REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0245.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; Lipid nanoparticles; mRNA; Vaccines; Vaccine stability
Online: 3 August 2023 (08:07:09 CEST)
Traditional vaccines are produced by using weakened or inactivated forms of disease-causing pathogens to produce the target antigen they are designed to protect against. Messenger RNA vaccines are a class of vaccines that employ a minute segment of genetic material, known as messenger RNA (mRNA), which contains directives for the cells in the body to generate a particular protein. This genetic material is synthesized in the laboratory and packaged into a lipid nanoparticle, which protects and helps it enter cells for further protein synthesis. During vaccination with mRNA vaccine, the lipid nanoparticles containing the mRNA are injected into the muscle of vaccinees. Once inside the cells, the mRNA instructs the cells to produce a protein which is then displayed on the surface of the cell, triggering an immune response. During this, the immune system recognizes the displayed protein as foreign and mounts a defense by producing antibodies and activating immune cells to target and eliminate the protein. Furthermore, these immune responses generate a memory cell, facilitating the immune system to promptly react in case of encountering the authentic pathogen as an infection in the future. The mRNA vaccines are flexible and the sequence can be easily synthesized in the lab based on the genetic information of the target pathogen. Additionally, mRNA vaccines can be developed for new strains or variants of the target disease easily. This was particularly evident during the COVID-19 pandemic, where mRNA vaccines like the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines were developed and authorized for emergency use within a year. But currently, available mRNA vaccines require extensive cold chain, antigen delivery, potential immune response variability optimization, and sophisticated manufacturing process. The efforts to explore next-generation mRNA vaccine development are aimed to further improve the effectiveness, stability, and delivery methods. One focus of research has been to enhance the stability of mRNA vaccines, particularly temperature sensitivity which makes storage and distribution easier, particularly in regions with limited access to cold chain infrastructure. Self-amplifying mRNA vaccines, on the other hand, are designed to generate multiple copies of the mRNA within cells which potentially leads to a higher production of the target protein, resulting in a stronger immune response. Additionally, studies are exploring new delivery systems to improve the target and efficiency of mRNA vaccines using specialized nanoparticles and liposomes to specifically deliver mRNA to certain cell types or immune cells. Another area of interest is the development of combination vaccines, where multiple mRNA sequences are included in a single vaccine protecting against multiple diseases targeting strains or variants of a particular pathogen simultaneously. While current mRNA vaccines are administered via intramuscular injection, studies are underway to deliver directly into the skin offering enhanced immune response and the ability to use smaller vaccine doses.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0493.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: mRNA-LNP vaccines; side effects; dendritic cells
Online: 24 December 2020 (13:51:51 CET)
Vaccines based on mRNA-containing lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) pioneered by Katalin Karikó and Drew Weissman at the University of Pennsylvania are a promising new vaccine platform used by two of the leading vaccine candidates against coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19). However, there are many questions regarding their mechanism of action in humans that remain unanswered. Here we consider the immunological features of LNP components and off-target effects of the mRNA, both of which could increase the risk of side effects. We suggest ways to mitigate these potential risks by harnessing dendritic cell (DC) biology.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0669.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: case report; COVID-19; mRNA; pulmonary hypertension; vaccine
Online: 8 August 2023 (11:53:56 CEST)
Background: To our knowledge, the sudden onset of symptomatic pulmonary hypertension after COVID-19 vaccination has not been described. Both cases presented here resulted in functional limitations and likely permanent organ damage. Case Summary: We report two cases of acute onset pulmonary hypertension in previously healthy adult males within three weeks of receiving the second dose of the Pfizer (BNT162b2) mRNA COVID-19 vaccine from different lots. Both patients experienced the sudden onset of severe fatigue and dyspnea on exertion with negative COVID-19 PCR testing. The diagnosis was made by serial transthoracic echocardiography in the first case and by both transthoracic echocardiography and right heart catheterization in the second. Discussion: Pulmonary hypertension is a serious disease characterized by damage to lung vasculature and restricted blood flow through narrowed arteries from the right to left heart. The onset of symptoms is typically insidious, progressive and incurable, leading to right heart failure and premature death. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies pulmonary hypertension into 5 categories and recently re-defined as a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure greater than 20 mmHg. Sudden onset pulmonary hypertension would only be expected in the settings of surgical pneumonectomy or massive pulmonary emboli with compromise of at least 50% of the lung vasculature.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0939.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis; SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine; immune thrombocytopenia
Online: 13 July 2023 (12:15:42 CEST)
During one of the worst global health crises, millions of people were vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. In rare cases, new onset systemic inflammatory diseases were reported with temporal coincidence to the vaccination. We describe a case of severe Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (EGPA) in a young asthmatic woman, occurring after a 2nd dose of mRNA-1273 vaccine. She presented with multisystem EGPA with cardiac and central nervous system involve-ment, complicated by secondary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). We review the reported cases of EGPA coinciding with SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination. All potentially vaccine-related EGPA cases reported so far occurred within 14 days from immunization. EGPA is very rare with an incidence of 1:1’000’000 inhabitants and the number of reported post-vaccination EGPA cases lies within the expected incidence rate for the period. While we cannot prove a causal relationship between the vaccine and EGPA onset, the temporal relationship with the vaccine immune stimulation is intriguing, in a disease occurring almost always in adults with asthma and/or chronic rhinosinusitis and driven by an aberrant Th2 lym-phocyte activation with hypereosinophilia. Nevertheless, cases of inflammatory diseases emerging in the context of vaccination remain rare and the benefits of preventing severe Covid presentations with SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines remains unquestionable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0151.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine; COVID-19 vaccine; cardiovascular effects; myocarditis; adolescents; Thailand
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:40:23 CEST)
This study focuses on cardiovascular effects, particularly myocarditis and pericarditis events, after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine injection in Thai adolescents. This prospective cohort study enrolled students from two schools aged 13–18 years who received the second dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Data including demographics, symptoms, vital signs, ECG, echocardiography and cardiac enzymes were collected at baseline, Day 3, Day 7, and Day 14 (optional) using case record forms.We enrolled 314 participants; of these, 13 participants were lost to follow up, leaving 301 participants for analysis. The most common cardiovascular effects were tachycardia (7.64%), shortness of breath (6.64%), palpitation (4.32%), chest pain (4.32%), and hypertension (3.99%). Seven participants (2.33%) exhibited at least one elevated cardiac biomarker or positive lab assessments. Cardiovascular effects were found in 29.24% of patients, ranging from tachycardia, palpitation, and myopericarditis. Myopericarditis was confirmed in one patient after vaccination. Two patients had suspected pericarditis and four patients had suspected subclinical myocarditis. Conclusion: Cardiovascular effects in adolescents after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination included tachycardia, palpitation, and myocarditis. The clinical presentation of myopericarditis after vaccination was usually mild, with all cases fully recovering within 14 days. Hence, adolescents receiving mRNA vaccines should be monitored for side effects. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT05288231
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1190.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: B cell response; mRNA vaccination; Computational analysis; SARS-COV-2; COVID-19
Online: 17 May 2023 (05:01:27 CEST)
The mRNA vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 have demonstrated efficacy and immunogenicity in the re-al-world setting. However, most of the research on vaccine immunogenicity has been centered on characterizing the antibody response, with limited exploration into the persistence of spike-specific memory B cell response. Here we monitored the durability of the memory B cell response and characterize the trajectory of spike-specific B cell phenotypes in healthy individuals who have received two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine up to 9 months post-vaccination. To profile the spike-specific B cell response we applied the tSNE and Cytotree automated approaches. Our data showed the induction of spike-specific IgA+ and IgG+ plasmablasts and IgA+ activated cells 7 days after the second dose which disappeared 3 months later, while subsets of spike-specific IgG+ resting memory B cells became predominant 9 months after vaccination, and they were capable to differentiate into spike-specific IgG secreting cells when in vitro restimulated. Other subsets of spike-specific B cells, such as IgM+ or unswitched IgM+IgD+ or IgG+ double negative/atypical cells, were also elicited by the BNT162b2 vaccine and persisted up to month 9. The analysis of circulating spike-specific IgG, IgA and IgM was in line with the plasmablasts observed. The longitudinal analysis of the antigen-specific B cell response elicited by mRNA-based vaccines provides valuable insights into our understanding of the immunogenicity of this novel vaccine platform destined to a future widespread use, and it is crucial in guiding future decisions and vaccination schedules.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1341.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: vaccine adaption; product life cycle; nanocarrier; mRNA vaccines; vaccine market; protein structure prediction; digital twin
Online: 20 July 2023 (02:34:07 CEST)
In light of the recent pandemic, several COVID-19 vaccines were developed, tested and approved in a very short time, a process that otherwise takes many years. Above all, these efforts have also unmistakably revealed the capacity limits and potential for improvement in vaccine production. This review aims to emphasize recent approaches for targeted rapid adaptation and production of vaccines from an interdisciplinary multifaceted perspective. Using literature research, stakeholder analysis and a value proposition canvas, we reviewed technological innovations on the pharmacological level, formulation, validation and resilient vaccine production to supply bottlenecks and logistic networks. We identified four main drivers to accelerate the vaccine product life cycle: computerized candidate screening, modular production, digitized quality management and a resilient business model with corresponding transparent supply chains. In summary, the results presented here can serve as a guide and implementation tool for flexible, scalable vaccine production to respond swiftly to pandemic situations in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1198.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: myocarditis; sudden death; chest pain; autopsy; necropsy; COVID-19; COVID-19 vaccines; mRNA; SARS-CoV-2 vaccination; death; excess mortality; spike protein; organ system
Online: 18 July 2023 (09:34:51 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 vaccines have been linked to myocarditis which in some circumstances can be fatal. This systematic review aims to investigate potential causal links between COVID-19 vaccines and death from myocarditis using post-mortem analysis. Methods: We performed a systematic review of all published autopsy reports involving COVID-19 vaccination-related myocarditis through July 3rd, 2023. All autopsy studies that include COVID-19 vaccine-induced myocarditis as a possible cause of death were included, without imposing any additional restrictions. Causality in each case was determined by three independent reviewers with cardiac pathology experience and expertise. Results: We initially identified 1,691 studies and, after screening for our inclusion criteria, included 14 papers that contained 28 autopsy cases. The cardiovascular system was the only organ system affected in 26 cases. In 2 cases, myocarditis was characterized as a consequence from multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS). The mean and median number of days from last COVID-19 vaccination until death was 6.2 and 3 days, respectively. Most of the deaths occurred within a week from the last injection. We established that all 28 deaths were causally linked to COVID-19 vaccination by independent adjudication. Conclusions: The temporal relationship, internal and external consistency seen among cases in this review with known COVID-19 vaccine-induced myocarditis, its pathobiological mechanisms and related excess death, complemented with autopsy confirmation, independent adjudication, and application of the Bradford Hill criteria to the overall epidemiology of vaccine myocarditis, suggests there is a high likelihood of a causal link between COVID-19 vaccines and death from suspected myocarditis in cases where sudden, unexpected death has occurred in a vaccinated person. Urgent investigation is required for the purpose of risk stratification and mitigation in order to reduce the population occurrence of fatal COVID-19 vaccine-induced myocarditis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0305.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: HIV-1 infection; SARS-CoV-2 infection; Neutralizing antibodies; mRNA Vaccines; T-cell immunity; Immunity waning
Online: 6 October 2023 (05:08:35 CEST)
Background. Waning of neutralizing and cell-mediated immune response after the primary vac-cine cycle (PVC) and the first booster dose (BD) is of concern, especially for PLWH with a CD4 count ≤200 cells/ mm3.Methods.Neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) titers by microneutralization assay against WD614G /Omicron BA.1 and IFNγ production by ELISA assay were measured in samples of PLWH at 4 time points [2 and 4 months post-PVC (T1 and T2), 2 weeks and 5 months after the BD (T3 and T4)]. Participants were stratified by CD4 count after PVC (LCD4, <200/mm3; ICD4, 201-500/mm3 and HCD4, >500/mm3). Mixed models were used to compare mean responses over T1-T4 across CD4 groups. Results. 314 PLWH on ART (LCD4=56; ICD4=120; HCD4=138) were enrolled. At T2, levels of nAbs were significantly lower in LCD4 vs ICD4/HCD4 (p=0.04). BD was crucial for increasing nAbs titres above 1:40 at T3 and up to T4 for WD614G. A positive T cell response after PVC was observed in all groups, regardless of CD4 (p=0.31). Conclusions. Waning of nAbs after PVC was more important in LCD4 group. BD managed to re-establish higher levels of nAbs against WD614G which were retained for 5 months. The level of T-cellular response was significantly higher in HCD4 and ICD4 compared to the LCD4 group although it remained above detectable levels over the entire study period regardless of CD4 count. Keywords: HIV-1 infection; SARS-CoV-2 infection;
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1385.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Lutein; post-COVID syndrome; mRNA vaccination injury syndrome; inflammatory response; reactive oxygen species; reactive nitrogen species; arrhythmogenic heart phenotype; antioxidant defense; bioavailability; extra virgin olive oil
Online: 20 September 2023 (10:07:58 CEST)
