Rijkers, G.T.; Weterings, N.; Obregon-Henao, A.; Lepolder, M.; Dutt, T.S.; van Overveld, F.J.; Henao-Tamayo, M. Antigen Presentation of mRNA-Based and Virus-Vectored SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines. Vaccines2021, 9, 848.
Rijkers, G.T.; Weterings, N.; Obregon-Henao, A.; Lepolder, M.; Dutt, T.S.; van Overveld, F.J.; Henao-Tamayo, M. Antigen Presentation of mRNA-Based and Virus-Vectored SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines. Vaccines 2021, 9, 848.
Infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has reached pandemic proportions. A number of effective vaccines have been produced, including mRNA vaccines and viral vector vaccines, which are now being implemented on a large scale in order to control the pandemic. The mRNA vaccines are composed of the Spike S1 protein encoding mRNA, incorporated in a lipid nanoparticle, stabilized by polyethylene glycol (PEG). mRNA vaccines are novel in many respects, including cellular uptake, the intracellular routing, processing, and secretion of the viral protein. Viral vector vaccines have incorporated DNA sequences encoding the SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 protein into (attenuated) adenoviruses. The antigen presentation routes in MHC class I and class II, in relation to induction of virus neutralizing antibodies and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes will be reviewed. In rare cases, mRNA vaccines induce unwanted immune mediated side effects. mRNA based vaccines may lead to an anaphylactic reaction. This reaction may be triggered by PEG. The intracellular routing of PEG, and potential presentation in the context of CD1 will be discussed. Adenovirus vector based vaccines have been associated with thrombocytopenic thrombosis events. The anti-platelet factor 4 antibodies found in these patients could be generated due to conformational changes of relevant epitopes presented to the immune system.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.