SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0493.v2
Online: 24 December 2020 (13:51:51 CET)
Vaccines based on mRNA-containing lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) pioneered by Katalin Karikó and Drew Weissman at the University of Pennsylvania are a promising new vaccine platform used by two of the leading vaccine candidates against coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19). However, there are many questions regarding their mechanism of action in humans that remain unanswered. Here we consider the immunological features of LNP components and off-target effects of the mRNA, both of which could increase the risk of side effects. We suggest ways to mitigate these potential risks by harnessing dendritic cell (DC) biology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0151.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine; COVID-19 vaccine; cardiovascular effects; myocarditis; adolescents; Thailand
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:40:23 CEST)
This study focuses on cardiovascular effects, particularly myocarditis and pericarditis events, after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine injection in Thai adolescents. This prospective cohort study enrolled students from two schools aged 13–18 years who received the second dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Data including demographics, symptoms, vital signs, ECG, echocardiography and cardiac enzymes were collected at baseline, Day 3, Day 7, and Day 14 (optional) using case record forms.We enrolled 314 participants; of these, 13 participants were lost to follow up, leaving 301 participants for analysis. The most common cardiovascular effects were tachycardia (7.64%), shortness of breath (6.64%), palpitation (4.32%), chest pain (4.32%), and hypertension (3.99%). Seven participants (2.33%) exhibited at least one elevated cardiac biomarker or positive lab assessments. Cardiovascular effects were found in 29.24% of patients, ranging from tachycardia, palpitation, and myopericarditis. Myopericarditis was confirmed in one patient after vaccination. Two patients had suspected pericarditis and four patients had suspected subclinical myocarditis. Conclusion: Cardiovascular effects in adolescents after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination included tachycardia, palpitation, and myocarditis. The clinical presentation of myopericarditis after vaccination was usually mild, with all cases fully recovering within 14 days. Hence, adolescents receiving mRNA vaccines should be monitored for side effects. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT05288231
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0051.v1
Online: 5 September 2022 (08:14:56 CEST)
This is a case study of a 55-year-old patient who died four months after receiving the mRNA-vaccine BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) against COVID-19 as a second dose, following an initial vaccination with the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vector vaccine (AstraZeneca) two months earlier. The autopsy diagnosis revealed general atherosclerosis. The histopathologic analyses of cardiac tissue demonstrated the presence of a thrombus occluding the right coronary artery (RCA) without evidence of plaque rupture. As a substitute trigger of clotting, the RCA presented with characteristics of acute lymphocytic vasculitis that extended to vasa vasorum in the adventitia and vessels in adjacent adipose tissue. Microthrombi were occasionally detected in these small vessels. It was obvious that lymphocytic myocarditis had been a chronic ongoing process temporally distinct from acute myocardial infarction. The myocardium contained patchworks of fibrotic areas alongside foci of displaying acute inflammation and fresh myocyte damage. SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein, but not nucleocapsid protein was sporadically detected in vessel walls by immunohistochemical assay. The cause of death was determined to be acute myocardial infarction and lymphocytic myocarditis. These findings indicate that myocarditis, as well as thrombo-embolic events following injection of spike-inducing gene-based vaccines, are causally associated with a injurious immunological response to the encoded agent. Because of the fact that the immune response to a first gene-based vaccination is very low in comparison with the immune response to the second vaccination, the found adverse events has rather to be attributed to the mRNA-based second vaccination as to the initial vector-based one.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0308.v2
Online: 25 August 2022 (03:54:58 CEST)
The current report represents a case of a 77-year-old man with Parkinson’s disease who died three weeks after receiving his third COVID-19 vaccination in January 2022. The patient was first vaccinated in May 2021 with the ChAdOx1 nCov- 19 vector vaccine, followed by two more doses with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in July and December 2021. The family of the deceased requested an autopsy due to the ambivalent clinical features noted before death. The underlying illness (Parkinson’s disease) was confirmed by autopsy. However, no sign of a florid COVID-19 was discovered. Meanwhile, the immunohistochemical staining of the brain and heart revealed previously undiagnosed conditions. The brain, in distinctive, revealed multifocal necrotizing encephalitis with massive inflammatory lymphocyte infiltrates. In addition, the heart showed signs of serious myocarditis. Finally, immunohistochemical staining revealed that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was evident in the tissues investigated. Based on these immunohistochemical findings, it appears that the inflammatory changes in the patient's brain tissues are most likely the result of immunological processes. Concurrently, the absence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid-protein was evidenced, indicating that the detected spike-protein is unrelated to a SARS-CoV-2 infection. If such an infection was the cause of the spike protein, the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein would also be detectable. As a consequence, the confirmed presence of the spike protein had to be attributed to the previous vaccination with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine that the deceased patient had received.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0463.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19 vaccines; vaccine effectiveness; BNT162b2 vaccine; mRNA-1273 vaccine; ChAdOx1 vaccine; 19 Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S assay; reactogenicity; vaccine-associated symptoms
Online: 26 August 2022 (14:14:39 CEST)
This prospective study provides data on long-term humoral immunogenicity of a heterologous off-label vaccine regimen combining the adenoviral vectored ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 from Astra-Zeneca (ChAd) with the mRNA-1273 vaccine from Moderna (m1273) in comparison to two different homologous mRNA vaccine schedules. Of the 316 COVID-19 naïve adult health care workers (HCW) included to complete a survey on vaccine-associated symptoms (VAS), 197 had received the homologous BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine from Pfizer/BioNTech (BNT/BNT), 76 the homologous m1273/m1273, and 43 the heterologous ChAd/m1273 vaccine regimen. Concentration of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in plasma 5-7 months after the second vaccine dose was higher in the m1273/m1273 and ChAd/m1273 than the BNT/BNT vaccine group. The frequency of systemic VAS after first vaccine dose was 86% after ChAd compared to 35% and 39% after BNT and m1273, respectively (p < 0.0001), and after second vaccine dose highest (89%) in the m1273/m1273 group (p < 0.001). Individuals with systemic VAS achieved higher levels of antibodies irrespective of vaccine regimen. In conclusion, VAS serve as a strong predictor of long-term humoral immune response, and the heterologous ChAd/m1273 vaccine regimen provides an at least equal long-term humoral immune response compared with the standard vaccine regimens used in Denmark.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0377.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: aa = amino acids; ACE-2 = receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; cDNA = complementary DNA; mRNA = messenger RNA; orf = open reading frame; RBD = receptor binding protein; S-protein = Spike protein; SARS-CoV-2 = severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; Vaccines.