Lutein, a plant-derived xanthophyl-carotenoid, is an exceptional antioxidant and anti-inflammatory constituent found in food. Elevated concentrations of lutein found in human blood and plasma, due to high dietary intake, are beneficial against eye disease and improve cardiometabolic health. Lutein plays an important protective role against the development of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), multiple sclerosis (MS) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). It has also been shown to be beneficial for liver, kidney and respiratory health. Lutein, acting as a very strong antioxidant, can alleviate oxidative stress and downgrade reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress is one of the key pathogenic mechanisms in post-COVID and mRNA vaccine injury syndromes. Recent in silico studies suggest that lutein and other naturally derived antioxidants, by docking at the site where the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (SP) binds to the angiotensin enzyme type 2 (ACE2) receptor, may neutralize the SP-ACE2 interactions. Lutein can be added to a detoxification regimen to aid in clearing Spike protein and relieving symptoms. In agreement with Hippocrates’ dictum to “Let food be thy medicine,” this review establishes dietary lutein as a valuable therapy in the treatment of post-COVID syndrome, mRNA vaccine injury syndromes, and a wide range of other chronic illnesses.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0051.v1
Online: 5 September 2022 (08:14:56 CEST)
This is a case study of a 55-year-old patient who died four months after receiving the mRNA-vaccine BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) against COVID-19 as a second dose, following an initial vaccination with the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vector vaccine (AstraZeneca) two months earlier. The autopsy diagnosis revealed general atherosclerosis. The histopathologic analyses of cardiac tissue demonstrated the presence of a thrombus occluding the right coronary artery (RCA) without evidence of plaque rupture. As a substitute trigger of clotting, the RCA presented with characteristics of acute lymphocytic vasculitis that extended to vasa vasorum in the adventitia and vessels in adjacent adipose tissue. Microthrombi were occasionally detected in these small vessels. It was obvious that lymphocytic myocarditis had been a chronic ongoing process temporally distinct from acute myocardial infarction. The myocardium contained patchworks of fibrotic areas alongside foci of displaying acute inflammation and fresh myocyte damage. SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein, but not nucleocapsid protein was sporadically detected in vessel walls by immunohistochemical assay. The cause of death was determined to be acute myocardial infarction and lymphocytic myocarditis. These findings indicate that myocarditis, as well as thrombo-embolic events following injection of spike-inducing gene-based vaccines, are causally associated with a injurious immunological response to the encoded agent. Because of the fact that the immune response to a first gene-based vaccination is very low in comparison with the immune response to the second vaccination, the found adverse events has rather to be attributed to the mRNA-based second vaccination as to the initial vector-based one.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0308.v2
Online: 25 August 2022 (03:54:58 CEST)
The current report represents a case of a 77-year-old man with Parkinson’s disease who died three weeks after receiving his third COVID-19 vaccination in January 2022. The patient was first vaccinated in May 2021 with the ChAdOx1 nCov- 19 vector vaccine, followed by two more doses with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in July and December 2021. The family of the deceased requested an autopsy due to the ambivalent clinical features noted before death. The underlying illness (Parkinson’s disease) was confirmed by autopsy. However, no sign of a florid COVID-19 was discovered. Meanwhile, the immunohistochemical staining of the brain and heart revealed previously undiagnosed conditions. The brain, in distinctive, revealed multifocal necrotizing encephalitis with massive inflammatory lymphocyte infiltrates. In addition, the heart showed signs of serious myocarditis. Finally, immunohistochemical staining revealed that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was evident in the tissues investigated. Based on these immunohistochemical findings, it appears that the inflammatory changes in the patient's brain tissues are most likely the result of immunological processes. Concurrently, the absence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid-protein was evidenced, indicating that the detected spike-protein is unrelated to a SARS-CoV-2 infection. If such an infection was the cause of the spike protein, the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein would also be detectable. As a consequence, the confirmed presence of the spike protein had to be attributed to the previous vaccination with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine that the deceased patient had received.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1622.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: mRNA delivery; adenovirus; Catcher/Tag bioconjugation; RNA binding protein; mRNA condensation; vaccine
Online: 25 October 2023 (10:31:41 CEST)
mRNA vaccines have attracted widespread research attention with clear advantages in terms of molecular flexibility, rapid development, and potential for personalization. However, current mRNA vaccine platforms have not been optimized for induction of CD4/CD8 T cell responses. In addition, mucosal administration of mRNA based on lipid nanoparticle technology faces challenges in clinical translation. In contrast, adenovirus-based vaccines induce strong T-cell responses and have been approved for intranasal delivery. To leverage the inherent strengths of both the mRNA and adenovirus platforms, we developed a novel modular adenoviral mRNA delivery platform based on Tag/Catcher bioconjugation. Specifically, we engineered adenoviral vectors integrating Tag/Catcher proteins at specific locales on the Ad capsid proteins, allowing us to anchor mRNA to the surface of engineered Ad viruses. In proof-of-concept studies, the Ad-mRNA platform successfully mediated mRNA delivery and could be optimized via the highly flexible modular design of both the Ad-mRNA and protein bioconjugation systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0463.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19 vaccines; vaccine effectiveness; BNT162b2 vaccine; mRNA-1273 vaccine; ChAdOx1 vaccine; 19 Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S assay; reactogenicity; vaccine-associated symptoms
Online: 26 August 2022 (14:14:39 CEST)
This prospective study provides data on long-term humoral immunogenicity of a heterologous off-label vaccine regimen combining the adenoviral vectored ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 from Astra-Zeneca (ChAd) with the mRNA-1273 vaccine from Moderna (m1273) in comparison to two different homologous mRNA vaccine schedules. Of the 316 COVID-19 naïve adult health care workers (HCW) included to complete a survey on vaccine-associated symptoms (VAS), 197 had received the homologous BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine from Pfizer/BioNTech (BNT/BNT), 76 the homologous m1273/m1273, and 43 the heterologous ChAd/m1273 vaccine regimen. Concentration of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in plasma 5-7 months after the second vaccine dose was higher in the m1273/m1273 and ChAd/m1273 than the BNT/BNT vaccine group. The frequency of systemic VAS after first vaccine dose was 86% after ChAd compared to 35% and 39% after BNT and m1273, respectively (p < 0.0001), and after second vaccine dose highest (89%) in the m1273/m1273 group (p < 0.001). Individuals with systemic VAS achieved higher levels of antibodies irrespective of vaccine regimen. In conclusion, VAS serve as a strong predictor of long-term humoral immune response, and the heterologous ChAd/m1273 vaccine regimen provides an at least equal long-term humoral immune response compared with the standard vaccine regimens used in Denmark.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0377.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: aa = amino acids; ACE-2 = receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; cDNA = complementary DNA; mRNA = messenger RNA; orf = open reading frame; RBD = receptor binding protein; S-protein = Spike protein; SARS-CoV-2 = severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; Vaccines.
Online: 22 June 2021 (11:53:34 CEST)
The SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome)-CoV (Coronavirus)-2 S(spike)-protein mRNA/cDNA currently being used as vaccines are antigenic but not antigens against SARS-CoV-2, that causes COVID (Coronavirus Disease) -19. Furthermore, the mRNA and cDNA antigenic vaccines also have potentials for homologous as well as heterologous recombination, primarily into the somatic cell DNA of the vaccine recipients. On the contrary, a SARS-CoV-2 RBD-protein antigen, a part of the S-protein, will directly stimulate antibody production against SARS-CoV-2. Hence, a vaccine composed of SARS-CoV-2 RBD-protein as a safer, fast acting, and effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 and thus against COVID-19. This is also useful for some immune compromised individuals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0073.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Messenger RNA • Hospital-based mRNA therapeutics • circular mRNA • self-amplifying mRNA • RNA-based CAR T-cell • RNA-based gene-editing tools
Online: 6 January 2022 (11:20:59 CET)
Hospital-based programs democratize mRNA therapeutics by facilitating the processes to translate a novel RNA idea from the bench to the clinic. Because mRNA is essentially biological software, therapeutic RNA constructs can be rapidly developed. The generation of small batches of clinical grade mRNA to support IND applications and first-in-man clinical trials, as well as personalized mRNA therapeutics delivered at the point-of-care, is feasible at a modest scale of cGMP manufacturing. Advances in mRNA manufacturing science and innovations in mRNA biology, are increasing the scope of mRNA clinical applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0460.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: COVID-19 mRNA vaccines; Myo-pericarditis and COVID-19 mRNA vaccines; Multisystem-Inflammatory-Syndrome and COVID-19 mRNA vaccines; arrhythmias and COVID-19 mRNA vaccines; Pathogenesis of myocarditis following COVID-19 mRNA vaccines; MIS-A; MIS-C; MIS-V; Myocarditis; COVID-19 mRNA vaccine Adverse Events.
Online: 26 January 2023 (02:50:29 CET)
Each injection of any known vaccine results in a strong expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This is the result of the innate immune system activation, without which no adaptive response to the injection of vaccines is possible. COVID-19 mRNA vaccines would not escape this rule. Unfortunately, the degree of inflammation produced by these vaccines is variable, probably depending on the genetic background and previous immune experiences, which through epigenetic modifications, could have made the innate immune system of each individual tolerant or reactive to subsequent immune stimulations.We hypothesize that we can move from a limited pro-inflammatory condition to conditions of increasing expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines that can culminate in multisystem hyperinflammatory syndromes following COVID-19 mRNA vaccines (MIS-V). We have graphically represented this idea in a hypothetical inflammatory pyramid (IP) and we have correlated the time factor to the degree of inflammation produced after the injection of vaccines. Furthermore, we have placed the clinical manifestations within this hypothetical IP, correlating them to the degree of inflammation produced. Surprisingly, excluding the possible presence of an early MIS-V, the time factor and the complexity of clinical manifestations are correlated to the increasing degree of inflammation: symptoms, heart disease and syndromes (MIS-V).
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: miRNA; lncRNA; mRNA; ceRNA; CAD
Online: 16 March 2020 (01:39:27 CET)
Previous studies had shown that mRNA, miRNA and lncRNA were associated with cardiovascular diseases. The study was aimed to explore the differential expressions of mRNA, lncRNA and miRNA between coronary artery disease (CAD) and healthy control, and their interaction in CAD. We investigated the differential expression of ceRNA between CAD and healthy control through data collected from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) microarrays. Furthermore, we investigated the biological function of these differential expressions of ceRNAs by Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was created to identify the hub genes. Biosystems and literature search were performed for signaling pathways and their function of the included differential expression ceRNAs. A total of 456 miRNA expression profiles, 16,325 mRNA expression profiles, and 2,869 lncRNA expression profiles were obtained. Eleven Go and KEGG pathways (count ≥9), top 15 of PPI network node connectivity rank, and top 15 of ceRNA network node degree centrality rank were achieved at the statistical significance level (P<0.05). We further identified that several differential expressions of ceRNAs and their signaling pathways were associated with CAD through biosystems and literature search. Based on eleven Go and KEGG pathways, top 15 of PPI network node connectivity rank, and top 15 of ceRNA network node degree centrality rank in CAD population, our findings would contribute to further exploration for the molecular mechanism of CAD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0044.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: eIF3, mRNA translation, ribosome, methyladenosine
Online: 5 June 2019 (15:21:40 CEST)
Studies over the past three years have substantially expanded the involvements of eIF3 in mRNA translation. It now appears that this multi-subunit complex is involved in every possible form of mRNA translation, controlling every step of protein synthesis from initiation to elongation, termination and quality control in positive as well as negative fashion. Through the study of eIF3, we are beginning to appreciate protein synthesis as a highly integrated process coordinating protein production with protein folding, subcellular targeting, and degradation. At the same time, eIF3 subunits appear to have specific functions that probably vary between different tissues and individual cells. Considering the broad functions of eIF3 in protein homeostasis, it comes as little surprise that eIF3 is increasingly implicated in major human diseases and first attempts at therapeutically targeting eIF3 have been undertaken. Much remains to be learned, however, about subunit- and tissue-specific functions of eIF3 in protein synthesis and disease and their regulation by environmental conditions and posttranslational modifications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0142.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: vaccine; mRNA; COVID 19; lipid nanoparticles
Online: 8 February 2023 (09:55:30 CET)
In the recent days, lipid nanoparticles have been successfully emerged as one of the most advanced technology for highly efficient in vivo delivery of exogenous mRNA, especially for delivery of COVID-19 vaccines. For the vaccines to be successful or protective, they require highly efficient mRNA delivery systems. However, developing effective, translatable vaccines with better safety against some of the SARS‐CoV‐2 variants is still a challenge. Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are composed of four different types of lipids including ionizable lipids, helper or neutral lipids, cholesterol and polyethylene glycol (PEG) attached lipids. In this review, we present recent advancements and insights in designing the advanced LNPs and their composition and properties, with a subsequent discussion on the development of COVID-19 vaccines. In particular, as the ionizable lipids are most important drivers for complexing the mRNA and in vivo delivery, the role of ionizable lipids in mRNA vaccines discussed in detail. Furthermore, the use of LNPs as effective delivery vehicles for vaccination, genome editing, and protein replacement therapy were discussed. Finally, expert opinion of LNPs for mRNA vaccines were discussed which might address the future challenges in the development of mRNA vaccines employing highly efficient LNPs using novel set of ionizable lipids.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; lymphoma; BNT162b2; mRNA-1273
Online: 28 July 2021 (17:21:17 CEST)
