SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0155.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Confidence interval; Infection fatality rate; Covid-19
Online: 8 July 2020 (12:04:50 CEST)
Covid-19 fatality rates of 0.37% (Gangelt, Germany) and 0.17% (Santa Clara, USA) have been reported, estimated from serological studies. We show that the two confidence intervals strongly overlap when the uncertainty in the number of deaths is taken into account, so that the two investigations may be regarded as representative of the same population (tentatively: “Western society with no overload of the Health Care System during the pandemic”). Combining the results, the Covid-19 fatality rate is estimated to be found with 95% confidence in the range [0.1%; 0.3%].
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0189.v1
Online: 9 July 2020 (12:18:46 CEST)
Background: The novel emerging virus SARS-CoV-2 has affected all human-kind during the first half of 2020. The aim of the study was to survey the actual circumstances from January until May. Methods: The data are collected and released systematically, by law, from the National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Disease (NESID). Findings: Analysis of these data revealed that the infection spread in Japan from late March to early April 2020. The SARS-CoV-2 infection rate at its peak was estimated to be 10%. Thus, the size of the population who may have been exposed to the novel virus in Japan is estimated at 0.2 million, which is relatively small. The number of related deaths is likely to converge on 1,000 people. Interpretation: Applying the law of large numbers allows estimation of the infection rate as well as of the size of the affected population by statistical analysis. How to collect the data must be defined before the data analysis is suggested to be important to reflect the actual circumstances about COVID-19.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0648.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Covid-19; case fatality rate; infection fatality rate; evolution of virulence; evolutionary medicine
Online: 30 August 2020 (10:26:58 CEST)
In the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, in the global data on the case fatality ratio and other indices reflecting death rate, there is a consistent downward trend from mid-April to mid-August. The downward trend can be an illusion caused by biases and limitations of data or it could faithfully reflect a declining death rate. A variety of explanations for this trend are possible, but a systematic analysis of the testable predictions of the alternative hypotheses has not yet been attempted. We state six testable alternative hypotheses, analyse their testable predictions using public domain data and evaluate their relative contributions to the downward trend. We show that a decline in the death rate is real; changing age structure of the infected population and evolution of the virus towards reduced virulence are the most supported hypotheses and together contribute to major part of the trend. The testable predictions from other explanations including altered testing efficiency, time lag, improved treatment protocols and herd immunity are not consistently supported, or do not appear to make a major contribution to this trend although they may influence some other patterns of the epidemic.
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19 infection; immunity; risk of COVID-19 infection; pandemics; outbreaks; voluntary infection
Online: 13 May 2020 (05:53:07 CEST)
Draconian defensive measures have been implemented to combat the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak. These important measures constitute a vital current priority but do little to increase communal immunity and avoid future outbreaks. A longer-term exit strategy for a sustainable return to normalcy has yet to be identified. The development of vaccines or effective therapeutics could largely solve the problem, but their timely development cannot be guaranteed. In this setting, and under the expected societal isolation fatigue from extended social distancing, we here propose the idea that at some point after the outbreak’s peak, hospitals, in addition to providing care for infected people who need it, could also be involved in the development of a controlled exit strategy designed to avoid future outbreaks. We postulate that controlled voluntary deliberate infection in a hospital setting and under continuous and close medical observation may offer a safer alternative compared to random en-masse exposure. We discuss potential risks and benefits, highlighting the need for careful consideration of the associated critical ethical issues.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0544.v1
Online: 31 August 2022 (10:20:23 CEST)
We performed an epi and molecular characterization of two healthcare workers MPXV occupational infection. Five days after the sampling collection, nurses developed typical MPXV infection symptoms. Infection was confirmed by qPCR and whole genome sequencing. The most likely transmission route was through contact with fomites in the patient belonging/house.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0187.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: human parechovirus; HPeV; PeV-A; Panama; gastrointestinal infection; respiratory infection
Online: 27 April 2022 (08:07:52 CEST)
Human Parechoviruses, officially known as Parechovirus A (PeV-A), is associated with mild gastrointestinal and respiratory illness in young children, however, they may also give rise to Central Nervous System (CNS) infections and neonatal sepsis. While studies have delved into the detection of PeV-A in different populations, the detection of PeV-A in Hispanic populations in Latin American countries is not well-known. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of PeV-A in respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological clinical samples of pediatric patients in Panama. Two hundred samples of pediatric patients with a negative diagnosis for the main respiratory viruses, rotavirus and neurological viruses such as herpesvirus, enterovirus and cytomegalovirus, collected between 2014 and 2015, were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. Eight positive PeV-A infections were detected, 2 in respiratory samples, 5 in stool samples and one detected in cerebrospinal fluid. This is the fisrt report of PeV-A in Panamá.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0248.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: probiotic; upper respiratory tract infection (URTI); infection; prevention; common cold
