CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0052.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: liver transplant; tumor liver
Online: 1 September 2023 (10:01:00 CEST)
Hepatic hemangiomas (HH) are the most frequent benign tumors of the liver. They are usually asymptomatic and small in size. However, others can present as large tumors and can be symptomatic. In this case surgical resection is recomemend. We present a case report for treatment in our hospital. A 48 years old male, who was brought to the emergency room complaining of vomiting and pain in the right upper quadrant that had been going on for 8 years. The examination showed a firm mass in the right hypochondrium that extended below the umbilicus. The ultrasound (US) reported severe hepatomegaly secondary to giant hypoechoic lesions. The study was completed with a computed tomography scan (CT-scan) or Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This case was evaluated by a multi - disciplinary team, who decided to do a liver transplant. After three months signed up on the waiting list,the patient finally received a new liver from a matched brain - dead organ donor. In this case the surgery was completed with caval - preserving Piggy - back implant technique, without the need of a classic technique nor a veno - venous bypass. He received a transfusion of 8 units of packed red blood cells during the operation. The postoperative time passed with good evaluation. Patient went back home after 14 days in the hospital. The pathology report showed a giant multifocal hemangioma, with a size of 28 x 19 x 15 cms. Some HH needs surgery, there are different options: simple enucleation to complete hepatectomy associating liver transplant as our case. The correct treatment is too important, and these case have to be tried with multi - disciplinary team. This group is composed of hepatobiliary surgeons, hepatologists and anesthetists. The bleeding massive risk is large, so it is necessary to know the clasic surgery technique.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0041.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: liver cirrhosis; liver fibrosis; gut microbiome' gut-liver axis
Online: 1 December 2020 (18:19:00 CET)
Liver cirrhosis is one of the most prevalent chronic liver diseases worldwide. In addition to viral hepatitis, genetic conditions such as steatohepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, sclerosing cholangitis, and Wilson’s disease can also lead to cirrhosis. Moreover, alcohol can cause cirrhosis on its own and exacerbate chronic liver disease from other causes. The treatment of cirrhosis can be divided into addressing the cause of cirrhosis and reversing liver fibrosis. To this date, there is still no clear consensus on the treatment of cirrhosis. Recently, there has been a lot of interest in potential treatments that modulate the gut microbiota and gut-liver axis for the treatment of cirrhosis. According to recent studies, modulation of the gut microbiome by probiotics ameliorates the progression of liver disease. The precise mechanism for relieving cirrhosis via gut microbial modulation has not been identified. This paper summarizes the role and effects of the gut microbiome in cirrhosis based on experimental and clinical studies on absorbable antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics. Moreover, it provides evidence of a relationship between the gut microbiome and liver cirrhosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2069.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: liver sinusoid; fenestrations; fenestrae; liver haemodynamic; CFD; liver fluid dynamic model; computational liver model
Online: 31 August 2023 (03:49:17 CEST)
The hepatic sinusoids are lined by thin endothelium containing transcellular pores dubbed fenestra. These fenestrations are completely open channels connecting the sinusoidal lumen to the underlying Space of Disse (SoD) and the hepatocytes of the liver parenchyma. The fenestrations are in the size range 0.05-0.35µm in diameter and cover between 5-15% of the sinusoidal endothelial surface area depending on their location along the sinusoids. Motivation/Research Question: So far, the narrowness of the sinusoids prevented the direct measurement of hemodynamic features such as sinusoidal pressure and flow velocity. A better understanding of these parameters might help in better understanding the physiology of the hepatic niche and possible implications in liver diseases. Few simulations of liver blood flow focus on the level of the individual sinusoid, fewer still include the transcellular pores (fenestrations) of the sinusoidal endothelium, and none have included i) a porosity gradient along the sinusoid wall modelled with through-all pores rather than a porus medium, ii) the presence of the Space of Disse, iii) lymphatic drainage. Model: Computed fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations performed using a numerical model with relevant anatomical characteristics (length, diameter, porous size and porosity). Boundary conditions included physiological/pathological values of inlet/outlet pressure and lymphatic outflow from the portal region of the SoD. Results: The pressure and flow velocity of the sinusoidal lumen was entirely dependent on the shape, i.e. constant versus divergent radius and not dependent on porosity in the sinusoidal wall. The velocity through the space of Disse (SoD) was affected by the addition of lymphatic drainage and increases in porosity in the pericentral area of the model. Variations in porosity also affected flow velocity through the fenestrations. Conclusions: The flow velocity in the SoD was modified by differences in porosity, while the flow velocity in the lumen of the sinusoids was unaffected, even by the absence of fenestrations. The overall shape of the vessel is the singular most important factor in the pressure flow behavior of the sinusoidal lumen. The flow rate over the hepatocytes is the flow rate through the SoD, and is modestly affected by the distribution of porosity along the sinusoid, and by the addition of a lymphatic drainage, this parameter would be of interest for modelling blood exchange with the hepatic parenchyma, especially if accounting for zonation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Sarcopenia; MASLD; Liver Disease; Aging.; Steatotic liver disease
Online: 1 November 2023 (07:06:18 CET)
Introduction: Sarcopenia, muscle loss, often coexists with MASLD, a common liver disorder, which is more prevalent in those with sarcopenia. Sarcopenia also increases the risk of liver conditions like steatosis and fibrosis. Studies on sarcopenia in MASLD are common in developed countries, but fewer follow the EWGSOP2 guidelines in Brazil. Aim: to assess sarcopenia prevalence in MASLD patients. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted at the Gastroen-terology/Hepatology Service of ISCMPA with patients diagnosed with MASLD. The EWGSOP2 criteria were used to evaluate sarcopenia. Categorical data presented as absolute and relative frequency; parametric continuous data ex-pressed as mean±standard deviation; non-parametric continuous data as me-dian and IQR. Gender differences in were analyzed using Fisher's Exact Test or Chi-squared tests, and for continuous variables, T Student tests (parametric) and Mann-Whitney U tests for independent samples (non-parametric). The significance level was set at 5% (p<0.05). Results: The study involved 103 MASLD patients with an average age of 60.39 years, comprising 48 (46.60%) adults and 55 (53.40%) older individuals. Concerning sarcopenia diagnosis, four individuals exhibited decreased muscle strength; two had reduced MME (sarcopenia); and one showed decreased walking speed (severe sarcopenia). Among the participants, 63 (60.6%) were physically active. 35 (62.5%) had mild to moderate steatosis, while 21 (37.5%) had severe steatosis. In terms of EHNA, 13 subjects (24.08%) had moderate to severe EHNA. Regarding fibrosis classi-fication, 68 (72.34%) individuals had undetermined or high probability based on the NAFLD score, with higher prevalence in males (n=23; 88.5%). Fibrosis assessment via liver biopsy revealed 27 (28.72%) in F1 and F2 and 15 (16.96%) in F3 and F4. Stratification of fibrosis into F3 and F4 was more com-mon among men (n=9; 47.4%). Conclusion: Most of the population was physi-cally active. The parameters indicating sarcopenia exceeded the thresholds recommended by EWGSOP2. The prevalence of sarcopenia was low in individuals with MASLD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0398.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: liver fibrosis; liver cirrhosis; levosimendan; cirrhotic cardiomyopathy; hepatic encephalopathy
Online: 23 February 2023 (04:46:34 CET)
Introduction: Levosimendan is a positive inotropic molecule that does not reduce splanchnic circulation and has anti ischemic properties by opening mito KATP channels. Cirrhosis is a chronic and diffuse process characterized by fibrosis and the conversion of typical liver architecture into structurally abnormal nodules. In the late stages of the disease, cirrhosis is responsible for organ failure and complications such as cirrhotic cardiomyopathy and hepatic encephalopathy. Material and methods: We examined the effect of levosimendan in rat models of liver cirrhosis. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Group A: cirrhotic rats 14 days after bile duct ligation (BDL); Group B: control (intact rats); Group A1: BDL and levosimendan (liver cirrhosis induced by bile duct ligation plus intraperitoneal administration of levosimendan); Group B1: control and levosimendan (intact animals with normal liver function treated with an intraperitoneal injection of levosimendan). Each group was subjected to blood sampling to determine GOT, GPT, and bilirubin at baseline, two weeks after surgery, and four days after treatment. In addition, echocardiography was performed in all the groups simultaneously. At the end of the experiments, the rats were subjected to cerebral and hepatic microdialysis and sacrificed. Results: Serum GOT, GPT, and bilirubin in Group A1 (GOT 304 UI/L, GPT 60 UI/L, BIL 3,9 mg/dl) were considerably lower than in Group A (GOT 320 UI/L, GPT 67,16 UI/L, BIL 6,4 mg/dl). The Ejection fraction value decreased significantly postoperatively in Group A (preop 55,66%, BDL 38,85%) and was highest after treatment with levosimendan (Group A1 48,38%). Significant histological differences were detected between the experimental groups (Group A Sheuer staging 3, severe fibrosis, Group A1 Sheuer staging 0-2 no, mild and moderate fibrosis). Group A had a higher value of Lactate, Pyruvate, Glycerol, and Glutamate cerebral microdialysate concentrations (Lac 0.37mM, Pyr 16.25 mcM, Glyc 15.72 mcM, Glut 15.8 mcM) in comparison with BDL rats treated with levosimendan (Group A1 - Lac 0.31 mM, Pyr 6.3 mcM, Glyc 13.66 mcM, Glut 11.15 mcM). Glucose concentrations in cerebral dialysate from Group A were significantly lower (0.13 mM) than in Group A1 (0.25 mM). Glucose and Glycerol concentrations in liver microdialysate from Group A were significantly lower (Gluc 0.95 mM, Glyc 1 mcM) than in Group A1 (Gluc 1.6 mM, Glyc 3.4 mcM). Conversely, in liver dialysate from Group A (0.52 mM), lactate was significantly higher than in Group A1 (0.35 mM). Conclusions: Our results suggest that levosimendan can be potentially protective for fibrotic liver and probably can prevent cirrhosis complication as cirrhotic cardiomyopathy and hepatic encephalopathy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0351.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: liver fibrosis; liver cirrhosis; bile duct ligation; animal model
Online: 21 February 2023 (04:21:07 CET)
Liver fibrosis is based on complex interactions between extracellular matrix-producing hepatic stellate cells and is defined as excessive matrix deposition and an abundance of infiltrating cells in the liver. Studying these processes requires in vitro and in vivo experimental work on animals. In fibrosis research, experimental work in rodents is currently the gold standard for confirming a proposed disease-associated mechanism. Bile duct ligation (BDL) induces obstructive jaundice resulting in cholestasis. BDL is useful for preclinical research studies of liver injury due to extrahepatic cholestasis such as apoptosis and fibrosis. Here we provide a stepwise surgical approach to resect the common bile duct and monitor in situ hepatic metabolism by microdialysis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0147.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: metabolic syndrome; colorectal cancer; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; liver surgery; hepatic resection; fatty liver; nutrition; protein
Online: 5 August 2021 (14:55:25 CEST)
Over the recent years, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common liver disorder in the developed world, accounting for 20% to 46% of liver abnormalities. Steatosis is the hallmark of NAFLD and is recognized as an important risk factor for complication and death after general surgery, and even more so after liver resection. Similarly, liver steatosis also impacts the safety of live liver donation and transplantation. We aim to review surgical outcomes after liver resection for colorectal-metastases in patients with steatosis, and discuss the most common pre-operative strategies to reduce steatosis. Finally, as illustration, we report the favourable effect of a low-caloric, hyper-protein diet during a two-stage liver resection for colorectal metastases in a patient with severe steatosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0098.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Transplantation Keywords: COVID-19; pediatric liver transplantation; immunosuppression; living donor liver transplantation
Online: 9 May 2022 (03:59:57 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 infection has received the attention of the scientific community due its respiratory manifestations and association with evolution to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2). There are few studies characterizing SARS-CoV-2 in pediatric immunocompromised patients, such as liver transplanted (LT) patients.The aim of this study was to analyze the outcomes of the larger cohort of pediatric liver transplant recipients (PLTR) from a single center in Brazil who where contaminated with COVID-19 during the pandemic. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Primary outcomes: COVID-19 severity. The Cox regression method was used to determine independent predictors associated with the outcomes. Results: 74 PLTR were included. Patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of COVID-19 disease: moderate-severe COVID and asymptomatic-mild COVID. Patients categorized as moderate-severe COVID were younger (12.6 months vs. 82.1 months, p 0.03), higher prevalence of transplantation with deceased donor (50% vs. 4.3%, p 0.02) and with a higher prevalence of COVID-infected patients before 6 months after LT (75% vs. 5.7%, p 0.002). The independent predictor of COVID-19 severity identified in the multivariate analysis was COVID-19 infection < 6 months after LT (HR=0.001, 95% CI=0.001-0.67, p 0.03). Conclusion: The time interval of less than 6 months between COVID-19 infection and LT was the only predictor of disease severity in pediatric patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0484.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: lipoprotein lipase; neuronal metabolism; fatty liver; brain-liver-axis; FLIM
Online: 20 September 2020 (15:32:43 CEST)
The autonomic regulation of hepatic metabolism offers a novel target for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the molecular characteristics of neurons that regulate the brain-liver axis remain unclear. Since mice lacking neuronal lipoprotein lipase (LPL) develop perturbations in neuronal lipid-sensing and systemic energy balance, we reasoned that LPL might be a component of pre-autonomic neurons involved in the regulation of hepatic metabolism. Here we show that despite obesity, mice with reduced neuronal LPL (NEXCreLPLflox [LPL KD]) show improved glucose tolerance and reduced hepatic lipid accumulation with aging compared to WT controls (LPLflox). To determine the effect of LPL deficiency on neuronal physiology, liver-related neurons were identified in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus using the transsynaptic retrograde tracer PRV-152. Patch-clamp studies revealed reduced inhibitory post-synaptic currents in liver-related neurons of LPL KD mice. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) was used to visualize metabolic changes in LPL-depleted neurons. Quantification of the free vs. bound Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NADH) and Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD) revealed increased glucose utilization and TCA cycle flux in LPL-depleted neurons compared to controls. Global metabolomics from hypothalamic cell lines either deficient in, or over-expressing, LPL recapitulated these findings. Our data suggest that LPL is a novel feature of liver–related preautonomic neurons in the PVN. Moreover, LPL loss is sufficient to cause changes in neuronal substrate utilization and function, which may precede changes in hepatic metabolism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0488.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Hepatitis C virus; Chronic viral hepatitis C; Liver fibrosis; Liver cirrhosis; Diagnosis of liver fibrosis; Machine learning
Online: 22 February 2021 (15:31:11 CET)
Aim. The purpose of the work was the development of a machine learning model for diagnosing the stage of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis C according to the data of routine clinical examination. Materials and methods. A total of 1240 patients with chronic viral hepatitis C was examined. A set of data obtained from 689 patients balancing by the stage of liver fibrosis was used for developing and testing machine learning models. 9 routine clinical parameters were selected as the most important predictors for determining the likelihood of liver fibrosis the 3–4 stages presence: age, height, weight and body mass index of the patient, the number of platelets in the clinical blood test, levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, and total bilirubin in a biochemical blood test. Results. The accuracy of the developed method for determining the 3–4 stages of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis C in comparison with the «gold standard» of diagnosis (liver biopsy) was 80.56% (95% CI: 69.53–88.94%), sensitivity — 66.67%, specificity — 94.44%. Conclusion. The developed method is an alternative to more expensive and geographically inaccessible studies. The method does not require the purchase of additional equipment or software, as well as additional laboratory tests, when used in real clinical practice. The introduction of the method into clinical practice can help to solve the problem of low material and territorial availability of diagnostic tests and allow determining the stage of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis C.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0543.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; lean nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; visceral fat; non-obese; fatty liver; insulin resistance
Online: 23 July 2020 (09:38:15 CEST)
Asians are known to more likely than Westerners develop fatty liver and lifestyle-related diseases despite their weight. However, the relationship between fat accumulation and lifestyle-related diseases in non-obese Asians is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze visceral fat and hepatic fat in participants with a normal body mass index (BMI) and examine their characteristics during a medical checkup. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 663 of 1,142 patients who underwent abdominal ultrasonography and who had an alcohol intake (converted to ethanol) of <30 g/day for males and <20 g/day for females and a BMI of <25 kg/m2 during a health checkup. Participants were classified into four groups: group A, visceral fat accumulation (VFA) (−) and fatty liver (FL) (−) (n = 549); group B, VFA (+) and FL(−) (n = 32); group C, VFA (−) and FL (+) (n = 58); and group D, VFA (+) and FL (+) (n = 24). The frequencies of lifestyle-related disease complications, liver function tests, and liver fibrosis were evaluated among the four groups. Compared with group A (control), groups B, C, and D had higher number of males; BMI; abdominal circumference, ALT, AST, γ-GTP, triglyceride, uric acid, fasting blood sugar levels; and incidence of hyperlipidemia. Groups C and D had higher ALT, HbA1c, cholinesterase, and triglyceride levels; FIB4 index; and number of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) than groups A and B; however, there was no difference between groups A and B. FL is a risk factor of DM and liver fibrosis in non-obese Japanese individuals; however, VFA only is not a risk factor of DM and liver fibrosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0733.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: liver; intestine-liver axis; innate immune genes; comparative genomics; IL-2
Online: 12 October 2023 (02:30:26 CEST)
