewpoint and developing an extensive framework through which to improve organisational claims performance. Organisational ambidexterity theory integrated with X-inefficiency theory is adopted for claims performance outcomes, due to organisation intra-firm irrational decisions when managing such claims. Data was obtained and analysed from a international large construction company (which used CMOs) and its internal focus group discussion (as a multi-method approach). The reference framework provides new perspectives on how construction-related companies can adopt a CMO structure, which enables them to improve claims performance by planning in three interrelated activities viz. function-, process- and performance-based-. Furthermore, findings contribute to researchers and practitioners by providing a true understanding of the CMO-related mechanism and plausible roadmap for future work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0399.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Online Cause-related Advertising; Consumer-Brand Relationship; Brand Attachment; Brand Affinity; Ethical Consumption Propensity
Online: 6 May 2023 (09:00:55 CEST)
Cause-Related Marketing (CRM) has emerged as a new concept that links CSR activities to marketing, enabling corporations to pursue both building company-consumer partnership and gaining sustainable mutual benefits that are elicited from the partnership. Among various cause-related marketing activities, on-line cause-related advertising is the most commonly used one. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of on-line cause-related advertising and moderating role of ethical consumption propensity. In particular, this study intends to contribute to successful development of on-line cause-related advertising strategy by focusing on the relationship between the four factors: customers' perception of on-line cause-related advertising, brand-consumer relationship, brand attachment and loyalty. The results of this study are as follows: First, customers' perception of on-line cause-related advertising was related positively to consumer-brand- relationship. Second, brand-consumer relationship was related positively to brand attachment and customer loyalty. Third, brand attachment was related positively to customer loyalty. Furthermore, from the consumer’s psychological viewpoint, ethical consumption propensity had a significant moderating effect to between customers' perception of cause-related advertising and brand-consumer relationship as well as brand attachment. The results of this study may contribute to the existing literature as an new empirical attempt to examine the effect of the on-line cause-related advertising.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0395.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Corporate social responsibility; Women directors; Foreign background; China
Online: 6 May 2023 (08:46:00 CEST)
This article investigates the impact of the foreign background of women directors on a firm’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure and performance. Using a dataset on listed firms on Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchange from 2010 to 2019, we find that corporate boards with a higher proportion of women directors with foreign education experience tend to disclose more CSR information. CSR performance is also improved when there is a greater proportion of women directors with foreign education and work experience on a board. This study provides new insights into integrating stakeholder, social role, and neo-institutional theories to advance the understanding of CSR engagement in emerging economies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0359.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: Visual Signal; Auditory Signal; Interaction Effect; Purchase Behavior; AISAS Model
Online: 5 May 2023 (10:59:16 CEST)
This study, based on the AISAS model, explores the impact of the interaction effect between visual and auditory signals on consumer purchase behavior. Using experimental methods, 120 participants were randomly assigned to four different visual and auditory signal combinations, and their purchase intentions and actual purchase behavior were measured. The results show that the interaction effect between visual and auditory signals has a significant impact on both purchase intentions and actual purchase behavior, and there is a significant positive relationship. Specifically, when visual and auditory signals are mutually consistent, consumers have the highest purchase intentions and actual purchase behavior; when both visual and auditory signals are absent, consumers have the lowest purchase intentions and actual purchase behavior; when either the visual or auditory signal is missing, consumers' purchase intentions and actual purchase behavior are in between the two extremes. This study provides a new perspective for understanding consumers' decision-making processes in multi-sensory environments and offers valuable insights for the development of marketing strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0358.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Energy sector; Foreign direct investment; Belt and Road Initiative; Benefit and Risk
Online: 5 May 2023 (10:54:02 CEST)
China's gradually increasing assertiveness at the international level marked the beginning of several influential geopolitical projects. The biggest of these is the Belt and Road Initiative, which will be the subject of this post. The Chinese government initiated the BRI in 2013 to revive the historic Silk Road. The name of the new initiative was chosen based on well-known historical parallels, emphasizing the ideological component of China's current position. At the same time, neo-mercantilism prevails in China, and we can say that all roads lead to China, which means that the current nature of Chinese strategic planning corresponds to the increasingly important role of the state in international relations and strengthens its position in the world economy. The aim of the paper is to use the methods of analysis, synthesis, deduction, induction, comparison, and explanation to analyse Chinese investments that flow into various sectors worldwide, but especially into the countries participating in the Belt and Road Initiative from 2013 to the present. The largest such sector is the energy sector, which we will look at in more detail in the post. Finally, the contribution will be focused on predicting the development of further investments based on the available information as well as our own suggestions and recommendations to make them more efficient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0286.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Analysis of Collective Decision-Making; General; Political Processes: Rent-Seeking; Lobbying; Elections; Legislatures; Voting Behaviour; Bureaucracy; Administrative Processes in Public Organizations; Corruption; Positive Analysis of Policy Formulation; Implementation