Online: 22 June 2021 (11:53:34 CEST)
The SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome)-CoV (Coronavirus)-2 S(spike)-protein mRNA/cDNA currently being used as vaccines are antigenic but not antigens against SARS-CoV-2, that causes COVID (Coronavirus Disease) -19. Furthermore, the mRNA and cDNA antigenic vaccines also have potentials for homologous as well as heterologous recombination, primarily into the somatic cell DNA of the vaccine recipients. On the contrary, a SARS-CoV-2 RBD-protein antigen, a part of the S-protein, will directly stimulate antibody production against SARS-CoV-2. Hence, a vaccine composed of SARS-CoV-2 RBD-protein as a safer, fast acting, and effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 and thus against COVID-19. This is also useful for some immune compromised individuals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0073.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Messenger RNA • Hospital-based mRNA therapeutics • circular mRNA • self-amplifying mRNA • RNA-based CAR T-cell • RNA-based gene-editing tools
Online: 6 January 2022 (11:20:59 CET)
Hospital-based programs democratize mRNA therapeutics by facilitating the processes to translate a novel RNA idea from the bench to the clinic. Because mRNA is essentially biological software, therapeutic RNA constructs can be rapidly developed. The generation of small batches of clinical grade mRNA to support IND applications and first-in-man clinical trials, as well as personalized mRNA therapeutics delivered at the point-of-care, is feasible at a modest scale of cGMP manufacturing. Advances in mRNA manufacturing science and innovations in mRNA biology, are increasing the scope of mRNA clinical applications.
Online: 16 March 2020 (01:39:27 CET)
Previous studies had shown that mRNA, miRNA and lncRNA were associated with cardiovascular diseases. The study was aimed to explore the differential expressions of mRNA, lncRNA and miRNA between coronary artery disease (CAD) and healthy control, and their interaction in CAD. We investigated the differential expression of ceRNA between CAD and healthy control through data collected from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) microarrays. Furthermore, we investigated the biological function of these differential expressions of ceRNAs by Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was created to identify the hub genes. Biosystems and literature search were performed for signaling pathways and their function of the included differential expression ceRNAs. A total of 456 miRNA expression profiles, 16,325 mRNA expression profiles, and 2,869 lncRNA expression profiles were obtained. Eleven Go and KEGG pathways (count ≥9), top 15 of PPI network node connectivity rank, and top 15 of ceRNA network node degree centrality rank were achieved at the statistical significance level (P<0.05). We further identified that several differential expressions of ceRNAs and their signaling pathways were associated with CAD through biosystems and literature search. Based on eleven Go and KEGG pathways, top 15 of PPI network node connectivity rank, and top 15 of ceRNA network node degree centrality rank in CAD population, our findings would contribute to further exploration for the molecular mechanism of CAD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0044.v1
Online: 5 June 2019 (15:21:40 CEST)
Studies over the past three years have substantially expanded the involvements of eIF3 in mRNA translation. It now appears that this multi-subunit complex is involved in every possible form of mRNA translation, controlling every step of protein synthesis from initiation to elongation, termination and quality control in positive as well as negative fashion. Through the study of eIF3, we are beginning to appreciate protein synthesis as a highly integrated process coordinating protein production with protein folding, subcellular targeting, and degradation. At the same time, eIF3 subunits appear to have specific functions that probably vary between different tissues and individual cells. Considering the broad functions of eIF3 in protein homeostasis, it comes as little surprise that eIF3 is increasingly implicated in major human diseases and first attempts at therapeutically targeting eIF3 have been undertaken. Much remains to be learned, however, about subunit- and tissue-specific functions of eIF3 in protein synthesis and disease and their regulation by environmental conditions and posttranslational modifications.
Online: 28 July 2021 (17:21:17 CEST)
Currently available COVID-19 mRNA vaccines have demonstrated high efficacy in clinical trials.1-3 However, cancer patients, including those with hematological malignancies, were largely excluded from these trials. In this prospective, observational study we measured anti-S protein IgG titers as well as avidity in lymphoma patients (n=67) vaccinated with a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. Serological response rates in lymphoma patients who were treatment naïve (100% in CLL, 88.9% in other, non-CLL non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients), or who were last treated more than 24 months prior to vaccination (100% in CLL, 90% in other-NHL), were similar to healthy controls (100%). Patients on active therapy, however, had a diminished response rate (40% in CLL, 21.0% in other-NHL). No patient who received anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) within six months of vaccination responded. Thus, the utility of testing anti-S titers should be explored in patients on active therapy or with recent anti-CD20 mAb exposure, to assess their response to vaccination. We also propose studying passive protection with S-protein mAbs as an alternative prophylactic strategy for patients who respond poorly to vaccination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0034.v5
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: SARS-CoV2; Biomathematics; vaccine; variants; mRNA; Fibonacci; numerical standing waves
Online: 20 April 2021 (10:05:55 CEST)
ABSTRACT. In this paper, we suggest a biomathematical numerical method for analysing mRNA nucleotides sequences based on UA/CG Fibonacci numbers proportions. This method is used to evaluate then compare the spike genes related to the main SARS-CoV2 VARIANTS currently circulating within the world population. The 10 main results proposed to be reproduced by peers are: 1/ SARS-CoV2 genome and spike evolution in one year 2020-2021. 2/ SARS-CoV2 Origins. 3/ Comparing 11 reference variants spikes. 4/ analysing 32 CAL.20C California variant patients spikes. 5/ Toward a meta mRNA Fibonacci gene end message code. 6/ Analysing S501 UK, S484 South Africa and « 2 mutations » INDIA variants. 7/ Suggesting a possible variants spike mRNA palindrome symmetry metastructure improving mRNA stability then infectiousness. 8/ Analysing Fibonacci Metastructures in the mRNA coding for the vaccines PFIZER and MODERNA. 9/ Does the CG-rich modification of the synonymous codons of the spikes of the 2 mRNA vaccines affect the expression and quantity of SARS-CoV2 antibodies? 