The liver is not only a digestive gland, but also an immune tissue that receives a double infusion from the hepatic artery and the hepatic portal vein. Receiving 80% of its blood supply from the intestine through the hepatic portal vein system, the liver is enriched with a large number of innate immune cells, which carry out the process of immune response by detecting pathogens entering the organism through the intestine. The intestine and liver communicate extensively through the bile ducts, portal vein and the somatic circulation, a bidirectional communication known as the intestinal-liver axis. The mammalian gut is considered an important microbial ecosystem. The interplay between the natural immune system and microbes coordinates the physiology of the whole organism, and in specific mammalian lineages, there is a dependency between the host and its associated microbes. To this end, we explored the regulatory mechanisms of natural immunity genes at the genome-wide level. Based on comparative genomics, 1473 bovine natural immunity genes were obtained by collecting the latest reports of human natural immunity genes and updated bovine genomic data for comparison, and a bovine natural immunity gene database was initially constructed to screen and match calf liver natural immunity differential genes mainly affected by the phylum Mimosoidea and the phylum Thick-walled Bacteria, and 16 differentially expressed natural immunity genes were obtained. In addition, the results of IPA analysis indicated that the upstream factor IL-2 initiated the PI3K/AKt/mTOR, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and JAK/STAT5 pathway, leading to the liver's involvement in gut microbial immune regulation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0110.v1
Online: 6 March 2023 (15:23:52 CET)
The relative paucity of donor livers suitable for transplantation has sparked innovations to preserve and recondition organs to expand the pool of transplantable organs. Currently, machine perfusion techniques have led to the improvement of the quality of marginal livers and to prolonged cold ischemia time and allowed for the prediction of graft function through analysis of the organ during perfusion, improving the rate of organ use. In the future, the implementation of organ modulation might expand the scope of machine perfusion beyond its current usage. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the current clinical use of machine perfusion devices in liver transplantation and provide a perspective for future clinical use, including therapeutic interventions in perfused donor liver grafts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0265.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: amino acids; liver; alcohol
Online: 20 December 2019 (06:44:08 CET)
Excess alcohol consumption is a top risk factor for death and disability. Fatty liver will likely develop and the risk of liver disease increases. We have previously demonstrated that an essential amino acid supplement (EAAS) improved protein synthesis and reduced intrahepatic lipid in the elderly. The purpose of this study was to further evaluate the influence of EAAS on intrahepatic lipid (IHL), body composition, and blood lipids in individuals with mild to moderate alcohol use disorder (AUD). Following consent, determination of eligibility, and medical screening, 25 participants (18 males at 38±15 years/age and 7 females at 34±18 years/age) were enrolled and randomly assigned to one of two dosages: a low dose (LD: 8 grams of EAAS twice/day (BID)) or high dose (HD: 13 grams of EAAS BID). Both groups consumed the supplement for 4 weeks. Pre- and post-EAAS administration, IHL was determined using magnetic resonance imaging/spectroscopy, body composition was analyzed using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and blood parameters were measured by LabCorp. T-tests were used for statistical analysis and considered significant at P<0.05. While there was no significant change in IHL in the LD group, there was a significant 23% reduction in IHL in the HD group (p=0.02). Fat mass, lean tissue mass, bone mineral content, and blood lipids were not altered. Post-EAAS phosphatidylethanol was elevated and remained unchanged in LD at 407±141 ng/ml and HD at 429±196 ng/ml, indicating chronic and excess alcohol consumption. Based on these results, we conclude that 13 grams of proprietary EAAS consumed BID lowers IHL in individuals with mild to moderate AUD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0927.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: hepatocyte; liver; liver transplantation; MELD; MELDNa; transient receptor potential melastatin 7; TRPM7
Online: 12 May 2023 (10:31:40 CEST)
We aimed to evaluate the magnesium content in human cirrhotic liver and its correlation with serum AST levels, expression of hepatocellular injury, and MELDNa prognostic score. In liver biopsies obtained at liver transplantation we measured the magnesium content in liver tissue in 27 cirrhotic patients (CIRs) and 16 deceased donors with healthy liver (CTRLs) by atomic absorption spectrometry and within hepatocytes in 15 CIRs using synchrotron-based X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy. In 31 CIRs and 10 CTRLs we evaluated the immunohistochemical expression in hepatocytes of the transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7), a magnesium influx chanzyme also involved in inflammation. CIRs showed a lower hepatic magnesium content [117.2 (IQR 110.5-132.9) vs 162.8 (IQR 155.9-169.8) μg/g; p<0.001] and a higher percentage of TRPM7 positive hepatocytes [53.0 (IQR 36.8-62.0) vs 20.7 (10.7-32.8) %; p<0.001) than CTRLs. In CIRs, MELDNa and serum AST at transplant correlated: a) inversely with the magnesium content both in liver tissue and hepatocytes; b) directly with the percentage of hepatocytes stained intensely for TRPM7. The latter also directly correlated with worsening of MELDNa at transplant compared to waitlisting. Magnesium depletion and overexpression of its influx chanzyme TRPM7 in hepatocytes are associated with severity of hepatocyte injury and prognosis in cirrhosis. These data represent the pathophysiological basis for a possible beneficial effect of magnesium supplementation in cirrhotic patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0124.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: nonalcoholic liver disease; triglyceride and glucose index; metabolic syndrome; liver biopsy; obesity
Online: 8 October 2021 (13:34:38 CEST)
Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is regarded as a component of metabolic syndrome, which has insulin resistance (IR) as the primary physiopathological event. The aim of study was to establish the association between IR, assessed using triglyceride and glucose index (TyG), and histopathological features of NAFLD lesions. Methods: The study included patients with metabolic syndrome. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting lipid profiles and liver enzymes were measured. IR was assessed by TyG index. Liver biopsy was performed for assessment steatosis and fibrosis. Results: TyG index had a mean value of 8.93 ± 1.45, with a higher value in the patients with overweight (p=0.002) and obesity (p=0.004) than in the patients with normal weight. TyG index mean value of 8.78 ± 0.65 in subjects without NASH, 8.91 ± 0.57 in patients with borderline NASH and 9.13 ± 0.55 in patients with definite NASH. Significant difference was found between subjects without NASH and the ones with definite NASH (p=0.004). The analysis of the area under the ROC curve proved that TyG index is a predictor for NASH (p=0.043). Conclusion: TyG index is a facile tool used to identify individuals at risk for NAFLD, but not for the progression of liver lesions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0127.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; liver fibrosis; amino acids; insulin resistance
Online: 7 May 2020 (13:29:39 CEST)
Altered amino acid levels have been found in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, it is not clear whether this alteration is due to altered hepatic metabolism or insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to clarify the association among amino acid levels, fatty liver, and liver fibrosis while eliminating the influence of insulin resistance. NAFLD and liver fibrosis were diagnosed using transient elastography and subjects were divided in three groups: normal, NAFLD, and liver fibrosis. To exclude the influence of insulin resistance, the subjects were matched using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The amino acid serum levels were compared among the groups. Of 731 enrolled subjects, 251 and 33 were diagnosed with NAFLD and liver fibrosis. Although significant differences were observed among the groups in the serum levels of most amino acids, all but those of glutamate and glycine disappeared after matching for HOMA-IR. The multivariate logistic regression revealed that glutamate, glycine, and HOMA-IR were independent risk factors for liver fibrosis. The altered serum levels of most amino acids were associated with insulin resistance, while the increase in glutamate and the decrease in glycine levels were strongly associated not only with insulin resistance, but also with altered liver metabolism in patients with liver fibrosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.2001.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Gut-Liver Axis; Supplement; Dogs
Online: 1 December 2023 (07:03:06 CET)
The gut-liver axis plays a pivotal role in the development of liver diseases, necessitating exploration into substances capable of modulating the microbiota to prevent dysbiosis. Over the past decade, diverse therapeutic approaches have emerged to target pathogenic factors involved in the hepatic gut microbiota axis. This study investigated the impact of a supplement with hepatoprotective activity, containing extracts of Silybum marianum, prebiotics, probiotics, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, minerals, and vitamins on hematological markers of liver functions and on the intestinal microbiota of 10 adult dogs with metabolic liver disease over a 35-day time span. Animals underwent clinical and laboratory evaluations every 7 days, before administration of the supplement (T0) and after 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5). In comparison to T0, a significant (P<0.05) decrease of AST activity was measured at T2, T3, T4 and T5. The activity of ALP, glucose and CRP significantly decreased (P<0.05) at T3, T4, and T5. The alpha diversity of the fecal microbiota significantly decreased (P<0.05) only at T1, a high variability was observed between dogs. The total short-chain fatty acid and lactic acid were also lower at T1 (P<0.05) in comparison to the other times of sampling. The beta diversity of fecal microbiota failed to find a clear pattern in relation to the sampling times. These results underscore the usefulness of the supplement on liver function and highlight high individual variability in its interaction with the fecal microbiome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0226.v4
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Hepatitis C virus (HCV); liver; blood; electrochemiluminescence (ECL); ELISA method (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay)
Online: 19 October 2023 (10:53:58 CEST)
The study aimed to manage and to analyse the results of the laboratory tests, routinallypractice for hepatitis C diagnosis, using blood tests. Statistical analysis of this study results, was performed using the laboratory informatic system. The results of the study are substantial and intricate reffering to comparision between two methods concretlly ELISA method (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) and chemiluminescence methods and their results. Good to know our opinion that RT-PCR technique, it is considered proper for the diagnosis of HCV ( Hepatitis C virus).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0752.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Radiofrequency Ablation; Ablation techniques; Liver
Online: 12 July 2023 (05:08:12 CEST)
Objectives: To compare the volumes and shapes of the coagulation zone (CZ) of a multi-probe RFA system (three RFA electrodes) and a single-probe MWA system from the same vendor in an ex-vivo bovine liver model. Material & Methods: A total of 48 CZs were obtained in bovine liver specimens with three different ablation system configurations (single-probe MWA vs. multi-probe RFA with 20 mm inter-probe distance [confluent CZ] vs. multi-probe RFA with 50 mm inter-probe distance [three individual CZ]) at 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-min ablation time using a fixed ablation protocol. Ablation diameters were measured and ellipticity indices (EI) and volumes calculated. Calculations for all systems/configurations were compared. Results: Volumes and diameters increased with ablation time for all configurations. At 4- and 6-min ablation time volumes obtained with the RFA 50 mm setup, and at 8 and 10 min with the RFA 20 mm setup were the largest with 26.5 ± 4.1 mL, 38.1 ± 5.8 mL, 46.3 ± 4.9 mL, 48.4 ± 7.3 mL, respectively. The single-probe MWA could not reach the volumes of the RFA setups for any of the ablation times evaluated. EI were very similar and almost round for RFA 20 mm and single-probe MWA and differed significantly to the more ovoid ones for the RFA 50 mm configuration. Conclusion: The multi-probe RFA system employing three electrodes achieved significantly larger ablation volumes in both configurations (confluent CZ and three individual CZ) per time as compared to a single-probe MWA system in this ex-vivo bovine liver model.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2262.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: ascites; liver failure; portal hypertension
Online: 30 June 2023 (13:40:03 CEST)
Ascites is a term that describes a pathological accumulation of fluid in a peritoneal cavity. It is generally a rare occurrence in a pediatric population and is most commonly associated with liver failure and cirrhosis. In that case, a diuretic treatment is usually implemented to relieve the ascites as it forms in the mechanism of water retention and water leakage from the portal venous system due to portal hypertension. It is important to note however that many other issues may cause ascites in children. Those require a catered approach suited to the pathomechanism of ascites formation in those underlying conditions. That is why a complex diagnostic process ought to be run in pediatric patients with ascites to correctly identify a condition causing it and provide the patient with adequate and thorough care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0896.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: fibroscan, liver fibrosis, systemic sclerosis
Online: 25 April 2023 (07:14:28 CEST)
Background Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare, multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized by widespread inflammation, vascular abnormalities, and both skin and visceral organ fibrosis. Tissue fibrosis is the final phase of a complex biological process of immune activation and vascular damage. Objectives The aim of study was to assess hepatic fibrosis and steatosis in SSc patients by transient elastography (TE). Methods Fifty-nine SSc patients, satisfying the 2013 ACR/EULAR classification criteria, were recruited. Clinical and laboratory findings, modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS), ac-tivity index, video-capillaroscopy, echocardiography, and lung function data were ana-lyzed. Liver stiffness (LS) was measured by transient elastography (TE), with 7 kPa used as the cut-off value for significant liver fibrosis and steatosis. Specifically, values ≥ 238 CAP ≤ 259 dB/m were considered consistent with mild steatosis (S1), 260 ≥ CAP ≤ 290 dB/m with moderate steatosis (S2) and ≥291 dB/m with severe steatosis (S3) Results The median age of patients was 51 years, with a median disease duration of 6 years. Median LS was 4.5 (2.9–8.3) kPa; 41 patients (69.5%) had no evidence of fibrosis (F=0), 16 (27.1%) displayed LS values between 5.2 and 7 kPa; only 2 patients (3.4%) had LS values >7 kPa (F3). The median CAP value for liver steatosis was 223 dB/m (IQR: 164–343). Overall, 39 patients (66.1%) did not show evidence of steatosis (CAP values <238 dB/m); 9 patients (15.2%) showed values consistent with mild (S1) steatosis (CAP value ≥238 ≤259 dB/m); 8 patients (13.5%) had moderate (S2) steatosis (CAP value ≥260 ≤290 dB/m); 3 patients (5.1%) were deemed to have severe steatosis (S3) due to CAP values ≥291 dB/m. Conclusions Only 3.4% of our patient population showed evidence of marked liver fibrosis, which is the same prevalence as that expected in the general population. Likewise, the prevalence of significant steatosis was low (5.1%) and depending on the same variables associated with fatty liver in the general population. TE was shown to be an easy and valuable method for detection and screening of liver fibrosis in SSc patients with no additional risk factors for liver disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0344.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: liver cancer; tumour microenvironment; deconvolution
Online: 18 November 2022 (02:30:26 CET)
Liver cancers give rise to a heavy burden of health care worldwide. Understanding the tumour microenvironment (TME) underpins the development of precision therapy. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) technology has generated high-quality cell atlases of the TME, but its wider application faces enormous costs for various clinical circumstances. Fortunately, a variety of deconvolution algorithms can instead repurpose bulk RNA-seq data, alleviating the need for generating scRNA-seq datasets. In this study, we reviewed major public omics databases for relevance in this study and utilized 8 RNA-seq and 1 microarray datasets from clinical studies. To decipher the TME of liver cancer, we estimated the fractions of liver cell components by deconvoluting the samples with Cibersortx using three reference scRNA-seq atlases. We also confirmed that Cibersortx can accurately deconvolute cell types/subtypes of interest. Compared with non-tumorous liver, liver cancers showed multiple decreased cell types forming normal liver microarchitecture, as well as elevated cell types involved in fibrogenesis, abnormal angiogenesis and disturbed immune responses. Survival analysis shows that the fractions of five cell types/subtypes significantly correlated with patient outcomes, indicating potential therapeutic targets. Therefore, deconvolution of bulk RNA-seq data with scRNA-seq atlas references can be a useful tool to help understand the TME.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0146.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: fenugreek; aging; liver; antioxidants; mice
Online: 8 July 2020 (11:03:10 CEST)
Fenugreek seeds are widely used in Asia and other places of the world for their nutritive and medicinal properties. In Asia, Fenugreek seeds are also widely recommended for the geriatric populations. Here, we evaluated for the first time the effect of fenugreek seed feed supplementation on the liver antioxidant defense systems in aging mice. The study was conducted on 12 months aged mice which were given fenugreek seed dietary supplement. We have evaluated the activities of various antioxidant defense enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and estimated the phenolics and free radical scavenging properties in mice liver upon fenugreek supplementation. The estimation of SOD, GPx and GR activities in aged mice liver revealed a significant (P<0.01) difference among all the liver enzymes. Overall, this study reveals that fenugreek seed dietary supplementation has a positive effect in on the activities of the hepatic antioxidant defense enzymes in the aged mice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0438.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Liver pathology; COVID 19 infection
Online: 24 April 2020 (10:53:36 CEST)
COVID-19 breakout in Italy has caused a huge number of severely ill patients with a serious increase in mortality. Although lungs seem to be the main target of the infection very few information are available about liver involvement in COVID-19 infection, that could possibly evocate a systemic disease targeting a lot of organs. Since now there are no reports of large series of histological evaluation of liver morphology in this setting. Knowledge of histological liver findings connected to clinical data is crucial in management of this disease.Post-mortem wedge liver biopsies from 48 patients died for COVID-19 infection were available from two main hospitals located in northern Italy, Lombardy; all sample were obtained during autopsies. No patient has a significant clinical complain of liver disease or signs of liver failure before and during hospitalization; for each of them laboratory data focused on liver were available. All liver samples showed minimal inflammation features; on the other side, many histological pictures compatible with vascular alterations were observed, characterized by portal vein braches number increase associated with lumen massive dilatation, partial or complete recent luminal thrombosis of portal and sinusoidal vessels, fibrosis of portal tract, focally severely enlarged and fibrotic. Our preliminary results concerning histological liver involvement in COVID-19 infection confirm the clinical impression that liver failure is not a main concern and this organ is not the target of significant inflammatory damage; histopatological findings are highly suggestive for marked alteration of intrahepatic blood vessel network secondary to systemic alterations induced by virus that could target, besides lung parenchyma, cardiovascular system, coagulation cascade or endothelial layer of blood vessels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci1030065
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: gut microbiota; liver; metabolism; inflammation
Online: 16 December 2019 (00:00:00 CET)