Online: 5 May 2023 (03:31:39 CEST)
In this article, we estimate the value of Government Expenditure on Education-GEE in the context of Environmental, Social and Governance-ESG dataset of the World Bank. We use data from 193 countries in the period 2011-2020. We use Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects, Pooled Ordinary Least Squares-OLS, and Weighted Least Squares-WLS. Our results show that the value of GEE is positively associated among others to “Case of Death, by communicable disease and maternal, prenatal and nutrition conditions”, and “Unemployment”, and negatively associated among others to “Hospital Beds” and “Government Effectiveness”. Furthermore, we apply the k-Means algorithm optimized with the Elbow Method and we find the presence of four clusters. Finally, we confront eight machine learning algorithms for the prediction of the future value of GEE. We found that the Polynomial Regression is the best predictive algorithm. The Polynomial Regression predicts an increase in GEE of 7.09% on average for the analysed countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0274.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: Marketing Communication; Islamic Financial Literacy; Islamic Financial Inclusion; MSMEs Performance
Online: 5 May 2023 (02:33:13 CEST)
Development of Halal Tourism in Indonesia is the focus of the Indonesian government and MSMEs have an important role in supporting the development of halal tourism in Indonesia. This study aims to examine the relationship between marketing communication and Islamic financial literacy on Islamic financial inclusion and MSMEs performance in the halal tourism sector. A covariance-based SEM technique utilizing LISREL software was used to analyze the data from this investigation. Non-probability sampling was employed to collect the data, and the sample consists of 152 halal tourism entrepreneurs. We find that positive and significant association between Islamic financial inclusion and business performance. We also find that there are a positive and significant association between Islamic Financial Literacy and Islamic Financial Inclusion. Marketing communication and Islamic financial inlcuon a positive relationship but insignificant. This studi implies that to establish a halal tourist ecosystem for long-term development in Indonesia, commercial actors must lend their full support. This study demonstrates that they can thrive when MSMEs in the halal tourist ecosystem are backed by Islamic banking and Islamic rural banks. As a result, a more accommodating approach from Islamic banking is required to provide access to halal finance for business actors in Indonesia’s halal tourism ecosystem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0262.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: pension systems; PAYG; financial sustainability; social systems; security insurance; econometric techniques; public reforms; former socialist countries
Online: 4 May 2023 (11:08:18 CEST)
In the current socio-economic context, pension systems have become a crucial topic in the agenda of governments and international bodies. In this paper, an empirical study regarding the economic and social sustainability of pension systems in Central and Eastern European Countries was performed. The goal of the research is to establish the sustainability of pension systems with econometric modeling techniques on three dimensions as the research hypotheses are revealed: first, by strengthening the financial soundness of pension systems; second, consolidating the economic environment of pension systems; third, increasing the degree of social security systems with a direct effect of reducing poverty. The results led to relevant insights emphasizing the need for more inclusive economic, financial, and social reforms. From a policy perspective, these findings could be a starting point for the enhancement of the financial adequacy and economic and social sustainability of pension systems in Central and Eastern European Countries. The econometric techniques in this study highlight those modern pensions systems that need to be addressed in a more complex and empirical context that must encompass the main technical aspects. The conclusions suggest that in the future it needs judicial, economic, and social adjustments for the enhancement of the financial soundness of the pension systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0260.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Market Connectedness; Volatility Spillovers; Bibliometric analysis; Meta-analysis; Content analysis; Asymmetric information; Portfolio diversification
Online: 4 May 2023 (10:43:59 CEST)
Evaluation of market connectedness and asymmetric volatility spillover has recently seen a surge in financial risk analytics and portfolio diversification. We carried out a meta-literature review on connectedness and spillovers, providing solid insight into the research field and robust guidelines for future investigation. The review consists of a quantitative bibliometric analysis of 594 papers and a qualitative content analysis of 77 papers covering 1991 to 2021. The results of the meta-citation analysis shows that Diebold's Spillover index (2007) is the predominant method in most works as far as market connectedness and spillover is concerned. With an extensive review, we answered the following objectives (1) Analyze the most influential authors, journals, and publications, (2) Understand the research streams and most studied streams, (3) Understand the theme structure and thematic evolution, and keyword trends, (4) Examine the pattern of collaboration, and most productive affiliations, (5) Explore future research directions and untapped areas. The content analysis revealed the following important research streams in the current literature (1) Asymmetries in the market connectedness, (2) Influence of Macro Factors in the market connectedness and spillover, (3) the Role of Oil in market spillovers and hedging portfolios, (4) Dynamic cross-market connectedness and spillovers. The ongoing financial turmoil and market advancements make market connectedness a vital research topic; thus, our work would significantly contribute to macroeconomic policymakers, researchers and hedging investors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0243.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: green growth; green technology; technology diffusion; climate change adaptation; sustainable development; panel data