Currently available COVID-19 mRNA vaccines have demonstrated high efficacy in clinical trials.1-3 However, cancer patients, including those with hematological malignancies, were largely excluded from these trials. In this prospective, observational study we measured anti-S protein IgG titers as well as avidity in lymphoma patients (n=67) vaccinated with a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. Serological response rates in lymphoma patients who were treatment naïve (100% in CLL, 88.9% in other, non-CLL non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients), or who were last treated more than 24 months prior to vaccination (100% in CLL, 90% in other-NHL), were similar to healthy controls (100%). Patients on active therapy, however, had a diminished response rate (40% in CLL, 21.0% in other-NHL). No patient who received anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) within six months of vaccination responded. Thus, the utility of testing anti-S titers should be explored in patients on active therapy or with recent anti-CD20 mAb exposure, to assess their response to vaccination. We also propose studying passive protection with S-protein mAbs as an alternative prophylactic strategy for patients who respond poorly to vaccination.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0919.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; mRNA-based vaccine; systemic sclerosis
Online: 16 October 2023 (03:45:06 CEST)
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a respiratory tract infection caused by the new virus SARS-CoV-2. In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a worldwide COVID-19 pandemic. Since then, there has been a rush to find preventative or curative treatment. This arrived with the appearance of the COVID-19 vaccine, months after the declaration of the pandemic. In the setting of global COVID-19 immunization, there have been reports of rare skin immune-mediated diseases (IMD) after COVID-19 vaccination, particularly systemic sclerosis. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is the most reported new onset IMD following messenger RNA (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccination. The pathogenesis of SSc is not fully understood, and the diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms. We report a 54-year-old male, with no prior history of autoimmune disorder, with rapid and progressive skin thickening (Modified Rodnan skin score 30/51), weeks after his mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) showed a strongly positive nuclear fine-speckled pattern, but no SSc autoantibodies were found. The patient was diagnosed with SSc based on the persistence of autoantibodies and the clinical criteria according to the 2013 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism classification. Due to the proximity of the two events, we hypothesized a cross-reaction between COVID-19 vaccination and, in genetically predisposed patients, an emergence of systemic sclerosis. Our case suggests a potential relationship between the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine and new-onset autoimmune diseases. Physicians should be aware of this possible association.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0172.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: COVID-19; vaccination; mRNA vaccine; thrombotic events
Online: 5 September 2023 (03:55:17 CEST)
Introduction: Real-world safety studies can provide important evidence on the thromboembolic risk associated with COVID-19 vaccines, considering that millions of people have been already vaccinated against COVID-19. In this study, we aimed to estimate the incidence of thromboembolic events after COVID-19 vaccination and to compare the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine with other COVID-19 vaccines. Methods: We conducted a retrospective real-world safety study using data from two different data sources: the Italian Pharmacovigilance database (Rete Nazionale di Farmacovigilanza, RNF) and the Campania Region Health system (Sistema INFOrmativo saNità CampanIA, SINFONIA). From the start date of the COVID-19 vaccination campaign (December 27th, 2021) to September 27th, 2022, information on COVID-19 vaccinations and thromboembolic evets were extracted from the two databases. The reporting rate (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (95%CI) of thromboembolic events for 10,000 doses was calculated for each COVID-19 vaccine. Moreover, the odds of being vaccinated with the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine vs. the other COVID-19 vaccines in cases with thromboembolic events vs. controls without thromboembolic events were computed. Results: A total of 12,692,852 vaccine doses were administered in Campania Region, of which 6,509,475 (51.28%) were in female and mostly related to the Pfizer-BioNtech vaccine (65.05%), followed by Moderna (24.31%), Oxford–AstraZeneca (9.71%), Janssen (0.91%), and Novavax (0.02%) vaccines. A total of 641 ICSRs with a COVID-19 vaccines and a vascular events were retrieved from the RNF for the Campania Region, of which 453 (70.67%) were in female. Most ICSRs reported the Pfizer-BioNtech vaccine (65.05%), followed by Oxford–AstraZeneca (9.71%), Moderna (24.31%), and Janssen (0.91%). A total of 2,451 events were reported in the ICSRs (3.8 events for ICSRs) of which 292 were thromboembolic events. The highe RRs of thromboembolic events were found with the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine (RR: 4.62, 95%CI: 3.50-5.99) and Janssen vaccine (RR: 3.45, 95%CI: 0.94-8.82). Thromboembolic events were associated with a higher likelihood of exposure to the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine compared to Pfizer-BioNtech (OR: 6.06; 95%CI: 4.22-8.68) and Moderna vaccines (OR: 6.46; 95%CI: 4.00-10.80). Conclusion: We observed a higher reporting of thromboembolic events with viral-vector based vaccines (Oxford–AstraZeneca and Janssen) and an increased likelihood of being exposed to the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine compared to the mRNA vaccines (Pfizer-BioNtech and Moderna) among thromboembolic cases.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2167.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: DMD; Dystrophin; gene expression; transcription; mRNA; RNAseq
Online: 29 June 2023 (16:33:49 CEST)
At 2.3 megabases in length, the dystrophin gene is enormous: transcription of a single mRNA requires approximately 16 hours. Principally expressed in skeletal muscle, the dystrophin protein product protects the muscle sarcolemma against contraction-induced injury, and dystrophin deficiency results in the fatal muscle-wasting disease, Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This gene is thus of key clinical interest, and therapeutic strategies aimed at eliciting dystrophin restoration require quantitative analysis of its expression. Approaches for quantifying dystrophin at the protein level are well established, however study at the mRNA level warrants closer scrutiny: measured expression values differ in a sequence-dependent fashion, with significant consequences for data interpretation. In this manuscript we discuss these nuances of expression and present evidence to support a transcriptional model whereby the long transcription time is coupled to a short mature mRNA half-life, with dystrophin transcripts being predominantly nascent as consequence. We explore the effects of such a model on cellular transcriptional dynamics, and then discuss key implications for the study of dystrophin gene expression, focussing both on conventional (qPCR) and next-gen (RNAseq) approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0034.v5
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SARS-CoV2; Biomathematics; vaccine; variants; mRNA; Fibonacci; numerical standing waves
Online: 20 April 2021 (10:05:55 CEST)
ABSTRACT. In this paper, we suggest a biomathematical numerical method for analysing mRNA nucleotides sequences based on UA/CG Fibonacci numbers proportions. This method is used to evaluate then compare the spike genes related to the main SARS-CoV2 VARIANTS currently circulating within the world population. The 10 main results proposed to be reproduced by peers are: 1/ SARS-CoV2 genome and spike evolution in one year 2020-2021. 2/ SARS-CoV2 Origins. 3/ Comparing 11 reference variants spikes. 4/ analysing 32 CAL.20C California variant patients spikes. 5/ Toward a meta mRNA Fibonacci gene end message code. 6/ Analysing S501 UK, S484 South Africa and « 2 mutations » INDIA variants. 7/ Suggesting a possible variants spike mRNA palindrome symmetry metastructure improving mRNA stability then infectiousness. 8/ Analysing Fibonacci Metastructures in the mRNA coding for the vaccines PFIZER and MODERNA. 9/ Does the CG-rich modification of the synonymous codons of the spikes of the 2 mRNA vaccines affect the expression and quantity of SARS-CoV2 antibodies? 10/ The exceptional case of the Brazilian variant P.1. Particularly, we suggest the following conjecture at mRNA folding level : CONJECTURE of SARS-CoV2 VARIANTS: The growth of long Fibonacci structures in the shape of "podiums" for almost all of the variants studied (UK, California, South Africa, India, etc.) suggests the probable folding of the Spike mRNA in the form of a "hairpin", which can strengthen the cohesion and the lifespan of this mRNA. Finally, we show that these kinds of Fibonacci matastructures disapear TOTALLY by analysing the published mRNA sequences of PFIZER and MODERNA vaccines. One fact is certain, the two mRNAs of the Moderna and Pfizer vaccines will result in a low functionality of the spike vaccine. This is because their designers by seeking greater stability, have doped to build CG rich sequences which, as soon as they are inserted into the human host, will, paradoxically, seek to mutate, like SARS-CoV2 variants, towards CG ==> UA forms in order to improve their STABILITY and LIFETIME. We conclude using new biomathematics theoretical methods (Master code and numerical standing waves), and comparing the Spikes of the two vaccines Moderna and Pfizer, that there will be very probable differences in stability and shelf life of the two respective mRNAs vaccines. However, “State of the Art” analyzes will disclose that their two protein sequences are strictly identical. By modified their synonymous codons using different strategies, no one can guarantee that the quantity of antibodies generated will be identical in the two cases. We wish to draw attention to the great ADAPTATION power - at the global scale of their genomes - of the most infectious VARIANTS, such as the BRAZIL 20J / 501Y.V3 variant (P.1). This is very worrying for the VACCINES <==> VARIANTS run: We demonstrate how the Brazilian variant P.1 which becomes uncontrollable in Brazil in April 2021 has a level of organization of long metastructures of 17,711 bases covering the genome which is 3.6 more important than that of the 2 reference genomes SARS-CoV2 and worldwide D614G. We suggest that this high level of overall structure of this variant contributes to the stability of this genome and, might explain its greater contagiousness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0216.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Planckian Distribution Equation; breast cancer; mRNA; chemotherapy
Online: 8 February 2021 (16:00:22 CET)
Chemotherapy-related deaths, the result of treatment with faulty medications, account for nearly 10% of all breast cancer deaths (Rashbass, 2016). Patient-specific, personalized medicine is evidently required to administer optimized therapeutics and prevent treatment-related mortality. In order to develop a predictive model for breast cancer therapy, the following study analyzed the mRNA data of 4,704 genes derived from 20 breast cancer patients before and after doxorubicin treatment for 16 weeks (O’brien et al., 2006; Perou et al., 2000). The genomic data of each patient was first stratified into 9 groups (corresponding to the 9 Mechanisms defined in Figure 4) based on mRNA expression in response to the tumor and to the doxorubicin treatment. The study then employed the Planckian Distribution Equation (PDE) discovered at Rutgers University to model the stratified samples by transforming each mechanism into a single long-tailed histogram fitted by the PDE. Our PDE model is based on 3 parameters - A, B, and C - of which 2 were extracted from each model to generate the plots seen in figures 5e and 5f. The drug-induced slopes of the A vs C plots were then determined for all 9 mechanisms of each patient. The study observed an increase in post-treatment mRNA levels for longer surviving patients in 6 mechanisms. Further analysis displayed how the drug treatment uniquely altered each of the mechanisms based on the length of patient survival. These results indicate that the PDE-based procedures described herein may provide a novel tool for discovering potential anti-breast cancer pharmaceuticals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0530.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: CDK1; eIF4F; mTOR; mRNA translation; M-phase
Online: 30 April 2020 (13:46:44 CEST)
Cyclin dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) has been primarily identified as a key cell cycle regulator in both mitosis and meiosis. Recently, an extramitotic function of CDK1 emerged when evidence was found that CDK1 is involved in many cellular events that are essential for cell proliferation and survival. In this review we summarize the involvement of active CDK1 in the initiation and elongation steps of protein synthesis in eukaryotes. During its activation CDK1 influences the initiation of protein synthesis, promotes the activity of specific translational initiation factors and affects the functioning of a subset of elongation factors. Our review provides insights into gene expression regulation during the transcriptionally silent cell cycle/M-phase and describes quantitative and qualitative translational changes based on the extramitotic role of the cell cycle master regulator CDK1, to optimize temporal synthesis of proteins to sustain division-related processes: mitosis and cytokinesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1123.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Pi-starvation stress; mobile mRNA; phloem; systemic signaling
Online: 15 August 2023 (11:49:14 CEST)
Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant macronutrient; however, its availability is often limited in soils. Plants have evolved complex mechanisms for efficient phosphate (Pi) absorption, which are responsive to changes in external and internal Pi concentration, and orchestrated through local and systemic responses. To explore these systemic Pi responses, here, we identified AtMYB44 as a phloem-mobile mRNA, an Arabidopsis homolog of Cucumis sativus MYB44, that is responsive to the Pi-starvation stress. qRT-PCR assays revealed that AtMYB44 was up-regulated and expressed in both shoot and root in response to Pi-starvation stress. The atmyb44 mutant displayed higher shoot and root biomass, compared to wild-type plants, under Pi-starvation conditions. Interestingly, the expression of PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER1;2 (PHT1;2) and PHT1;4 was enhanced in atmyb44 in response to a Pi-starvation treatment. A split-root assay showed that AtMYB44 expression was systemically regulated, under Pi-starvation conditions and, in atmyb44, systemic controls on PHT1;2 and PHT1;4 expression were moderately disrupted. Heterografting assays confirmed graft transmission of AtMYB44 transcripts, and PHT1;2 and PHT1;4 expression was decreased in heterografted atmyb44 rootstocks. Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis that mobile AtMYB44 mRNA serves as a long-distance Pi response signal, which negatively regulates Pi transport and utilization in Arabidopsis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1046.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; gene; mRNA; piRNA; diagnosis
Online: 15 May 2023 (12:43:54 CEST)
Recently, a database of human piRNAs has been created, which allows studying the binding of many piRNAs to mRNAs of genes involved in many diseases, including cancer. In the present work, we investigated what piRNAs can interact with candidate esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) genes. The binding of 480 thousand piRNAs with mRNAs of 66 candidate ESCC genes was studied. Bioinformatic studies found that piRNAs bind only to the mRNAs of nine candidate genes: AURKA, BMP7, GCOM1, ERCC1, MTHFR, SASH1, SIX4, SULT1A1, and TP53. It has been shown that piRNAs can bind to mRNA by overlapping nucleotide sequences in limited 3'UTR and 5'UTR regions called clusters of binding sites (BSs). The existence of clusters of piRNA BSs significantly reduces the proportion of nucleotide sequences of these sites in the mRNA of target genes. Competition between piRNAs occurs for binding to the mRNA of target genes. Individual piRNAs and groups of piRNAs that have separate BSs and clusters of BSs in the mRNAs of two or more candidate genes have been identified in the mRNAs of these genes. This organization of piRNAs BSs indicates the interdependence of the expression of candidate genes through piRNAs. Significant differences in the ability of genes to interact with piRNAs avoid the side effects of piRNAs on genes with the lack of binding of such piRNAs. Individual piRNAs and sets of piRNAs are proposed and recommended for the diagnosis and therapy of ESCC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1156.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Transplantation Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; kidney transplantation; mRNA vaccine; seropositivity; immunocompromised.