Toll-like receptor 5 ligand, flagellin, and Vascular Adhesion Protein-1 (VAP-1) are involved in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to determine whether VAP-1 mediates flagellin-induced hepatic fat accumulation. The effects of flagellin on adipocyte VAP-1 expression were first studied in vitro. Then, flagellin (100 ng/mouse) or saline was intraperitoneally injected to C57BL/6J WT and C57BL/6-Aoc3-/- (VAP-1 KO) mice on high-fat diet twice a week every two weeks for 10-weeks. After that, the effects on inflammation, insulin signaling, and metabolism were studied in liver and adipose tissues. Hepatic fat was quantified histologically and biochemically. Because flagellin challenge increased VAP-1 expression in human adipocytes, we used VAP-1 KO mice to determine whether VAP-1 regulates the inflammatory and metabolic effects of flagellin in vivo. In mice, VAP-1 mediated flagellin-induced inflammation, leukocyte infiltration and lipolysis in visceral adipose tissue. Consequently, increased release of glycerol led to hepatic steatosis in WT but not KO mice. Flagellin-induced hepatic fibrosis was not mediated by VAP-1. VAP-1 KO mice harbored more inflammation-related microbes than WT, while flagellin did not affect the gut microbiota. Our results suggest that by acting on visceral adipose tissue, flagellin increased leukocyte infiltration that induced lipolysis. Further, the released glycerol participated in hepatic fat accumulation. In conclusion, the results describe that gut microbial flagellin through VAP-1 induced hepatic steatosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: tacrolimus; CYP3A5; liver transplant; pharmacokinetics
Online: 18 February 2019 (09:14:34 CET)
The body of evidence available in paediatrics population is limited for making clinical decisions regarding pharmacotherapy optimization of tacrolimus. The objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of CYP3A5 genetic polymorphisms and their relationship with tacrolimus requirements in paediatric population. This was a longitudinal cohort study, with two-year follow-up of 77 patients under 18 who had liver transplant over the period 2009-2012 at the Paediatric Hospital J. P Garrahan. Tacrolimus levels from day 5 to 2-year post-transplant were obtained from hospital records of routine therapeutic drug monitoring. The genotyping of CYP3A5 (CYP3A5*1/*3 or *3/*3) were performed in liver biopsies of both the donor and the recipient. Recipients frequency of CYP3A5 *1 expression was 37.1% and 32.2% for Donors. Patient who received an organ expresser showed lower Co/dose especially after 90 days post-surgery. The role of each polymorphism is different according to days after transplantation proceeds and it must be taken into account to optimize the benefits of TAC therapy during the post-transplant induction and maintenance phase.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0258.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: afamin; adropin; alcoholic liver cirrhosis
Online: 30 March 2018 (06:21:07 CEST)
Introduction: Liver cirrhosis develops in about 10% of alcohol abusers. To date, a number of cells and cytokines have been identified, which are involved in induction of liver fibrotic processes. Nevertheless, the pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis has not been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to determine serum concentrations of afamin and adropin in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and to define their correlation with the stage of disease. Materials and methods: The study included 99 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis from the region of Lublin, (Eastern Poland). Liver cirrhosis was diagnosed based on clinical features, history of heavy alcohol consumption, laboratory tests and abdominal ultrasonography. The control group consisted of 20 healthy individuals without liver disease who did not abuse alcohol. The serum afamin and adropin concentrations were determined using ELISA kits. Results: The concentration of afamin was found to be significantly lower in patients with compensated alcoholic liver cirrhosis, i.e. P-Ch B (85.1±40.6 μg/ml) and P-Ch C (56.4±32.3 μg/ml) individuals, as compared to the control group (135.9±43.6 μg/ml); p-value was <0.01 and <0.001, respectively. As far as adropin is concerned, a reverse relationship was demonstrated: the highest concentration was found in patients with P-Ch C (11.7±5.7 ng/ml) cirrhosis. Furthermore, the above concentration was significantly higher compared to patients with P-Ch A cirrhosis (7.2±2.8 ng/ml; p<0.05) and controls (7.5±2.6 ng/ml; p<0.05). Conclusions: The concentration of afamin decreases with the severity of alcoholic liver cirrhosis, which most likely results from impaired hepatic synthesis. Otherwise, the higher the stage of disease according to the Child-Pugh score, the higher the concentration of adropin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2059.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Total serum bile acids; antipyrine clearance; liver-spleen scan; chronic hepatitis; liver cirrhosis; AUROCs
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:08:10 CEST)
Background Total serum bile acids (TSBA), liver-spleen scan and dynamic liver functional tests, in our case the antipyrine clearance (Ap Cl), have been long adopted. The aim of our study was that of assessing whether some diagnostic tests, scarcely performed due to the novel techniques implementation, were reliable diagnostic tools. Methods Data extracted from records of two well-matched for age and gender populations was retrospectively analysed. Specifically, 17 patients with biopsy-proven chronic hepatitis were confronted with 17 subjects suffering from liver cirrhosis. Clinical, laboratory and instrumental findings, such as the Child-Pugh classification, the number connection test for evaluating hepatic encephalopathy, prothrombin time, serum albumin levels, TSBA concentration, Ap Cl determination, abdominal ultrasound and liver-spleen scan imaging as well as endoscopy features were evaluated. Results Cirrhotics showed a median concentration of TSBA increased respect to that of patients with chronic hepatitis, independently from gender, 20.1 versus 12.24 micromol/L, P= 0.0054. The median AP Cl value of the patients with liver cirrhosis was reduced confronted with that of patients with chronic hepatitis, specifically, 13.92 opposed to 18.3 mcg Ap/dL, P= 0.045. Furthermore, the median liver-spleen scan score was higher in cirrhotics than in chronic hepatitis patients, i.e., 3.47 versus 1.47, P= 0.000. The AUROCs of TSBA levels and of the liver-spleen scan scores for differentiating patients with liver cirrhosis from those with chronic hepatitis were 0.82 and 0.96, respectively. When was applied a new predictive model, combining the previous ones, the AUROC to discriminate patients belonging to the two populations was 0.98. The best cut-off of the new index was 26, with a sensitivity and specificity of 100.00% and 82.35%, respectively, correctly classifying 91.18% of the patients. Discussion Both TSBA and liver-spleen scan were high discriminant as well as their combination, while Ap Cl showed some limitations as reliable diagnostic tool. TSBA and liver-spleen scan have been too soon and unnecessarily overlooked.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1496.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: pemafibrate; Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); Alanine Aminotransferase; M2-BPGi; dyslipidemia; liver fibrosis
Online: 27 September 2023 (10:02:35 CEST)
AIM Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease. Pemafibrate, a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α modulator (SPPARMα), has been reported to ameliorate liver function among patients with dyslipidemia. However, there are not many reports of the clinical effects of the pemafibrate. This study aims to summarize the experience of using pemafibrate and analyze the effects on liver function in patients with dyslipidemia. METHODS One hundred twelve cases of hyperlipidemia receiving pemafibrate 0.2 mg/day were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Age, gender, BMI, complications, concomitant medications, serum parameters (TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, AST, ALT, γGTP, ALP, platelets, M2BPGi, Cre, eGFR, HbA1c, blood glucose level at any time) were investigated and evaluated. RESULTS Pemafibrate administration significantly improved serum TG and HDL-C, but not in LDL-C. Serum AST, ALT, γGTP, and ALP were also significantly improved. The fib-4 index, a liver fibrosis score, did not change significantly, but M2-BPGi, an index of fibrosis, decreased significantly. No correlation was observed between each lipid parameter and ALT, and ALT decreased independently of the lipid parameters. Conclusions As we expected, pemafibrate demonstrated a lipid-improving effect without adversely affecting hepatic and renal functions. An unexpected finding was the decrease in ALT that was independent of lipid parameters.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0166.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: FTO; liver; gluconeogenesis; lipogenesis; glucose; insulin; type 2 diabetes; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Online: 9 October 2018 (03:52:49 CEST)
Common genetic variants of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene are strongly associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. FTO is ubiquitously expressed, but appears to have tissue-specific roles. Earlier studies have focused on the role of hypothlamic FTO in the regulation of metabolism. However, it appears that FTO plays a role in the regulation of metabolism in a tissue-specific manner. Recent studies suggest that expression of hepatic FTO is regulated by metabolic signals such as nutrients and hormones and altered FTO levels in liver affects glucose and lipid metabolism. This review outlines recent findings on hepatic FTO in the regulation of metabolism, with particular focus on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. It is proposed that abnormal activity of hepatic signaling pathways involving FTO links metabolic impairments such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Therefore, a better understanding of these pathways may lead to therapeutic approaches to treat these metabolic diseases by targeting hepatic FTO. The overall goal of this review is to place FTO within the context of hepatic regulation of metabolism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0203.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Hepatocarcinoma; Cirrhosis; Liver transplantation; Liver transplant; Artificial intelligence; Machine learning; Radiomics; Deep learning; Neural networks
Online: 13 March 2023 (02:13:50 CET)
Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary malignant hepatic tumor and occurs most often in the setting of chronic liver disease. Liver transplantation is a curative treatment option and is an ideal solution because it solves the chronic underlying liver disorder while removing the malignant lesion. Because of organ shortages this treatment can only be applied to carefully selected patients according to clinical guidelines to minimize risk of recurrence. Artificial intelligence is an emerging technology with multiple applications in medicine with a predilection for domains that work with medical imaging like radiology. With the help of these technologies laborious tasks like segmentation can be automated and workflow in radiology departments can be improved. Other roles include in depth pixel-wise analysis of lesions by radiomics or deep learning in order to find new imaging criteria that allow better prediction of treatment response or risk of recurrence. Liver transplant is an ideal treatment for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in the setting of chronic liver disease and artificial intelligence could provide solutions for improving the management of liver transplant candidates to improve survival.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1615.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Liver; Mitochondrial dysfunction; FAO; MASLD; Thyroid
Online: 26 October 2023 (03:17:06 CEST)
Metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD), formerly termed nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is a widespread global health concern that affects around 25% of the global population. Its influence is expanding, and it is anticipated to overtake alcohol as the leading cause of liver failure and liver-related death worldwide. Unfortunately, there are no approved therapies for MASLD; as such, national and international regulatory health agencies undertook strategies and action plans designed to expedite the development of drugs for treatment of MASLD. A sedentary lifestyle and an unhealthy diet intake are important risk factors. Western countries have a greater estimated prevalence of MASLD partly due to lifestyle habits. Mitochondrial dysfunction is strongly linked to the development of MASLD. Further, it has been speculated that mitophagy, a type of mitochondrial quality control, may be impaired in MASLD. Thyroid hormone (TH) coordinates signals from the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes to control mitochondrial biogenesis and function in hepatocytes. Mitochondria are known TH targets and preclinical and clinical studies suggest that TH, thyroid receptor β (TR-β) analogs, and synthetic analogs specific to liver could be of therapeutic benefit in treating MASLD. In this review, we highlight how mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to development of MASLD, and how understanding the role of TH in improving mitochondrial function paved the way for innovative drug development programs of TH-based therapies targeting MASLD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1004.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: alcohol-associated liver cirrhosis; microRNAs; biomarker
Online: 15 September 2023 (03:31:18 CEST)
Background: Alcohol-associated Liver Disease (ALD) is the most common disorder of prolonged drinking. Mechanisms underlying cirrhosis in such patients remain unclear. MicroRNAs play regulatory role in several diseases, are affected by alcohol and may be important players in alcohol use disorders, such as cirrhosis. Methods: We investigated serum samples from heavy chronic alcohol users (80g/d (M) and 50g/d (F) for ≥10 years) that were available from our previously reported GenomALC study. A subset of drinkers with liver cirrhosis (cases, n=24) and those without significant liver disease (controls, n=23) were included. Healthy controls (HC, n=5) were volunteers in the study. Global microRNA profiling was performed using high-throughput real-time quantitative PCR to identify the microRNA signatures. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software (IPA) was utilized to identify target mRNAs of significantly altered microRNAs and molecular pathways were analysed. Identified microRNAs were analysed for correlation with traditional liver disease biomarkers and risk gene variants previously reported from GenomALC genome-wide association study. Results: The expression of 81 and 21 microRNAs was significantly downregulated in cases compared to HC and controls, respectively (p<0.05, Ct >1.5-fold). Most microRNAs showed lower abundance in alcohol users compared with HC. Seven microRNAs (miR-16, miR-19a, miR-27a, miR-29b, miR-101, miR-130a, & miR-191) had a highly significant correlation (p<0.001) with INR, bilirubin and MELD score. Three microRNAs (miR-27a, miR-130a and miR-191) significantly predicted cases with AUC-ROC 0.8, 0.78 and 0.85, respectively (P<0.020), however, INR performed best (0.97, p<0.001). A different set of 6 microRNAs (miR-19a, miR-26a, miR-101, miR-151-3p, miR-221, & miR-301) showed positive correlation (ranging 0.32-0.51, p<0.05) with rs10433937:HSD17B13 gene variant, associated with risk of cirrhosis. IPA analysis revealed mRNA targets of the significantly altered microRNAs associated with cell death/necrosis, fibrosis and increased steatosis, particularly triglyceride metabolism related mRNA targets. Conclusions: MicroRNA signatures in drinkers distinguished those with liver cirrhosis from those without liver disease. We identified mRNA targets in liver functions that were enriched for disease pathogenesis pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: down syndrome; oxidative stress; liver; aging
Online: 4 September 2023 (03:50:26 CEST)
Abstract: Down Syndrome (DS) is a common genetic disorder characterized by an extra copy of chromosome 21, leading to dysregulation of various metabolic pathways. Oxidative stress in DS is associated with neurodevelopmental defects, neuronal dysfunction, and the onset of dementia re-sembling Alzheimer's disease. Additionally, chronic oxidative stress contributes to cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers prevalent in DS individuals. This study investigates the impact of ageing on oxidative stress and liver fibrosis using a DS murine model (Ts2Cje mice). The liver in DS mice shows increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defenses, as evidenced by reduced glutathione levels and increased lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, DS liver exhibits an altered in-flammatory response as measured by the expression of cytokines and heat shock proteins. DS liver also displays dysregulated lipid metabolism, indicated by altered expression of peroxisome prolif-erator-activated receptors and fatty acid transport proteins. Consistently, these changes might contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease development, a condition characterized by liver fat accumulation. Finally, histological analysis of DS liver reveals increased fibrosis and steatosis, in-dicative of potential progression to liver cirrhosis. This finding highlights the increased risk of liver pathologies in DS individuals, particularly when combined with the higher prevalence of obesity and metabolic dysfunctions in DS patients. These results shed light on the liver's role in DS-associated pathologies and suggest potential therapeutic strategies targeting oxidative stress and lipid metabolism to prevent or mitigate liver-related complications in DS individuals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1321.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Transplantation Keywords: Transplant Oncology; Liver Transplant; Gastrointestinal Malignancies
Online: 19 June 2023 (08:33:55 CEST)
Transplant oncology is a relatively new field in which transplantation is used to treat patients who would otherwise be unresectable. New anticancer treatment paradigms using tumor and transplant immunology and cancer immunogenomics are emerging. In turn, liver transplantation (LT) has become a potential therapy for certain patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) with liver metastasis, hepatocellular (HCC), cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), and metastatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) to the liver. Although there are established criteria for LT in HCC, the evidence regarding LT as a treatment modality for certain gastrointestinal malignancies is still debated. The aim of this review is to highlight updates in the role of LT for certain malignancies, including HCC, metastatic CRC, hilar CCA, and neuroendocrine tumor (NET), as well as contextualize LT use and discuss controversies in transplant oncology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1737.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: liver surgery; colorectal cancer; laparoscopy; survival
Online: 25 May 2023 (05:14:42 CEST)
Abstract Introduction Minimally invasive approaches to oncological liver resection is common in many hepatobiliary centres. This study aims to compare the key oncological and survival outcomes of patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) undergoing laparoscopic or open resections using propensity score matching (PSM). Methods A single-centre retrospective study was performed using a prospective database of patients undergoing liver resection for CRLM between January 2016 and December 2019. Different co-variates were selected for matching using PSM. Pre-matching and post-matching analyses were compared. Surgical and survival outcomes were analysed. Results In total, 303 patients who met the inclusion criteria were identified: 214 underwent open liver resection (OLR) and 91 laparoscopic liver resection (LLR). LLR had a significantly reduced length of intensive treatment unit (ITU) and overall in-patient stay but longer pringle and operative times. In the unmatched cohort, the median overall and disease-free survival time was significantly longer in patients undergoing laparoscopic compared with open surgery. A PSM model demonstrated significantly reduced blood loss and length of hospital stay, with a significantly greater Pringle and operative time in the LLR group. Differences seen in overall and disease-free survival were lost with propensity score matching, possibly due to lack of bi-lobar disease within the minimally invasive group. Conclusion In selected patients with CRLM, LLR presents similar survival and oncological outcomes with the advantages of the short-term results associated with the laparoscopic approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0386.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Transplantation Keywords: nutraceuticals; liver; ischemia-reperfusion injury; apoptosis
Online: 6 May 2023 (05:46:56 CEST)