Online: 4 May 2023 (09:03:36 CEST)
This study aims to investigate the influence of various economic, environmental, and social factors on sustainable development, with a specific focus on the impact of green technology and climate change adaptation. A panel dataset comprising 38 OECD member countries from 1990 to 2020 is employed, and a series of dynamic panel data models are estimated using the system generalized method of moments (GMM) approach. Numerous covariates, such as globalization, socio-economic conditions, economic and political values, climate and technological progress, and environmental determinants, are examined. The empirical findings highlight the significant role played by macroeconomic, institutional, social, and government policy-related factors in sustainable development. More importantly, our results provide novel and robust evidence that the diffusion of green technology and climate change adaptation positively affect green growth. The study's empirical outcomes are demonstrated to be robust to misspecification errors and statistically significant at traditional significance levels. These findings carry substantial policy implications for the development and implementation of strategies that promote climate change adaptation and green innovation. Consequently, policymakers should prioritize the integration of green technology and adaptive measures in their sustainable development agendas to foster a greener, more resilient future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0207.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Traveling risks perception; Covid-19; Multicriteria Decision Analysis; South Africa
Online: 4 May 2023 (06:24:22 CEST)
Following the unprecedented and global health crisis of COVID-19, without a doubt, there has been a tremendous impact on international tourism for two reasons: the imposed travel restrictions discourage people from traveling, while travelers watch increased anxiety when responding to the new travel landscape. We address the problem of travelers’ changing travel risk perceptions in the COVID-19 pandemic aftermath. Our main goal is to identify and weigh critical emerging travel risks and create a risk evaluation index in which one can measure the destinations and strategic interventions’ performance for South African travelers. We found that tourist perceived risks are multidimensional, including categories like additional expenses, exchange rates, and refund-related factors. These three criteria are the most important to overall travel risk perception. We applied the developed risk evaluation index to five tourist destinations to evaluate their performance regarding the identified risks, being the UK the country with the best performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0186.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Capacity building; decision criteria; determining factor; entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial eco-system; entrepreneurial startup; social inclusion
Online: 4 May 2023 (04:21:33 CEST)
The main goal of the study is to assess the Decision criteria, and the determining factor for the sustainability of entrepreneurial startups in order to contribute towards social inclusion and capacity building. Both concepts are in the development phase and are the outcome of entrepreneurial ecosystem and individual behavior and traits. The current study observed the research problem as entrepreneurship and the entrepreneurial startups are the continuous phenomena required for every economy. The lack of an efficient ecosystem and incompetent trait of an entrepreneur drags the entrepreneurial startup to a failure. Therefore, an assessment on decision criteria and determining factors categorizing them with their importance may provide requisites to lead a successful entrepreneurial startup contributing to the social inclusion and capacity building. The study solved the research problem by statistical assessment of decision criteria and determining factors and categorizing them with their importance may provide requisites to lead a successful entrepreneurial startup. The research is built on research questions, objectives, conceptual model, and hypothesis which are tested based on the data collected. The collection of data was done through a survey questionnaire on a sample of established entrepreneurs. The study concludes that five components of decision criteria are Region, Competition, Funding Opportunities, Tax System, and Country Economic Situation, whereas the eight components Consciousness and Reliable, Pursuit Results, Flexibility, Stress Resistance, Skills Identification Exploitation Potential Market Opportunities, Leadership, Creativity and Innovation, and Delegation Decision Making of determining factor are required for a successful entrepreneurial startup to be able to work towards social inclusion and capacity building.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0131.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (IVIFN) technique; mobile phone; Word-of-Mouth (WOM); Garvin's quality of dimensions
Online: 3 May 2023 (10:32:40 CEST)
Today, mobile phones are at the center of many consumers' lives and a part of people's lives. Although this tool was considered a luxury initially, it has gradually become a necessary tool with the reduction of the price and the increase of its functions. Consumers choose specific models of mobile phones according to their needs. Mobile phones have quality features that are expressed in the form of quality dimensions. These dimensions are mostly expressed by word of mouth (WOM). In this research, first; we collected the opinions of 350 students about 4 brands of mobile phones based on Garvin's quality of dimensions, finally; the students’ opinions about mobile phones were evaluated with integrated TOPSIS with interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy numbers technique, and the priority of 4 phone brands was determined based on students' opinions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0085.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Analysis of Collective Decision-Making; General; Political Processes: Rent-Seeking; Lobbying; Elections; Legislatures; and Voting Behaviour; Bureaucracy; Administrative Processes in Public Organizations; Corruption; Positive Analysis of Policy Formulation; Implementation.