Online: 19 October 2023 (04:48:14 CEST)
Immunosuppressed kidney transplant (KT) recipients respond weaker to COVID-19 vaccination than immunocompetent individuals. We tested antiviral IgG response in 99 KT-recipients and 66 healthy volunteers who were vaccinated with mRNA-1273 Moderna or BNT162b2 Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines. A subgroup of participants had their peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) evaluated for the frequency of T helper 1 (Th1) cells producing IL-2, IFN-γ and/or TNF-α, and IL-10-producing T-regulatory 1 (Tr) cells. Among KT-recipients, 45.8% had anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG compared to 74.1% of healthy volunteers (p=0.009); also, anti-viral IgG levels were lower in recipients than in volunteers (p=0.001). When defined as non-responders (≤2,000 U/ml IgG), Moderna’s group had 10.8% and Pfizer-BioNTech’s group had 34.3% of non-responders at 6 months (p=0.023); similarly, 15.7% and 31.3% non-responders were in Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech groups at 12 months, respectively (p=0.067). There were no non-responders among controls. Healthy volunteers had higher Th1 levels than KT recipients, while Moderna produced higher Th1 response than Pfizer-BioNTech. In contrast, Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine induced higher Tr1 response than Moderna vaccine (p<0.05); overall, IgG levels correlated with Th1(fTTNF-α)/Tr1(fTIL-10) ratios. We propose that the higher number of non-responders in Pfizer-BioNTech group than Moderna group was caused by more potent activity of regulatory Tr1 cells in KT-recipients vaccinated with Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1081.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Long COVID; mRNA vaccines side effects; immunothrombosis; spike protein
Online: 17 July 2023 (09:33:51 CEST)
Abstract Long COVID syndrome, known as Long COVID, refers to a series of debilitating symptoms that arise after infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. These symptoms are similar to those experienced by some people after vaccination with vaccines based on mRNA platforms (Pfizer, Moderna). With more than 200 million Long COVID patients worldwide and an increase in cases of moderate to severe reactions after administration of mRNA vaccines (VSITV), the effects on quality of life and economics are significant, for what is necessary to pay urgent attention to understand its pathophysiology and to provide an adequate diagnosis and treatment. In this article, we describe our perspective that both Long COVID and common side effects of mRNA vaccines (VSITV) induce persistent and prolonged expression of the spike protein (SPIKE) in various tissues and organs of the body. This would induce coagulopathy, microscopic vasculitis, and endothelitis as the main drivers of the disease, and may also cause or worsen other common pathologies in Long COVID, such as mast cell activation syndrome, dysautonomia, and sudden deaths due to arrhythmias and heart attacks, reports of which continue to rise. Given that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein can independently induce fibrinoid microclot formation, platelet activation, and endothelitis, we predict that the persistence of the spike protein will be a key mechanism driving ongoing coagulopathy in Long COVID and in the VSITV. We discuss various treatment goals to address coagulopathy, endothelitis, and vasculitis and predict that treatment, especially if given early, with a combination of anticoagulants, antiplatelets, corticosteroids, and rapamycin/everolimus, will provide significant relief for many patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2154.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Cervical cancer, HPV screening, mRNA, genotype distribution, vaccine efficacy.
Online: 29 June 2023 (13:16:58 CEST)
Background: Understanding the distribution of HPV types in cervical cancer cases is crucial for evaluating the effectiveness of HPV screening and vaccination in reducing cervical cancer burden. This study aimed to assess genotype prevalence among 178 cervical cancer cases detected during a 20-year screening period in Northern Norway and compare the potential efficacy of HPV vaccines in preventing cervical cancer. Methods: A total of 181 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from women diagnosed with cervical cancer between 1995 and 2015 in Troms and Finnmark, Norway, were analyzed using a 45-type HPV DNA test. The results were compared to a 7-type HPV mRNA test targeting oncogenic types included in the nonavalent HPV vaccine. Results: Invalid HPV test results were observed in 1.7% (3/181) of the samples and were subsequently excluded from further analysis. Among the remaining cases, 92.7% (165/178) tested positive for HPV using any test combination. HPV DNA was detected in 159 cases (89.3%), while HPV mRNA was detected in 149 cases (83.7%). The most prevalent HPV types were 16 and 18, responsible for 70.8% of the cases, with the nonavalent vaccine types accounting for 86.6% of cases. HPV 35 was identified in eight cases (4.5%). Conclusion: The bivalent/quadrivalent HPV vaccines have the potential to prevent 76.4% (126/165) of HPV-positive cervical cancer cases, while the nonavalent vaccine could prevent 93.3% (154/165) of cases. Tailoring screening strategies to target HPV types with the highest oncogenic potential may improve cervical cancer detection and enable targeted interventions for high-risk individuals. The use of a 7-type HPV mRNA test holds promises as an advantageous approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1269.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Qianbei Ma goat; Testis development; RNA-Seq; mRNA expression
Online: 30 April 2023 (08:44:18 CEST)
The achievement of reproductive competence in male mammals is dependent on the testis. Goat testis’ development and spermatogenesis involve physiological events with high complexity. In the current work, 6 testes were respectively collected from immature, sexually mature and physically mature Qianbei Ma goats (1, 6 and 12 months old, respectively). RNA-Seq was carried out to reveal changes in testis mRNA expression levels in Qianbei Ma goats at various developmental stages, and gene expression profiling at different ages was established. Totally 18 libraries were established for screening genes and pathways associated with testis development and spermatogenic processes. Totally 9,724 upregulated and 4,153 downregulated genes were identified between immature (I) and sexually mature (S) testes; 7 upregulated and 3 downregulated genes were detected between sexually mature (S) and physically mature (P) testes, and approximately 4% of genes were alternately spliced between the I and S groups. Selected genes were verified by qRT-PCR, in agreement with sequencing data indicating their reliability. Those genes have critical functions in various developmental stages of goat testicular development and spermatogenesis. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses were carried out to evaluate differentially expressed genes (DEGs). GO analysis suggested DEGs were involved in “reproduction process”, “channel activity” and “cell periphery part” between I and S, and in “ion transport process”, “channel activity” and “transporter complex part” between S and P. KEGG analysis indicated that pathways such as “glycerolipid metabolism”, “steroid hormone biosynthesis” and “MAPK signaling pathway” may be involved in testis development and spermatogenesis. Genes including IGF1, TGFB1, TGFBR1 and EGFR may regulate the development of the testis from immature to sexually mature, which may be key candidate genes for the development of goat testis. These findings provide novel insights into goat testicular development and spermatogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0083.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: fasting; refeeding; skeletal muscle; zebrafish; mRNA-sequencing; gene length
Online: 6 May 2022 (14:31:07 CEST)
Recently, fasting has been spotlighted from a healthcare perspective. However, the de-tailed biological mechanisms and significance by which the effects of fasting confer health benefits are not yet clear. Due to certain advantages of zebrafish, as a vertebrate model widely utilized in biological studies, we used mRNA-sequencing and bioinformatics analysis to examine comprehensive gene expression changes in skeletal muscle tissues during fasting-refeeding. Our results produced a novel set of nutrition-related genes under a fasting-refeeding protocol. We found five dramatically upregulated genes in each fasting (for 24 hours) and refeeding (after 3 hours), exhibiting a rapid response to the provided conditional changes. The assessment of the gene length revealed, the gene set whose expression was elevated only after 3 hours of refeeding had a shorter length, suggesting that nutrition-related gene function is associated with gene length. Taken together, our results from bioinformatics analyses provide new insights into biological mechanisms induced by fasting-refeeding conditions within zebrafish skeletal muscle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0347.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Tuberculosis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; mRNA expression; Cytokine; Human FFPE tissue
Online: 14 May 2021 (15:33:20 CEST)
In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether an automated molecular diagnostic method based on PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay can discriminate between human Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-positive and -negative FFPE tissues and to compare the relative mRNA expression levels of various host immune markers between MTB-infected and uninfected human tissues using quantitative reverse transcription (qRT) PCR. A total of 52 human FFPE tissue samples from various regions of the body, including the lungs, lymph nodes, tendons, colon, and appendix, were collected and used for the molecular identification of Mycobacterium species and analysis of cytokine mRNA expression. As a result, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IP-10, CXCL9, CXCL11, and GM-CSF mRNA expression levels in MTB-infected tissues were significantly higher than those in uninfected samples. Additionally, the differences in the mRNA expression levels of IFN-γ, CXCL9, and GM-CSF between MTB-infected and uninfected tissues were statistically significant were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Correlation curve analysis indicated that the mRNA expression of IFN-γ was inversely proportional to that of IP-10 and that the mRNA expression levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, CXCL9, CXCL11, GM-CSF, and TNFR were proportional and well-correlated. Furthermore, to establish marker profiles for detecting MTB infection, the statistically significant expression levels of three markers were combined. We confirmed that the combined profile of IFN-γ, CXCL9, and GM-CSF expression levels was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Although the mRNA expression patterns of host immune markers may vary according to MTB infection status, these patterns may be highly correlated and can be simultaneously used as an additional indicator for diagnosing TB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0224.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: biomass allocation; drought; irrigation; leaf anatomy; mRNA level; proline
Online: 9 August 2020 (21:53:38 CEST)
Recent climatic changes have resulted in an increased frequency and prolonged periods of drought and strained water resources affecting plant production. We explored the possibility of reducing irrigation in a container nursery and studied the growth response of seedlings of economically important forest trees: broadleaf deciduous angiosperms Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea and evergreen conifers Abies alba and Pinus sylvestris. We also studied markers of water stress including modifications of biomass allocation, leaf anatomy, proline accumulation and expression of selected genes. Growth of the broadleaved deciduous species was more sensitive to the reduced water supply than that of conifers. Remarkably, growth of the shade tolerant Abies was not affected. Adjustment of biomass allocations was strongest in P. sylvestris, with a remarkable increase in allocation to roots. In response to water deficit both deciduous species accumulated proline in leaves and produced leaves with shorter palisade cells, reduced vascular tissues and smaller conduit diameters, but not conifers. Relative transcript abundance of a gene encoding a Zn-finger protein in Q. petraea and a gene encoding a pore calcium channel protein 1 in A. alba increased as water deficit increased. These findings suggest that in container nursery, the genetic selection can be initiated by water deficit. Our study shows major differences between functional groups in response to irrigation, with seedlings of evergreen conifers having higher tolerance than the deciduous species. This suggests that major water savings could be achieved by adjusting irrigation regime to functional group or species requirements.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Colorectal Cancer Cells; Gastric Cancer Cells; Cholangiocarcinoma Cells; Hepatocarcinoma Cells; Exosomes; FZD 10 protein; FZD10-mRNA; FZD10-mRNA Silenced Cells; Cell Proliferation
Online: 9 July 2019 (14:19:22 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are involved in intercellular communication during carcinogenesis and cancer cells are able to secrete EVs, in particular exosomes containing molecules, that can be transferred to recipient cells to induce pathological processes and significant modifications, as metastasis, increase of proliferation and carcinogenesis evolution. FZD proteins, a family of receptors comprised in the Wnt signaling pathway, play an important role in carcinogenesis of gastroenteric tract. Here, a still unrecognized role of Frizzled 10 (FZD10) protein was identified. In particular, the presence of FZD10 and FZD10-mRNA in exosomes extracted from culture medium of the untreated colorectal, gastric, hepatic and cholangio cancer cell lines, was detected. A substantial reduction in the FZD10 and FZD10-mRNA level was achieved in FZD10-mRNA silenced cells and in their corresponding exosomes and, concomitantly a significant decrease in viability of the silenced cells compared to their respective controls was observed. Interestingly, the incubation of silenced cells with exosomes extracted from culture medium of the same untreated cells promoted a remarkable restoration of the cell viability and, also, of the FZD10 and FZD10-mRNA level, thus indicating that the FZD10 and FZD10-mRNA delivering exosomes may be potential messengers of cancer reactivation and play an active role in long-distance metastatization
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0297.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: miRNA; mRNA; HIV; network; bioinformatics; HAND; viral infection; CNS damage
Online: 23 February 2022 (14:13:59 CET)
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is an array of neurocognitive changes associated with HIV infection, and the roles of microRNAs in HAND are not completely revealed yet. Based on published data and publicly available databases, we constructed an integrated miRNA-mRNA network involved in HAND. Bioinformatics analyses, including gene ontology, network analysis, and KEGG pathway analysis, were applied for further study of the network and the genes of the network. The axon guidance KEGG pathway, three genes NTNG1, EFNB2, CXCL12, and 17 miRNAs which regulates them, are spotlighted in our study. This study provides new perspectives to the knowledge of miRNAs’ roles in the process of HAND, and our findings provided potential therapeutic targets and clues of HAND.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0257.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Extracellular vesicles (EVs); mRNA; fungal pathogen; plant pathogen; Ustilago maydis
Online: 9 June 2021 (10:59:36 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) can transfer diverse RNA cargo for intercellular signalling. EV-associated RNAs have been found in diverse fungi and were proposed to be relevant for pathogenesis in animal hosts. In plant-pathogen interactions, small RNAs are exchanged in a cross-kingdom RNAi warfare and EVs were considered to be a delivery mechanism. To extend the search for EV-associated molecules involved in plants-pathogen communication, we have characterised the repertoire of EV-associated mRNAs secreted by the maize smut pathogen, Ustilago maydis. For this initial survey, EVs were isolated from axenic filamentous cultures that mimic infectious hyphae. The EV-associated RNAs were resistant to degradation by RNases and the presence of intact mRNAs was evident. The set of mRNAs enriched inside EVs relative to the fungal cells are functionally distinct from those that are depleted from EVs, particularly overrepresented in metabolic enzyme activities. Intriguingly, mRNAs of some known effectors and other proteins linked to virulence were found in EVs. Furthermore, several mRNAs enriched in EVs are also upregulated during infection, suggesting that EV-associated mRNAs may participate in plant-pathogen interaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: melanoma; plasma; liquid biopsy; miRNA; mRNA; biomarker; YRNA; RNA species
Online: 19 November 2018 (06:49:39 CET)
The circulating transcriptome is a valuable source of cancer biomarkers, which with the exception of miRNAs, remains relatively unexplored. To elucidate which RNAs are present in plasma from melanoma patients and which could be used to distinguish cancer patients of healthy individuals, we used next generation sequencing (NGS) and validation was carried out by qPCR and/or ddPCR. We identified 442 different microRNAs in samples, eleven of which were differentially expressed (P < 0.05). Levels of miR-134-5p and miR-320a-3p were significantly down-regulated (P<0.001) in melanoma samples (n = 96) compared to healthy controls (n = 28). Differentially expressed protein-encoding mRNA, 5´-fragments, were enriched for the angiopoietin, PAK and EIF2 pathways. Levels of ATM1, AMFR, SOS1 and CD109 gene fragments were up-regulated (P < 0.001) in melanoma samples (n=144) compared to healthy controls (n = 41) (AUC = 0.825). Over 40% of mapped reads were YRNAs, a class of non-coding RNAs that to date has been little explored. Expression levels of RNY3P1, RNY4P1 and RNY4P25 were significantly higher in patients with stage 0 disease, than either healthy controls or more advanced stage disease (P < 0.001). In conclusion, we have identified a number of novel RNA biomarkers, which most importantly we validated in multi-centre retrospective and prospective cohorts suggesting potential diagnostic use of these RNA species.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1981.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: T-cell-mediated immunity; vaccines; infectious diseases; viral vectors; mRNA vaccines