Nutraceuticals are bioactive compounds present in foods, utilized to ameliorate health, prevent diseases, and support the proper functioning of the human body. They have gained attention due to their ability to hit multi-targets and act as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory agents, and modulators of immune response and cell death. Therefore, nutraceuticals are being studied to prevent and treat liver ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI). This study evaluated the effect of a nutraceutical solution formed by resveratrol, quercetin, omega-3 fatty acid, selenium, ginger, avocado, leucine, and niacin on liver IRI. IRI was performed with 60 min of ischemia and 4 hours of reperfusion in male Wistar rats. Afterward, the animals were euthanized to study hepatocellular injury, cyto-kines, oxidative stress, gene expression of apoptosis-related genes, TNF-alpha and Caspase 3 proteins, and histology. Our results show that the nutraceutical solution was able to decrease apoptosis and histologic injury. The suggested mechanisms of action are a reduction in gene expression and the Caspase 3 protein and a reduction in the TNF-alpha protein in liver tissue. The nutraceutical solution was unable to decrease transaminases and cytokines. These findings suggest that the nutraceuticals used favored the protection of hepatocytes and their combination represent a promising therapeutic proposal against liver IRI.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0705.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Drug-induced liver injury; ocrelizumab; hepatotoxicity
Online: 21 April 2023 (09:41:29 CEST)
Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is the most common cause of acute liver failure and 5-10% of patients hospitalized for jaundice are diagnosed with DILI. For a diagnosis of DILI to be made, there should be exclusion of other etiologies of liver injury and the use of a precipitator drug, latency of symptoms, and resolution of liver injury once the offending drug is identified and discontinued. In our case report, we present a patient with idiosyncratic hepatocellular pattern DILI after two doses of ocrelizumab for treatment of multiple sclerosis. Ocrelizumab was given 16 and 27 days prior to the onset of icterus, jaundice, and fatigue, in a patient without the evidence of prior exposure to hepatitis B virus. At presentation labs revealed severe acute hepatocellular liver injury with R factor of 30.42, marked hyperbilirubinemia, and transient hypoalbuminemia. No evidence of latent or active hepatitis B infection was detected. Drug dechallenge led to return of liver chemistries to near-normal levels 31 days after the onset of her symptoms. This case indicates DILI diagnosis associated with the use of ocrelizumab, and warrants careful monitoring of liver functions in patients even in the absence of hepatitis B.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0036.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Chromolaena odorata; liver; breast; cancer; plant
Online: 4 April 2023 (04:37:21 CEST)
Siam weed, scientifically known as Chromolaena odorata and belonging to the Asteraceae family, is a fast-growing plant with prolific seed production. Although it is a traditional medicinal plant, it has become an agricultural weed in Africa and Asia, posing a threat to biodiversity and causing environmental damage. Despite this, C. odorata is highly regarded as a medicinal herb in tropical Africa, with anticancer effects on breast, liver, and colorectal cancer. However, it is important to regulate the intake of the plant extract as it can have a hepatotoxic effect on liver cells at higher doses. Further research needs to be conducted on the plant extract, and proper orientation and knowledge of its oral daily administration are necessary. This review summarizes current scientific investigations using ethanolic and methanolic aqueous extracts of C. odorata leaves on various cancer cells, to uncover its potential as an anticancer agent. The investigations were sourced from online databases like Google Scholar, PubMed, and other online-based journals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0282.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: liver fibrosis; NASH; innate immune cells.
Online: 24 October 2019 (15:48:02 CEST)
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is characterized by liver steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis, is the most severe variation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This disease is a consequence of several metabolic alterations such as type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia that trigger different pathways of cell dysfunction and systemic inflammation which ultimately affect the liver. Furthermore, those mechanisms activate a complex cascade of immune response after repeated cell aggression. In the liver cytokines and interleukins interact with network of innate immune cells, including Kupffer cells (KCs), dendritic cells (DCs), lymphocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSC). These cells translate those signals into immune responses and pathologic hepatic changes during the development of NASH. In this scenario the development of fibrosis is the most important change since it is an adaptive mechanism that in the short time has the objective of repair the damaged tissue but after prolonged injury it progresses to parenchymal scarring, cellular dysfunction and finally to organ failure. Finally, since NASH is an important cause of liver cirrhosis; this review addresses the cellular pathways of fibrosis in the setting of NASH explained by the interaction between immune and hepatic cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0314.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: brucellosis; elevated liver enzymes; hepatomegaly; children
Online: 29 August 2019 (17:22:42 CEST)
Background and Objective: In the present study, the purpose was to compare the demographic, clinical and laboratory results of pediatric brucella cases who had liver involvement and who had no specific organ involvement. Material and Methods: The data of 248 patients between 2 and 18 years of age diagnosed with Brucellosis between July 2017 and August 2018 were analyzed retrospectively. The patients who had liver involvement and who did not have other specific organ involvement were compared in terms of presentation, physical examination findings, age, gender, hemogram, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, bilirubines, sedimentation, CRP, clinical and laboratory findings, and culture and relapse rates. Results: No significant differences were detected between the patients who had liver involvement (n=92) and who did not have specific organ involvement (n=156) in terms of diagnosis age and gender. Loss of appetite, nausea and sensitive stomach were higher in the patients who had hepatic involvement, and weariness was determined to be more in the control group patients. In the patients who had hepatic involvement, the hemoglobin and platelet values were lower, and the sedimentation, CRP and blood culture growth were higher. The relapse rates were lower in patients who had liver involvement. Conclusion: In patients who have liver involvement, in addition to elevated hepatomegaly and transaminase levels, the growth rate of the acute-phase reactants and brucella is higher in blood culture; and the relapse rate is lower after treatment. Brucellosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of hepatomegaly and transaminase elevation where brucellosis is seen endemically. We believe that early diagnosis of brucellosis is important in treatment response.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0659.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: miRNAs; colorectal cancer; exosomes; liver; metastases
Online: 29 October 2018 (06:55:09 CET)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies with a high incidence and mortality. An essential challenge in colorectal cancer management is to identify new prognostic factors that could better estimate the evolution and treatment responses of this disease. Considering their role in cancer development, progression and metastasis, miRNAs have become an important class of molecules suitable for cancer biomarkers discovery. We performed a systematic search of studies investigating the role of miRNAs in colorectal progression and liver metastasis, published until October 2018. In this review, we present up-to-date information regarding the specific microRNAs involved in CRC development, considering their roles in alteration of Wnt/βcatenin, EGFR, TGFβ and TP53 signaling pathways. We also emphasize the role of miRNAs in controlling the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of CRC cells, a process responsible for liver metastasis in a circulating tumor cell-dependent manner. Furthermore, we discuss the role of miRNAs transported by CRC-derived exosomes in mediating liver metastases, by preparing the secondary pre-metastatic niche and in inducing liver carcinogenesis in a Dicer-dependent manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0496.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: zinc, HCC, liver function, Zn concentration
Online: 22 October 2018 (12:38:25 CEST)
Background and Aim: Zinc plays a pivotal role in various zinc enzymes, resulting in the maintenance of liver function. Patients with chronic liver diseases (CLDs) usually have lower concentrations of zinc, which decrease further as liver fibrosis progresses. It remains unknown whether long-term zinc supplementation improves liver function and reduces the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Patients and Methods: Two hundred sixty-seven patients with CLDs who received a zinc preparation (Zn-group; 196 patients), or who did not receive zinc (no Zn-treatment group; 71 patients) were retrospectively analyzed in this study. The Zn-group was divided into 4 groups according to their serum Zn concentrations at 6 months after the start of Zn treatment. Results: Liver function significantly deteriorated in the no Zn-treatment group, while no notable change was observed in the Zn-group. The cumulative incidence rates of events and HCC at 3 years were lower in the Zn-group (9.5%, 7.6%) than in the no Zn-treatment group (24.9%, 19.2%) (p<0.001). According to the serum Zn concentrations, the cumulative incidence rates of events and HCC were significantly decreased in patients with Zn concentrations ≥ 70 µg/dl (p<0.001). Conclusion: Zinc supplementation appears to be effective at maintaining liver function and suppressing events and HCC development, especially among patients whose Zn concentration is greater than 70 µg/dl.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0497.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: liver fibrosis; Smad; decoy; oligodeoxynucleotide; CCl4
Online: 30 June 2018 (14:36:06 CEST)
Hepatic fibrosis is the wound-healing process of chronic hepatic disease that leads to end-stage of hepatocellular carcinoma and demolition of hepatic structures. EMT has been identified to phenotypic conversion of the epithelium to mesenchymal phenotype that occurred during fibrosis. Smad decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) is a synthetic DNA fragment containing complementary sequence of Smad transcription factor. Thus, this study evaluated the anti-fibrotic effects of Smad decoy ODN on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. As shown in histological results, CCl4 treatment triggered hepatic fibrosis and increased Smad expression. On the contrary, Smad decoy ODN administration suppressed fibrogenesis and EMT process. The expression of Smad signaling and EMT-associated protein was markedly decreased in Smad decoy ODN treatment mice compared with CCl4-injuried mice. In conclusion, these data indicate the practicability of Smad decoy ODN administration for preventing hepatic fibrosis and EMT processes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0558.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Colon cancer; metastasis; Liver Neoplasms; Review Literature
Online: 8 November 2023 (14:43:44 CET)
The current management of colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRCLM) patients involves a multidisciplinary approach with surgical resection remaining the primary curative option. The advances in liver surgery have improved outcomes, enabling more patients to undergo surgery successfully. In addition, the development of imaging software has improved the preoperative planning and patient selection for surgery and other interventions. Systemic therapies, such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies have enhanced the chances of complete resection. Targeted agents in combination with chemotherapy, have shown efficacy in downstaging tumors and increasing resectability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0939.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: olive; laurel; rosemary; histology; SCFA; immunomodulation; liver
Online: 12 May 2023 (11:19:38 CEST)
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a mixture of olive, laurel and rosemary leaf powders, on performance and egg quality, the oxidative state and biochemical, immune, and intestinal morphophysiological parameters of laying hens. One hundred Lohaman Brown hens (28 weeks old) were equally assigned to two groups (n. 50) corresponding to a basal control diet (CON) or the diet supplemented with 6g/kg feed of leaf powder mixture (LPM) containing olive, laurel and rosemary leaves (1:1:1), for 8 weeks. Egg traits, oxidative status, biochemical indices, immune response, cecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and intestinal morphological characteristics were evaluated at the end of the experiment. The results indicated that body weight and egg quality parameters were not influenced by LPM. However, LPM improved (P<0.01) the oxidative status and the immune system, total protein (P<0.05) and HDL cholesterol (P<0.01) and decreased total cholesterol (P<0.01) and LDL cholesterol (P<0.05), as compared to the CON. Aspartate amino transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine amino transpherase were significantly better in the LPM than in the CON group. A significant increase (P<0.05) of SCFA content established in the caecum and in villi height and crypt depth in both duodenum and ileum LPM treated hens was observed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0605.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: acute fluorosis; tetramethylpyrazine; liver; oxidative damage; Nrf2
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:34:59 CEST)
Excessive intake of fluoride, one of the trace elements to maintain health, leads to liver injury. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine monomer with good antioxidant and hepatoprotective function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TMP on liver injury induced by acute fluorosis. A total of 60 1-month-old male Institute of Cancer Research mice without carriage of pathogenic bacteria were selected. All mice were fed adaptively for one week, and then randomly divided into 5 groups: control (K) group, model (F) group, low-dose (LT) group, medium-dose (MT) group and high-dose (HT) group. The control and model group were given distilled water, while 40 mg/kg (LT), 80 mg/kg (MT) and 160 mg/kg (HT) TMP were fed by gavage for two weeks with the maximum gavage volume of mice is 0.2ml/10g/d. Except for the control group, all groups were given fluoride (35 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection on the last day of the experiment. The results of this study showed that compared with the model group, TMP alleviated the pathological changes of liver induced by fluoride and improved the ultrastructure of liver cells; TMP significantly decreased the levels of ALT, AST and MDA (P <0.05), and increased the levels of T-AOC, T-SOD and GSH (P <0.05). The results of mRNA detection showed that TMP significantly increased the mRNA expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1, CAT, GSH-Px and SOD in liver compared with model group (P <0.05). In conclusion, TMP can inhibit oxidative stress by activating Nrf2 pathway and alleviate liver injury induced by fluoride.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0318.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: obesity; triglycerides; liver; aerobic exercise; resistance exercise
Online: 13 April 2023 (09:41:04 CEST)
Aim: To investigate how much aerobic and resisted physical exercise affects the behavior of AST and ALT proteins in the NAFLD spectrum. Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a pathology resulting from the excessive accumulation of triglycerides in the liver. The pathophysiology of the disease comes from several mechanisms, among them, metabolic, environmental, and genetic. The measurement of liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are essential to perform a differential diagnosis of NAFLD with other pathologies that affect the liver. The non-pharmacological treatment of NAFLD is based on aerobic and resisted physical exercise, and one of its aims is to reduce the inflammatory markers AST and ALT. Materials and Methods: Systematic review carried out in PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Clinical trials that evaluated the effect of physical exercise on NAFLD on AST and ALT enzymes were included. Results: A total of 24 clinical trials met the inclusion criteria, with a sample size of 1141 participants, aged 20-82 years. The study protocol varied between aerobic exercise and resistance exercise with a weekly frequency between 2-6 times a week, a duration of 20-90 minutes for aerobics, and an intensity between 50-80% of peak VO2 and/or maximum HR for the resisted. Of the 24 studies included, only five showed improvements in both enzymes in the intervention group. Conclusion: Physical exercise cannot make significant changes in the behavior of AST and ALT liver parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0261.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Arboviruses; Histopathology; Cell death; Necrosis; Steatosis; Liver
Online: 16 January 2023 (02:55:43 CET)
Arboviruses such as yellow fever virus (YFV), dengue virus (DENV), and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) presenting wide global dissemination and the pathogenic profile developed in infected individuals, which develop from nonspecific clinical conditions to severe forms, characterized by the promotion of significant lesions in different organs of the harborer, culminating in multiple organ dysfunction. To characterize, quantify, and compare the patterns of histopathological alterations in human liver samples from patients with yellow fever (YF), dengue fever (DF), and chikungunya fever (CF). Analytical cross-sectional study by histopathological analysis with 70 samples of liver patients, collected from 2000 to 2017, with confirmed laboratory diagnosis who died due to infection and complications by the YF, DF, and CF. Of the histopathological findings in human liver samples there was a significant difference between the control and infection groups, with a predominance of alterations in the midzonal area of the three cases analyzed, among the arboviruses studied, the hepatic involvement in cases of YF showed greater intensity of histopathological changes. Among the alterations evaluated, cell swelling, microvesicular steatosis and apoptosis were classified as degree of tissue damage from severe to very severe. The pathological abnormalities associated with infection by YFV, DENV, and CHIKV showed predominance of changes in the midzonal area. We also noted that in among of the arboviruses studied, liver involvement in cases of YFV infection was more intense.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0262.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Lymphocytes; liver function biomarkers; WBCs; and CRP
Online: 19 September 2022 (05:28:34 CEST)
Abstract Aim: The study aimed to evaluate the clinical laboratory features of moderate and severe COVID-19 patients among a cohort of the Egyptian population. The study also aimed to assess the accuracy—sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) of various detected parameters in predicting the severity of COVID-19 infection. Patients and methods: One hundred diagnosed COVID-19 patients and fifty healthy participants in total were involved in current study. COVID-19 patients were categorized based on how severe their symptoms into two groups. Estimates were made for serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as well as white blood cells (WBCs) count, lymphocytes count, and hemoglobin content (Hb) content. Results: COVID-19 patients displayed increased serum levels of liver enzymes and CRP as well as WBCs count when compared to healthy individuals. On the other hand, Hb content, lymphocytes count, and albumin level fell in all COVID-19 patients. The severe group showed a statistically significant rise in liver enzymes, WBCs, and CRP levels, compared with moderate group. WBCs and lymphocytes counts were closely correlated with age, ALT, LDH, and CRP in all cases. WBCs and lymphocytes counts also had a negative correlation with albumin Level. Additionally, WBCs count, lymphocytes count, LDH activity and CRP level have higher AUC in severe than in moderate cases. WBCs count, LDH activity and CRP level have AUC above 0.80 in the severe group. Conclusion: The current investigation found a significant correlation between WBCs count, lymphocytes count, CRP level and liver injury in COVID-19 patients. WBCs count, lymphocytes count, LDH activity and CRP level were effective indicators for determining the severity of COVID-19.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0406.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Yellow fever; Liver; Vascular endothelium; Adhesion molecule.