Online: 2 May 2023 (10:59:35 CEST)
We analyze the question of GDP Growth-GDPG rate in the context of Environmental, Social and Governance-ESG framework. We use World Bank data for 193 countries in the period 2011-2020 using different econometric techniques i.e., Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects, Pooled Ordinary Least Squares-OLS. We found that GDPG rate is positively associated, among others, to “Government Effectiveness” and “Prevalence of Undernourishment” and negatively associated among others to “Unemployment” and “Research and Development Expenditure”. Furthermore, we have applied the k-Means algorithm optimized with the Elbow method and we found the presence of four clusters in the sense of GDPG rate. Finally, we confront eight machine learning algorithms to predict the value of GDPG rate and we found that the Polynomial Regression is the best predictor. The Polynomial Regression predicts an increase of GDPG rate equal to 2.88% on average for the analysed countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0055.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Strategic Management; Planning; Airport; Technology; Innovation
Online: 2 May 2023 (04:41:15 CEST)
The Aviation industry in Malaysia is categorized as highly regulated and dominated by Government Linked Companies (GLCs) via monopolistic concessions due to its nature of strategic national importance and security. Connectivity is an essential component of economic activity and a catalyst for business growth. Since the invention of aircraft, air connectivity has expanded businesses and markets, facilitating trade, encouraging Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and enabling tourism. This case study aims to provide a holistic analysis of the Malaysia Airport Holdings Berhad (MAHB) strategic planning framework and discuss its effectiveness towards its strategy formulation to address its market dynamics, both domestically and abroad. From military superiority to economic connectivity, aviation, one of humanity's greatest inventions, has advanced human civilization over the past 150 years. With the emergence of low-cost carriers, air travel patterns have shifted dramatically, with the increase of travel and trade, due to its time efficiency. With the trend of globalization and the liberation of airspace in recent decades, aviation enables the movement of people and goods that foster a borderless marketplace at an exponential growth rate. With technological innovation, pressure over climate change and the shift in travelers' behavior and patterns, strategic planning becomes more crucial and complex for aerodrome operators to create a sustainable competitive advantage among their regional rivals. However, strategic planning is dependent on several critical success factors. The role of management leadership and an inclusive strategy to adapt to the changes in market dynamics are essential for survival in business competition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0046.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: textile industry; clothing industry; sustainable development; circular economy; CE; digital technology; digitalisation; corporate social responsibility; CSR.