Online: 31 October 2023 (05:11:07 CET)
The new class of mRNA vaccines is studied extensively, leading to many novel prospects based on the pivotal success of vaccines against the SARS-Cov-2 virus. Many novel mechanisms of immune response discovered have led to the possibility of mutation-resistant vaccines by combining multiple conserved epitopes as antigens to manipulate the T-cell and B-cell responses; these antigens can also come from different organisms, providing protection against numerous diseases and of most tremendous significance is the utility of mRNA vaccines in preventing and treating more than 100 autoimmune disorders. This is a significant humanitarian breakthrough given the ease and faster and low cost of mRNA vaccines, being a chemical entity. This paper provides a prospective analysis of mRNA vaccines with much broader applications than anticipated when these vaccines entered treating SARS-Cov-2 infections.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1139.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: DNA-based hydrogels; biosensors; stimuli-responsive; Progesterone detection; mRNA quantification; sensors
Online: 16 May 2023 (09:34:09 CEST)
Nanotechnology and polymer engineering are steering towards a new development to invade deleterious mysteries. In the last few decades, polymer engineering has grabbed researchers’ attention and similarly, polymeric network-engineered structures have been vastly studied. Prior to therapeutic application, early and quick detection analyses are critical. Therefore, developing nanoscale sensors to manage the acute expression of feeble states and malignancies to draw therapeutic lines demands advanced nanoengineering. In spite of nano-therapeutics have emerged as an alternative approach to tackling strenuous diseases. Also, studies have shown highly biocompatible biomedical engineering has emerged with sheer progression. Moreover, hydrogels have emerged as a three-dimensional (3D) polymeric network that consists of hydrophilic natural or synthetic polymers. The resemblance of hydrogels with tissue structure makes it more unique to study inquisitively. Preceding studies have shown a vast spectrum of synthetic and natural polymer deployment in the field of biotechnology and molecular diagnostics. This review explores recent studies on synthetic and natural polymer engineered hydrogel-based biosensors and their applications in multipurpose diagnostics and therapeutics. We reviewed the latest studies on hydrogel-engineered biosensors, exclusively DNA-based and DNA hydrogels fabricated biosensors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0956.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: therapeutic vaccines; mRNA vaccines; antigenic delivery; whole yeast vaccine; delivery vehicle
Online: 26 April 2023 (04:31:14 CEST)
In the last decades, technological advances related to RNA manipulation enabled and expanded its application in vaccine development. This approach comprises synthetic single-stranded mRNA molecules that direct the translation of the antigen responsible for activating the desired immune response. The success of RNA vaccines depends on the delivery vehicle employed. Among the systems, yeasts emerge as a new approach to a natural delivery platform. The presence of β-glucans and mannans in its wall is responsible for the adjuvant action of this system. Yeasts are already employed to deliver protein antigens, with success and efficacy demonstrated through pre-clinical and clinical trials. Yeast β-glucan capsules, microparticles, and nanoparticles are capable of modulating host immune responses and have a high capacity to carry RNA and small molecules, with bioavailability upon oral immunization and with targeting to receptors present in anti-gen-presenting cells (APCs). Besides, yeasts are interesting vehicles for the protection and specific delivery of therapeutic vaccines based on shRNA or dsRNA. In this review, we present an overview of the attributes of yeast or its derivatives for the delivery of RNA-based vaccines, discussing their current challenges and prospects for using this promising strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0275.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Hashimoto’s thyroiditis; bioinformatics; viral infection; mRNA splicing; GSEA; autoimmune disease; CMap
Online: 15 December 2022 (07:44:33 CET)
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) is a common autoimmune disease, with its prevalence rapidly increasing. Both genetic and environmental risk factors contribute to the development of HT. Recently, viral infection has been suggested to act as a trigger of HT by eliciting the host immune response and subsequent autoreactivity. We analyzed features of HT through bioinformatics analysis so as to identify markers of HT development. We accessed public microarray data of HT patients from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and obtained differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under HT. Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses were performed for functional clustering of our protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Utilizing ranked gene lists, we performed Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) using the clusterprofiler R package. By comparing the expression signatures of the huge perturbation database with the queried rank-ordered gene list, connectivity map (CMap) analysis was performed to screen potential therapeutic targets and agents. The gene expression profile of the HT group was in line with general characteristics of HT. Biological processes related to the immune response and viral infection pathways were obtained for the upregulated DEGs. GSEA results revealed activation of autoimmune disease-related pathways and several viral infection pathways. Autoimmune disease and viral infection pathways were highly interconnected by common genes, while the HLA genes which are shared by both were significantly upregulated. CMap analysis suggested that perturbagens, including SRRM1, NLK, and CCDC92, have the potential to reverse the HT expression profile. Several lines of evidence suggested that viral infection and the host immune response are activated during HT. Viral infection is suspected to act as a key trigger of HT by causing autoimmunity. SRRM1, an alternative splicing factor, which responds to viral activity, might serve as potential marker of HT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0534.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Targeted Adenoviral Vectors (Ad), Streptavidin-Polylysine (STAVpLys), messenger Ribonucleic Acid (mRNA)
Online: 31 August 2022 (05:08:33 CEST)
Molecular therapies exploiting mRNA vectors embody enormous potential, as evidenced by the utility of this technology for the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. None-the-less, broad implementation of these promising strategies has been restricted by the limited repertoires of delivery vehicles capable of mRNA transport. On this basis, we explored a strategy based on exploiting the well characterized entry biology of adenovirus. To this end, we studied an adenovirus-polylysine (AdpL) that embodied “piggyback” transport of the mRNA on the capsid exterior of adenovirus. We hypothesized that the efficient steps of Ad binding, receptor-mediated entry, and capsid-mediated endosome escape could provide an effective pathway for transport of mRNA to the cellular cytosol for transgene expression. Our studies confirmed that AdpL could mediate effective gene transfer of mRNA vectors in vitro and in vivo. Facets of this method may offer key utilities to feasibilize the promise of mRNA-based therapeutics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0273.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: RNA therapeutics; cardiovascular disease; mRNA therapeutics; siRNA therapeutics; antisense oligonucleotide therapeutics
Online: 16 December 2021 (14:07:05 CET)
Abstract Purpose of review: RNA therapeutics are a new and rapidly expanding class of drugs to prevent or treat a wide spectrum of diseases. We discuss the defining characteristics of the diverse family of molecules under the RNA therapeutics umbrella. Recent findings:RNA therapeutics are designed to regulate gene expression in a transient manner. For example, depending upon the strategy employed, RNA therapies offer the versatility to replace, supplement, correct, suppress, or eliminate the expression of a targeted gene. RNA therapies include antisense nucleotides, microRNAs and small interfering RNAs, RNA aptamers, and messenger RNAs. Further, we discuss the mechanism(s) by which different RNA therapies either reduce or increase the expression of their targets. Summary: We review the RNA therapeutics approved (and those in trials) to treat cardiovascular indications. RNA-based therapeutics are a new, rapidly growing class of drugs that will offer new alternatives for an increasing array of cardiovascular conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0069.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: biology; drug resistance; gene expression profiling; mRNA; multiple myeloma; prognosis; treatment
Online: 5 October 2021 (08:20:44 CEST)
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a genetically complex disease that results from a multistep transformation of normal to malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the initiation and heterogeneous evolution of MM remain largely unknown. A fundamental step needed to understand the oncogenesis of MM and its response to therapy is the identification of driver mutations. The introduction of gene expression profiling (GEP) in MM was an important step in elucidating the molecular heterogeneity of MM and its clinical relevance. Since some mutations in myeloma occur in non-coding regions, studies based on the analysis of mRNA provide more comprehensive information on the oncogenic pathways and mechanisms relevant to MM biology. In this review, we discuss the role of gene expression profiling in understanding the biology of multiple myeloma together with the clinical manifestation of the disease, as well as its impact on treatment decisions and future directions.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SARS-CoV2; Biomathematics; vaccine; variants; mRNA; Fibonacci; Indian variants; B.1.617; B.1.617.2.
Online: 18 May 2021 (14:05:33 CEST)
ABSTRACT. In this paper, we run for all INDIA mutations and variants a biomathematical numerical method for analysing mRNA nucleotides sequences based on UA/CG Fibonacci numbers proportions (Perez, 2021). In this study, we limit ourselves to the analysis of whole genomes, all coming from the mutations and variants of SARS-CoV2 sequenced in India in 2020 and 2021. We then demonstrate - both on actual genomes of patients and on variants combining the most frequent mutations to the SARS-CoV2 Wuhan genomes and then to the B.1.617 variant - that the numerical Fibonacci AU / CG metastructures increase considerably in all cases analyzed in ratios of up to 8 times. We can affirm that this property contributes to a greater stability and lifespan of messenger RNAs, therefore, possibly also to a greater INFECTUOSITY of these variant genomes. Out of a total of 108 genomes analyzed: - None ("NONE") of them contained a number of metastructures LOWER than those of the reference SARS-CoV2 Wuhan genome. - Eleven (11) among them contained the same number of metastructures as the reference genome. - 97 of them contained a GREATER number of metastructures than the reference genome, ie 89.81% of cases. The average increase in the number of metastructures for the 97 cases studied is 4.35 times the number of SARS-CoV2 UA/CG 17711 Fibonacci metastructures. Finally, we put a focus on B.1.617.2 crucial exponential growth Indian variant. Then, we demonstrate, by analyzing the main worldwide 19 variants, both at the level of spikes and of whole genomes, how and why these UA / CG metastuctures increase overall in the variants compared to the 2 reference strains SARS-CoV2 Wuhan and D614G.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2272.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Fucus vesiculosus; cholesterol synthesis; cholesterol excretion; , Ezetimibe; , NPC1L1; ABCG5; qRT-PCR; mRNA
Online: 31 May 2023 (14:54:20 CEST)
A brown seaweed consumed worldwide, Fucus vesiculosus, has been used to prevent atherosclerosis and hypercholesterolemia, among other uses, however, the mechanisms of action that lead to these effects are not yet fully understood. An F. vesiculosus aqueous extract, prepared as a soup was characterized as rich in sev-eral bioactive compounds, mainly phlorotannin and peptides. This work aims to study the in vitro effect of this extract on the expression of different proteins involved in the synthesis and transport of cholesterol in HepG2 cells, though a proteomic analysis, western blot and qRT-PCR. The results demonstrated that, in liver cells, the extract decreases the expression of 4 proteins involved in cholesterol biosynthesis process and also decrease the expression of two important transporters proteins of cholesterol, NPC1L1 and ABCG5, as well as decrease the NPC1L1 mRNA levels. Our study demonstrates some mechanisms of action of bioactive com-pounds from F. vesiculosus that may explain its previously reported hypocholesterolemic effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0548.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: ANN; COVID-19; CT; mRNA; MRI; RT-PCR; SARS-CoV-2; XCR
Online: 23 July 2021 (15:02:40 CEST)
Accurate early diagnosis of COVID-19 viral pneumonia, primarily in asymptomatic people is essential to reduce the spread of the disease, the burden on healthcare capacity, and the overall death rate. It is essential to design affordable and accessible solutions to distinguish pneumonia caused by COVID-19 from other types of pneumonia. In this work, we propose a reliable approach based on deep transfer learning that requires few computations and converges faster. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed framework for transfer learning is a potential and effective approach to detect and diagnose types of pneumonia from chest X-ray images with a test accuracy of 94.0%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; mRNA-based vaccine; safety; multiple sclerosis; AEFI; observational study; three doses
Online: 1 June 2023 (03:37:57 CEST)
Since the beginning of the mass immunization with COVID-19 vaccines of patients with multiple sclerosis, many data on the efficacy and safety of these vaccines have been produced. Considering that MS is an autoimmune disease whose pathology can be explained by an altered immune system and that some DMTs seem to be able to decrease the antibody response against COVID-19 vaccines, we carried out this retrospective study with the aim to evaluate the safety in terms of AEFIs occurrence and the antibody response after the third dose of COVID-19 vaccines in people with MS. Third doses were administered from October 2021 to January 2022. Two hundred and ten patients (64.8% female; mean age: 46 years) received the third dose of the mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine and were included in the study. The majority of patients (n=193) were diagnosed with RRMS and EDSS values were ≤3.0 in 72.4% of them. DMTs most commonly used by included patients were interferon Beta 1-a, dimethyl fumarate, natalizumab and fingolimod. Overall, 160 patients (68.8% female) experienced 294 AEFIs, of which about 90% were classified as short-term, while 9.2% were classified as long-term. The most commonly reported following the booster dose were pain at the injection site, flu-like symptoms, headache, fever and fatigue. Regarding the immune response, consistently with literature data, we found that patients receiving ocrelizumab and fingolimod had lower IgG titer than patients receiving other DMTs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2084.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: urinary extracellular vesicles,; exosomes; urine; diabetic kidney disease; reference genes; miRNA; mRNA; sequencing
Online: 30 May 2023 (08:23:23 CEST)
Urinary extracellular vesicles (uEV) hold non-invasive RNA biomarkers for genitourinary tract diseases. However, missing knowledge about reference genes and effects of pre-analytical choices hinder biomarker studies. We aimed to assess how pre-analytical variables (urine storage temperature, isolation workflow) affect diabetic kidney disease (DKD) -linked miRNAs or kidney -linked miRNAs and mRNAs (kidney-RNAs) in uEV isolates and to discover stable reference mRNAs across diverse uEV datasets. We studied nine raw and normalized sequencing datasets including healthy controls and individuals with prostate cancer or type 1 diabetes with or without albuminuria. We focused on kidney-RNAs reviewing literature for DKD-linked miRNAs from kidney tissue, cell culture and uEV/urine experiments. RNAs were analyzed by expression heatmaps, hierarchical clustering and selecting stable mRNAs with normalized counts (>200) and minimal coefficient of variation. Kidney-RNAs were decreased after urine storage at -20°C vs -80°C. Isolation workflows captured kidney-RNAs with different efficiencies. Ultracentrifugation captured DKD -linked miRNAs that separated healthy and diabetic macroalbuminuria groups. Eleven mRNAs were stably expressed across the datasets. Hence, preanalytical choices had variable effects on kidney-RNAs – analyzing kidney-RNAs complemented global correlation, which could fade differences in some relevant RNAs. Replicating prior DKD-marker results and discovery of candidate reference mRNAs encourages further uEV biomarker studies.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0441.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: IgG4 antibodies; mRNA vaccines; immuno-tolerance; auto-immunity; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19.