Online: 24 December 2021 (11:41:19 CET)
Yellow fever (YF) is a pansystemic disease caused by the yellow fever virus (YFV), the prototype species of the family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus, and has a highly complex host-pathogen relationship, in which endothelial dysfunction reflects viral disease tropism. In this study, the in situ endothelial response was evaluated. Liver tissue samples were collected from 21 YFV-positive patients who died due to the disease and five flavivirus-negative controls who died of other causes and whose hepatic parenchyma architecture was preserved. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissues in the hepatic parenchyma of YF cases showed significantly higher expression of E-selectin, P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and very late antigen-4 in YFV-positive cases than in flavivirus-negative controls. These results indicate that endothelium activation aggravates the inflammatory response by inducing the expression of adhesion molecules that contribute to the rolling, recruitment, migration, and construction of the inflammatory process in the hepatic parenchyma in fatal YF cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0136.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: CDAHFD; NASH; Mitochondrial dysfunction; Liver; Oxidative stress
Online: 7 May 2021 (09:47:44 CEST)
The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been rapidly increasing worldwide. A choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined high fat diet (CDHFD) has been used to create a mouse model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). There are some reports about the effects on mice of being fed CDAHFD for a long time, 1 to 3 months. However, the effect of this diet over a short period has been unknown. Therefore, we examined the effect of one week of feeding CDAHFD on the mouse liver. Feeding this diet for only one week induced lipid droplet deposition in the liver with increasing activity of liver-derived enzymes in the plasma. On the other hand, it did not induce fibrosis and cirrhosis. Additionally, it was demonstrated that mitochondrial respiration is significantly impaired with severe oxidative stress in the liver by CDAHFD, associated with a decreasing mitochondrial DNA copy number and complexes-proteins. In the gene expression analysis of the liver, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers were significantly increased by CDAHFD. These results demonstrated that one week of feeding CDAHFD to mice induces steatohepatitis with mitochondrial dysfunction and severe oxidative stress, without fibrosis, which can partially mimic the early stage of the NASH in humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0411.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: HDV; mouse model; AAV; HDAg; Liver damage
Online: 16 March 2021 (10:14:06 CET)
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection causes the most severe form of viral hepatitis but little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved. The recently developed HDV mouse model based on the delivery of HDV replication-competent genomes using adeno-associated vectors (AAV) develop a liver pathology very similar to the human disease, and allowed us to perform mechanistic studies. We have generated different AAV-HDV mutants to eliminate the expression HDV antigens (HDAgs), characterized them both in vitro and in vivo. We confirmed that S-HDAg is essential for HDV replication and cannot be replaced by L-HDAg or host cellular proteins, and the L-HDAg is essential for HDV infectious particle production. We have also found that the lack of L-HDAg resulted in the increase of of S-HDAg expression levels and the exacerbation of liver damage which is T cell independent but is associated with an increment in liver inflammation. Interestingly, early expression of L-HDAg significantly ameliorated the liver damage induced by the mutant expressing only the S-HDAg. In summary, the use of AAV-HDV represents a very attractive platform to interrogate in vivo the role of viral components in the HDV life cycle and to better understand the mechanism of HDV-induced liver pathology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0114.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: COVID19; ACE2; diabetes; SARS-CoV2; liver injury
Online: 7 May 2020 (08:57:14 CEST)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) that has resulted in a global pandemic. The clinical symptoms of the disease vary from mild illness to acute respiratory issues. Older age, diabetes, cardiac diseases predict poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients. Various reports mention the incidence of liver injury with transient elevations in the levels of aminotransferases (liver function enzymes). The clinical characteristics, etiology and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms associated with liver damage in SARS-CoV2 infected patients need to be explored. This review highlights the severity of the hepatic injury in COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0037.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Extrac cellular matrix; Relaxin; liver fibrosis; MMPs
Online: 3 March 2020 (11:16:49 CET)
BACKGROUND Relaxin (RLX), a hormone-like molecule with pleiotropic effects, has been found to reduce matrix deposition and mediate collagen degradation in animal models of chronic liver injuries and might be considered as an adjuvant therapeutic agent for progressive liver diseases. AIMS In the present study, we evaluated whether RLX affects the development of liver fibrosis in an experimental mouse model of NASH in C57BL6 male mice fed with a methionine-choline deficient diet (MCD). Methods Mice were treated per os as we intended to assess the enteric absorption and bioavailability of orally administered RLX (RLX purified from pig ovaries, IBSA SA, Lugano, Switzerland). Mice were fed the MCD diet for 6 weeks. After the initial 3 weeks, one group received drinking water supplemented with RLX (25 mcg/ml) whereas the other continued to receive regular water. A third group of mice fed a regular diet served as control. After 3 additional weeks mice were anesthetized and sacrificed. Results A significant, reduced expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and of relevant markers of active fibrogenesis and extracellular matrix deposition, Col1A1 and α-SMA, was observed in mice treated with RLX vs controls. RLX also induced a significant decrease of TIMP1 and an increase of both MMP 2 and 9 when evaluated by zymographic analysis in liver extracts. Conclusions Although preliminary pharmacokinetics experiments showed barely detectable amounts of RLX in the blood of mice treated per os, these data support the absorption of orally administered RLX and confirm its potential therapeutic use in the management of liver fibrosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0144.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: alcoholic fatty liver disease; PARP; PJ34; triglyceride
Online: 24 April 2017 (05:30:53 CEST)
The specific role of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) in hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD) were unclear. Poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) is a NAD-consuming enzyme and its specific role in the pathogenesis of AFLD is still elusive. In current investigation, we found that chronic alcohol exposure enhanced hepatic PARP expression and activity and lowered hepatic NAD+ level. PARP activity inhibitor PJ34 decreased the intracellular TG content in hepatocyte. Moreover, PJ34 suppressed the gene expression of DGAT1 and DGAT2 and elevated the intracellular NAD+ level in hepatocyte. These mechanistic observation was validated in alcohol-fed mice injected with PJ34 intraperitoneally. PJ34 injection attenuated hepatic TG accumulation in alcohol-fed mice. Further, the gene expression of hepatic SERBP-1c, DGAT1 and DGAT2 were lowered by PJ34 injection, while the hepatic NAD+ level was augmented by PJ34 injection in alcohol-fed mice. At last, the nicotinamide riboside supplementation alleviated hepatic TG accumulation in alcohol-fed mice. These data indicate that applying PARP specific inhibitor PJ34 by intraperitoneal injection attenuated hepatic NAD+ depletion and TG accumulation in alcohol-fed mice, which might be a potential candidate for AFLD therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0102.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: salidroside; inflammation; alcoholic liver injury; TLR4; TAK1
Online: 27 September 2016 (10:45:06 CEST)
The current study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of salidroside (SDS) and the underlying mechanism by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro and a mouse model of binge drinking induced liver injury in vivo. SDS downregulated protein expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14. SDS inhibited LPS-triggered phosphorylation of LPS-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), p38, c-Jun terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Degradation of IκB-α and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB were effectively blocked by SDS. SDS concentration-dependently suppressed LPS mediated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels, as well as their downstream products, NO. SDS significantly inhibited protein secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β. Additionally C57BL/6 mice were orally administrated SDS for continuous 5 days, followed by three gavages of ethanol every 30 min. Alcohol binge drinking caused the increasing of hepatic lipid accumulation and serum transaminases levels. SDS pretreatment significantly alleviated liver inflammatory changes and serum transaminases levels. Further investigation indicated that SDS markedly decreased protein level of IL-1β in serum. Taken together, these data implied that SDS inhibits liver inflammation both in vitro and in vivo, and may be a promising candidate for the treatment of inflammatory liver injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1654.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Cytokeratin 18; Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease; Fatty liver index; Framingham risk score; Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation 2
Online: 23 June 2023 (10:36:14 CEST)
Background and aim: To explore the discriminant accuracy of Cytokeratin 18 (CK18, including M65 and M30 forms) for an elevated fatty liver index (FLI) as a validated proxy of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the general population. Methods: Both serum CK18 forms were measured using a commercial immunoassay in randomly selected samples from 312 participants of the PREVEND general population cohort. FLI ≥60 was used to indicate NAFLD. Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and the SCORE2 were used to estimate the 10-year risk of CVD. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, linear/logistic regression models and Spearman's correlations were used. Results: Intricate associations were found between CK18, FLI and CVD risk scores. While M30 was the only independent predictor of FLI≥60, M65 discriminated best NAFLD individuals at very-high 10-years CVD risk according to SCORE2 (AUC:0.71; p=0.001). Values above the predefined manufacturer cut-off (400 U/l), were associated with an independent 5-fold increased risk (adjusted odds ratio: 5.44, p=0.01), with negative predictive value of 93%. Conclusions: Confirming that NAFLD is associated with an increased CVD risk, our results point to CK18 M65 as a candidate biomarker to identify NAFLD individuals at low CVD risk in European general population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1729.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: quantiative ultrasound; attenuation coefficient; backscatter-distribution coefficient; liver stiffness; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; metabolic-associated fatty liver disease; hepatic steatosis; ultrasound-estimated fat fraction; proton density fat fraction
Online: 26 September 2023 (05:36:41 CEST)
We aimed to develop a non-linear regression model that could predict the fat fraction of the liver (USFF), similar to magnetic resonance imaging proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF), based on quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters. We measured and retrospectively collected the ultrasound attenuation coefficient (AC), backscatter-distribution coefficient (BSC-D), and liver stiffness (LS) using shear wave elastography (SWE) in 90 patients with clinically suspected non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and 51 patients with clinically suspected metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). The MRI-PDFF was also measured in all patients within a month of the ultrasound scan. In the linear regression analysis, only AC and BSC-D showed a significant association with MRI-PDFF. Therefore, we developed prediction models using non-linear least-squares analysis to estimate MRI-PDFF based on the AC and BSC-D parameters. We fitted the models on the NAFLD dataset and evaluated their performance in 3-fold cross-validation repeated five times. We decided to use the model based on both parameters to estimate the ultrasound fat fraction (USFF). The correlation between USFF and MRI-PDFF was strong in NAFLD and very strong in MAFLD. According to a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, USFF could differentiate between <5% vs. ≥ 5% and < 10% vs. ≥ 10% MRI-PDFF steatosis with excellent, 0.97 and 0.91 area under the curve (AUC) accuracy in the NAFLD and with AUCs of 0.99 and 0.96 in the MAFLD groups. In conclusion, USFF calculated from QUS parameters is an accurate method to quantify liver fat fraction and to diagnose ≥ 5% and ≥ 10% steatosis in both NAFLD and MAFLD. Therefore, USFF can be an ideal non-invasive screening tool for patients with NAFLD and MAFLD risk factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1999.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Transplantation Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii; solid organ transplantation; liver transplantation; infection
Online: 30 November 2023 (15:03:58 CET)
Background: The liver has emerged as a frequent transplanted organ which can transmit T. gondii between seropositive donors and seronegative recipients. Associated with the immunosuppressive therapy of recipients, the presence of cysts in donor livers elevate the risk of severe toxoplasmosis in recipients. Objectives: The objective of the study was to verify the frequencies of positive serology in liver graft donors and their respective recipients, as well as to verify whether their clinical signs presented post-transplant are associated with the serological status of recipients. Patients and methods: All data on liver transplant recipients from 2008 to 2018 were obtained from the MVPeP electronic medical records of the Liver Transplant Service of FUNFARME/FAMERP. IgM and IgG anti-T. gondii antibody serology was investigated by chemiluminescence. According to the serological profile, four groups of recipients were assessed (G1: IgG-/IgM-; G2: IgG+/IgM-; G3: IgG+/IgM+, G4: IgG-/IgM+). Results: The numbers of recipients according to the serological profile groups were: G1: 20 (41.7%), G2: 26 (54.1%; G3: 2 (4.2%). No cases were found for G4. Post-transplant clinical manifestations such as fever without defined cause, lung nodules, headache, hepatosplenomegaly, encephalopathy and hepatitis (A, B and C) were reported in all groups. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that there is a high prevalence of T. gondii infection in liver recipients and, therefore, screening should be intensified. Furthermore, a high incidence of co-infection with hepatitis A was identified especially in patients who died in the post-transplant period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1605.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Sulfated polysaccharide; G. edulis; Liver injury; Protective effect
Online: 27 November 2023 (07:14:29 CET)
The sulfated polysaccharide (SP) was extracted from Gracilaria edulis and tested for its ability to protect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in Wistar rats. The chemical composition of the sulfated polysaccharide, documented 12.90% of yield, 83.07% of carbohydrate, 0% of protein, 15.02% of ash, and 2.09% of moisture, and the carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur content were 25.90%, 4.28%, 2.65%, and 3.61%. SP has a molecular weight of 41kDa. The monosaccharide and structural properties of SP were investigated using GC-MS, FT-IR, and 1H-NMR spectral analysis. In rats, CCl4 produced hepatotoxicity, as evidenced by an increase in serum ALT, AST, and ALP levels and a decrease in ALB levels. The SP treated showed decreases in ALT, AST and ALP levels, as well as an increase in ALB levels. SOD, catalase, GPx, and GSH levels were suggestively lower in CCL4-induced rats compared to normal control rats. SOD, catalase, GPx and GSH levels in the SP-treated rats, on the other hand, improved to normal levels. The rat liver tissue treated with SP recovered well from hepatic injury. SP can be considered an alternative in the treatment of liver injury or as preventive medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0048.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: HCC; DAAs; Antivirals; HCV; Immunesurveillance; Immunity; Liver stiffness
Online: 1 September 2023 (13:31:17 CEST)
The rapid introduction of DAAs has revolutionized the treatment of chronic HCV infection, however some concerns have been arose about their early and long term safety in real life settings. Therefore, these drugs achieve a robust and sustained virological response in a short duration of treatment, being a quick winning option, but, what then? At now an extensive follow-up in real life settings does not exist particularly on HCC occurrence as recently suggested in a Cochrane review . In this regard from February 2015 to December 2017 a group of 5 Hospital and Academic Centers in Southern Italy (Campania Region) managed an observational, prospective, real-life study on efficacy and safety of DAAs treatment schedule enrolling 1022 consecutive HCV patients treated with IFN-free DAAs regimens being followed-up for 24 months. Our preliminary data on the first 360 patients out of 1022 whose completed at least 66 weeks follow-up, based on clinical, laboratory and expert ultrasonography every three months, showed an SVR in 342 out 360 (95%) patients of which 9 had a new diagnosed HCC (2.63%). Specifically HCC developed in mean after 16,2 months after end of treatment as one or more nodules (2-3 cm in mean) with an increase in alpha-fetoprotein 10 x u.n.v (n.v. <15 UI/mL) in patients with F4 fibrosis staging at the time of treatment enrolment. In conclusion, in view of our findings and literature evidences, regular clinical, laboratory and expert ultrasonography follow-up should carefully performed also on these patients and the current Faster, Higher, Stronger approach to the new antivirals development should strongly be revisited in the light of possible late adverse events like HCC occurrence and the relative economic impact on health care system cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1715.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: liver; hiPSC; organoids; 3D dynamic culture; organotypic culture
Online: 25 June 2023 (05:08:36 CEST)