Online: 21 June 2020 (10:07:31 CEST)
Background: Probiotics can provide health benefits to an individual by regulation of the immune system. Many clinical trials have found that probiotics can prevent upper respiratory tracts infections. Aim: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of available trials to investigate the effectiveness of probiotics in the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections in individuals of all ages. Conclusion: Probiotics were found to be better in reducing the number of participants who experienced acute URTI, the average duration per episode of acute URTI, use of antibiotics in URTI related cases and absence due to URTI. Side effects were found to be minor, making probiotics a good candidate for clinical use. This shows that probiotics are effective in preventing acute URTIs. However, due to limited studies and small sample size, the results are subjected to bias and should be interpreted with care.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0474.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: prenatal infection; virome; viral antibody; VirScan; ViroCap; maternal viral infection; viral protein; GBV-C; placenta; fetal viral infection
Online: 29 August 2022 (08:07:37 CEST)
Human pegivirus (HPgV) is best known for persistent, presumably non-pathogenic, infection and a propensity to co-infect with human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis C virus. However, unique at-tributes, such as the increased risk of malignancy or immune modulation, have been recently recognized for HPgV. We have identified a unique case of a woman with high levels HPgV infection in two preg-nancies, which occurred 4 years apart, without evidence of human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis C virus infection. The second pregnancy was complicated by congenital heart disease. A high level of HPgV infection was detected in maternal blood from different trimesters by RT-PCR and identified as HPgV type 1 genotype 2 in both pregnancies. In the second pregnancy, the decidua and intervillous tissue of the placenta were positive for HPgV by PCR but not the chorion or cord blood (from both pregnancies), suggesting no vertical transmission despite high levels of viremia. The HPgV genome sequence was remarkably conserved over the 4 years. Using VirScan, sera antibodies for HPgV were detected in the first trimester of both pregnancies. We observed the same anti-HPgV antibodies against the non-structural NS5 protein in both pregnancies, suggesting a similar non-E2 protein humoral immune response over time. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of persistent HPgV infection involving placental tissues with no evidence of vertical transmission. Our results reveal a more elaborate viral-host interaction than previously reported, expand our knowledge about tropism, and opens avenues for exploring the replication sites of this virus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0475.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: catheter-associated infection; CAUTI; urinary tract infection; healthcare-associated infection; active drain line clearance; burns; intra-abdominal pressure; measurement
Online: 30 September 2022 (04:13:24 CEST)
OBJECTIVE A quality improvement study to assess catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) rate post-implementation of a bladder catheter with integrated active drain line urine clearance and automated intra-abdominal pressure monitoring in a burn intensive care unit (ICU). DESIGN Eight-year retrospective before and after study (2015–2022). SETTING A single American Burn Association verified Burn Center with fourteen inpatient beds. PATIENTS Patients meeting criteria for admission to a Burn Center METHODS Retrospective cohort study following the implementation of a novel urine output monitoring system with integrated drain line and urine clearance. Data from a 48-month (from January 2015-December 2018) historical control (period 1) were compared to data from a 28-month (from January 2020 to April 2022) post-implementation period (period 2). Pre- and post-implementation CAUTI event incidences were compared. Charts were reviewed to characterize the patients. RESULTS A total of 42 CAUTIs in 2243 patients were identified using the National Health and Safety Network (NHSN) definition during the analyzed period. There were 40 CAUTI events in period 1 and two CAUTIs in period 2. The incidence of CAUTI events pre-implementation was 0.030 (mean of 10 CAUTI events per year) compared to 0.002 (mean of 1 CAUTI event per year) post-implementation of an automatic drain line clearing UO monitoring system showing a significant reduction in CAUTI events (P<0.01, risk ratio novel vs. gravity bladder catheter 0.071, 95% confidence interval: 0.017-0.294). CONCLUSIONS CAUTIs were reduced in the period following the implementation of a novel urinary catheter system with an integrated active drain line and urine clearance in burn patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0176.v1
Online: 24 May 2017 (08:48:15 CEST)
Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors or differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B, a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0104.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Candida; Corneal infection; Corneal ulcer; Contact lens; Fungal infection; Fusarium; Infectious keratitis; Keratoplasty
Online: 6 October 2021 (10:45:42 CEST)