Online: 2 May 2023 (03:01:09 CEST)
The textile and clothing (T&C) industry is not usually viewed as an exemplar of sustainable de-velopment and the circular economy, as the industry has hitherto made its products in linear fashion, with relatively little recycling of the finished goods. This article examines the industry’s approach to the core sustainability concept and the circular economy in particular, through a re-view of the available academic literature, evidence from corporate sustainability reports and websites, and feedback from an online survey of industry professionals. The role of digital technology deployment in engendering sustainability and the circular economy in the industry is also explored. The study finds that whilst sustainability is now firmly embedded at the strategic level in the vast majority of companies studied, attitudes towards the circular economy remain fickle. The use of digital technologies in support of sustainability objectives is also limited at present, but the article concludes that the need to meet compliance requirements and new cus-tomer perceptions of sustainability will speed the transition to circular economy activities, facili-tated by greater exploitation of digital technologies. Building upon the research findings, existing models and an initial conceptual framework, a simple operational model for initiating such a transition for small-to-medium sized enterprises in the T&C industry is put forward.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0037.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Covid-19; Local and organic food; Households’ decisions; Contingent valuation; Willingness to pay
Online: 2 May 2023 (01:38:45 CEST)
Food demand and food supply have been heavily affected by Covid-19 pandemic. To understand changes in households’ behavior related to the pandemic, we investigate the willingness to pay for local organic apples pre- and during Covid-19. Besides, we assess whether the changes occurred within the family, estimating also separate models for the two members of the couple. Our findings show that respondents show a positive price premium for local organic apples whose consumption helps reducing the environmental costs associated with food production. The median estimated values during the pandemic range from 34% to 250%. Overall, respondents show a positive mean willingness to pay which increase with the pandemic. The socio-economic variables are the most important in explaining the willingness to pay, while the behavioral variables have more heterogeneous results even if the lifestyle and the request for information through the label are important variables. The pandemic tends to narrow the gaps in preferences between members of the couple. In conclusion, the local and organic dimension is embodied in the short chain in which knowledge and trust in the producer are crucial elements in the consumer's choices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0011.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Automotive; Electric Vehicle; Market Strategy; Competitive Advantage; Marketing Strategy
Online: 1 May 2023 (04:07:19 CEST)
With the increased liberation of trade and fierce competition in the automotive industry, Proton needs to embark on a strategic reform to survive and remain relevant in the challenging market. This case study aims to explain the effectiveness of the Post Geely acquisition's ten years master plan to enhance Proton's self-reliance and global competitiveness. This case suggests that while the company's ten-year Master Plan is holistic and shows positive results in the early years, there is a need for a new business strategy, given the challenges imposed by climate change's impact on the automotive industry moving forward. The potentials of the Electric Vehicles (EVs) market and the Internet of Things (IoT) to develop the necessary long-term competitive advantage. A market strategy integrating the 4Ps and 4Cs framework suggests a two-dimensional convergence of the market mix, incorporating the organization's market strategy with a more consumer expectations-centric and user experience. Strategic integration of Geely's technological assets in developing Proton's technical know-how can address Proton's challenges and opportunities ahead.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1205.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Sustainability; Education
Online: 29 April 2023 (04:22:29 CEST)
The importance of transforming to a sustainable economy to protect against global crises such as climate change is widely recognized. Sustainable entrepreneurs are seen as playing a key role in this transformation process by creating innovative market solutions with environmental, social, and economic value. To date, there is no consensus on the skills education should deliver to create sustainable entrepreneurs to solve sustainability challenges. The goal of this article is to identify sustainable entrepreneurship education factors that enable effective education of future sustainable entrepreneurs. An academic search engine and bibliographic database were searched for documents written in English and published between 2012 and April 2023 to identify existing educational models discussed in the current literature in sustainable entrepreneurship education (SEE). The review process resulted in a set of 59 empirical and non-empirical papers on SEE. The data analysis revealed different educational frameworks for sustainable entrepreneurship (SE), both developed for use in higher education institutions and secondary schools.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1167.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Developing countries; Sustainable Supply chain; Sustainability; Oil and gas industry; Supply Chain Management
Online: 28 April 2023 (10:51:19 CEST)
‘‘Sustainable Supply Chain Management’’ (SSCM) has become a hot topic on which eminent researchers are working on every day. However, it is clear that we still observe in this field of research, an artistic vagueness on the fundamental differences between Sustainable Supply Chain Management and Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) Moreover, it is regrettable to note that previous researchers haven't yet thought about having a specific theory which can be applied to SSCM, the use of macro theories still being observed. In addition, we observe a lack of research in the oil and gas industry especially in Developing Countries when we know that this industry is the most lucrative and polluting. Therefore, this paper’s purpose consists to make a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) of 38 papers published from 2005 to 2023 especially in oil and gas industry and in Developing Countries, in order to make a clear distinction between SSCM and GSCM while highlighting the practices related to them and at the same time, generating a united theory which will bring together the triple bottom line of the SSCM. As findings, the authors built a Conceptual Framework that applies the triple bottom line of the SSCM in oil and gas industry by demonstrating that GSCM which is more related to environmental issues and is a part of the SSCM. Therefore, in order to be more efficient and to have a great impact on their performances, Oil and gas companies should apply SSCM practices rather than GSCM practices which are very different from what is applied in Developed Countries because of certain barriers and pressures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1159.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Industry 4.0; technology; green taxes; green energy; sustainability.