The process of identifying and approving a new drug is a time-consuming and expensive procedure. One of the biggest issues to overcome is the risk of hepatotoxicity, which is one of the main reasons for drug withdrawal from the market. While animal models are the gold standard in preclinical drug testing, the translation of results into therapeutic intervention is often ambiguous due to interspecies differences in hepatic metabolism. The discovery of human induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (hiPSCs) and their derivatives has opened new possibilities for drug testing. We used mesenchymal stem cells and hepatocytes both derived from hiPSC, together with endothelial cells, to miniaturize the process of generating hepatic organoids. These organoids were then cultivated in vitro using both static and dynamic cultures. Additionally, we tested spheroids composed solely by induced hepatocytes. By miniaturizing the system, we demonstrated the possibility of maintaining the organoids, but not the spheroids, in culture for up to 15 days. This timeframe may be sufficient to carry out a hypothetical pharmacological test or screening. In conclusion, we propose that the hiPSC-derived liver organoids model could complement or, in the near future, replace the pharmacological and toxicological tests conducted on animals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0149.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Acute liver failure; viral hepatitis; sub-Saharan Africa
Online: 3 May 2023 (12:40:38 CEST)
Though there has been a decline in the number of new cases of viral hepatitis-induced acute liver failure in Europe and the United States of America, viral hepatitis still remains the leading cause of acute liver failure in Asia-Pacific and South America. However, the epidemiology of viral-hepatitis-induced acute liver failure in sub-Saharan Africa-the world epicenter of viral hepatitis-is unclear. The aim of this review was to collate data on the incidence, prevalence, specific etiologic agents, features/diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of viral-induced acute liver failure in sub-Saharan Africa. One hundred and forty-seven cases of viral-induced acute liver failure were recorded in 11 studies conducted in six countries between 1981-2020. Etiological agents were: Hepatitis viruses A, B, C, and E, as well as Adenovirus, Enterovirus, Parvovirus, Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and EBV. HAV was the most frequent in paediatric subjects: (11/16) 69% and (19/30) 63%. HBV was the only etiological agent in the study that only included adults. HEV (genotype 2 in one study) contracted amidst hepatitis E outbreaks was the most commonly reported cause of ALF in pregnant women. Treatment was mainly supportive, and liver transplantation reported only in South Africa. Where reported, case fatality rates were high. In conclusion, viral-hepatitis induced acute liver failure is largely understudied in sub-Saharan Africa. The few available data are consistent with literature from the other parts of the world regarding aetiologic agents. Liver transplantation is not available in most sub-Saharan African countries, and short-term case fatality rates of individuals with acute liver failure could outstrip current rates from the other world regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0605.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: inorganic arsenic; liver fibrosis; autophagy; Notch1/Hes1/PTEN
Online: 20 April 2023 (03:59:35 CEST)
Background: Exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) remains a global public health problem. The liver is the main target organ of arsenic, leading to arsenic-induced liver fibrosis. Autophagy is involved. Phosphatase and tensin homology deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) may participate in arsenic-induced liver fibrosis by regulating autophagy, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. We established a mouse model of arsenic poisoning through the drinking water, and a fibrosis model using the huma stellate cell (HSC) line LX-2, which was exposed to NaAsO2 for 24h. HE and Masson staining was adopted to observe the degree of liver fibrosis. The cells were transfected using PTEN overexpression plasmid. Western blot and qRT-PCR were used to determine the levels of protein/mRNA expression. The in vivo results were confirmed in HSCs exposed to NaAsO2, with changes suggesting fibrosis as seen in mice. NaAsO2 upregulated the expression of the autophagic markers microtubule-associated protein light chain A/B (LC3), recombinant human autophagy effector protein (Beclin-1), hairy and enhancer of split homolog-1 (HES1), but downregulated PTEN. α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression was significantly upregulated in all NaAsO2 groups. PTEN overexpression altered NaAsO2-induced autophagy which LC3, Beclin-1 were downregulated. Notch1, HES1, α-SMA, and collagenⅠexpression were all downregulated in the NaAsO2 groups. In conclusion, PTEN overexpression might decrease autophagy and inhibit fibrosis progression caused by this toxin. The NOTCH1/HES1 pathway is likely to be involved in this process. Most previous studies did not investigate PTEN and arsenic-induced liver fibrosis specifically. The present study highlights the importance of targeting PTEN for the management of arsenic exposure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0193.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: liver; Neuropilin-1; Toll-like receptors; COVID-19
Online: 10 August 2022 (05:05:04 CEST)
Purpose: The study aimed to investigate if there were any links between liver function biomarkers and immunoglobulins levels in serum, and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and neuropilin-1 (NRP1) in COVID-19 patients. The study also aimed to assess the accuracy—sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) by the receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis for immunoglobulins levels and TLRs expressions. Patients and Methods: This study included 150 patients (100 patients with confirmed COVID-19 and 50 healthy volunteers as a control group). Patients with COVID-19 were subdivided into two groups according to the severity of symptoms (moderate and severe, with 50 patients each). Serum C-reactive protein (CRP), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), immunoglobulin (Ig) G, and IgM levels were estimated. TLRs (TLR2 and TLR4) and NRP1 gene expression in blood samples were investigated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). ROC analysis was also applied to determine the accuracy of various detected parameters in predicting the possibility of COVID-19 infection. Results: In COVID-19 patients, serum parameters related to liver function, except serum albumin, CRP, IgG, IgM, and TLR2, TLR4, and NRP1 mRNA expression levels, significantly elevated compared to controls. Severe COVID-19 patients exhibited significantly higher liver enzymes (ALT, AST and LDH), CRP, and TLR2 mRNA expression levels and lower albumin levels than the moderate group. In the moderate and severe groups, ALT, CRP, TLR2, and TLR4 had a significant positive correlation with IgM levels. ALT, AST, LDH, CRP, TLR2, and TLR4 showed a significant positive correlation with IgG levels in both groups. In both the moderate and severe groups, NRP1 expression was found to be significantly correlated with CRP, IgG, IgM, TLR2, and TLR4. In contrast, serum albumin levels exhibited a significant negative correlation with IgG and IgM levels only in the severe group, but they showed a significant negative correlation with TLR2, TLR4, and NRP1 expression in both moderate and severe groups. Serum ALT and AST activities were positively correlated with NRP1 expression in the moderate group but not in the severe group and as well as TLR2 and TLR4 expression in both the moderate and severe groups. ROC analysis indicated that AUC was higher than 0.800 for serum IgM level and TLR4 gene expression in moderate COVID-19 group. Conclusions: The increased liver function biomarkers in serum and NRP1 expression are closely correlated with sustained activations in humoral and innate immune responses during COVID-19 infection. As a result, TLR2, TLR4, and NRP1 could be targets for limiting COVID-19 infection and impairment effects on liver function. Moreover, detection of IgM level in serum and TLR4 expression in blood have a good accuracy in predicting the possibility of infection with COVID-19 in moderate cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0444.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: F. thonningii; ethnomedicine; obesity; lipid profile; liver disease
Online: 24 November 2021 (08:17:39 CET)
BACKGROUND: Ficus thonningii extracts exhibit hypoglycaemic, hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities. We investigated the potential of methanolic F. thonningii stem-bark extracts (MEFT) to protect growing Sprague-Dawley (SD) against high-fructose diet-induced metabolic derangements (MD) in a model mimicking children fed obesogenic diets. METHODS: Eighty (40 males; 40 females) 21-days old SD rat pups were randomly allocat-ed to and administered, for 8 weeks, five treatment regimens: 1 - standard rat chow (SC) + water (PW), 2 - SC + 20% (w/v) fructose solution (FS), 3 - SC + FS + fenofibrate at 100 mg/kg bwt/day, 4 - SC + FS + low dose MEFT (LD; 50 mg/kg bwt/day) and 5 - SC + FS + high dose MEFT (HD; 500 mg/kg bwt/day). Body weight, glucose load tolerance, fasting blood glucose and triglyceride, plasma insulin concentration, sensitivity to insulin, liver mass and fat content, steatosis and inflammation were determined. RESULTS: Fructose had no effect on the rats’ growth, glucose and insulin concentration, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity (P>0.05) but increased triglycerides in females; in-duced hepatic microsteatosis and inflammation in both sexes but macrosteatosis in females (P<0.05). In females, MEFT prevented fructose-induced plasma triglyceride increase. Low dose MEFT increased liver lipid content in females (P<0.05). The MEFT protected the rats against hepatic steatosis and inflammation but fenofibrate protected against hepatic mi-crosteatosis. CONCLUSION: MEFT can be used as prophylaxis against dietary fructose-induced ele-ments of MD but caution must be taken as low dose MEFT increases hepatic lipid accretion in females predisposing to fatty liver disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0350.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: amidated alginate; tetrahydrolipstatin; fat; cholesterol; serum; liver; faeces
Online: 17 February 2021 (09:30:49 CET)
The effects of octadecylamide of alginic acid (amidated alginate) and tetrahydrolipstatin on serum and hepatic cholesterol, and the faecal output of fat and sterols were compared in rats. Amidated alginate is a sorbent of lipids, tetrahydrolipstatin is inhibitor of pancreatic lipase. Rats were fed diets containing cholesterol and palm fat at 10 and 70 g/kg, respectively. Palm fat was provided by coconut meal. Amidated alginate at 40 g/kg diet significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, LDL and hepatic cholesterol, hepatic lipids, and increased faecal output of fat and coprostanol. Tetrahydrolipstatin at 300 mg/kg diet significantly decreased LDL cholesterol, hepatic lipids and increased faecal output of fat. The intake of feed was not significantly influenced, however the weight gains in rats fed amidated alginate was lower than in rats of the control group. Both amidated alginate and tetrahydrolipstatin modified fatty acid profile in excreta lipids. Concentrations of saturated fatty acids were decreased and that of unsaturated fatty acids were increased. Despite different mode of action, amidated alginate and tetrahydrolipstatin were equally efficient in the removing dietary fat from the body.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0229.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: liver radioembolization; cancer therapy; dose optimization; TARE; SIRT
Online: 9 February 2021 (09:49:36 CET)
Liver radioembolization is a treatment option for unresectable liver cancers, performed by infusion of 90Y or 166Ho loaded spheres in the hepatic artery. As tumoral cells are mainly perfused via the liver artery unlike hepatic lobules, a twofold tumor to normal liver dose ratio is commonly obtained. To improve tumoral cells killing while preserving lobules, co-infusion of arterial vasoconstrictor has been proposed but with limited success: the hepatic arterial buffer response (HABR) and hepatic vascular escape mechanism hamper the arterioles vasoconstriction. The proposed project aims to take benefit of the HABR by co-infusing a mesenteric arterial vasodilator: the portal flow enhancement inducing the vasoconstriction of the intra sinusoids arterioles barely impacting liver tumors that are mainly fed by novel and anarchic external arterioles. Animal studies were reviewed and dopexamine was identified as a promising safe candidate reducing by 4 the hepatic lobules arterial flow. A clinical trial design is proposed. A four to sixfold improvement of the tumoral to normal tissue dose ratio is expected, pushing the therapy towards a real curative intention, especially in HCC where ultra-selective spheres delivery is often not possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0241.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: prebiotic; oligosaccharides; gut microbiota; fatty liver; metabolism; mitochondria
Online: 11 September 2020 (04:17:52 CEST)
Understanding the importance of gut microbiota (GM) in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has raised the hope for therapeutic microbes. We have shown that high hepatic fat associated with low abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in humans and further, administration of F. prausnitzii prevented NAFLD in mice. Here, we aimed to target F. prausnitzii by prebiotic xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) to treat NAFLD. First, the effect of XOS on F. prausnitzii growth was assessed in vitro. Then, XOS was supplemented or not with high (HFD) or low (LFD) fat-diet for 12-weeks in Wistar rats (n=10/group). XOS increased F. prausnitzii growth having only minor impact on the GM composition. When supplemented with HFD, XOS prevented hepatic steatosis. The underlying mechanisms involved enhanced hepatic β-oxidation and mitochondrial respiration. 1H-NMR analysis of caecal metabolites showed that compared to HFD, LFD group had healthier caecal short-chain fatty acid profile and the combination of HFD and XOS was associated with reduced caecal isovalerate and tyrosine, metabolites previously linked to NAFLD. Caecal branched-chain fatty acids associated positively and butyrate negatively with hepatic triglycerides. In conclusion, our study identifies F. prausnitzii as a possible target to treat NAFLD with XOS. The underlying preventive mechanisms involved improved hepatic oxidative metabolism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0610.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: GPR109a; β-OH butyrate; niacin; metabolic homeostasis; liver
Online: 27 August 2020 (10:32:16 CEST)
Signaling through GPR109a, the putative receptor for the endogenous ligand β-OH butyrate, inhibits adipose tissue lipolysis. Niacin, an anti-atherosclerotic drug that can induce insulin resistance, activates GPR109a at nM concentrations. GPR109a is not essential for niacin to improve serum lipid profiles. To better understand the involvement of GPR109a signaling in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism, we treated GPR109a wildtype (+/+) and knockout (-/-) mice with repeated overnight injections of saline or niacin in physiological states characterized by low (ad libitum fed) or high (16h fasted) concentrations of the endogenous ligand, β-OH butyrate. In the fed state, niacin increased expression of PEPCK mRNA independent of genotype, while increasing CPT1 mRNA only in GPR109a -/- mice. Niacin decreased fasting serum non-esterified fatty acid concentrations in both GPR109a +/+ and -/- mice. Independent of GPR109a expression, niacin blunted fast-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) mRNA expression. Surprisingly, GPR109a knockout did not affect glucose or lipid homeostasis or hepatic gene expression in either fed or fasted mice. In turn, GPR109a does not appear to be essential for the metabolic response to the ketogenic state or the pharmacological benefits associated with niacin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0128.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Liver cirrhosis; epidemiology; etiology; risk factors; pathophysiology; diagnosis.
Online: 11 March 2019 (09:44:18 CET)
Liver cirrhosis is a chronic disease that is characterized by the presence of fibrosis and regeneration of nodules in the liver whose consequences are the development of portal hypertension and liver failure. Cirrhosis arises from a wide variety of chronic diseases, which progresses slowly after years or decades. Liver cirrhosis is a public health problem. It is usually associated with viral hepatitis, consumption of alcohol, metabolic syndrome, autoimmune processes, storage diseases, toxic substances, and medications. Cirrhosis is the fourteenth most common cause of death in adults throughout the world, the fourth in Europe and the ninth in the United States. The prevalence of this disease is underestimated because it is symptomatic it is not diagnosed in initial stages, and it usually goes to the decompensated stage at a rate of 5 to 7% per year. We review here the epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, and diagnosis of liver cirrhosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0448.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: liver stiffness; MERTK; chronic hepatitis C; cirrhosis; SNPs
Online: 19 October 2018 (10:56:19 CEST)
Background: The myeloid-epithelial-reproductive tyrosine kinase (MERTK) is involved in hepatic steatosis, inflammation and liver fibrosis. Here we evaluated the association between the MERTK rs4374383 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and liver fibrosis progression in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. Methods: We performed a retrospective study (repeated measures design) in 208 patients who had liver stiffness measurement (LSM), which was assessed by transient elastography No patient had cirrhosis at baseline (LSM≥12.5 kPa). Results: At baseline, 53.8% were male, the median age was 47.1 years, 13.5% reported a high intake of alcohol, 10.1% were prior injection drug users, 85.3% were infected by HCV genotype 1, and 22.6% had previously failed antiviral therapy (pegylated-interferon-alpha/ribavirin). During a median follow-up of 46.6 months, 26 patients developed cirrhosis. The rs4374383 G carriers had a higher risk of increasing LSM (adjusted arithmetic mean ratio (aAMR)=1.14; p=0.006) and a higher likelihood of having an increase in LSM greater than 5 kPa (ΔLSM≥5 kPa) [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=2.37; p=0.029], and greater than 7 kPa (ΔLSM≥7 kPa) [aOR=3.24; p=0.032], after controlling for confounding. The SNP’s association with cirrhosis progression was close to statistical significance (aOR=2.18; p=0.070). Conclusions: MERTK rs4374383 A carriers had a lower risk of liver fibrosis progression than G carriers, supporting the hypothesis that this SNP seems to have a critical role in the pathogenesis of liver disease in HCV-infected patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0459.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Nutrition; Amino acids; Leukocytes; Skeletal muscle; Gut; Liver.