Fungal keratitis (FK) is a serious ocular infection that often poses significant diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. This study aimed to examine the causes, clinical characteristics, outcomes, and prognostic factors of FK in the UK. All culture-positive and culture-negative presumed FK (with complete data) that presented to Queen’s Medical Centre, Nottingham, and Queen Victoria Hospital, East Grinstead, between 2011 and 2020 were included. A total of 117 patients (n=117 eyes) with FK were included in this study. The mean age was 59.0±19.6 years (range, 4-92 years) and 51.3% patients were female. Fifty-three fungal isolates were identified from 52 (44.4%) culture-positive cases, with Candida spp. (33, 62.3%), Fusarium spp. (9, 17.0%), and Aspergillus spp. (5, 9.4%) being the most common organisms. Ocular surface disease (60, 51.3%), prior corneal surgery (44, 37.6%), and systemic immunosuppression (42, 35.9%) were the three most common risk factors. Hospitalisation for intensive treatment was required for 95 (81.2%) patients, with a duration of 18.9±16.3 days. Sixty-six (56.4%) patients required additional surgical interventions for eradicating the infection. Emergency therapeutic/tectonic keratoplasty was performed in 29 (24.8%) cases, though 13 (44.8%) of them failed at final follow-up. The final corrected-distance-visual-acuity (CDVA) was 1.67±1.08 logMAR. Multivariable logistic regression analyses demonstrated increased age, large infiltrate size (>3mm), and poor presenting CDVA (<1.0 logMAR) as significant negative predictive factors for poor visual outcome (CDVA of <1.0 logMAR) and poor corneal healing (>60 days of healing time or occurrence of corneal perforation requiring emergency keratoplasty; all p<0.05). In conclusion, FK represents a difficult-to-treat ocular infection that often results in poor visual outcome, with a high need for surgical interventions. Innovative treatment strategies are urgently required to tackle this unmet need.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0056.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: syphilis; Treponema pallidum; congenital infection
Online: 5 October 2020 (08:28:04 CEST)
Congenital syphilis still represents a worldwide public health problem. If left untreated, can lead to fetal demise and high neonatal morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, in the last decade there has been a resurgence of cases in the US. This review discusses the ongoing problem of this preventable congenital infection, vertical transmission and clinical manifestations while providing a guidance for the evaluation and management of infants born to mothers with reactive serologic tests for syphilis
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0201.v1
Online: 10 July 2020 (01:57:16 CEST)
The outbreak of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has infected more than 11 million people and has claimed more than 530.000 deaths world-wide. In July 2020, still, there is no specific treatment for disease caused by the novel coronavirus. In the search to curb the global pandemic COVID-19, some eastern and developing countries have approved various treatment with controversial efficacy, among that the use of the antimalarial Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), so far with inconclusive clinical evidence of effectiveness. On the other hand, computer-based screening suggest that HCQs analog are promising molecules, to impair viral replication in vitro. Therefore, what is emerging from this complex background, is the need to understand molecular mechanism beyond drugs that can be helpful against viral infection for this and future pandemic. The intent of this Brief Report is to highlight: i) the involvement of the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) cascade in viral infection and ii) the urgent need to have molecular data on the effectiveness of the combination of MAPK inhibitors together with HCQ and HCQs analogs in curbing viral infection. We are convinced that a better understanding of the patterns of elicited molecular mechanisms will be critical for new molecular approaches to this severe disease
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0361.v1
Online: 23 May 2020 (05:40:26 CEST)
Italy suffered heavily with the new pandemic crisis caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Given the low number of tests performed on the early stages of the outbreak, Italy lost track of most of infections. We use a modified SEIR model to reconstruct the most realistic infection curve using the hospitalization curve of the registered data. Using this method we estimated that, by the end of the first infection wave, about 3-4% of the population will have been infected by the virus. Following the same process, the number of deaths is projected to be between 100000 to 115000. We also find a significant correlation between the number of tests performed, the fraction of undocumented infections and the rate of change dI/dt of the real infection curve. We conclude that herd immunity is not enough to contain further spread of the disease inside the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0438.v1
Online: 24 April 2020 (10:53:36 CEST)
COVID-19 breakout in Italy has caused a huge number of severely ill patients with a serious increase in mortality. Although lungs seem to be the main target of the infection very few information are available about liver involvement in COVID-19 infection, that could possibly evocate a systemic disease targeting a lot of organs. Since now there are no reports of large series of histological evaluation of liver morphology in this setting. Knowledge of histological liver findings connected to clinical data is crucial in management of this disease.Post-mortem wedge liver biopsies from 48 patients died for COVID-19 infection were available from two main hospitals located in northern Italy, Lombardy; all sample were obtained during autopsies. No patient has a significant clinical complain of liver disease or signs of liver failure before and during hospitalization; for each of them laboratory data focused on liver were available. All liver samples showed minimal inflammation features; on the other side, many histological pictures compatible with vascular alterations were observed, characterized by portal vein braches number increase associated with lumen massive dilatation, partial or complete recent luminal thrombosis of portal and sinusoidal vessels, fibrosis of portal tract, focally severely enlarged and fibrotic. Our preliminary results concerning histological liver involvement in COVID-19 infection confirm the clinical impression that liver failure is not a main concern and this organ is not the target of significant inflammatory damage; histopatological findings are highly suggestive for marked alteration of intrahepatic blood vessel network secondary to systemic alterations induced by virus that could target, besides lung parenchyma, cardiovascular system, coagulation cascade or endothelial layer of blood vessels.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0384.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Zika virus; field mosquito population; vector competence; transmission efficiency; infection rate; disseminated infection rate