Online: 27 March 2023 (03:56:26 CEST)
Due to the health crisis caused by SARS-CoV-2, the creation of a new vaccine platform based on mRNA was implemented. Globally, around 13.32 billion COVID-19 vaccine doses of diverse platforms have been given, and up to this date, 69.7% of the total population received at least one injection of a COVID-19 vaccine. Although these vaccines prevent hospitalization and severe forms of the disease, increasing evidence has shown they do not produce sterilizing immunity, allowing people to suffer frequent re-infections. Recent research has also raised concerns that mRNA vaccines could induce immune tolerance, which, added to that caused by the virus itself, could complicate the clinical course of a COVID-19 infection. Furthermore, recent investigations have found high IgG4 levels in people who were administered two or more injections of mRNA vaccines. It has been suggested that an increase in IgG4 levels could have a protecting role by preventing immune over-activation, similar to that occurring during successful allergen-specific immunotherapy by inhibiting IgE-induced effects. Altogether, evidence suggests that the reported increase in the IgG4 levels detected after repeated vaccination with the mRNA vaccines is not a protective mechanism; rather, it may be a part of the immune tolerance mechanism to the spike protein that could promote unopposed SARS-CoV2 infection and replication by suppressing natural antiviral responses. IgG4-induced suppression of the immune system due to repeated vaccination can also cause autoimmune diseases, promotes cancer growth, and autoimmune myocarditis in susceptible individuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0178.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: HPV-DNA; primary screening; HPV-mRNA; biomarker; triage; liquid-based cytology; colposcopy; CIN2+
Online: 28 February 2023 (01:50:35 CET)
Background: A plethora of data supports HPV-based screening to be the preferred strategy for cervical cancer prevention. The shift to a more sensitive firstline test brings the need of effective triage up for discussion. Currently, most algorithms apply cytology as triage of HPV-DNA positive women. This study compared the performance of a 7-type HPV-mRNA test to cytology. Methods: From 2019-01-01, until 2021-12-31, cervical samples from 58,029 women were examined at the University Hospital of North Norway. 30.5% (17,684/58,029) fulfilled the criteria for HPV-DNA primary screening. All positive samples were triaged by cytology and followed-up according to national guidelines through 2022. Additionally, a 7-type HPV-mRNA test was applied. Study endpoint was histologically confirmed high grade lesion (CIN2+). Results: 5.6% (990/17,684) had positive HPV-DNA test, 97.2% (962/990) with valid HPV-mRNA results. 55.5% (534/962) had abnormal cytology (ASC-US+) and 35.1% (338/962) had positive HPV-mRNA test. 13.9% (134/962) had CIN2+. Sensitivity (CIN2+) of cytology versus the HPV-mRNA test was 76.1% (102/134)) versus 73.1% (98/134)), p=0.67. The specificity was 47.8% (396/828) versus 71.0% (588/624), p<0.001. PPV was 19.1% (102/534) and 29.0% (98/338), p<0.001 respectively. The number of colposcopies per CIN2+ detected by cytology and HPV-mRNA test was 5.2 and 3.1. Conclusion: The 7-type HPV mRNA test was significant more specific than cervical cytology in triage of HPV-DNA positive women. Using this biomarker as threshold for colposcopy may better balance the benefits and harms of screening.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0133.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: COVID-19 vaccination; mRNA vaccines; Clinical Trials; Safety Assessment; Novel Technologies; Spike protein
Online: 12 January 2023 (03:16:56 CET)
Pharmacovigilance databases are showing evidence of injury in the context of the COVID-19 modified mRNA shots. According to recent publications, adverse event reports linked to the mRNA COVID-19 products largely point to the spike protein as an aetiological agent of adverse events, but we propose that the platform itself may be culpable. To assess the safety of current and future mRNA vaccines, further analysis on the risks due to the platform itself, and not specifically the expressed antigen. If harm can be exclusively and conclusively attributed to the spike protein, then it is possible that future mRNA vaccines expressing other antigens will be safe. If harms are attributable to the platform itself, then regardless of the toxicity, or lack thereof, of the chosen payload therein, the platform may be inherently unsafe, pending modification. In this work, we examine previous studies of RNA-based delivery by a lipid nanoparticle and break down the possible etiological elements of harm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0013.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Nonsense-mediated mRNA Decay; UPF3B-knockout; RNA-Sequencing; Intellectual disability; Neuro-developmental disorders
Online: 1 November 2021 (12:17:15 CET)
UPF3B is a constituent of the classical nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway that degrades both the aberrant transcripts and a set of physiological transcripts. In higher eukaryotes, UPF3B have significant biochemical functions in diverse cellular processes including NMD and translation. UPF3B plays a crucial role in neuronal development and differentiation. Next-generation sequencing technologies identified several loss-of-function mutations in the UPF3B gene that results in neuro-developmental disorders in humans. To uncover the mechanistic role of UPF3B in neuronal functions, we have generated the UPF3B-knockout mammalian cell line model system using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing method. RNA-Sequencing Analysis of cellular transcriptome from UPF3B-KO cells identified specific genes involved in cell growth and neuronal functions. Altered expression of genes related to the axon guidance pathway delineated the UPF3B function to regulate the neuron-specific genes. Functional enrichment analysis identified the genes involved in the disorders related to mental health and intellectual disability. Our study has the potential to identify the direct players of intellectual disability and will have broader implications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0402.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: synthetic mRNA; analogue caps; elF4E; mTORC1; autophagy: immunity deregulation; maturation defects; autoimmunity; cancer
Online: 19 July 2021 (10:41:42 CEST)
The structure of synthetic mRNAs as used in vaccination against cancer and infectious diseases contain specifically designed caps followed by sequences of the 5’ untranslated repeats of β-globin gene. The strategy for successful design of synthetic mRNAs by chemically modifying their caps aims to increase resistance to the enzymatic deccapping complex, offer a higher affinity for binding to the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (elF4E) protein and enforce increased translation of their encoded proteins. However, the cellular homeostasis is finely balanced and obeys to specific laws of thermodynamics conferring balance between complexity and growth rate in evolution. An overwhelming and forced translation even under alarming conditions of the cell during a concurrent viral infection, or when molecular pathways are trying to circumvent precursor events that lead to autoimmunity and cancer, may cause the recipient cells to ignore their differential sensitivities which are essential for keeping normal conditions. The elF4E which is a powerful RNA regulon and a potent oncogene governing cell cycle progression and proliferation at a post-transcriptional level, may then be a great contributor to disease development. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) axis manly inhibits the elF4E to proceed with mRNA translation but disturbance in fine balances between mTOR and elF4E action may provide a premature step towards oncogenesis, ignite pre-causal mechanisms of immune deregulation and cause maturation (aging) defects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1883.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: COVID-19 vaccines; mRNA vaccine; SARS-CoV-2 spike; myocarditis; ACE2; renin-angiotensin system
Online: 29 November 2023 (12:20:42 CET)
Myocarditis has been recognized as a possible rare complication of COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. It concerns between one and five vaccinated people per 100,000 in the general population, with increased incidence in adolescent and young adult men. Most often, cases of myocarditis have been reported in the days following the second dose of vaccine mainly in younger male patients. This rare complication of vaccination usually resolves within days or weeks. However, the pathophysiological events responsible for the increase in frequency of myocarditis after COVID-19 vaccination remain unclear. Several recent reports have highlighted that free spike proteins circulating in the blood of patients at high levels appear to play a major role in myocarditis. Here, we review the most relevant data that partly lift the veil on the molecular mechanisms of the induction of myocarditis following mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination. We hypothesize that a mechanism of molecular mimicry of the viral spike triggers transient dysregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, leading to increased soluble angiotensin II binding to the transmembrane receptor angiotensin II type I receptor, similar to what is observed during SARS-CoV-2 infection. We suggest to standardize management of suspected cases of mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine-induced myocarditis, including angiotensin II and spike antigenemia monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: SARS-CoV2; inactivated vaccine; mRNA vaccine; COVID-19; homologous vaccination; heterolo-gous vaccination; protectivity
Online: 8 June 2022 (05:39:30 CEST)
This prospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccine schemes, ho-mologous versus heterologous vaccine strategies, and vaccine-induced anti-S-RBD-IgG antibody response in preventing COVID-19 among 942 healthcare workers one year after vaccination with the inactivated and/or mRNA vaccines. All participants received the first two primary doses of vaccines, 13.6% of them lacked the dose-3, 50.5% the dose-4, and 90.3% the dose-5. Antibody lev-els increased with the increase in number of vaccine doses and also in heterologous vaccine regi-mens. In both inactive and mRNA vaccines, infection rates were significantly higher in 2-dose-receivers, but lower in 4- or 5-dose receivers and increasing the total number of vaccine doses resulted in more protection against infection: the 3-dose regimen yielded 4.71 times more protection, the 4-dose 11.76 times and 5-dose 38.46 times more protection from COVID-19 infec-tion, compared to any 2-dose vaccination regimens. Antibody levels at the end of the first year of 4- or 5-dose-receivers were significantly higher than 2- or 3-dose-receivers. To conclude; increased number of total vaccine doses and anti-S-RBD antibody levels increased the protection from COVID-19 infection. Therefore, four or more doses are recommended in one year, for effective protection, especially in risk groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0182.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Abdominal obesity, obesity, BMI, BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, antibody response, IgG-TrimericS, booster dose, COVID-19
Online: 2 November 2023 (14:42:21 CET)
Little is known about the long-term durability of the induced immune response in subjects af-fected by obesity, particularly in those with an abdominal distribution of adipose tissue. We evaluated SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody response after BNT162b2 vaccine booster dose, com-paring individuals with abdominal obesity (AO) with those without, discerning between indi-viduals previously infected or not. IgG-TrimericS were measured in 511 subjects at baseline, 21 days after vaccine dose-1 and at one, three, six and nine months after dose-2 and at one and three months after booster dose. Nucleocapsid antibodies were assessed at baseline and at the end of the study to detect SARS-CoV-2 infection. To evaluate the three-months difference in absolute variation of IgG-TrmicericS levels from booster dose we used multivariable linear regression that showed interaction between AO and SARS-CoV-2 infection status (p=0.016). AO is associated with higher absolute IgG-TrimericS variation in prior infected individuals, regardless of possi-ble confounders and IgG-TrimericS levels at booster dose (p=0.0125). No interaction was evinced using BMI in the same regression model (p=0.418). The robust response in the development of antibodies after booster dose, observed in people with OA and previous infection, may support the recommendations to undergo the booster dose also in this population group.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1130.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; ZIKV; mRNA; RNAi; ncRNA; L1; retrotransposons; pluripotent multipotent stem cells
Online: 15 August 2023 (12:42:29 CEST)
Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) was seen as a respiratory disease, however, an increasing number of reports indicated that the spike protein could also be the cause of the long-term post-infectious conditions known as Long-COVID characterized by a group of unresponsive idiopathic severe neuro, cardio-vascular disorders, including strokes, cardiopathies, neuralgias, fibromyalgia, and Parkinson's like-disease. Different lines of pieces of evidence confirmed that the spike protein that can be found on the surface of the SARS-CoV-2 virus latches onto angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors located on target cells. The RNA genome of coronaviruses, which, has a median length of 29 kb and is the longest among all RNA viruses, is comprised of six to ten open reading frames (ORFs) that are responsible for encoding both the replicase and structural proteins for the virus. Each of the components of the viral genome is packaged into a helical nucleocapsid that is surrounded by a lipid bilayer. The viral envelope of coronaviruses is typically made up of three proteins that include the membrane protein (M), the envelope protein (E), and the spike protein (S). The spike protein not only facilitates the virus entry into healthy cells, which is the first step in infection but also promote profound damage to different organs and tissues leading to severe impairments and long-term disabilities. Here, we discussed the pervasive mechanism that spikes mRNA adopted to alter multipotent and pluripotent stem cell (SCs) genomes and the acquired disability of generating an infinite number of affected clonal cells. This stance is based on the molecular and evolutionary aspects obtained from retrotransposons-retrotransposition in mammalians and humans that documented the frequent integration of mRNA molecules into genomes and thus into DNA. Retrotransposition is the molecular process in which transcribed and spliced mRNAs are accidentally reverse-transcribed and inserted into new genomic positions to form a retrogene. Sequence-specific traits of mRNA clearly showed long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) to confirm the retrotransposition, considered the most abundant autonomously active retrotransposons in the human genome. In mammals, L1 retrotransposons drive retrotransposition and are composed of long terminal repeats (LTRs) and non-LTR retrotransposons (mainly long interspersed nuclear elements or LINEs); specifically, the LTR-mediated retrocopies are immediately cotranscribed with their flanking LTR retrotransposons. In response to retrotransposons transposition, stem cells (SCs) employ a number of silencing mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modification. This manuscript theorizes the expression patterns, functions, and regulation of mRNA Spike protein imprinted by SCs retrotransposons which generate unlimited lines of affected cell progenies and tissues as the main condition of untreatable Spike-related inflammatory conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1409.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy; antisense therapy; oligonucleotide; splice switching; mRNA knockdown; androgen receptor; AR45
Online: 20 July 2023 (09:53:18 CEST)
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), also known as Kennedy’s disease, is a debilitating neuromuscular disease characterized by progressive muscular weakness and neuronal degeneration, affecting 1-2 individuals per 100,000 globally. While SBMA is relatively rare, recent studies have shown a significantly higher prevalence of the disease within the indigenous population of Western Canada compared to the general population. The disease is caused by a pathogenic expansion of polyglutamine residues in the androgen receptor protein, which acts as a key transcriptional regulator for numerous genes. SBMA has no cure, and current treatments are primarily supportive and focused on symptom management. Recently, a form of precision medicine known as antisense therapy has gained traction as a promising therapeutic option for numerous neuromuscular diseases. Antisense therapy uses small synthetic oligonucleotides to confer therapeutic benefit by acting on pathogenic mRNA molecules, serving to either degrade pathogenic mRNA transcripts or helping to modulate splicing. Recent studies have explored the suitability of antisense therapy for the treatment of SBMA, primarily focused on antisense-mediated mRNA knockdown approaches. Advancements in understanding the pathogenesis of SBMA and the development of targeted therapies offer hope for improved quality of life for individuals affected by this debilitating condition. Continued research is essential to optimize these genetic approaches, ensuring their safety and efficacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0431.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: C. roseus; HepG2; silver nanoparticles; AgNPs; mRNA; transcriptomic; gene expression; oxidative stress; apoptosis; cell cycle.