Online: 28 April 2023 (10:09:12 CEST)
Technological development has profoundly marked the evolution of the economy. The constant changes brought about by scientific and technological advances have been decisive in the transition from an analogue to a digital world. In this context, the impact of the fourth industrial revolution (or Industry 4.0.) manifests itself in many ways. Environmental impact is one of these. The energy sector has been evolving and changing just like the economy and society. Therefore, a study of this sector, and of the other related elements, is of interest to better understand the 4.0 concept. The promotion of sustainability at both political and social levels has led to changes in different areas, such as the productive vision, the use of green energies or the implementation of green taxes. Energy as a key factor in Industry 4.0. involves studying it both quantitatively and qualitatively. This is to under-stand the lights and shadows that the concept currently presents. Therefore, this work aims to bring the reality of the energy sector closer to reality, both in its positive and negative aspects, considering the main factors of incidence, in order to show the strengths and weaknesses that can be deduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1126.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Green Supply Chain; Carbon Emission; Buy-back Contract; Cost Sharing
Online: 28 April 2023 (06:14:37 CEST)
As traditional supply chains face increasingly severe environmental issues and countries promote green development and sustainable development policy concepts, cultivating green supply chain operation models is gradually being highly valued by current governments and enterprises. Generally speaking, the production of green products incurs higher additional costs and thus their total production costs also increase. In this work, the product green level is related to the random demand. Under the green supply chain buy-back contract with the green product R&D cost sharing between the manufacturer and the retailer, both the product green level and the order quantity need to be decided to maximize the channel profit. In order to coordinate the green supply chain, the manufacturer needs to share both the risk of good salvage and the green product R&D cost with the retailer. We find that both the wholesale price and buy-back price increase in the manufacturer’s proposition of the green product R&D cost, but decrease in emission reduction efficiency coefficient or carbon trading price. In addition, the product green level, the optimal order quantity and the channel profit increase in emission reduction efficiency coefficient, but decrease in the R&D cost coefficient of the product green level. Interestingly, we find that if the carbon trading price is low, the manufacturer will set a low product green level and the product carbon emission trading is a cost for the supply chain. The increment of the carbon trading price leads to a higher cost such that the channel profit is decreased. However, if the carbon trading price is high, the manufacturer will set a high product green level and the product carbon emission trading is a revenue for the supply chain. The increment of the carbon trading price leads to a higher revenue such that the channel profit is increased.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1115.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Shapley value, shortest-path games, transportation networks, drones, trucks.
Online: 28 April 2023 (04:53:07 CEST)
Transportation is a crucial component of supply chain management, responsible for delivering goods and services to customers. This paper explores the application of game theory concepts, precisely the Shapley value, to cost allocation in transportation operations involving drones and trucks. Our focus is on shortest-path games in which agents own nodes in a network and seek to transport items between nodes at the lowest possible cost. We provide a comprehensive literature review of the Shapley value and its use in shortest-path games, with particular emphasis on transportation networks. Our proposed model includes sets of customers, drones, and trucks and uses binary decision variables to indicate whether a drone or truck serves a given customer. The objective is to minimize the total cost of serving all customers while adhering to capacity and synchronization constraints. We use the Shapley value to determine the contribution and cost-sharing of each drone and truck in serving the customers. Through a combination of denitions, theorems, and examples, we explore the formal meaning of the Shapley value and its relationship to shortest-path games in transportation networks. We highlight exceptional cases and considerations that must be taken into account when applying the Shapley value in such scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0050.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Smart City; smart technology; internet of things; cloud technologies; mobile applications; innovation system; smart city concept; smart ecosystem
Online: 27 April 2023 (09:36:29 CEST)
The article describes the application of the Smart City concept and the economic opportunities it creates, infrastructure and services, and opportunities to improve governance. The main features of the Smart City concept, development directions and evolution, standards and solutions, factors and obstacles to its implementation have been analyzed by the author. The experience of different countries in the application of digital technologies is discussed. The article provides the scope and structure of the "smart" market, application stages and scenarios. International experience in this field was widely analyzed and examples were given, comparisons were made and suggestions were made. The article talks about smart cities, the construction of which has already begun in Azerbaijan. The application of the smart city concept in Azerbaijan has been studied. It is stressed that the spread of digital technologies for the construction of a smart city in Azerbaijan is a prerequisite. The Network Readiness Index (NRI) identifies the indicators that are holding back Azerbaijan in the ranking for 2021. In our study, based on the growth dynamics for 2017-2020, the forecast was calculated by analyzing the trend in the ICT development index in Azerbaijan for 2022-2025.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1011.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: local correlation; closed-form prices; spread option; basket option