Online: 21 December 2022 (04:12:17 CET)
Zika virus (ZIKV) is transmitted to humans by the infectious bite of mosquitoes like Aedes aegypti. After a viremic blood meal, the virus must infect the midgut, disseminate to tissues, and reach the salivary gland to be transmitted to a vertebrate host. Many factors influence the mosquito’s ability to become infected and transmit viruses, such as the mosquito’s genetic diversity, intrinsic antiviral barriers, and midgut microbiota. This study evaluated the patterns of ZIKV infection in Ae. aegypti field populations of a city. The infection rate, disseminated infection rate, viral transmission rate, and transmission efficiency were measured by quantitative PCR at 14 days post-infection. The results showed that all Ae. aegypti populations had individuals susceptible to ZIKV infection and able to transmit the virus. The infection parameters showed the city’s geographical area of origin of the Ae. aegypti influences their vector competence for ZIKV transmission.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0058.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Needlestick and other sharp injuries; hospital-acquired infection; biological hazards; infection control; occupational hazards
Online: 3 March 2022 (08:13:53 CET)
Needlestick and other sharp injuries (NSIs) are critical occupational hazard for healthcare workers. Exposure to blood and body fluids through NSIs increases the risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens among them. The objectives of this study were to estimate the one-year incidence of NSIs and investigate its associated factors among the healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted between October and November 2021. A total of 361 healthcare workers participated in the survey from all over Saudi Arabia. The one-year incidence of NSIs among healthcare workers is estimated at 22.2%. More than half of the injury event (53.8%) was not reported to the authority by the healthcare worker. Incidence of NSIs was highest among the physicians (36%) and is followed by nurses (34.8%), dentists (29.2%), and medical technologists (21.1%). The likelihood of injury is higher (OR: 2.51; 95% CI: 1.04, 6.03) among the works aged 26 – 30 years compared to the 20 – 25 years age group and the workers directly deal with needles or other sharp objects while working (OR: 5.90; 2.69, 12.97). The high incidence rate of injury and low reporting rate highlight the needs of an education program targeting healthcare providers with higher risk.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: odontogenic infection; dental abscess; head and neck infection; dental epidemiology; racial discrepancy; gender discrepancy
Online: 2 November 2020 (10:33:47 CET)
Odontogenic infections are infections of the orofacial structures arising from dental disease. Despite its preventability, it exerts a significant burden on healthcare infrastructure worldwide. Our study explored the various different microbiological, social, and epidemiological characteristics of 103 cases of odontogenic infections at our regional center which demonstrated specific predilections for the young and middle-aged, those with diabetes mellitus, African American/Black and Hispanic ethnicities, posterior teeth, left-sided dentition, and male gender. However, nuances and exceptions to these trends were also seen with specific groups that may complicate treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0082.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Trypanosomosis, adaptive immunity, parasitemia control, infection
Online: 6 May 2021 (12:53:49 CEST)
Salivarian trypanosomes are extracellular parasites affecting humans, livestock and game animals. Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense are human infective sub-species of T. brucei causing Human African Trypanosomosis (HAT - sleeping sickness). The related T. b. brucei parasite lacks the resistance to survive in human serum, and only inflicts animal infections. Animal Trypanosomosis (AT) is not restricted to Africa, but is present on all continents. T. congolense and T. vivax are the most widespread pathogenic trypanosomes in sub-Sahara Africa. Trough mechanical transmission, T. vivax has however been introduced into South America. T. evansi is a unique animal trypanosome that is found in vast territories around the world and can cause atypical Human Trypanosomosis (aHT). All salivarian trypanosomes are well adapted to survival inside the host’s immune system. This is not a hostile environment for these parasite, but this is the place where they thrive. Here we provide an overview of the latest insights into the host-parasite interaction and the unique survival strategies allowing trypanosomes to outsmart the immune system. In addition, we review new developments in treatment and diagnosis as well the issues that have hampered the development of field-applicable anti-trypanosome vaccines for the implementation of sustainable disease control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0182.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: candida; bloodstream infection; pediatric; neonatal; antifungal
Online: 8 December 2020 (07:47:24 CET)