Online: 24 September 2018 (13:20:58 CEST)
Glutamine is the most abundant and versatile amino acid in the body. In health and disease, the rate of glutamine consumption by immune cells is similar or greater than glucose. For instance, in vitro and in vivo studies have determined that glutamine is an essential nutrient for lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production, macrophage phagocytic plus secretory activities and neutrophil bacterial killing. Glutamine release to the circulation and availability is mainly controlled by key metabolic organs, such as the gut, liver and skeletal muscles. During catabolic/hypercatabolic situations glutamine can become essential for metabolic function, but its availability may be compromised due to impairment of homeostasis in the inter-tissue metabolism of amino acids. For this reason, glutamine is currently part of clinical nutrition supplementation protocols and/or recommended for immune suppressed individuals. However, in a wide range of catabolic/hypercatabolic situations (e.g. ill/critically ill, post-trauma, sepsis, exhausted athletes) it is currently difficult to determine whether glutamine parenteral or enteral supplementation should be recommended based on the amino acid plasma concentration (glutaminemia). Although the beneficial immune based effects of glutamine supplementation is already established, many questions and evidence for positive in vivo outcomes still remain to be presented. Therefore, this paper provides an integrated review on how glutamine metabolism in key organs is important to cells of the immune system. We also discuss glutamine metabolism, action and important issues related to the effects of glutamine supplementation in catabolic situations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0102.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Cirrhosis; Advanced Chronic Liver Disease; Surgery; Postoperative risk; Mortality
Online: 4 September 2023 (07:24:16 CEST)
Patients with advanced chronic liver disease (ACLD) or cirrhosis undergoing surgery have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality in contrast to the general population. Retrospective, observational study of ACLD patients to evaluate the predictive capacity of previous surgical risk scores in a European cohort of patients. ACLD was defined by the presence of thrombocytopenia <150.000/uL and splenomegaly; AST-to-Platelet Ratio Index >2; nodular liver edge by ultrasound; transient elastography >15 kPa and/or signs of portal hypertension. We assessed variables related to 90-day mortality and the discrimination and calibration of current surgical scores (Child-Pugh, MELD-Na, MRS, NSQIP, and VOCAL-Penn). Only patients with ACLD and major surgeries included in VOCAL-Penn were considered (n=512). The mortality rate at 90 days after surgery was 9.8%. Baseline disparities between H. Mar and VOCAL-Penn cohorts were identified. Etiology, obesity, or platelet count not were associated with mortality. The VOCAL-Penn showed the best discrimination (C-statistic90D= 0.876) and overall predictive capacity (Brier90D= 0.054) but calibration was not excellent in our cohort. VOCAL-Penn was suboptimal in patients with diabetes (C-statistic30D= 0.770), without signs of portal hypertension (C-statistic30D= 0.555), or with an abdominal wall (C-statistic30D= 0.608) or urgent (C-statistic180D= 0.692) surgeries. Our European cohort has shown a mortality rate after surgery similar to those described in American studies. However, some variables included in the VOCAL-Penn score were not associated with mortality, and VOCAL-Penn’s discriminative ability decreases in patients with diabetes, without signs of portal hypertension, and with abdominal wall or urgent surgeries. These results should be validated in larger multicenter and prospective studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0779.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: bile acids; colesevelam; enterohepatic circulation; liver; humanized mouse model
Online: 10 August 2023 (04:16:37 CEST)
Bile acids (BAs) and their signalling pathways have been identified as therapeutic targets for liver and metabolic diseases. We generated Cyp2c70-/- (KO) mice that are not able to convert chenodeoxycholic acid into rodent-specific muricholic acids (MCAs) and, hence, possess a more hydrophobic, human-like BA pool. Recently, we have shown that KO mice display cholangiopathic features with development of liver fibrosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether BA sequestration modulates liver pathology in Western type-diet (WTD)-fed KO mice. The BA sequestrant colesevelam was mixed into the WTD (2% w/w) of male Cyp2c70+/+ (WT) and KO mice and the effects were evaluated after 3 weeks of treatment. Colesevelam increased fecal BA excretion in WT and KO mice and reduced the hydrophobicity of biliary BAs in KO mice. Colesevelam ameliorated diet-induced hepatic steatosis in WT mice, whereas KO mice were resistant to diet-induced steatosis and BA sequestration had no additional effects on liver fat content. Total cholesterol concentrations in livers of colesevelam-treated WT and KO mice were significantly lower than those of untreated controls. Of particular note, colesevelam treatment normalized plasma levels of liver damage markers in KO mice and markedly decreased hepatic mRNA levels of fibrogenesis-related genes in KO mice. Lastly, colesevelam did not affect glucose excursions and insulin sensitivity in WT or KO mice. Our data show that BA sequestration ameliorates liver pathology in Cyp2c70-/- mice with a human-like bile acid composition without affecting insulin sensitivity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1451.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Non-alcoholic fatty liver; Extracellular vesicles; Biomarkers; Surface proteins
Online: 21 July 2023 (10:05:15 CEST)
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a liver disorder that has become a global health concern due to its increasing prevalence. Currently, there is a need for reliable biomarkers to aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of NAFLD. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are promising candidates in biomarker discovery, as they carry proteins that reflect the pathophysiological state of the liver. In this review, we developed a list of EV proteins that could be used as diagnostic biomarkers for NAFLD. We employed a multi-step strategy that involved reviewing and comparing various sources of information. Firstly, we reviewed papers that have studied EVs proteins as biomarkers in NAFLD, as well as papers that have studied circulating proteins as biomarkers in NAFLD. To further identify potential candidates, we utilized the EV database Vesiclepedia.org to qualify each protein. Finally, we consulted the Human Protein Atlas to search for candidates' localization, focusing on membrane proteins. By integrating these sources of information, we developed a comprehensive list of potential EVs membrane protein biomarkers that could aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of NAFLD. In conclusion, our multi-step strategy for identifying EV-based protein biomarkers for NAFLD provides a comprehensive approach that can also be applied for other diseases. The protein candidates identified through this approach could have significant implications for the development of non-invasive diagnostic tests for NAFLD and improve the management and treatment of this prevalent liver disorder.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1245.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: diabetic kidney disease; metabolic-associated fatty liver disease; biomarker
Online: 16 June 2023 (13:36:04 CEST)
Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) and diabetic kidney disease (DKD) share various pathophysiological factors, and epidemiological evidence suggests that these two diseases are associated. Albuminuria and the estimated glomerular filtration rate, which are conventional biomarkers of DKD, are reportedly associated with the risk or severity of MAFLD. Recently, novel DKD biomarkers reflecting renal tubular injury have been introduced to complement conventional DKD markers. In this article, we looked at previous studies that showed an association between MAFLD and DKD and also reviewed the significance of DKD biomarkers as predictive risk factors for MAFLD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1108.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; Fibrosis; Cirrhosis; Strategies
Online: 15 June 2023 (10:52:41 CEST)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become globally prevalent and is the leading cause of chronic liver disease. Although NAFLD is reversible in the early stage without medical intervention, the condition could be sequentially worsened to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and, in the end, cirrhosis and hepatic cancer. The progression of NAFLD is related to various factors such as genetics, pre-disposed metabolic disorders, and immunologic factors. Because of the complexity of the disease, the treatment options are very limited, and, unfortunately, there is yet no clinically available drug. Thankfully, to date, there have been accumulating research efforts and, as a result, different classes of potent drug candidates have been discovered. Besides, there have also been various attempts to explore pharmaceutical strategies to make the drug candidates to be better drugs. In this review, we provided a brief overview of the drug candidates that have undergone clinical trials. In the latter part, the strategies for developing better drugs are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0494.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Neonatal Cholestasis; Liver biopsy; Biliary atresia; triangular cord sing
Online: 7 June 2023 (05:46:20 CEST)
Background: Neonatal cholestasis (NC) initiates in the first trimester of a newborn, comprising extra and intrahepatic medical conditions, with a high risk of fatality warranting early diagnosis and treatment to prevent morbimortality. The differential diagnosis of NC is a challenge demanding an accurate diagnosis for disease detection. The current study evaluates NC's clinical symptoms and differential diagnosis using ultrasound, liver biopsy, histopathology, and biochemistry. Methods: Infant registry data from Hevi Pediatric Teaching Hospital (January 2016 - January 2022) were obtained and screened for subject selection. The inclusion criteria include infants with direct hyperbilirubinemia within an onset of 1 to 90 days of birth. As indicated, the recruited subjects underwent liver ultrasound, blood biochemistry, and liver biopsy. Results: Seventy-two children presented with the criteria for inclusion in the study. The study found that ultrasound helped diagnose 43.1% of subjects for BA compared to 34.7% through histopathology. The histopathology confirmed 13 children (18.1%) having neonatal hepatitis. Test sensitivity of the ultrasound method for BA and NH was 60% (40.74, 76.6) and 38.46% (17.71, 64.48), respectively. Conclusion: The study found both ultrasound and liver biopsy to be critical diagnostic methods to differentiate the etiology of NC. Ultrasound has a higher specificity and sensitivity for diagnosing BA than NH. Histopathology and blood biochemistry should be considered, too, for effective diagnosis. In the future, larger sample and multicenter studies should be conducted to develop practically implementable strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: NRF2; NAFLD; HMOX1; CRISPR, Oxidative Stress; Fatty Liver Disease
Online: 6 June 2023 (08:59:42 CEST)
With the rising prevalence of obesity, Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) now affects 20-25% of the global population. NAFLD, a progressive condition associated with oxidative stress, can result in cirrhosis and liver cancer in 10% and 3% of patients suffering NAFLD, re-spectively. Therapeutic options are currently limited, emphasizing the need for novel treatments. In this study, we examined the potential of activating the transcription factor NRF2, a crucial player in combating oxidative stress, as an innovative approach to treating NAFLD. Utilizing a CRISPR-engineered human cell line, we were able to monitor the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), an NRF2 target, using a Nanoluc luciferase tag. Our model was validated using a known NRF2 activator, after which we screened 1200 FDA-approved drugs, unearthing six compounds (Disulfiram, Thiostrepton, Auranofin, Thimerosal, Halofantrine, and Vorinostat) that enhanced NRF2 activity and antioxidant response. These compounds demonstrated protec-tive effects against oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in vitro. Our study underscores the utility of CRISPR tagging with Nanoluc luciferase in identifying potential NRF2 activators, pav-ing the way for potential NAFLD therapeutics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1913.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: lead; liver; molecular biomarkers; morphological biomarkers; MTs; SOD; CAT
Online: 26 May 2023 (10:11:45 CEST)
Lead (Pb) is a non-essential, highly toxic, and persistent element widely recognised as one of the most concerning pollutants, and it is listed in the Priority List of Hazardous Substances. Widespread environmental contamination from Pb is a serious issue for human health and wildlife. The liver, a key compartment for metal detoxification and excretion, is also the organ in which Pb mainly accumulates in fish. Herein, we investigated for the first time the morphological and functional injuries induced in zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver by two very low and environmentally relevant concentrations of Pb (2.5 and 5 μg/L) after 48, 96, and 192 hours of exposure. We showed significant histological alterations in all the exposed samples, also demonstrating that the extent of injuries increased with dose and exposure time. The most common modifications observed were congestion of blood vessels and sinusoids, cytoplasmic vacuolizations, parenchyma dyschromia, and macrophage proliferation. Pb administration also resulted in a significant increase in lipid content and the upregulation of key genes involved in metal detoxification (mtf1) and the defensive response against oxidative stress (sod1 and cat). We showed that even very low doses of Pb can disrupt liver morphology and function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0475.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Hepatitis C virus; Genetic; Chronic Hepatitis C; Liver; Elastography
Online: 22 May 2023 (13:56:53 CEST)
IHepatitis C virus (HCV) has a high genetic diversity, with seven genotypes with 86 subtypes. This genetic variability confers persistence in the infection and escape of the immune system with evolution to cirrhosis and cancer. Environmental factors can contribute to different disease progression, being essential to assess the viral genotype in the infection and discuss the environmental particularities of Eastern Amazon, and the frequencies of Liver fibrosis between different HCV genotypes in patients living in a region of the Brazilian Eastern Brazilian Amazon. Consists in an observational cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic and clinical data of 76 individuals diagnosed with Hepatitis C between 2019 and 2020 in public health services were selected. Data collected was tabulated in Microsoft Excel 2010TM spreadsheets and analysed in GraphPad Prism 5.0TM. Liver fibrosis was associated with genetic subtypes. Subtype 1b was predominant (42.1%), followed by 1a (13%) and 3a (1.3%). 69.7% of participants had chronic hepatitis, with mild fibrosis (F1/F2) being the most prevalent (38.1%). Severe fibrosis was detected in 75% of individuals infected with the subtype 1b, that is associated with more severe disease. We suggest further studies, to assess other communities in the region, as well as the monitoring of these patients with Liver Elastography to determine the disease evolution and its better management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0650.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: malignant melanoma; liver metastasis; cytokines; IL11RA; hepatic endothelial cells
Online: 20 April 2023 (10:30:39 CEST)
Cytokines and chemokines (chemotactic cytokines) are soluble extracellular proteins that bind to specific receptors and play an integral role in the cell-to-cell signaling network, in addition can promote the homing of cancer cells into different organs. We investigated the potential relationship between human hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HHSECs) and several melanoma cell lines for the expression of chemokine and cytokine ligand and receptor expression during invasion of melanoma cells. In order to define the invasion related gene expression differences, we selected invasive and non-invasive subpopulations of cells after co-culturing with HHSECs. In addition, we determined protein expression of the endothelial cells before and after co-culturing with melanoma cell lines originated from primary tumors. Cell lines with increased invasive capacity after culturing with conditioned medium showed a set of receptor genes (CXCR1, IL1RL1, IL1RN, IL3RA, IL8RA, IL11RA, IL15RA, IL17RC, and IL17RD) with significantly different expression. It is very important note, that the IL11RA gene expression level was also significantly increased in primary melanoma tissues with liver metastasis as well. Proteome arrays revealed 15 differentially expressed proteins (including CD31, VCAM-1, ANGPT2, CXCL8, and CCL20) in the hepatic endothelial cells after co-cultured with melanoma cells. Our findings clearly indicate the interaction between liver endothelial- and melanoma cells. Based on our data, we assume that overexpression of the IL11RA gene might has key role in the formation of organ specific metastasis to the liver by primary melanoma cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0145.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; post COVID; liver; aspartate aminotransferase; risk factors
Online: 8 February 2023 (10:47:25 CET)
The long-term laboratory aspects of the effects of COVID-19 on liver function are still not well understood. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the hepatic clinical-laboratory profile of patients with up to 20 months of long-term COVID-19. A total of 243 patients of both sexes aged 18 years or older hospitalised in the acute phase of COVID-19 were included in this study. Liver function analysis was performed. Changes were identified in the mean levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and ferritin. Inflammatory markers such as ferritin > 300 U/L were observed in the group that presented more changes in liver function markers (ALT, AST, and GGT). Age ≥ 60 years, male sex, AST > 25 U/L, and GGT ≥ 50 or 32 U/L were associated with ALT > 29 U/L. There was a correlation between ALT and AST, LDH, GGT, and ferritin. Our findings suggest that ALT and AST levels may be elevated in patients with long-term COVID, especially in those hospitalised in the acute phase. In addition, ALT > 29 U/L was associated with other markers of liver injury, such as LDH, GGT, and ferritin.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0468.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: esculetin; cancer; oxidative stress; inflammation; arthritis; diabetes; fatty liver
Online: 29 August 2022 (05:25:05 CEST)
Esculetin is a coumarin compound, which belongs to the class of benzopyrone enriched in various plants such as Sonchus grandifolius, Aesculus turbinata, and many others. Glycosides and caffeic acid conjugates are the common forms of esculetin present in medicinal plants. Esculetin acts as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-hepatic, and anti-cancer agent by inhibiting the production of free radicals, inflammatory mediators, and genes that cause liver diseases and cancer. It also aids in the regulation of blood sugar. Scientists developing pharmaceutical formulations require some rationale and preliminary studies for drug design, but a small number of clinical studies on humans containing esculetin limit its potential for use as a safe alternative drug. Therefore, in this review article, the published studies have been reviewed to identify the pathogenesis of cancer, oxidative stress, inflammation, arthritis, diabetes and fatty liver along with the discussion on potential therapeutic strategies of esculetin. Advancements in our understanding of these diseases will aid in the development of new and innovative medications for treating many ailments. In conclusion, esculetin has immense potential to be used as a safe drug against many diseases but requires further testing and confirmation through clinical trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0029.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Anorexia; adolescents; pediatric; liver injury; aminotransferase; renal injury; refeeding
Online: 2 June 2022 (07:58:28 CEST)