Online: 27 April 2023 (03:22:51 CEST)
This short paper reveals a simple methodology to create local-correlation models suitable for the closed-form pricing of multi-asset financial derivatives. The multivariate models are built to ensure two conditions, first, marginals follow desirable processes, e.g. we choose the Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM), popular for stock prices. Second, the payoff of the derivative should follow a desired one dimensional process. These conditions lead to a specific choice of the dependence structure, in the form of a local-correlation model. Two popular multi-asset options are entertained, a spread option and a basket option.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0944.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Business ethics; Organizational performance; Ethics in corporate governance; Ethics in sales & marketing; HR management ethics; Intellectual capital
Online: 26 April 2023 (03:34:18 CEST)
The objective of this research is to analyze the effect of determinants of Business ethics (HR management ethics, ethics in corporate governance, and ethics in sales & marketing) on the organizational performance of the high-tech industry. The study further examines the influence of multiple serial mediations of human, structural, structural, and relational capital on the connection between Business ethics and organizational performance. Additionally, this research examines how technological change moderates the relationship between Business ethics and organizational performance. Data was collected from the information technology sector in various cities of South Asian countries through structured questionnaires. PLS-SEM modeling was used via Smart-PLS 4.0 software for analysis. The hypothesized & modified measurement and structural model were validated using the HTMT matrix, Fornell-Larcker criterion, R-square values, f-square values, outer loading, construct reliability and validity, path coefficient analysis, Blindfolding, and predictive relevance. The research results suggest that ethics in corporate governance, HR management ethics, and ethics in sales & marketing have a notable positive effect on business ethics, leading to a substantial and affirmative impact on the organizational performance of the high-tech industry. The findings further suggested that dimensions of intellectual capital (human capital, structural capital & relational capital) significantly moderate between exogenous and endogenous constructs. Moreover, technological change significantly & positively moderates the relationship between Business ethics and organizational performance of the high-tech industry. In conclusion, this research provides insights into how these variables interact and what potential mechanisms act upon them. Organizations can make informed decisions about improving their performance and ethical standards by understanding these relationships. This research offers substantial theoretical and managerial implications to research scholars and industry practitioners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0889.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; Social Responsibility; Economic Responsibility; Environmental Responsibility; Ethical Responsibility; Brand Image; Consciousness; Apparel Industry; Jordan
Online: 25 April 2023 (05:30:58 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on brand image in the apparel industry in Jordan, using the moderating variable of customer consciousness. The current research uses a quantitative, descriptive, cause-effect, and cross-sectional approach, and also it uses a convenience sampling method. Data was collected from 440 respondents. Results indicate that Jordanian Apparel organizations have medium to highly implementing of all items and constructs of CSR, brand image items, and consciousness items. Moreover, there is a strong relationship between CSR dimensions, a medium relationship be-tween each CSR dimension and brand image, a medium relationship between each CSR dimension and consciousness, a medium relationship between total CSR and brand image, a medium relationship between total CSR and consciousness, and the medium relationship between brand image and consciousness. Results of the first model show that total CSR affects the brand image. Where social responsibility has the highest positive effect, followed by ethical responsibility, then economic responsibility, however, environmental responsibility negatively affects the brand image. The second model shows consciousness moderates the effect of CSR on the brand image. The study recommends longitudinal research on the Jordanian Apparel industry, especially to test the effect of environmental responsibility on the brand image. Moreover, the re-search uses customers’ consciousness as a moderating variable, which improves the effect of CSR on brand image. The Apparel industry organizations in Jordan should revise their daily practices particularly environmental responsibility and/or increase their customers’ awareness of their practices. Finally, the current research contributes to existing studies by using consciousness as a moderating variable.