Background. Candida bloodstream infections (CBSIs) have decreased among pediatric populations in the United States, but remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Species distributions and susceptibility patterns of CBSI isolates diverge widely between children and adults. Awareness of these patterns can inform clinical decision-making for empiric or pre-emptive therapy of children at risk for candidemia. Methods. CBSIs occurring from 2006-2016 among patients in a large children’s hospital were analyzed for age specific trends in incidence rate, risk factors for breakthrough-CBSI and death, as well as underlying conditions. Candida species distributions and susceptibility patterns were evaluated in addition to antifungal agent use. Results. The overall incidence rate of CBSI among this complex patient population was 1.97/1,000 patient-days. About half of CBSI episodes occurred in immunocompetent children and 14% in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) patients. Antifungal resistance was minimal: 96.7% of isolates were fluconazole-, 99% were micafungin-, and all were amphotericin susceptible. Liposomal amphotericin was the most commonly prescribed antifungal agent including for NICU patients. Overall CBSI-associated mortality was 13.7%; there were no deaths associated with CBSI among NICU patients after 2011. Conclusions. Pediatric CBSI characteristics differ substantially from those in adults. Improved management of underlying diseases and antimicrobial stewardship may further decrease morbidity and mortality from CBSI while continuing to maintain low resistance rates among Candida isolates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0370.v1
Online: 23 May 2020 (10:25:16 CEST)
This article explores the knowledge about preventions, perceptions of infections, and the responsive actions to the Covid-19 situation of the young age groups residing in Bangladesh. Quantitative data were collected online using an MCQ questionnaire from around 932 participants. Results show the population is generally aware of the symptoms, keeping social distance by staying home and are concerned about re-spreading after the lock-down period. However, they are quite unsure about the possible medicines frequently talked about in the media and the necessity of avoiding animal protein.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0451.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: gynaecology; gynecology infection; safety; polypectomy; biopsy
Online: 9 April 2020 (10:01:17 CEST)
The potential for transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus during minimally invasive gynaecological procedures, such as hysteroscopy or laparoscopy, on the reproductive tract of patients with COVID-19 is not known. We examined existing data for prevalence of virus in the reproductive tract and other bodily fluids.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0270.v1
Online: 20 December 2019 (07:31:14 CET)
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus that causes febrile illness punctuated by severe polyarthralgia. After the emergence of CHIKV in the Western Hemisphere, multiple reports of congenital infections were published that documented neurological complications, cardiac defects, respiratory distress, and miscarriage. The Western Hemisphere is endemic to several alphaviruses and whether antigenic cross-reactivity can impact the course of infection has not been explored. Recent advances in biomedical engineering have produced cell co-culture models that replicate the cellular interface at the maternal fetal axis. We employed a trans-well assay to determine if cross-reactive antibodies affected the movement and replication of CHIKV across placental cells and into an embryoid body. The data show that antibodies to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) significantly reduced CHIKV viral load in embryoid bodies. The data highlight that viral pathogenesis can be cell-specific and that exploiting antigenic cross-reactivity could be an avenue for reducing the impact of congenital CHIKV infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0326.v1
Online: 19 December 2022 (06:47:56 CET)
Liposome-mediated delivery is a possible means to overcome several shortcomings with C. elegans as a model for identifying and testing drugs that retard aging. These include interactions between drugs and the nematodes’ bacterial food source, and failure of drugs to be taken up into nematode tissues. To explore this, we have tested liposome-mediated delivery of a range of fluorescent dyes and drugs in C. elegans. Liposome encapsulation led to enhanced effects on lifespan, using smaller quantities of compound, and enhanced uptake of three dyes into the gut lumen. However, one dye (Texas red) did not cross into nematode tissues, indicating that liposomes cannot ensure uptake of any compound. Of six compounds previously reported to extend lifespan (vitamin C, N-acetylcysteine, glutathione (GSH), trimethadione, thioflavin T (ThT) and rapamycin), this effect was reproduced for the latter four in a condition-dependent manner. For GSH and ThT, antibiotics abrogated life extension, implying a bacterially-mediated effect. With GSH, this was attributable to reduced early death from pharyngeal infection, and associated with alterations of mitochondrial morphology in a manner suggesting a possible innate immune training effect. By contrast, ThT exhibited antibiotic effects. For rapamycin, significant increases in lifespan were only seen when bacterial proliferation was prevented. These results document the utility and limitations of liposome-mediated drug delivery for C. elegans. They also show how nematode-bacteria interactions can determine the effects of compounds on C. elegans lifespan in a variety of ways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0133.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: skin infection; antibiotics; quinolone; S. aureus; geriatrics
Online: 8 November 2022 (01:57:03 CET)