Online: 24 September 2021 (12:44:00 CEST)
Background: The demand in the development of cancer nanomedicine has increased due to various limitations in conventional cancer therapy. This study assessed the mRNA transcriptomic profiling of human HepG2 cells exposed to C. roseus-AgNPs. Methods: The proliferative activity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) and normal human liver (THLE3) cells treated with C. roseus‑AgNPs were measured using MTT assay. The RNA samples were extracted and sequenced using BGIseq500 platform. This is followed by data filtering, mapping, gene expression analysis, DEG analysis, GO analysis, and pathway analysis. Results: The mean IC50 values of C. roseus‑AgNPs on HepG2 was 4.38±1.59 µg/mL while on THLE3 cells was 800±1.55 µg/mL. Transciptomic profiling revealed an alteration of 296 genes. C. roseus‑AgNPs induced the expression of stress-associated genes such as MT, HSP and HMOX-1. Cellular signaling pathways were potentially activated through MAPK, TNF and TGF pathways that responsible for apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The alteration of ARF6, EHD2, FGFR3, RhoA, EEA1, VPS28, VPS25, TSG101 indicated the uptake of C. roseus-AgNPs via both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent endocytosis. Conclusions: This study provides the new insights on gene expression study of biosynthesized AgNPs on cancer cells. The cytotoxicity effect is mediated by the aberrant gene alteration, and more interestingly the unique selective antiproliferative properties indicates the C. roseus‑AgNPs as an ideal anticancer candidate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0725.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: mRNA vaccine; viral vector vaccine; Spike protein; antigen presentation; polyethylene glycol; platelet factor 4; thrombosis
Online: 30 June 2021 (09:46:15 CEST)
Infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has reached pandemic proportions. A number of effective vaccines have been produced, including mRNA vaccines and viral vector vaccines, which are now being implemented on a large scale in order to control the pandemic. The mRNA vaccines are composed of the Spike S1 protein encoding mRNA, incorporated in a lipid nanoparticle, stabilized by polyethylene glycol (PEG). mRNA vaccines are novel in many respects, including cellular uptake, the intracellular routing, processing, and secretion of the viral protein. Viral vector vaccines have incorporated DNA sequences encoding the SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 protein into (attenuated) adenoviruses. The antigen presentation routes in MHC class I and class II, in relation to induction of virus neutralizing antibodies and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes will be reviewed. In rare cases, mRNA vaccines induce unwanted immune mediated side effects. mRNA based vaccines may lead to an anaphylactic reaction. This reaction may be triggered by PEG. The intracellular routing of PEG, and potential presentation in the context of CD1 will be discussed. Adenovirus vector based vaccines have been associated with thrombocytopenic thrombosis events. The anti-platelet factor 4 antibodies found in these patients could be generated due to conformational changes of relevant epitopes presented to the immune system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0541.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: cardiac arrhythmias; atrial fibrillation; PITX2; computational model; electrical remodelling; structural remodelling; calcium handling; mRNA; electrophysiology
Online: 22 June 2021 (12:32:52 CEST)
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia. Better prevention and treatment of AF are needed to reduce AF-associated morbidity and mortality. Several major mechanisms cause AF in patients, including a genetic predisposition to develop AF. Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with AF populations, with the strongest hits clustering on chromosome 4q25, close to the gene coding for the homeobox transcription PITX2. Because of the inherent complexity of the human heart, experimental and basic research on PITX2-dependent AF is not sufficient for understanding atrial functional proprieties. Linking PITX2 to ion channels, cells, tissues, atria and the whole heart, computational models are necessary for achieving a quantitative understanding of atrial structure and function in PITX2-dependent AF. Computational approaches are used to capture all that we know about PITX2-dependent AF and to develop improved therapies. In the present review, we discuss advances in atrial modelling and focus on the mechanistic links between PITX2 and AF. Challenges in applying models for improving patient health are described, as well as a summary of future perspectives.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0947.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: alternative mRNA splicing; amino acids; inflammation; dyslipidemia; macrophages; NAFLD; NASH; regulatory T cells; vascular endothelial cells
Online: 17 October 2023 (03:30:33 CEST)
Calpain is delineated as a superfamily of cysteine proteases containing a CysPC motif within their genes. Among the fifteen species of mammalian homologs, calpain-1 and -2, which are categorized as conventional isozymes, execute limited proteolysis in a calcium-dependent fashion. Accordingly, the calpain system participates in physiological and pathological phenomena, encompassing cell migration, apoptosis, skeletal muscle integrity, and synaptic plasticity. The dysregulation of the calpain system has been inextricably linked to a multitude of diseases, such as ischemic and degenerative diseases, rendering it a subject of profound interest in the fields of basic research and pharmaceutical development aimed at therapeutic interventions. Recent investigations have unveiled the contributions of both conventional and unconventional calpains to the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disorders, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and hepatic diseases. Consequently, the present review accentuates the pivotal role of calpains in the complications of cardiometabolic diseases and embarks upon a discourse regarding calpains as molecular targets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2202.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Insect transgenesis; Aedes; Drosophila suzukii; tephritids; transformation efficiency; recombination efficiency; piggyBac transposase; helper plasmid; capped mRNA
Online: 1 September 2023 (14:00:54 CEST)
Creating transgenic insects is a key technology in insect genetics and molecular biology. A widely used instrument in insect transgenesis is the piggyBac transposase, resulting in essentially ran-dom genomic integrations. In contrast, site-specific recombinases allow the targeted integration of the transgene construct into a specific genomic target site. Both strategies, however, often face limitations due to low transgenesis rates. We aimed to enhance transgenesis rates by utilizing a capped mRNA as a source of transposase or recombinase instead of a helper plasmid. A system-atic comparison of transgenesis rates in Aedes mosquitoes, as models for hard to transform in-sects, showed that suppling piggyBac transposase as mRNA increased the average transfor-mation efficiency in Aedes aegypti from less than 5% with the plasmid source to about 50% with mRNA. Similar high transformation activity was observed in Ae. albopictus with pBac mRNA. No efficiency differences between plasmid and mRNA were observed in recombination experi-ments. Furthermore, a codon-optimized version of piggyBac transposase delivered as plasmid didn’t improve the transformation efficiency in Ae. aegypti or the agricultural pest D. suzukii. We believe that the use of mRNA has strong potential for enhancing pBac transformation efficiencies in other mosquitoes and important agricultural pests such as tephritids.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0203.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: immunoglobulin (Ig); nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD); nonsense-associated altered splicing (NAS); B lymphocytes; plasma cells
Online: 18 January 2020 (10:21:18 CET)
The presence of premature termination codons (PTCs) in transcripts is dangerous for the cell as they encode potentially deleterious truncated proteins that can act with dominant-negative or gain-of-function effects. To avoid synthesis of these shortened polypeptides, several RNA surveillance systems can be activated to decrease the level of PTC-containing mRNAs. Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) ensures an accelerated degradation of mRNAs harboring PTCs by using several key NMD factors such as up-frameshift (UPF) proteins. Another pathway called nonsense-associated altered splicing (NAS) upregulates transcripts that have skipped disturbing PTCs by alternative splicing. Therefore, these RNA quality control processes eliminate abnormal PTC-containing mRNAs from the cells by using positive and negative responses. In this review, we will describe the general mechanisms of NMD and NAS and their respective involvement in the decay of aberrant immunoglobulin and TCR transcripts in lymphoid cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0372.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: gene therapy; non-viral vectors; gene delivery; cancer; nucleic acid delivery; nanoparticles; lipids; lipid nanoparticles; mRNA; siRNA
Online: 25 January 2022 (09:01:41 CET)
The research and development of non-viral gene therapy has been extensive over the past decade and has received a big push thanks to the successful approval of non-viral gene therapy products in recent times. Despite these developments, gene therapy applications in cancer have been limited. One of the main causes of this has been the imbalance in development of delivery vectors as compared to nucleic acid payloads. This paper reviews non-viral vectors that can be used to deliver nucleic acids for cancer treatment. It discusses various types of vectors and highlights their current applications. Additionally, it also discusses perspective on regulatory landscape to facilitate commercial translation of gene therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0287.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ABCB1; bortezomib; CXCR4; gene expression; MAF; MARCKS; multiple myeloma; mRNA; POMP; PSMB5; refractory; RPL5; TXN; XBP1; sensitive
Online: 25 January 2021 (13:17:31 CET)
Proteasome inhibitors, like bortezomib, play a key role in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM); however, most patients eventually relapse and eventually show multiple drug resistance, and the molecular mechanisms of this resistance remain unclear. The present study examines the expression of previously-described genes that may influence resistance to bortezomib treatment at the mRNA level (ABCB1, CXCR4, MAF, MARCKS, POMP, PSMB5, RPL5, TXN and XBP1). mRNA expression was determined in 73 MM patients treated with bortezomib-based regimens (30 bortzomib-sensitive and 43 bortezomib-refractory patients) and 11 healthy controls. RPL5 was significantly down-regulated in multiple myeloma patients as compared with healthy controls. Moreover, POMP was significantly up-regulated in MM patients refractory to bortezomib-based treatment. In multivariate analysis, high expression of PSMB5 and CXCR and autologous stem cell transplantation were independent predictors of progression-free survival, and high expression of POMP and RPL5 was associated with shorter overall survival.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0162.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: amyloids; frozen accident; genetic code; hydrogels; liquid-liquid phase separation; mRNA; polyglycine; rRNA; ribosomes; translational fidelity; tRNA
Online: 21 October 2020 (10:48:18 CEST)
The genetic code evolved by parallel tracks of chaotic and ordered processes. Liquid-liquid phase separation (hydrogels), a chaotic process, constructs diverse membraneless compartments within cells, resulting in regulated hydration and sequestration and concentration of reaction components. Hydrogels relate to chaotic amyloid fiber production. We propose that polyglycine and related hydrogels (i.e. GADV; G is glycine), phase separations, membraneless droplets and amyloid accretions organized protocell domains to drive the earliest evolution of the genetic code and the pre-life to cellular life transition. By contrast, evolution of tRNA, tRNAomes, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and translation systems followed highly ordered and systematic pathways, described by well-defined mechanisms and rules. The pathway of evolution of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, which tracked evolution of the genetic code, is clarified. Hydrogels and amyloids form a chaotic component, therefore, that complemented otherwise systematic processes. We describe with detail a pre-life world in which hydrogels and amyloids provided the selections of the first life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0466.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Alternative Splicing; RNA-Seq; Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Recommender Systems; Multiple Instance Learning; mRNA Isoforms; Gene Ontology
Online: 20 July 2020 (10:53:23 CEST)
Multiple mRNA isoforms of the same gene are produced via alternative splicing, a biological mechanism that regulates protein diversity while maintaining genome size. Alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms of the same gene may sometimes have very similar sequence, but they can have significantly diverse effects on cellular function and regulation. The products of alternative splicing have important and diverse functional roles, such as response to environmental stress, regulation of gene expression, human heritable and plant diseases. The mRNA isoforms of the same gene, such as the apoptosis associated CASP3 gene, can have dramatically different functions. The shorter mRNA isoform product CASP3-S inhibits apoptosis, while the longer CASP3-L mRNA isoform promotes apoptosis. Despite the functional importance of mRNA isoforms, very little has been done to annotate their functions. The recent years have however seen the development of several computational methods aimed at predicting mRNA isoform level biological functions. These methods use a wide array of proteo-genomic data to develop machine learning-based mRNA isoform function prediction tools. In this review, we discuss the computational methods developed for predicting the biological function at the individual mRNA isoform level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1597.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: membraneless organelles; mRNA; HILO microscopy; liquid-liquid phase separation; biomolecular condensates; RNP granules; colocalization; intermolecular interactions; Donnan potential
Online: 22 August 2023 (16:35:13 CEST)
Cellular biomolecular condensates termed ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules often are enriched in messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules relative to the surrounding cytoplasm. Yet, the spatial localization and diffusion of mRNAs in close proximity to phase separated RNP granules is not well understood. In this study, we performed single molecule fluorescence imaging experiments of mRNAs in live cells in the presence of two types of RNP granules, stress granules (SG) and processing bodies (PB), which are distinct in their molecular composition and function. We developed a photobleaching- and noise-corrected colocalization imaging algorithm that was employed to determine the accurate positions of individual mRNAs relative to the granule’s boundaries. We found that mRNAs are often localized at granule boundaries, an observation consistent with recently published data. We suggest that mRNA molecules become spontaneously confined at the RNP granule boundary similar to the adsorption of polymer molecules at liquid-liquid interfaces, which is observed in various technological and biological processes. We also suggest that this confinement could be due to a combination of intermolecular interactions associated with, first, the screening of a portion of the RNP granule interface by the polymer and, second, electrostatic interactions due to a strong electric field induced by a Donnan potential generated across the thin interface.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0429.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: RNA therapeutics; skin; mRNA therapeutics; siRNA therapeutics; antisense oligonucleotide ther-apeutics; ASO; melanoma; hypertrophic scars; wound healing; dermatology
Online: 27 February 2023 (01:53:06 CET)
Despite being under development for decades, RNA therapeutics have only recently emerged as viable platform technologies. The COVID-19 mRNA vaccines have demonstrated the promise and power of the platform technology. In response, novel RNA drugs are entering clinical trials at an accelerating rate. As the skin is the largest and most accessible organ, it has always been a preferred target for drug discovery. This holds true for RNA therapies as well, and multiple candidate RNA-based drugs are currently in development for an array of skin conditions. In this mini review, we catalog the RNA therapies currently in clinical trials for different dermatological diseases. We summarize the main types of RNA-related drugs and use examples of drugs currently in development to illustrate their key mechanism of action.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0081.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: gene regulation; translation; mRNA; IRES; ITAF; hnRNP; chaperone; stress; nucleocytoplasmic translocation; ribosome; lncRNA; translation initiation factor; P-bodies
