Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Mixed Effects and Mechanisms of Cannabinoids for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Treatment

Version 1 : Received: 27 July 2021 / Approved: 28 July 2021 / Online: 28 July 2021 (08:56:32 CEST)

How to cite: Tran, K. Mixed Effects and Mechanisms of Cannabinoids for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Treatment. Preprints 2021, 2021070614 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202107.0614.v1). Tran, K. Mixed Effects and Mechanisms of Cannabinoids for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Treatment. Preprints 2021, 2021070614 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202107.0614.v1).

Abstract

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer characterized by the lack of estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors, and HER-2 receptors. Thus, TNBC tumours do not benefit from the current therapies targeting ER or HER-2. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel treatment for this subtype of breast cancer. Marijuana is a common name given to Cannabis plants, a group of plants in the Cannabis genus of the Cannabaceae family. Cannabis plants are among the oldest cultivated crops, traced back at least 12,000 years and are well known for their multi-purpose usage, including medicinal purposes. The main active compounds extracted from Cannabis plants are 21-carbon-containing terpenophenolics, which are referred to as phytocannabinoids. Of these, the tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) group contains highly potent cannabinoids, including delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC) and delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆8-THC), which are the most abundant THCs and are largely responsible for psychological and physiological effects of marijuana. The use of Cannabis plants for medicinal purposes was first recorded in 2337 BC in China, where Cannabis plants were used to treat pains, rheumatism, and gout. Recently, several cannabinoids have been approved for a number of treatments, one of which is the treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy in cancer patients. Furthermore, increasing evidence shows that cannabinoids not only attenuate side effects due to cancer treatment, but might also potentially possess direct antitumor effects in several cancer types, including breast cancer. However, anti-tumour activity of marijuana has been variable in different studies and even promoted tumour growth in some cases. In addition, the mechanisms of cannabinoid action in cancer remain unclear. This review summarizes evidence about the mixed actions of cannabinoids in cancer in general and triple-negative breast cancer in particular.

Keywords

Triple-negative breast cancer; cannabinoid; marijuana; cell signalling; medicinal plants

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