10/ The exceptional case of the Brazilian variant P.1. Particularly, we suggest the following conjecture at mRNA folding level : CONJECTURE of SARS-CoV2 VARIANTS: The growth of long Fibonacci structures in the shape of "podiums" for almost all of the variants studied (UK, California, South Africa, India, etc.) suggests the probable folding of the Spike mRNA in the form of a "hairpin", which can strengthen the cohesion and the lifespan of this mRNA. Finally, we show that these kinds of Fibonacci matastructures disapear TOTALLY by analysing the published mRNA sequences of PFIZER and MODERNA vaccines. One fact is certain, the two mRNAs of the Moderna and Pfizer vaccines will result in a low functionality of the spike vaccine. This is because their designers by seeking greater stability, have doped to build CG rich sequences which, as soon as they are inserted into the human host, will, paradoxically, seek to mutate, like SARS-CoV2 variants, towards CG ==> UA forms in order to improve their STABILITY and LIFETIME. We conclude using new biomathematics theoretical methods (Master code and numerical standing waves), and comparing the Spikes of the two vaccines Moderna and Pfizer, that there will be very probable differences in stability and shelf life of the two respective mRNAs vaccines. However, “State of the Art” analyzes will disclose that their two protein sequences are strictly identical. By modified their synonymous codons using different strategies, no one can guarantee that the quantity of antibodies generated will be identical in the two cases. We wish to draw attention to the great ADAPTATION power - at the global scale of their genomes - of the most infectious VARIANTS, such as the BRAZIL 20J / 501Y.V3 variant (P.1). This is very worrying for the VACCINES <==> VARIANTS run: We demonstrate how the Brazilian variant P.1 which becomes uncontrollable in Brazil in April 2021 has a level of organization of long metastructures of 17,711 bases covering the genome which is 3.6 more important than that of the 2 reference genomes SARS-CoV2 and worldwide D614G. We suggest that this high level of overall structure of this variant contributes to the stability of this genome and, might explain its greater contagiousness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0216.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Planckian Distribution Equation; breast cancer; mRNA; chemotherapy
Online: 8 February 2021 (16:00:22 CET)
Chemotherapy-related deaths, the result of treatment with faulty medications, account for nearly 10% of all breast cancer deaths (Rashbass, 2016). Patient-specific, personalized medicine is evidently required to administer optimized therapeutics and prevent treatment-related mortality. In order to develop a predictive model for breast cancer therapy, the following study analyzed the mRNA data of 4,704 genes derived from 20 breast cancer patients before and after doxorubicin treatment for 16 weeks (O’brien et al., 2006; Perou et al., 2000). The genomic data of each patient was first stratified into 9 groups (corresponding to the 9 Mechanisms defined in Figure 4) based on mRNA expression in response to the tumor and to the doxorubicin treatment. The study then employed the Planckian Distribution Equation (PDE) discovered at Rutgers University to model the stratified samples by transforming each mechanism into a single long-tailed histogram fitted by the PDE. Our PDE model is based on 3 parameters - A, B, and C - of which 2 were extracted from each model to generate the plots seen in figures 5e and 5f. The drug-induced slopes of the A vs C plots were then determined for all 9 mechanisms of each patient. The study observed an increase in post-treatment mRNA levels for longer surviving patients in 6 mechanisms. Further analysis displayed how the drug treatment uniquely altered each of the mechanisms based on the length of patient survival. These results indicate that the PDE-based procedures described herein may provide a novel tool for discovering potential anti-breast cancer pharmaceuticals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0530.v1
Online: 30 April 2020 (13:46:44 CEST)
Cyclin dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) has been primarily identified as a key cell cycle regulator in both mitosis and meiosis. Recently, an extramitotic function of CDK1 emerged when evidence was found that CDK1 is involved in many cellular events that are essential for cell proliferation and survival. In this review we summarize the involvement of active CDK1 in the initiation and elongation steps of protein synthesis in eukaryotes. During its activation CDK1 influences the initiation of protein synthesis, promotes the activity of specific translational initiation factors and affects the functioning of a subset of elongation factors. Our review provides insights into gene expression regulation during the transcriptionally silent cell cycle/M-phase and describes quantitative and qualitative translational changes based on the extramitotic role of the cell cycle master regulator CDK1, to optimize temporal synthesis of proteins to sustain division-related processes: mitosis and cytokinesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0083.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: fasting; refeeding; skeletal muscle; zebrafish; mRNA-sequencing; gene length
Online: 6 May 2022 (14:31:07 CEST)
Recently, fasting has been spotlighted from a healthcare perspective. However, the de-tailed biological mechanisms and significance by which the effects of fasting confer health benefits are not yet clear. Due to certain advantages of zebrafish, as a vertebrate model widely utilized in biological studies, we used mRNA-sequencing and bioinformatics analysis to examine comprehensive gene expression changes in skeletal muscle tissues during fasting-refeeding. Our results produced a novel set of nutrition-related genes under a fasting-refeeding protocol. We found five dramatically upregulated genes in each fasting (for 24 hours) and refeeding (after 3 hours), exhibiting a rapid response to the provided conditional changes. The assessment of the gene length revealed, the gene set whose expression was elevated only after 3 hours of refeeding had a shorter length, suggesting that nutrition-related gene function is associated with gene length. Taken together, our results from bioinformatics analyses provide new insights into biological mechanisms induced by fasting-refeeding conditions within zebrafish skeletal muscle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0347.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Tuberculosis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; mRNA expression; Cytokine; Human FFPE tissue
Online: 14 May 2021 (15:33:20 CEST)
In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether an automated molecular diagnostic method based on PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay can discriminate between human Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-positive and -negative FFPE tissues and to compare the relative mRNA expression levels of various host immune markers between MTB-infected and uninfected human tissues using quantitative reverse transcription (qRT) PCR. A total of 52 human FFPE tissue samples from various regions of the body, including the lungs, lymph nodes, tendons, colon, and appendix, were collected and used for the molecular identification of Mycobacterium species and analysis of cytokine mRNA expression. As a result, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IP-10, CXCL9, CXCL11, and GM-CSF mRNA expression levels in MTB-infected tissues were significantly higher than those in uninfected samples. Additionally, the differences in the mRNA expression levels of IFN-γ, CXCL9, and GM-CSF between MTB-infected and uninfected tissues were statistically significant were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Correlation curve analysis indicated that the mRNA expression of IFN-γ was inversely proportional to that of IP-10 and that the mRNA expression levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, CXCL9, CXCL11, GM-CSF, and TNFR were proportional and well-correlated. Furthermore, to establish marker profiles for detecting MTB infection, the statistically significant expression levels of three markers were combined. We confirmed that the combined profile of IFN-γ, CXCL9, and GM-CSF expression levels was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Although the mRNA expression patterns of host immune markers may vary according to MTB infection status, these patterns may be highly correlated and can be simultaneously used as an additional indicator for diagnosing TB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0224.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: biomass allocation; drought; irrigation; leaf anatomy; mRNA level; proline
Online: 9 August 2020 (21:53:38 CEST)