INTRODUCTION: Superficial cutaneous bacterial infections have a high incidence in geriatric patients. The most implicated pathogens are gram-positive cocci (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes) while gram-negative germs are also implicated. Resistances to common topical antibiotics (mupirocin, fusidic acid) require alternatives to gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.Ozenoxacin cream for topical use (non-fluorinated bactericidal quinolone), in other countries and with other galenics, is indicated in children older than 6 months and in adults as a treatment of superficial bacterial infections, such as acne. In Spain, ozenoxacin cream is indicated only for non-bullous impetigo; scientific evidence show effectiveness also in other superficial skin bacterial infections.A cases series of clinical use of ozenoxacin in bacterial superficial skin infections in geriatric patients (institutionalized or community dwelling) is presented.METHODS: Multicenter case series (March-August 2022) of bacterial superficial skin infections treated with ozenoxacin cream (10mg/g every 12h, 5days); data from medical records (controls: 1-3-5 days), after obtaining informed consent (use of data and images).RESULTS: Series of 28 patients (mean age: 84,79) from nine nursing homes and one outpatient geriatric service, including acute and subacute/chronic cases.In all cases treatment was ozenoxacin 10mg/g topical cream applied every 12 hours for 5 days according to medical prescription (except for one case in which 3 days were enough for complete healing and another case treated for 10 days).Results showed complete healing in all 20 acute cases and significant clinical improvement in all subacute/chronic cases (with complete healing in one of them). Professionals scored the effectiveness in acute cases as a mean 4.5 points (maximum score: 5, p<.0001) and in subacute/chronic cases as 3.8 points (p=.010).There was no skin irritation or other adverse effects in anyone of the patients, and clinical improvement of pain, itching and other symptoms was observed, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our results seem to demonstrate the effectiveness and tolerability of ozenozacin cream in bacterial infections other than non-bullous impetigo. Ozenoxacin cream is indicated only for the treatment of non-bullous impetigo; however, it is also shown to be effective, both in the scientific evidence and in our case series, for other superficial bacterial skin infections, both acute and subacute/chronic, suggesting the opportunity for clinical studies with an experimental design to evaluate the findings of clinical practice and to be able to have a therapeutic alternative to compensate for the complications of the appearance of resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0264.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Secretory leucoprotease inhibitor; SLPI; inflammation; infection; Pseudomonas
Online: 19 October 2022 (03:59:12 CEST)
Secretory leucoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) has multifaceted functions, including inhibition of protease activity, antimicrobial functions, and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we show that SLPI plays a role in controlling pulmonary P. aeruginosa infection. Mice lacking SLPI were highly susceptible to P. aeruginosa infection, however had no difference in bacterial burden. Utilising a model of P. aeruginosa LPS-induced lung inflammation, human recombinant SLPI (hrSLPI) administered intraperitoneally suppressed the recruitment of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and resulted in reduced BALF and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. This anti-inflammatory effect of hrSLPI was similarly demonstrated in a systemic inflammation model induced by intraperitoneal injection of LPS from various bacteria or lipoteichoic acid, highlighting the broad anti-inflammatory properties of hrSLPI. Moreover, in bone-marrow-derived macrophages, hrSLPI reduced LPS-induced phosphorylation of p-IkB-α, p-IKK-α/β, p-P38, demonstrating that the anti-inflammatory effect of hrSLPI was due to the inhibition of the NFB and MAPK pathways. In conclusion, administration of hrSLPI attenuates excessive inflammatory responses and is therefore, a promising strategy to target inflammatory diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome or sepsis and could potentially be used to augment antibiotic treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0256.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Zika virus; intravaginal infection; superchallenge; neutralizing antibody
Online: 18 October 2022 (07:45:22 CEST)
Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks in Central and South America caused severe public health problems in 2015 and 2016. These outbreaks were finally contained through several methods, including mosquito control using insecticides and repellents. Additionally, the development of herd immunity in these countries might have contributed to containing the epidemic. While ZIKV is mainly transmitted by mosquito bites, mucosal transmission via bodily fluids, including the semen of infected individuals, has also been reported. We evaluated the effect of mucosal ZIKV infection on continuous subcutaneous challenges in a cynomolgus monkey model. Repeated intravaginal inoculations of ZIKV did not induce detectable viremia or clinical symptoms, and all animals developed a potent neutralizing antibody, protecting animals from the subsequent subcutaneous superchallenge. These results suggest that viral replication at mucosal sites can induce protective immunity without causing systemic viremia or symptoms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0341.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Hepatitis B Virus; Chronic Hepatitis infection; Oncogenesis
Online: 22 July 2022 (13:18:26 CEST)
Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) Virus infection is major etiological factor for liver cirrhosis and/ or liver cancer. The viral protein, major contributor in predisposition of chronicity and Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is Hepatitis B x (HBx) protein. Its dynamic subcellular distribution to an extent determines its multifactorial role. It is a regulatory protein which modulates viral as well as host machinery in favours to HBV persistence. An insight on HBx stabilising factors is critical for therapeutic purpose. The precise role of HBx in the pathogenesis of Chronicity of HBV is not known. Summary: This review comprehensively summarizing different mechanisms and their regulation by HBx protein with respect to chronicity and HCC emphasising viral persistence. Key Messages 1. HBx is a key protein for viral persistence. 2. Dynamic subcellular distribution of HBx determines its function. 3. HBx modulates cellular machinery to favours HBV survival. 4. HBx affects various intermediary mechanisms contributing to disease progression. 5. HBx may be a potent target to prevent the disease progression towards HCC.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0364.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Diabetic foot infection; Sonication Method; Microbiological diagnosis.
