Preprint Review Version 2 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Chaos, Order and Systematics in Evolution of the Genetic Code

Version 1 : Received: 6 September 2020 / Approved: 7 September 2020 / Online: 7 September 2020 (09:13:11 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 19 October 2020 / Approved: 21 October 2020 / Online: 21 October 2020 (10:48:18 CEST)

How to cite: Lei, L.; Burton, Z.F. Chaos, Order and Systematics in Evolution of the Genetic Code. Preprints 2020, 2020090162 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202009.0162.v2). Lei, L.; Burton, Z.F. Chaos, Order and Systematics in Evolution of the Genetic Code. Preprints 2020, 2020090162 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202009.0162.v2).

Abstract

The genetic code evolved by parallel tracks of chaotic and ordered processes. Liquid-liquid phase separation (hydrogels), a chaotic process, constructs diverse membraneless compartments within cells, resulting in regulated hydration and sequestration and concentration of reaction components. Hydrogels relate to chaotic amyloid fiber production. We propose that polyglycine and related hydrogels (i.e. GADV; G is glycine), phase separations, membraneless droplets and amyloid accretions organized protocell domains to drive the earliest evolution of the genetic code and the pre-life to cellular life transition. By contrast, evolution of tRNA, tRNAomes, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and translation systems followed highly ordered and systematic pathways, described by well-defined mechanisms and rules. The pathway of evolution of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, which tracked evolution of the genetic code, is clarified. Hydrogels and amyloids form a chaotic component, therefore, that complemented otherwise systematic processes. We describe with detail a pre-life world in which hydrogels and amyloids provided the selections of the first life.

Subject Areas

amyloids; frozen accident; genetic code; hydrogels; liquid-liquid phase separation; mRNA; polyglycine; rRNA; ribosomes; translational fidelity; tRNA

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