Recent climatic changes have resulted in an increased frequency and prolonged periods of drought and strained water resources affecting plant production. We explored the possibility of reducing irrigation in a container nursery and studied the growth response of seedlings of economically important forest trees: broadleaf deciduous angiosperms Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea and evergreen conifers Abies alba and Pinus sylvestris. We also studied markers of water stress including modifications of biomass allocation, leaf anatomy, proline accumulation and expression of selected genes. Growth of the broadleaved deciduous species was more sensitive to the reduced water supply than that of conifers. Remarkably, growth of the shade tolerant Abies was not affected. Adjustment of biomass allocations was strongest in P. sylvestris, with a remarkable increase in allocation to roots. In response to water deficit both deciduous species accumulated proline in leaves and produced leaves with shorter palisade cells, reduced vascular tissues and smaller conduit diameters, but not conifers. Relative transcript abundance of a gene encoding a Zn-finger protein in Q. petraea and a gene encoding a pore calcium channel protein 1 in A. alba increased as water deficit increased. These findings suggest that in container nursery, the genetic selection can be initiated by water deficit. Our study shows major differences between functional groups in response to irrigation, with seedlings of evergreen conifers having higher tolerance than the deciduous species. This suggests that major water savings could be achieved by adjusting irrigation regime to functional group or species requirements.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Colorectal Cancer Cells; Gastric Cancer Cells; Cholangiocarcinoma Cells; Hepatocarcinoma Cells; Exosomes; FZD 10 protein; FZD10-mRNA; FZD10-mRNA Silenced Cells; Cell Proliferation
Online: 9 July 2019 (14:19:22 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are involved in intercellular communication during carcinogenesis and cancer cells are able to secrete EVs, in particular exosomes containing molecules, that can be transferred to recipient cells to induce pathological processes and significant modifications, as metastasis, increase of proliferation and carcinogenesis evolution. FZD proteins, a family of receptors comprised in the Wnt signaling pathway, play an important role in carcinogenesis of gastroenteric tract. Here, a still unrecognized role of Frizzled 10 (FZD10) protein was identified. In particular, the presence of FZD10 and FZD10-mRNA in exosomes extracted from culture medium of the untreated colorectal, gastric, hepatic and cholangio cancer cell lines, was detected. A substantial reduction in the FZD10 and FZD10-mRNA level was achieved in FZD10-mRNA silenced cells and in their corresponding exosomes and, concomitantly a significant decrease in viability of the silenced cells compared to their respective controls was observed. Interestingly, the incubation of silenced cells with exosomes extracted from culture medium of the same untreated cells promoted a remarkable restoration of the cell viability and, also, of the FZD10 and FZD10-mRNA level, thus indicating that the FZD10 and FZD10-mRNA delivering exosomes may be potential messengers of cancer reactivation and play an active role in long-distance metastatization
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0297.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: miRNA; mRNA; HIV; network; bioinformatics; HAND; viral infection; CNS damage
Online: 23 February 2022 (14:13:59 CET)
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is an array of neurocognitive changes associated with HIV infection, and the roles of microRNAs in HAND are not completely revealed yet. Based on published data and publicly available databases, we constructed an integrated miRNA-mRNA network involved in HAND. Bioinformatics analyses, including gene ontology, network analysis, and KEGG pathway analysis, were applied for further study of the network and the genes of the network. The axon guidance KEGG pathway, three genes NTNG1, EFNB2, CXCL12, and 17 miRNAs which regulates them, are spotlighted in our study. This study provides new perspectives to the knowledge of miRNAs’ roles in the process of HAND, and our findings provided potential therapeutic targets and clues of HAND.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0257.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Extracellular vesicles (EVs); mRNA; fungal pathogen; plant pathogen; Ustilago maydis
Online: 9 June 2021 (10:59:36 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) can transfer diverse RNA cargo for intercellular signalling. EV-associated RNAs have been found in diverse fungi and were proposed to be relevant for pathogenesis in animal hosts. In plant-pathogen interactions, small RNAs are exchanged in a cross-kingdom RNAi warfare and EVs were considered to be a delivery mechanism. To extend the search for EV-associated molecules involved in plants-pathogen communication, we have characterised the repertoire of EV-associated mRNAs secreted by the maize smut pathogen, Ustilago maydis. For this initial survey, EVs were isolated from axenic filamentous cultures that mimic infectious hyphae. The EV-associated RNAs were resistant to degradation by RNases and the presence of intact mRNAs was evident. The set of mRNAs enriched inside EVs relative to the fungal cells are functionally distinct from those that are depleted from EVs, particularly overrepresented in metabolic enzyme activities. Intriguingly, mRNAs of some known effectors and other proteins linked to virulence were found in EVs. Furthermore, several mRNAs enriched in EVs are also upregulated during infection, suggesting that EV-associated mRNAs may participate in plant-pathogen interaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: melanoma; plasma; liquid biopsy; miRNA; mRNA; biomarker; YRNA; RNA species
Online: 19 November 2018 (06:49:39 CET)
The circulating transcriptome is a valuable source of cancer biomarkers, which with the exception of miRNAs, remains relatively unexplored. To elucidate which RNAs are present in plasma from melanoma patients and which could be used to distinguish cancer patients of healthy individuals, we used next generation sequencing (NGS) and validation was carried out by qPCR and/or ddPCR. We identified 442 different microRNAs in samples, eleven of which were differentially expressed (P < 0.05). Levels of miR-134-5p and miR-320a-3p were significantly down-regulated (P<0.001) in melanoma samples (n = 96) compared to healthy controls (n = 28). Differentially expressed protein-encoding mRNA, 5´-fragments, were enriched for the angiopoietin, PAK and EIF2 pathways. Levels of ATM1, AMFR, SOS1 and CD109 gene fragments were up-regulated (P < 0.001) in melanoma samples (n=144) compared to healthy controls (n = 41) (AUC = 0.825). Over 40% of mapped reads were YRNAs, a class of non-coding RNAs that to date has been little explored. Expression levels of RNY3P1, RNY4P1 and RNY4P25 were significantly higher in patients with stage 0 disease, than either healthy controls or more advanced stage disease (P < 0.001). In conclusion, we have identified a number of novel RNA biomarkers, which most importantly we validated in multi-centre retrospective and prospective cohorts suggesting potential diagnostic use of these RNA species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0534.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Targeted Adenoviral Vectors (Ad), Streptavidin-Polylysine (STAVpLys), messenger Ribonucleic Acid (mRNA)
Online: 31 August 2022 (05:08:33 CEST)
Molecular therapies exploiting mRNA vectors embody enormous potential, as evidenced by the utility of this technology for the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. None-the-less, broad implementation of these promising strategies has been restricted by the limited repertoires of delivery vehicles capable of mRNA transport. On this basis, we explored a strategy based on exploiting the well characterized entry biology of adenovirus. To this end, we studied an adenovirus-polylysine (AdpL) that embodied “piggyback” transport of the mRNA on the capsid exterior of adenovirus. We hypothesized that the efficient steps of Ad binding, receptor-mediated entry, and capsid-mediated endosome escape could provide an effective pathway for transport of mRNA to the cellular cytosol for transgene expression. Our studies confirmed that AdpL could mediate effective gene transfer of mRNA vectors in vitro and in vivo. Facets of this method may offer key utilities to feasibilize the promise of mRNA-based therapeutics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0273.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: RNA therapeutics; cardiovascular disease; mRNA therapeutics; siRNA therapeutics; antisense oligonucleotide therapeutics