Background: Only few pediatric reports exist regarding the prevalence, cause and evolution of liver and renal injury in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence and the risk factors of hepatic and renal failure at admission and during hospitalization, especially during refeeding in a cohort of hospitalized adolescents with AN.Methods: In a retrospective cohort study of adolescents with AN in a single hospital of Marseille from 2013 to 2019, we compared four groups on admission: elevated aminotransferases (AT)/normal AT and renal injury/no renal injury to analyze the differences between them (demographic factors, anthropometric factors, disease duration, initial prescribed calories, speed of refeeding, aminotransferase level, glomerular filtration rate). We observed the evolution of AT and renal injury for these four groups during refeeding (by the increase of kilocalories). Results: A total of 29 subjects with AN met eligibility criteria (age: 14.2 years, female (86.2%), BMI at admission (Z-score= -2.8 standard deviation (SD)) with elevated AT (20.7 %) and renal injury (13.8 %) on admission. Lower Z-score BMI (-4.05 vs -2 SD, p = 0.013), lower expected weight for height (69% vs 76%, p = 0.034) and longer disease duration (2.1 vs 0.9 years, p =0,032) were significantly associated with elevated liver enzymes at admission. Lower Z-score BMI (-3.35 vs -2.5 SD, p = 0.002), lower expected weight for height at admission (69% vs 74,5%, p = 0.002) and loss of weight before admission (0.66 vs à 0.20 kg per day, p = 0.002) were associated with renal injury at admission. Time nadir BMI (13.5 vs 6.5 days, p = 0.034) and duration of hospitalization (55 vs 41 days, p = 0.036) were longer in elevated enzymes on admission group. During refeeding, liver enzymes (95% confidence interval (CI), odds ratio (OR) aspartate aminotransferase: -0.07 [-0.11; -0.03] and OR alanine aminotransferase: -0.16 [-0.27; -0.06]) and renal injury (95% CI, OR creatinine: -0.013 [-0.017; -0.008]) have normalized with the increase of calories, with significant association.Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that degree of malnutrition is associated with liver and renal injury on admission. Theses failures disappeared with refeeding. In the future, prospective multicentric studies could examine evolution of renal and hepatic failure undergoing refeeding in large pediatric cohort of AN.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0459.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: in vivo magnetic resonance; liver metabolism; hyperpolarization; stable isotopes
Online: 23 August 2021 (15:34:21 CEST)
The liver is a key node of whole-body nutrient and fuel metabolism and is also the principal site for detoxification of xenobiotic compounds. As such, hepatic metabolite concentrations and/or turnover rates inform the status of both hepatic and systemic metabolic diseases as well as the disposition of medications. As a tool to better understand liver metabolism in these settings, in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) offers a non-invasive means of monitoring hepatic metabolic activity in real time both by direct observation of concentrations and dynamics of specific metabolites as well as by observation of their enrichment by stable isotope tracers. This review summarizes the applications and advances in human liver metabolic studies by in vivo MRS over the past 35 years and discusses future directions and opportunities that will be opened by the development of ultra-high field MR systems and by hyperpolarized stable isotope tracers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0437.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Corticosteroids; Glucocorticoids; Solid organ transplantation; Liver; Kidney; Heart; Lung
Online: 16 June 2021 (10:30:41 CEST)
Glucocorticoids (GCs) have been the mainstay of immunosuppressive therapy in solid organ transplantation (SOT) for decades due to their potent effects on the innate immunity and tissue protective effects. But, some SOT centers are reluctant to administer GCs for long-time due to the various side effects. This review summarizes advantages and disadvantages of GCs in SOT. PubMed and Scopus databases were searched from 2011 to April 2021 using search syntaxes cover “transplantation” and “glucocorticoids”.GCs are used in transplant recipients, transplant donors, and organ perfusate solution to improve transplant outcomes. In SOT recipients GCs are administered as induction and maintenance immunosuppressive therapy. GCs are also the cornerstone to treat acute anti-body- and T-cell-mediated rejections. Addition of GCs to organ perfusate solution and pretreatment of transplant donors with GCs are recommended by some guidelines and protocols to reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury peri-transplant. GCs with low bioavailability and high potency for GC receptors such as budesonide, nanoparticle-mediated targeted delivery of GCs to specific organs, and combination use of dexamethasone with inducers of immune-regulatory cells are new methods of GC usage in SOT patients to reduce side effects or induce immune-tolerance instead of immunosuppression. Various side effects on different non-targeted organs/tissues such as bone, cardiovascular, neuromuscular, skin, and gastrointestinal tract have been noted for GCs. There are also potential drug-drug interactions for GCs in SOT patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0023.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: FGR; fetal programming; food restriction; metabolic disorders; liver proteomics
Online: 1 March 2021 (13:54:56 CET)
1) Background: Fetal Growth Restriction (FGR) has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and epigenetic modifications that impact gene expression leading to permanent changes of fetal metabolic pathways and thereby influence development of disease in childhood and adult life. Both clinical and experimental studies showed that maternal nutrition during pregnancy is critical since malnutrition adversely affects fetal growth and physiology. In this study, we investigated the result of maternal food restriction on liver protein expression in Wistar male newborn pups. (2) Materials & methods: Pups born to food restricted mothers were subdivided to FGR and non-FGR groups. Livers of control, FGR and non-FGR groups were analyzed using quantitative proteomics. (3) Results: In total 6665 proteins were profiled. Of these, 451 and 751 were differentially expressed in FGR and non-FGR vs. control respectively, whereas 229 were common between the two groups. Bioinformatics analysis of the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in FGR vs. control revealed: induction of the super-pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis and inhibition of thyroid hormone metabolism, fatty acid beta oxidation and apelin liver signaling pathway. In the DEPs of non-FGR vs. control groups there was inhibition of thyroid hormone metabolism, fatty acid beta oxidation and apelin liver signaling pathway as well. (4) Conclusion: This study demonstrates the impact of prenatal food restriction on the proteomic liver profile of FGR and non-FGR offspring underlying the importance of both prenatal adversities and birth weight on liver dependent postnatal disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0516.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: MAFLD; NAFLD; fatty liver; metabolic syndrome; obesity; children; nomenclature
Online: 25 January 2021 (15:36:49 CET)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the world, which predispose to more serious hepatic conditions. It ranges from simple liver steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which may progress to cirrhosis and even end-stage liver disease. Since obesity became one of the most important health concerns wordwide, a considerable increase in the prevalance of NAFLD and other metabolic implications has been observed, both in adults, and children. Due to the coexistence of visceral obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, NAFLD is considered to be the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome (MetS). These relationship between NAFLD and MetS led to set up in adults new term combining both of these conditions, called metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). Based of these findings, we propose set of criteria, which may be useful to diagnose MAFLD in children and adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0087.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: alcoholic liver disease; cognitive function; calorie intake; nutrition; BMI
Online: 3 December 2020 (14:22:03 CET)
Malnutrition and cognitive dysfunction are typical features of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and are correlated with the development of complications. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of nutritional state and diet on cognitive function in ALD. A total of 43 patients with compensated alcoholic cirrhosis were enrolled, and neuropsychological test was assessed according to body mass index (BMI, <22 and ≥22). In the ALD animal study, mice were divided into 5 groups (n=9/group; normal liquid, 5% EtOH+regular liquid, 5% EtOH+high-carbohydrate liquid, 5% EtOH+high-fat liquid, and 5% EtOH+high-protein liquid diet) and fed the same calories for 8-week. To assess cognitive function, we performed T-maze studies weekly before/after alcohol binging. In cognitive function (BMI <22 /≥22), language score of Korea mini-mental state (7.4±1.4/7.9±0.4), Rey-complex figure (72.0±25.9/58.4±33.6), Boston naming (11.7±2.7/13.0±1.8), forward digit span (6.7±1.8/7.5±1.6), Korean Color Word Stroop (24.2±26.5/43.6±32.4), and interference score (33.9±31.9/52.3±33.9) revealed significant differences. In the T-maze test, alcohol significantly delayed the time to reach food, and binge drinking provided a temporary recovery in cognition. The alcohol-induced delay was significantly reduced in the high-carbohydrate and high-fat diet groups. Synaptic function exhibited no changes in all groups. Cognitive dysfunction is affected by nutritional status and diet in ALD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0514.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: AKT; D-Pinitol; ghrelin; insulin; insulin resistance; liver; phosphorylation
Online: 31 May 2020 (21:11:01 CEST)
To characterize the metabolic actions of D-Pinitol, a dietary inositol, in male Wistar rats, we analysed its oral pharmacokinetics and its effects on a) the secretion of hormones regulating metabolism (insulin, glucagon, IGF-1, ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin), b) insulin signaling in the liver and c) the expression of glycolytic and neoglucogenesis enzymes. Oral D-Pinitol administration (100 or 500 mg/Kg) resulted in its rapid absorption and distribution to plasma and liver compartments. Its administration reduced insulinemia and HOMA-IR, while maintaining glycaemia thanks to increased glucagon activity. In the liver, D-Pinitol reduced the key glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase and decreased the phosphorylation of the enzymes AKT and GSK-3. These observations were associate with an increase in ghrelin concentrations, a known inhibitor of insulin secretion. The profile of D-Pinitol suggests its potential use as a pancreatic protector decreasing insulin secretion through ghrelin upregulation while sustaining glycaemia through liver-based mechanisms of glycolysis control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0074.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Heavy metals; Mining; Balochistan gerbil; liver injury; Kidney damage.
Online: 6 August 2019 (12:14:09 CEST)
Mining can impact the environment, biodiversity and human health through direct and indirect practices. This study investigated the effects of gold mining on Gerbillus nanus, pointing to organ dysfunction and redox imbalance. Soil samples, Lycium shawii and G. nanus were collected from a site near a mining planet and a control site. Soil and L. shawii samples from the mining site showed a significant increase cadmium (Cd), cupper (Cu), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and vanadium (V). Hepatic, renal and pulmonary Cd, Pb, Hg, Zn, Cu, Fe, As and V concentrations were increased significantly in G. nanus at the mining site. Markers of liver and kidney function were elevated in serum, and several histological manifestations were demonstrated in liver, kidney and lung of G. nanus at the mining site. Malondialdehyde and nitric oxide were increased, and glutathione and antioxidant enzyme were declined in the liver and kidney of G. nanus. In conclusion, mining practices triggered tissue damage and oxidative stress in G. nanus living close to the mining site. These findings can represent the scientific basis for evaluating the environmental and health impact of mining in the on the nearby communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0045.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Cirrhosis; Bone marrow; Mesenchymal stem cells; Characteristics; Liver regeneration
Online: 5 June 2019 (15:43:03 CEST)
Liver cirrhosis leads to hepatic dysfunction and life-threatening conditions. Though clinical efficacy of autologous bone marrow-drived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) transplantation in alcoholic cirrhosis (AC) was demonstrated, the relevant mechanism has not been elucidated. We aimed to identify predictive factors and gene/pathways for responders after autologous BM-MSC transplantation. Fifty-five patients with biopsy-proven AC underwent autologous BM-MSC transplantation. The characteristics of responders who showed improvement in fibrosis score (≥ 1) after transplantation were compared with those of non-responders. BM-MSCs were analyzed with cDNA microarrays to identify genes and pathways that were differentially expressed in responder after transplantation. Thirty-three patients (66%) were responders. In the multivariate analysis, initial high Laennec score (p=0.007, odds ratio 3.73) and performance of BM-MSC transplantation (p=0.033, odds ratio 5.75) were predictive factors for responder. Three genes (olfactory receptor 2L8, microRNA4520-2, and chloride intracellular channel protein 3) were upregulated in responders and 11 metabolic pathways (inositol phosphate, ATP-binding cassette transporters, protein kinase signaling, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, endocytosis, phagosome, hematopoietic cell lineage, adipocytokine, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, fat digestion/absorption, and insulin resistance) were upregulated in non-responders (p<0.05). BM-MSC transplantation is warranted treatment for AC patients with high Laennec score. Cell-based therapy utilizing response-relating genes or pathway can be treatment candidate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0267.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, gut microbiota, gut-liver axis, intestinal dysbiosis
Online: 28 March 2019 (13:43:07 CET)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the leading causes of death worldwide, has a causal nexus with liver injury, inflammation, and regeneration that accumulate over decades. Observations from recent studies have accounted for the involvement of the gut-liver axis in the pathophysiological mechanism responsible for HCC. The human intestine nurtures a diversified colony of microorganisms residing in the host ecosystem. The intestinal barrier is critical for conserving the normal physiology of the gut microbiome. Therefore, a rupture of this barrier or dysbiosis cause the intestinal microbiome to serve as the main source of portal-vein endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharide, in the progression of hepatic diseases. Indeed, increased bacterial translocation is a key sign of HCC. Considering the limited number of clinical studies on HCC with respect to the microbiome, we focus on the clinical as well as animal studies involving the gut microbiota with the current understandings of the mechanism by which the intestinal dysbiosis promotes hepatocarcinogenesis. Future research might offer mechanistic insights into the specific phyla targeting the leaky gut, as well as microbial dysbiosis, and their metabolites, as key pathways that drive HCC-promoting microbiome-mediated liver inflammation and fibrosis, thereby restoring the gut barrier function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0026.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: AMPK; liver; lipid metabolism; fatty acid oxidation; indirect calorimetry
Online: 1 August 2018 (16:06:39 CEST)
The energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key player in the control of energy metabolism. AMPK regulates hepatic lipid metabolism through the phosphorylation of its well-recognized downstream target acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC). Although AMPK activation is proposed to lower hepatic triglyceride (TG) content via the inhibition of ACC to cause inhibition of de novo lipogenesis and stimulation of fatty acid oxidation (FAO), its contribution to the inhibition of FAO in vivo has been recently questioned. We generated a mouse model of AMPK activation specifically in the liver achieved by expression of a constitutively active AMPK using adenoviral delivery. Indirect calorimetry studies revealed that liver-specific AMPK activation is sufficient to induce a reduction in the respiratory exchange ratio and an increase in FAO rates in vivo. This led to a more rapid metabolic switch from carbohydrate to lipid oxidation during the transition from fed to fasting. Finally, mice with chronic AMPK activation in the liver display high fat oxidation capacity evidenced by increased [C14]-palmitate oxidation and ketone body production leading to reduced hepatic TG content and body adiposity. Our findings suggest a role for hepatic AMPK in the remodeling of lipid metabolism between the liver and adipose tissue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0231.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: green bitter weed; Hymenoxys odorato; liver and kidney toxicity
Online: 14 June 2018 (11:07:44 CEST)
Background: Medicinal plants are of great importance to health of individual and communities. About 80% of the population in Uganda relies on traditional medicine because western-trained medical personnel are limited especially in villages. Most Ugandans use Hymenoxys odorato for medicinal purposes e.g. to treat colds, fever, coughs, anti-helminthes, locally used as tea, anti-allergy and also as an anti-venom to relieve snake bites. Method: A group of 25 male wistar rats of 150 g–210 g were kept for 14 days while being fed and treated with the extract. At 14th day, anesthesia was given and blood samples collected by cardiac puncture for hematological and biochemical investigations. Serum was analyzed for Alkaline Phosphatase, Aspartate Transaminase and Alanine Transaminase while whole blood was used for complete blood count. The liver and kidney were removed and placed in 10% formalin to prepare for histology staining using haematoxylin and eosin technique. Results: The extract elevated hepatic biomarker enzymes i.e. ALP, ALT and AST. The increase was found to be significantly different (P > 0.05) at 400 and 500 mg/kg doses as compared to the control group. Histological sections of the liver showed distortion of liver cytoarchitecture, steatosis, necrosis of hepatocytes and congestion of the sinusoids at high doses 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg body weight. In the sections of the kidney, there was mild distortion of the integrity of the kidney with glomerular hypercellularity at high doses (400 and 500 mg/kg per body weight). Conclusion: Hymenoxys odorato aqueous extract has toxic effects on the liver and kidney of wistar rats. The effects were observed to be in a dose dependent manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0219.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: Akebia quinata extracts; alcohol; liver disease; CYP2E1; COX-2
Online: 31 May 2017 (11:38:36 CEST)
In this study, we investigated the effects of Akebia quinata ethanol extract (AE), Akebia quinata sikhye (AS), and Akebia quinata water extract (AW) on alcohol-induced liver injury in rats. The hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and antioxidant effects of AE, AS, and AW were examined. Experimental animals were randomly divided into five groups: normal, ethanol, AE (10 mL/kg), AS (10 mL/kg), and AW (10 mL/kg). Each group was administered the respective treatment orally once per day for 21 days. CYP2E1 mRNA expression was significantly lower in the AE, AS, and AW groups than that in the ethanol group. Pro-inflammatory cytokines including cyclooxygenase-2, IL-6, and TNF-α increased significantly in the ethanol group but these increases were ameliorated with AE, AS, and AW treatment. Moreover, the expression of the apoptosis-associated proteins Bax, p53, procaspase-3, and PARP decreased after treatment with AE, AS, and AW. The expression of antioxidant enzymes including BCL-2, SOD, and GST slightly decreased in the ethanol group, but AE, AS, and AW treatment augmented their activities. AQ extracts and AS attenuated ethanol-induced increases in the levels of phosphorylated p-AKT, p-ERK, and p-JNK. These results demonstrate that AQ is a competence indicator for inhibiting alcoholic liver injury.