Online: 24 November 2021 (11:51:36 CET)
We hypothesized that biofilm production occurs on stainless steel when incubated with tissue specimens in thioglycolate broth media (TBM). In a diabetic foot infection (DFI) cohort, applying the Kirschner wire and conventional methods were more sensitive than applying only the latter (CI 90%; 0.167 versus 0.375).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0474.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; coronavirus infection; inequalities; socioeconomic factors.
Online: 20 May 2021 (10:21:34 CEST)
Background: The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of socioeconomic inequalities, both at the individual and area of residence levels, on the probability of COVID-19 confirmed infection, and its variations across three pandemic waves. Methods: Retrospective cohort study. We included data from all individuals tested by COVID-19 during the three waves of the pandemic, from March to December 2020 (357,989 individuals). We studied the effect of inequalities on the risk of having a COVID-19 confirmed diagnosis after being tested using multilevel analyses with two levels of aggregation: individuals and basic healthcare area (BHA) of residence (deprivation level and type of zone). Results: Patient profile changed through the pandemic, with a predominance of low-paid employees living in deprived BHA. Workers with low salaries, unemployed and people on minimum integration income or who no longer receive the unemployment allowance, had a higher probability of COVID-19 infection than workers with salaries ≥€18,000 per year. Inequalities were higher in women and in the second wave. The deprivation level of BHA of residence influenced the risk of COVID-19 infection, especially in the second wave. Conclusions: There are inequalities in the risk of COVID-19 confirmed infection, both at individual and area level. It is necessary to develop individual and area coordinated measures in the control, diagnosis and treatment of the epidemic, in order to avoid an increase in the already existing inequalities.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; canine; gastrointestinal; infection; virus
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:23:45 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2 infects a range of host species. However, the susceptibility of companion animals to SARS-CoV-2 and their potential ability to transmit the virus to humans remains unclear. Here, we present a detailed clinical description of an immunosuppressed dog that was infected with SARS-CoV-2. The dog had severe gastrointestinal (GI) clinical signs, coagulopathy, elevated hepatic transaminases, and met canine systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria, without respiratory clinical signs, mirroring a subset of humans with GI-restricted COVID-19. Viral sequencing demonstrated divergence from other reported sequences, based on phylogenetic analysis. The dog shed high levels of virus for a prolonged time period with positive virus isolation. The dog’s immunosuppressed state may have increased both susceptibility to infection and disease progression. Together, our findings suggest that certain individual companion animals may be at higher risk for severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, COVID-19-like disease, and high viral shedding, which may pose a transmission risk to humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0597.v1
Online: 26 February 2021 (08:59:29 CET)
Medical surveillance and risk mitigation protocols to reduce viral transmission have underpinned the return of elite football during the COVID-19 pandemic. This article describes the evidence-informed approach and surveillance findings from the English Football League across a 9-week period at the end of the 2019-20 season. Protocols were devised by the lead EFL Medical Advisor with specialist occupational medicine input. Isolation requirements for cases and contacts were in-line with UK Government regulations, with external contact tracing conducted by local public health authorities. Quantitative PCR testing was conducted twice weekly and within 72 hours of fixtures. 43 individuals, including 18 players returned positive tests. No positive results were returned after week 5 (round 10). Our findings support those from other leagues that with appropriate compliance, elite football can continue safely during this pandemic. We recommend that protocols and compliance should be revised as necessary according to community prevalence and changes in viral transmission dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0174.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: cesarean section; urinary catheterization; urinary tract infection
Online: 8 September 2020 (06:06:44 CEST)
Objective: Urinary catheters are known cause of urinary morbidities. The longer the catheter is retained, the greater the risk for contamination and infection. An increasing body of literature suggests routine practice of catheterization and retaining it for 24 hours does not add any procedural advantage. Thus, we sought to study outcomes in relation to early vs. delayed removal of urinary catheters following cesarean section. Methods: We randomly assigned 116 patients into early and delayed removal of urinary catheter groups. In the early group, catheter was removed immediately after the procedure and in the delayed removal group, catheter was removed 24 hours later. Clinical outcomes were measured in terms of significant bacteriuria 72 hours postop, voiding difficulties, urinary retention, mobilization time, length of hospital stay, and patient satisfaction. Results: Study revealed higher incidence of bacteriuria in the delayed removal group (32.8% vs. 15.5%, P = 0.030). Urinary frequency was also higher (34.6% Vs. 8.6%, P=0.001). However, there were no difference between the two groups in other urinary complaints including dysuria and urgency (P = 0.103 & P = 0.087). Urinary retention was more frequent in the early group, but difference was not significant (P = 0.080). Patients with immediate removal of the urinary catheter had early ambulation and early discharge from hospital (P = 0.001 and P = 0.040) and were generally satisfied with the procedure (P= 0.010). Conclusion: Our study showed that immediate removal of urinary catheter was associated with lower urinary complications, shorter length of hospitalization and associated cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0075.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: COVID-19 infection; CT-scan; oncological patients
Online: 4 September 2020 (03:14:13 CEST)
Background The acknowledgment of computed tomography (CT) defined diagnosis in high prevalence northern Italy may identify more patients with Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID 19) infection, than RT-PCR alone. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 148 chest CT scans of oncological patients who were referred to the Radiological Unit of Policlinico S. Marco from 1st of February 2020 to 30th of April 2020, during the Covid-19 outbreak in Bergamo area. Therefore, we analyzed RT-PCR tests of these 148 patients. Results Among 32 patients with diagnosis of COVID-19 infection: 17 patients were asymptomatic or had mild symptoms (53.1%), while 15 developed severe disease (46.8%). The incidence of COVID-19 infection is 22.9%, the mortality rate is 18.8%. Severe COVID-19 disease is associated with higher median age. We did not find any correlation between disease severity and sex, smoke or cardiovascular comorbidities. Remarkably, patients who were on treatment developed milder disease than cancer patients who were not on treatment. Conclusions The acceptance of CT-defined diagnosis in high prevalence area like Bergamo highlighted a larger number of COVID-19 oncological population than RT-PCR alone, in particular asymptomatic and mild symptomatic patients. We observed that actively treated patients had milder disease, according to previous studies that suggested a protective role of immunosuppression.