Online: 16 December 2021 (14:07:05 CET)
Abstract Purpose of review: RNA therapeutics are a new and rapidly expanding class of drugs to prevent or treat a wide spectrum of diseases. We discuss the defining characteristics of the diverse family of molecules under the RNA therapeutics umbrella. Recent findings:RNA therapeutics are designed to regulate gene expression in a transient manner. For example, depending upon the strategy employed, RNA therapies offer the versatility to replace, supplement, correct, suppress, or eliminate the expression of a targeted gene. RNA therapies include antisense nucleotides, microRNAs and small interfering RNAs, RNA aptamers, and messenger RNAs. Further, we discuss the mechanism(s) by which different RNA therapies either reduce or increase the expression of their targets. Summary: We review the RNA therapeutics approved (and those in trials) to treat cardiovascular indications. RNA-based therapeutics are a new, rapidly growing class of drugs that will offer new alternatives for an increasing array of cardiovascular conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0069.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: biology; drug resistance; gene expression profiling; mRNA; multiple myeloma; prognosis; treatment
Online: 5 October 2021 (08:20:44 CEST)
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a genetically complex disease that results from a multistep transformation of normal to malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the initiation and heterogeneous evolution of MM remain largely unknown. A fundamental step needed to understand the oncogenesis of MM and its response to therapy is the identification of driver mutations. The introduction of gene expression profiling (GEP) in MM was an important step in elucidating the molecular heterogeneity of MM and its clinical relevance. Since some mutations in myeloma occur in non-coding regions, studies based on the analysis of mRNA provide more comprehensive information on the oncogenic pathways and mechanisms relevant to MM biology. In this review, we discuss the role of gene expression profiling in understanding the biology of multiple myeloma together with the clinical manifestation of the disease, as well as its impact on treatment decisions and future directions.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: SARS-CoV2; Biomathematics; vaccine; variants; mRNA; Fibonacci; Indian variants; B.1.617; B.1.617.2.
Online: 18 May 2021 (14:05:33 CEST)
ABSTRACT. In this paper, we run for all INDIA mutations and variants a biomathematical numerical method for analysing mRNA nucleotides sequences based on UA/CG Fibonacci numbers proportions (Perez, 2021). In this study, we limit ourselves to the analysis of whole genomes, all coming from the mutations and variants of SARS-CoV2 sequenced in India in 2020 and 2021. We then demonstrate - both on actual genomes of patients and on variants combining the most frequent mutations to the SARS-CoV2 Wuhan genomes and then to the B.1.617 variant - that the numerical Fibonacci AU / CG metastructures increase considerably in all cases analyzed in ratios of up to 8 times. We can affirm that this property contributes to a greater stability and lifespan of messenger RNAs, therefore, possibly also to a greater INFECTUOSITY of these variant genomes. Out of a total of 108 genomes analyzed: - None ("NONE") of them contained a number of metastructures LOWER than those of the reference SARS-CoV2 Wuhan genome. - Eleven (11) among them contained the same number of metastructures as the reference genome. - 97 of them contained a GREATER number of metastructures than the reference genome, ie 89.81% of cases. The average increase in the number of metastructures for the 97 cases studied is 4.35 times the number of SARS-CoV2 UA/CG 17711 Fibonacci metastructures. Finally, we put a focus on B.1.617.2 crucial exponential growth Indian variant. Then, we demonstrate, by analyzing the main worldwide 19 variants, both at the level of spikes and of whole genomes, how and why these UA / CG metastuctures increase overall in the variants compared to the 2 reference strains SARS-CoV2 Wuhan and D614G.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0548.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: ANN; COVID-19; CT; mRNA; MRI; RT-PCR; SARS-CoV-2; XCR
Online: 23 July 2021 (15:02:40 CEST)
Accurate early diagnosis of COVID-19 viral pneumonia, primarily in asymptomatic people is essential to reduce the spread of the disease, the burden on healthcare capacity, and the overall death rate. It is essential to design affordable and accessible solutions to distinguish pneumonia caused by COVID-19 from other types of pneumonia. In this work, we propose a reliable approach based on deep transfer learning that requires few computations and converges faster. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed framework for transfer learning is a potential and effective approach to detect and diagnose types of pneumonia from chest X-ray images with a test accuracy of 94.0%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0013.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Nonsense-mediated mRNA Decay; UPF3B-knockout; RNA-Sequencing; Intellectual disability; Neuro-developmental disorders
Online: 1 November 2021 (12:17:15 CET)
UPF3B is a constituent of the classical nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway that degrades both the aberrant transcripts and a set of physiological transcripts. In higher eukaryotes, UPF3B have significant biochemical functions in diverse cellular processes including NMD and translation. UPF3B plays a crucial role in neuronal development and differentiation. Next-generation sequencing technologies identified several loss-of-function mutations in the UPF3B gene that results in neuro-developmental disorders in humans. To uncover the mechanistic role of UPF3B in neuronal functions, we have generated the UPF3B-knockout mammalian cell line model system using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing method. RNA-Sequencing Analysis of cellular transcriptome from UPF3B-KO cells identified specific genes involved in cell growth and neuronal functions. Altered expression of genes related to the axon guidance pathway delineated the UPF3B function to regulate the neuron-specific genes. Functional enrichment analysis identified the genes involved in the disorders related to mental health and intellectual disability. Our study has the potential to identify the direct players of intellectual disability and will have broader implications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0402.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: synthetic mRNA; analogue caps; elF4E; mTORC1; autophagy: immunity deregulation; maturation defects; autoimmunity; cancer
Online: 19 July 2021 (10:41:42 CEST)
The structure of synthetic mRNAs as used in vaccination against cancer and infectious diseases contain specifically designed caps followed by sequences of the 5’ untranslated repeats of β-globin gene. The strategy for successful design of synthetic mRNAs by chemically modifying their caps aims to increase resistance to the enzymatic deccapping complex, offer a higher affinity for binding to the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (elF4E) protein and enforce increased translation of their encoded proteins. However, the cellular homeostasis is finely balanced and obeys to specific laws of thermodynamics conferring balance between complexity and growth rate in evolution. An overwhelming and forced translation even under alarming conditions of the cell during a concurrent viral infection, or when molecular pathways are trying to circumvent precursor events that lead to autoimmunity and cancer, may cause the recipient cells to ignore their differential sensitivities which are essential for keeping normal conditions. The elF4E which is a powerful RNA regulon and a potent oncogene governing cell cycle progression and proliferation at a post-transcriptional level, may then be a great contributor to disease development. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) axis manly inhibits the elF4E to proceed with mRNA translation but disturbance in fine balances between mTOR and elF4E action may provide a premature step towards oncogenesis, ignite pre-causal mechanisms of immune deregulation and cause maturation (aging) defects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: SARS-CoV2; inactivated vaccine; mRNA vaccine; COVID-19; homologous vaccination; heterolo-gous vaccination; protectivity