Online: 9 January 2019 (08:49:45 CET)
The cellular stress response corresponds to the molecular changes that cell undergoes in response to various environmental stimuli. It induces drastic changes in the regulation of gene expression, at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Actually, translation is strongly affected with a blockade of the classical cap-dependent mechanism, whereas alternative mechanisms are activated to support translation of specific mRNAs. One of the major mechanisms involved in stress-activated translation is the internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-driven initiation. IRESs, first discovered in viral mRNAs, are present in cellular mRNAs coding for master regulators of cell responses, whose expression must be tightly controlled. IRESs allow translation of these mRNAs in response to different stresses, including DNA damage, amino-acid starvation, hypoxia or endoplasmic reticulum stress, as well as to physiological stimuli such as cell differentiation or synapse network formation. Importantly, cellular mRNA IRESs are regulated by IRES trans-acting factor (ITAFs), exerting their action by at least nine different mechanisms. This review presents an update of the reported ITAFs regulating cellular mRNA translation and of the different mechanisms allowing them to control translation initiation in specific conditions. The impact of ITAFs on coordinated expression of mRNA families and consequences in cell physiology and diseases are also highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0278.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; vaccine; mRNA vaccine; adenoviral vector vaccine; adverse event; local adverse event; systemic adverse event
Online: 16 February 2023 (08:00:51 CET)
The immunization of healthcare workers in the early stages of the rollout of COVID-19 vaccines was prioritized in order to ensure uninterrupted medical care provision. At the same time the increasing number of available COVID-19 vaccines may trigger hesitancy towards the decision to get vaccinated. Thus, accumulating reliable information on the adverse events following immunization may educate and urge the general population to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. The present study aimed to evaluate the adverse events (AEs) following immunization with any of the available COVID-19 vaccine among Bulgarian healthcare workers (HCWs). A cross-sectional study among HCWs in Plovdiv, Bulgaria was conducted in the period March – September 2021. Through a semi-structured online questionnaire, the participants reported the adverse events following the administration of the first and second dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. A total of 253 respondents, vaccinated with one of the available vaccines against COVID-19 took part in the study. Of them 71.9% were females, and 75.9% received mRNA-based vaccines, while 24.1% received a viral-vector based vaccine. Overall 91.6% and 82.6% of all participants reported at least one local AE after the first and second dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. The share of respondents reporting at least one systemic AE after the first and second dose of a COVID-19 vaccine was 59.7% and 62.4% respectively. The most common local AE was pain at the injection spot (84.0%), while the most common systemic AEs were fatigue (54.9%), chills (43.2%), and headache (41.7%). The mRNA-based vaccines versions seem to cause higher prevalence of local AEs, while the vector-based vaccines were linked with increased prevalence of systemic AEs. Female HCWs and the younger age group were associated with an increased risk of adverse events generally. Our results added more evidence that mRNA-based and viral-vector based vaccines are generally safe. The reported adverse events were mild, although they occurred in a high share of the respondents. No serious AEs attributable to the vaccines were reported.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0464.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Therapeutic proteins; Recombinant proteins; Repurposing; Reinventing, Drug-antibody combinations, AI/ML, Efficacy improvement, Immunogenicity; Artificial Intelligence; mRNA; High throughput analysis
Online: 27 March 2023 (14:02:03 CEST)
Reinventing approved therapeutic proteins for a new dose, a new formulation, a new route of administration, an improved safety profile, a new indication, or a new conjugate with a drug or a radioactive source is a creative approach to benefit from the billions spent on developing new therapeutic proteins. These new opportunities were created only recently with the arrival of AI/ML tools and high throughput screening technologies. Furthermore, the complex nature of proteins offers mining opportunities that are not possible with chemical drugs; bringing in newer therapies without spending billions makes this path highly lucrative financially while serving the dire needs of humanity. This paper analyses several practical reinventing approaches and suggests regulatory strategies to reduce development costs significantly. This should enable the entry of hundreds of new therapies at affordable costs.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0723.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Glycogen Storage Disease Type 1a, Glucose-6-phosphatase Catalytic Subunit (G6PC), Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), prime editing, mRNA delivery, CRISPR
Online: 30 September 2020 (08:05:17 CEST)
One of the rare diseases throughout the world is Glycogen Storage Disease, which appears due to problems in glycogen metabolism. Among various subtypes of GSD, GSD Type 1a is the most abundant one of GSD Type 1, seen in approximately 80% and caused by different kinds of mutations in the Glucose-6-Phosphatase Catalytic Subunit (G6PC) gene in human chromosome 17q21. G6PC gene encodes for glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) protein, which cleaves glucose-6-phosphate into glucose and inorganic phosphate (Pi), and GSD Type 1a patients fail to breakdown glucose-6-phosphate due to several mutations in the G6PC gene. In our study, we aim to create new therapeutic approaches for GSD 1a. We collected mutation data of 57 GSD Type 1a patients from Turkey. According to the data, 16 types of mutations were observed in the G6PC gene. Allele frequencies of these mutations are calculated as 59% for R83C/H, 11% for W160*, 7% for G270V, and 28% for others which have less frequency. Up to now, the tertiary protein structure of G6Pase has not been structured yet. To understand the possible impacts of these mutations, we statistically obtained possible tertiary structure predictions of G6Pase by running 5 different tools. At the end of the study, we suggest two effective and promising gene therapy methods for GSD Type 1a, Prime Editing for R83C/H mutations, and mRNA delivery for other mutations, in addition to a promising, commercially available drug suggestion for patients with W160*, W86*, and S15* mutations, although the drug belongs to another disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0777.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Exosomal PD-L1 mRNA; extracellular vesicles; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Immunotherapy; PD-L1 axis; Atezolizumab – nab-paclitaxel; Predictive biomarkers; Liquid biopsy
Online: 31 March 2021 (15:27:45 CEST)
Patients diagnosed with unresectable locally advanced Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) usually have poor outcome for its aggressive clinical behaviour. Atezolizumab plus nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab)-Paclitaxel prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) among patients with unresectable locally advanced TNBC but its use is hampered by the lack of reliable predictors of tumor response. Seventy-seven consecutive patients with unresectable locally advanced TNBC treated with Atezolizumab plus nab-Paclitaxel were studied by blood draws at baseline, 28 days and 56 days after initiation of treatment. Exosomal PD-L1 mRNA in plasma was determined using Bio-Rad QX100 digital droplet PCR system and exoRNeasy kit and objective responses were defined following the RECIST criteria v.1.1. The study evaluates whether PD-L1 mRNA copies per ml in plasma-derived exosomes may predict response to anti-PD-L1 antibodies early in the course of therapy. Our data showed patients with unresectable locally advanced TNBC and higher levels of PD-L1 mRNA expression in plasma-derived exosomes at baseline demonstrated greater response to atezolizumab plus nab-paclitaxel. Furthermore, the levels of mRNA decreased with successful treatment while the copy number increased in patients experiencing disease progression following atezolizumab plus nab-paclitaxel. For the first time, our data showed the usefulness of assessment of exosomal PD-L1 as non-invasive real-time biopsy in patients diagnosed with TNBC suggesting exosomal PD-L1 is significantly associated with outcome and response to Atezolizumab plus nab-Paclitaxel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0051.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: deadenylation; DNA damage response; ER-anchored ribonuclease; ER-associated mRNAs; mRNA decay; poly(A) length profile; poly(A)-specific ribonuclease; translation efficiency
Online: 6 January 2020 (02:48:23 CET)
Translation is spatiotemporally regulated and ER-associated mRNAs are generally in efficient translation. It is unclear whether the ER-associated mRNAs are deadenylated or degraded on the ER surface in situ or in the cytosol. Here, we showed that ER possessed active deadenylases, particularly the poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (PARN), in common cell lines and mouse tissues. Consistently, purified recombinant PARN exhibited a strong ability to insert into the Langmuir monolayer and liposome. ER-anchored PARN was found to be able to reshape the poly(A) length profile of the ER-associated RNAs by suppressing long poly(A) tails without significantly influencing the cytosolic RNAs. The shortening of long poly(A) tails did not affect global translation efficiency, suggesting that the non-specific action of PARN towards long poly(A) tails was beyond the scope of translation regulation on the ER surface. Transcriptome sequencing analysis indicated that the ER-anchored PARN trigged the degradation of a small subset of ER-enriched transcripts. The ER-anchored PARN modulated the translation of its targets by redistributing ribosomes to heavy polysomes, suggesting that PARN may play a role in dynamic ribosome reallocation. During DNA damage response, MK2 phosphorylated PARN-Ser557 to modulate PARN translocation from the ER to cytosol. By promoting the decay of ER-associated MDM2 transcripts with low ribosome occupancy, the ER-anchored PARN modulated DNA damage response and thereby cell viability. These findings revealed that a highly regulated communication between mRNA degradation rate and translation efficiency is present on the ER surface in situ and that PARN may contribute to this communication by modulating the dynamic ribosome reallocation between transcripts with low and high ribosome occupancies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0172.v4
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: RNA-dependent amplification of mammalian mRNA; physiologically occurring intracellular PCR, iPCR; RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, RdRp; chimeric RNA; sense-strand RNA; antisense-strand RNA
Online: 12 June 2019 (12:21:59 CEST)
The transfer of protein-encoding genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein, a process formalized as the “Central Dogma of Molecular Biology”, has undergone a significant evolution since its inception. It was amended to account for the information flow from RNA to DNA, the reverse transcription, and for the information transfer from RNA to RNA, the RNA-dependent RNA synthesis. These processes, both potentially leading to protein production, were initially described only in viral systems, and although RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity was shown to be present, and RNA-dependent RNA synthesisfound to occur, in mammalian cells, its function was presumed to be restricted to regulatory. However, recent results, obtained with multiple mRNA species in several mammalian systems, strongly indicate the occurrence of protein-encoding RNA to RNA information transfer in mammalian cells. It can result in the rapid production of the extraordinary quantities of specific proteins as was seen in cases of terminal cellular differentiation and during cellular deposition of extracellular matrix molecules. A malfunction of this process may be involved in pathologies associated either with the deficiency of a protein normally produced by this mechanism or with the abnormal abundanceof a protein or of its C-terminal fragment. It seems to be responsible for some types of familial thalassemia and may underlie the overproduction of beta amyloid in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. The aim of the present article is to systematize the current knowledge and understanding of this pathway. The outlined framework introduces unexpected features of the mRNA amplification such as its ability to generate polypeptides non-contiguously encoded in the genome, its second Tier, a physiologically occurring intracellular polymerase chain reaction, iPCR, a Two-Tier Paradox and RNA Dark Matter. RNA-dependent mRNA amplification represents a new mode of genomic protein-encoding information transfer in mammalian cells. Its potential physiological impact is substantial, it appears relevant to multiple pathologies and its understanding opens new venues of therapeutic interference, it suggests powerful novel bioengineering approaches and its further rigorous investigations are highly warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1155.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: miRNA; piRNA; mRNA; CA125; progesterone receptor (PGR); new-generation sequencing (NGS); quantitative RT-PCR; serous ovarian carcinoma; borderline cystadenoma; benign cystadenoma; formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks; blood plasma; cytoreduction
Online: 18 July 2023 (09:58:12 CEST)
Progesterone receptor (PGR) expression level determines biological characteristics of the serous ovarian carcinoma, and low PGR expression appears to be associated with chemoresistance and worse outcome. In this study, we aimed to find relationships between tumor progesterone receptor level and RNA-profile (miRNAs, piwiRNAs, and mRNAs), determining its biological characteristics and behavior. For this purpose, we applied next generation sequencing of small noncoding RNAs, quantitative RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry to analyze FFPE and frozen tumor samples as well as blood plasma from patients with benign cystadenoma (BSC), serous borderline tumour (SBT), low-grade and high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (LGSOC and HGSOC, respectively). We found significant upregulation of MMP7 and MUC16 and downregulation of PGR in LGSOC and HGSOC in comparison with BSC. The tissue content of miR-199a-5p, miR-214-3p, miR-424-3p, miR-424-5p, miR-125b-5p significantly inversely correlated with the expression level of MUC16 and blood serum CA125 concentration, and significantly directly correlated with the PGR expression level in tumor tissue. On the contrary, the tissue content of miR-16-5p, miR-17-5p, miR-20a-5p, miR-93-5p, responsible for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the cell, significantly directly correlated with the blood serum CA125 concentration and significantly inversely correlated with the PGR expression level in the tumor tissue. Levels of the EMT-associated miRNAs significantly directly correlated with the content of hsa_piR_022437, hsa_piR_009295, hsa_piR_020813, hsa_piR_004307, hsa_piR_019914 in tumor tissues. Among them, expression level of hsa_piR_004307 significantly inversly correlated with the PGR expression level in the tumor. Two optimal logistic regression models were developed based on the quantitation of hsa_piR_020813, miR-16-5p, hsa_piR_022437 or hsa_piR_004307, hsa_piR_019914, miR-93-5p in the tumor tissue, both of which significantly diagnose PGR-negative tumor phenotype with 93% sensitivity. According to FunRich3.1.3 functional enrichment analysis tool, 72 gene-targets of miRNA and piRNA identified here as markers of PGR-negative ovarian tumor phenotype were proven to be mutated in different cancers such as ovarian, breast, colorectal, liver, stomach, lung, endometrial, thyroid cancer. Among them, the blood plasma levels of miR-16-5p and hsa_piR_022437 can be used to diagnose PGR-negative tumor phenotype with 86% sensitivity before surgery and chemotherapy to choose the treatment strategy for this most aggressive type of ovarian cancer (for instance, neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by cytoreduction in combination with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy) to increase the effectiveness of treatment and longevity of the patient.