Online: 8 June 2022 (05:39:30 CEST)
This prospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccine schemes, ho-mologous versus heterologous vaccine strategies, and vaccine-induced anti-S-RBD-IgG antibody response in preventing COVID-19 among 942 healthcare workers one year after vaccination with the inactivated and/or mRNA vaccines. All participants received the first two primary doses of vaccines, 13.6% of them lacked the dose-3, 50.5% the dose-4, and 90.3% the dose-5. Antibody lev-els increased with the increase in number of vaccine doses and also in heterologous vaccine regi-mens. In both inactive and mRNA vaccines, infection rates were significantly higher in 2-dose-receivers, but lower in 4- or 5-dose receivers and increasing the total number of vaccine doses resulted in more protection against infection: the 3-dose regimen yielded 4.71 times more protection, the 4-dose 11.76 times and 5-dose 38.46 times more protection from COVID-19 infec-tion, compared to any 2-dose vaccination regimens. Antibody levels at the end of the first year of 4- or 5-dose-receivers were significantly higher than 2- or 3-dose-receivers. To conclude; increased number of total vaccine doses and anti-S-RBD antibody levels increased the protection from COVID-19 infection. Therefore, four or more doses are recommended in one year, for effective protection, especially in risk groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0431.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: C. roseus; HepG2; silver nanoparticles; AgNPs; mRNA; transcriptomic; gene expression; oxidative stress; apoptosis; cell cycle.
Online: 24 September 2021 (12:44:00 CEST)
Background: The demand in the development of cancer nanomedicine has increased due to various limitations in conventional cancer therapy. This study assessed the mRNA transcriptomic profiling of human HepG2 cells exposed to C. roseus-AgNPs. Methods: The proliferative activity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) and normal human liver (THLE3) cells treated with C. roseus‑AgNPs were measured using MTT assay. The RNA samples were extracted and sequenced using BGIseq500 platform. This is followed by data filtering, mapping, gene expression analysis, DEG analysis, GO analysis, and pathway analysis. Results: The mean IC50 values of C. roseus‑AgNPs on HepG2 was 4.38±1.59 µg/mL while on THLE3 cells was 800±1.55 µg/mL. Transciptomic profiling revealed an alteration of 296 genes. C. roseus‑AgNPs induced the expression of stress-associated genes such as MT, HSP and HMOX-1. Cellular signaling pathways were potentially activated through MAPK, TNF and TGF pathways that responsible for apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The alteration of ARF6, EHD2, FGFR3, RhoA, EEA1, VPS28, VPS25, TSG101 indicated the uptake of C. roseus-AgNPs via both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent endocytosis. Conclusions: This study provides the new insights on gene expression study of biosynthesized AgNPs on cancer cells. The cytotoxicity effect is mediated by the aberrant gene alteration, and more interestingly the unique selective antiproliferative properties indicates the C. roseus‑AgNPs as an ideal anticancer candidate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0725.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: mRNA vaccine; viral vector vaccine; Spike protein; antigen presentation; polyethylene glycol; platelet factor 4; thrombosis
Online: 30 June 2021 (09:46:15 CEST)
Infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has reached pandemic proportions. A number of effective vaccines have been produced, including mRNA vaccines and viral vector vaccines, which are now being implemented on a large scale in order to control the pandemic. The mRNA vaccines are composed of the Spike S1 protein encoding mRNA, incorporated in a lipid nanoparticle, stabilized by polyethylene glycol (PEG). mRNA vaccines are novel in many respects, including cellular uptake, the intracellular routing, processing, and secretion of the viral protein. Viral vector vaccines have incorporated DNA sequences encoding the SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 protein into (attenuated) adenoviruses. The antigen presentation routes in MHC class I and class II, in relation to induction of virus neutralizing antibodies and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes will be reviewed. In rare cases, mRNA vaccines induce unwanted immune mediated side effects. mRNA based vaccines may lead to an anaphylactic reaction. This reaction may be triggered by PEG. The intracellular routing of PEG, and potential presentation in the context of CD1 will be discussed. Adenovirus vector based vaccines have been associated with thrombocytopenic thrombosis events. The anti-platelet factor 4 antibodies found in these patients could be generated due to conformational changes of relevant epitopes presented to the immune system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0541.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: cardiac arrhythmias; atrial fibrillation; PITX2; computational model; electrical remodelling; structural remodelling; calcium handling; mRNA; electrophysiology
Online: 22 June 2021 (12:32:52 CEST)
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia. Better prevention and treatment of AF are needed to reduce AF-associated morbidity and mortality. Several major mechanisms cause AF in patients, including a genetic predisposition to develop AF. Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with AF populations, with the strongest hits clustering on chromosome 4q25, close to the gene coding for the homeobox transcription PITX2. Because of the inherent complexity of the human heart, experimental and basic research on PITX2-dependent AF is not sufficient for understanding atrial functional proprieties. Linking PITX2 to ion channels, cells, tissues, atria and the whole heart, computational models are necessary for achieving a quantitative understanding of atrial structure and function in PITX2-dependent AF. Computational approaches are used to capture all that we know about PITX2-dependent AF and to develop improved therapies. In the present review, we discuss advances in atrial modelling and focus on the mechanistic links between PITX2 and AF. Challenges in applying models for improving patient health are described, as well as a summary of future perspectives.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0203.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: immunoglobulin (Ig); nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD); nonsense-associated altered splicing (NAS); B lymphocytes; plasma cells
Online: 18 January 2020 (10:21:18 CET)
The presence of premature termination codons (PTCs) in transcripts is dangerous for the cell as they encode potentially deleterious truncated proteins that can act with dominant-negative or gain-of-function effects. To avoid synthesis of these shortened polypeptides, several RNA surveillance systems can be activated to decrease the level of PTC-containing mRNAs. Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) ensures an accelerated degradation of mRNAs harboring PTCs by using several key NMD factors such as up-frameshift (UPF) proteins. Another pathway called nonsense-associated altered splicing (NAS) upregulates transcripts that have skipped disturbing PTCs by alternative splicing. Therefore, these RNA quality control processes eliminate abnormal PTC-containing mRNAs from the cells by using positive and negative responses. In this review, we will describe the general mechanisms of NMD and NAS and their respective involvement in the decay of aberrant immunoglobulin and TCR transcripts in lymphoid cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0372.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: gene therapy; non-viral vectors; gene delivery; cancer; nucleic acid delivery; nanoparticles; lipids; lipid nanoparticles; mRNA; siRNA
Online: 25 January 2022 (09:01:41 CET)
The research and development of non-viral gene therapy has been extensive over the past decade and has received a big push thanks to the successful approval of non-viral gene therapy products in recent times. Despite these developments, gene therapy applications in cancer have been limited. One of the main causes of this has been the imbalance in development of delivery vectors as compared to nucleic acid payloads. This paper reviews non-viral vectors that can be used to deliver nucleic acids for cancer treatment. It discusses various types of vectors and highlights their current applications. Additionally, it also discusses perspective on regulatory landscape to facilitate commercial translation of gene therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0287.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: ABCB1; bortezomib; CXCR4; gene expression; MAF; MARCKS; multiple myeloma; mRNA; POMP; PSMB5; refractory; RPL5; TXN; XBP1; sensitive
Online: 25 January 2021 (13:17:31 CET)
Proteasome inhibitors, like bortezomib, play a key role in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM); however, most patients eventually relapse and eventually show multiple drug resistance, and the molecular mechanisms of this resistance remain unclear. The present study examines the expression of previously-described genes that may influence resistance to bortezomib treatment at the mRNA level (ABCB1, CXCR4, MAF, MARCKS, POMP, PSMB5, RPL5, TXN and XBP1). mRNA expression was determined in 73 MM patients treated with bortezomib-based regimens (30 bortzomib-sensitive and 43 bortezomib-refractory patients) and 11 healthy controls. RPL5 was significantly down-regulated in multiple myeloma patients as compared with healthy controls. Moreover, POMP was significantly up-regulated in MM patients refractory to bortezomib-based treatment. In multivariate analysis, high expression of PSMB5 and CXCR and autologous stem cell transplantation were independent predictors of progression-free survival, and high expression of POMP and RPL5 was associated with shorter overall survival.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0162.v2
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: amyloids; frozen accident; genetic code; hydrogels; liquid-liquid phase separation; mRNA; polyglycine; rRNA; ribosomes; translational fidelity; tRNA
Online: 21 October 2020 (10:48:18 CEST)
The genetic code evolved by parallel tracks of chaotic and ordered processes. Liquid-liquid phase separation (hydrogels), a chaotic process, constructs diverse membraneless compartments within cells, resulting in regulated hydration and sequestration and concentration of reaction components. Hydrogels relate to chaotic amyloid fiber production. We propose that polyglycine and related hydrogels (i.e. GADV; G is glycine), phase separations, membraneless droplets and amyloid accretions organized protocell domains to drive the earliest evolution of the genetic code and the pre-life to cellular life transition. By contrast, evolution of tRNA, tRNAomes, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and translation systems followed highly ordered and systematic pathways, described by well-defined mechanisms and rules. The pathway of evolution of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, which tracked evolution of the genetic code, is clarified. Hydrogels and amyloids form a chaotic component, therefore, that complemented otherwise systematic processes. We describe with detail a pre-life world in which hydrogels and amyloids provided the selections of the first life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0466.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Alternative Splicing; RNA-Seq; Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Recommender Systems; Multiple Instance Learning; mRNA Isoforms; Gene Ontology
Online: 20 July 2020 (10:53:23 CEST)
Multiple mRNA isoforms of the same gene are produced via alternative splicing, a biological mechanism that regulates protein diversity while maintaining genome size. Alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms of the same gene may sometimes have very similar sequence, but they can have significantly diverse effects on cellular function and regulation. The products of alternative splicing have important and diverse functional roles, such as response to environmental stress, regulation of gene expression, human heritable and plant diseases. The mRNA isoforms of the same gene, such as the apoptosis associated CASP3 gene, can have dramatically different functions. The shorter mRNA isoform product CASP3-S inhibits apoptosis, while the longer CASP3-L mRNA isoform promotes apoptosis. Despite the functional importance of mRNA isoforms, very little has been done to annotate their functions. The recent years have however seen the development of several computational methods aimed at predicting mRNA isoform level biological functions. These methods use a wide array of proteo-genomic data to develop machine learning-based mRNA isoform function prediction tools. In this review, we discuss the computational methods developed for predicting the biological function at the individual mRNA isoform level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0081.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: gene regulation; translation; mRNA; IRES; ITAF; hnRNP; chaperone; stress; nucleocytoplasmic translocation; ribosome; lncRNA; translation initiation factor; P-bodies
Online: 9 January 2019 (08:49:45 CET)
The cellular stress response corresponds to the molecular changes that cell undergoes in response to various environmental stimuli. It induces drastic changes in the regulation of gene expression, at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Actually, translation is strongly affected with a blockade of the classical cap-dependent mechanism, whereas alternative mechanisms are activated to support translation of specific mRNAs. One of the major mechanisms involved in stress-activated translation is the internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-driven initiation. IRESs, first discovered in viral mRNAs, are present in cellular mRNAs coding for master regulators of cell responses, whose expression must be tightly controlled. IRESs allow translation of these mRNAs in response to different stresses, including DNA damage, amino-acid starvation, hypoxia or endoplasmic reticulum stress, as well as to physiological stimuli such as cell differentiation or synapse network formation. Importantly, cellular mRNA IRESs are regulated by IRES trans-acting factor (ITAFs), exerting their action by at least nine different mechanisms. This review presents an update of the reported ITAFs regulating cellular mRNA translation and of the different mechanisms allowing them to control translation initiation in specific conditions. The impact of ITAFs on coordinated expression of mRNA families and consequences in cell physiology and diseases are also highlighted.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0723.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Glycogen Storage Disease Type 1a, Glucose-6-phosphatase Catalytic Subunit (G6PC), Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), prime editing, mRNA delivery, CRISPR
Online: 30 September 2020 (08:05:17 CEST)
One of the rare diseases throughout the world is Glycogen Storage Disease, which appears due to problems in glycogen metabolism. Among various subtypes of GSD, GSD Type 1a is the most abundant one of GSD Type 1, seen in approximately 80% and caused by different kinds of mutations in the Glucose-6-Phosphatase Catalytic Subunit (G6PC) gene in human chromosome 17q21. G6PC gene encodes for glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) protein, which cleaves glucose-6-phosphate into glucose and inorganic phosphate (Pi), and GSD Type 1a patients fail to breakdown glucose-6-phosphate due to several mutations in the G6PC gene. In our study, we aim to create new therapeutic approaches for GSD 1a. We collected mutation data of 57 GSD Type 1a patients from Turkey. According to the data, 16 types of mutations were observed in the G6PC gene. Allele frequencies of these mutations are calculated as 59% for R83C/H, 11% for W160*, 7% for G270V, and 28% for others which have less frequency. Up to now, the tertiary protein structure of G6Pase has not been structured yet. To understand the possible impacts of these mutations, we statistically obtained possible tertiary structure predictions of G6Pase by running 5 different tools. At the end of the study, we suggest two effective and promising gene therapy methods for GSD Type 1a, Prime Editing for R83C/H mutations, and mRNA delivery for other mutations, in addition to a promising, commercially available drug suggestion for patients with W160*, W86*, and S15* mutations, although the drug belongs to another disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0777.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Exosomal PD-L1 mRNA; extracellular vesicles; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Immunotherapy; PD-L1 axis; Atezolizumab – nab-paclitaxel; Predictive biomarkers; Liquid biopsy
Online: 31 March 2021 (15:27:45 CEST)
Patients diagnosed with unresectable locally advanced Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) usually have poor outcome for its aggressive clinical behaviour. Atezolizumab plus nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab)-Paclitaxel prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) among patients with unresectable locally advanced TNBC but its use is hampered by the lack of reliable predictors of tumor response. Seventy-seven consecutive patients with unresectable locally advanced TNBC treated with Atezolizumab plus nab-Paclitaxel were studied by blood draws at baseline, 28 days and 56 days after initiation of treatment. Exosomal PD-L1 mRNA in plasma was determined using Bio-Rad QX100 digital droplet PCR system and exoRNeasy kit and objective responses were defined following the RECIST criteria v.1.1. The study evaluates whether PD-L1 mRNA copies per ml in plasma-derived exosomes may predict response to anti-PD-L1 antibodies early in the course of therapy. Our data showed patients with unresectable locally advanced TNBC and higher levels of PD-L1 mRNA expression in plasma-derived exosomes at baseline demonstrated greater response to atezolizumab plus nab-paclitaxel. Furthermore, the levels of mRNA decreased with successful treatment while the copy number increased in patients experiencing disease progression following atezolizumab plus nab-paclitaxel. For the first time, our data showed the usefulness of assessment of exosomal PD-L1 as non-invasive real-time biopsy in patients diagnosed with TNBC suggesting exosomal PD-L1 is significantly associated with outcome and response to Atezolizumab plus nab-Paclitaxel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0051.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: deadenylation; DNA damage response; ER-anchored ribonuclease; ER-associated mRNAs; mRNA decay; poly(A) length profile; poly(A)-specific ribonuclease; translation efficiency
Online: 6 January 2020 (02:48:23 CET)
Translation is spatiotemporally regulated and ER-associated mRNAs are generally in efficient translation. It is unclear whether the ER-associated mRNAs are deadenylated or degraded on the ER surface in situ or in the cytosol. Here, we showed that ER possessed active deadenylases, particularly the poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (PARN), in common cell lines and mouse tissues. Consistently, purified recombinant PARN exhibited a strong ability to insert into the Langmuir monolayer and liposome. ER-anchored PARN was found to be able to reshape the poly(A) length profile of the ER-associated RNAs by suppressing long poly(A) tails without significantly influencing the cytosolic RNAs. The shortening of long poly(A) tails did not affect global translation efficiency, suggesting that the non-specific action of PARN towards long poly(A) tails was beyond the scope of translation regulation on the ER surface. Transcriptome sequencing analysis indicated that the ER-anchored PARN trigged the degradation of a small subset of ER-enriched transcripts. The ER-anchored PARN modulated the translation of its targets by redistributing ribosomes to heavy polysomes, suggesting that PARN may play a role in dynamic ribosome reallocation. During DNA damage response, MK2 phosphorylated PARN-Ser557 to modulate PARN translocation from the ER to cytosol. By promoting the decay of ER-associated MDM2 transcripts with low ribosome occupancy, the ER-anchored PARN modulated DNA damage response and thereby cell viability. These findings revealed that a highly regulated communication between mRNA degradation rate and translation efficiency is present on the ER surface in situ and that PARN may contribute to this communication by modulating the dynamic ribosome reallocation between transcripts with low and high ribosome occupancies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0172.v4
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: RNA-dependent amplification of mammalian mRNA; physiologically occurring intracellular PCR, iPCR; RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, RdRp; chimeric RNA; sense-strand RNA; antisense-strand RNA
Online: 12 June 2019 (12:21:59 CEST)
The transfer of protein-encoding genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein, a process formalized as the “Central Dogma of Molecular Biology”, has undergone a significant evolution since its inception. It was amended to account for the information flow from RNA to DNA, the reverse transcription, and for the information transfer from RNA to RNA, the RNA-dependent RNA synthesis. These processes, both potentially leading to protein production, were initially described only in viral systems, and although RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity was shown to be present, and RNA-dependent RNA synthesisfound to occur, in mammalian cells, its function was presumed to be restricted to regulatory. However, recent results, obtained with multiple mRNA species in several mammalian systems, strongly indicate the occurrence of protein-encoding RNA to RNA information transfer in mammalian cells. It can result in the rapid production of the extraordinary quantities of specific proteins as was seen in cases of terminal cellular differentiation and during cellular deposition of extracellular matrix molecules. A malfunction of this process may be involved in pathologies associated either with the deficiency of a protein normally produced by this mechanism or with the abnormal abundanceof a protein or of its C-terminal fragment. It seems to be responsible for some types of familial thalassemia and may underlie the overproduction of beta amyloid in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. The aim of the present article is to systematize the current knowledge and understanding of this pathway. The outlined framework introduces unexpected features of the mRNA amplification such as its ability to generate polypeptides non-contiguously encoded in the genome, its second Tier, a physiologically occurring intracellular polymerase chain reaction, iPCR, a Two-Tier Paradox and RNA Dark Matter. RNA-dependent mRNA amplification represents a new mode of genomic protein-encoding information transfer in mammalian cells. Its potential physiological impact is substantial, it appears relevant to multiple pathologies and its understanding opens new venues of therapeutic interference, it suggests powerful novel bioengineering approaches and its further rigorous investigations are highly warranted.