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; coronavirus; fulminant myocarditis; infection; echocardiography.
Online: 7 April 2020 (01:03:22 CEST)
Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been demonstrated to be the cause of pneumonia. Nevertheless, it has not been reported as the cause of acute myocarditis or fulminant myocarditis. Case presentation: A 63-year-old male was admitted with pneumonia and cardiac symptoms. He was genetically confirmed as having COVID-19 according to sputum testing on the day of admission. He also had elevated troponin I (Trop I) level (up to 11.37 g/L) and diffuse myocardial dyskinesia along with a decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) on echocardiography. The highest level of interleukin-6 was 272.40 pg/ml. Bedside chest radiographs showed typical ground-glass changes indicative of viral pneumonia. Laboratory test results for viruses that cause myocarditis were all negative. The patient conformed to the diagnostic criteria of the Chinese expert consensus statement for fulminant myocarditis. After receiving antiviral therapy and mechanical life support, Trop I was reduced to 0.10 g/L, and interleukin-6 was reduced to 7.63 pg/ml. Moreover, the LVEF of the patient gradually recovered to 68%. The patient died of aggravation of secondary infection on the 33rd day of hospitalization. Conclusion: COVID-19 patients may develop severe cardiac complications such as myocarditis and heart failure. This is the first report of COVID-19 complicated with fulminant myocarditis. The mechanism of cardiac pathology caused by COVID-19 needs further study.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0271.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Coronavirus; 2019-nCOV; SARS-CoV-2; transmission; infection; conjunctiva; eye
Online: 24 March 2020 (06:42:35 CET)
The outbreak of recently identified 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCOV) infection has become a world-wide health threat. Currently, more information is needed for further understanding the transmission, clinical characteristics, and infection control procedures of 2019-nCOV. Recently, the role of the eye in transmitting 2019-nCOV has been intensively discussed. Previous investigations about other high infectious human COVs, that is, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), may provide helpful information. In this review, we describe the genomics and morphology of human CoVs, the epidemiology, systemic and ophthalmic manifestations, mechanisms of human CoVs infection, and infection control procedures. The role of the eye in the transmission of SARS-CoV and 2019-nCOV is discussed. Although the conjunctiva is directly exposed to extraocular pathogens, and the mucosa of ocular surface and upper respiratory tract is connected by nasolacrimal duct and share same entry receptors for some respiratory viruses. The eye is rarely involved in human CoVs infection, conjunctivitis is quite rare in patients with SARS-CoV and 2019-nCoV infection, and COV RNA positive rate by RT-PCR test in tears and conjunctival secretions from patients with SARS-CoV and 2019-nCoV infection is also very low, which imply that the eye is neither a preferred organ of human COVs infection, nor is a preferred gateway of entry for human COVs to infect respiratory tract. However, pathogens exposed to the ocular surface might be transported to nasal and nasopharyngeal mucosa by constant tear rinsing through lacrimal duct, and then cause respiratory tract infection. Considering close doctor-patient contact is quite common in ophthalmic practice which are apt to transmit human COVs by droplets and fomites, hand hygiene and personal protection are still highly recommended for health care workers to avoid hospital-related viral transmission during ophthalmic practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0066.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Escherichia coli; antimicrobial resistance; infection; molecular epidemiology
Online: 7 February 2019 (09:15:44 CET)
Background: Infections caused by E. coli cause considerable disease burden and range from frequently occurring and relatively innocent urinary tract infection (UTI) to severe bloodstream infection (BSI). The incidence of infections caused by ESBL-producing E. coli (ESBL-PEc) is increasing, justifying surveillance and development of preventive strategies in several domains. Faecal carriage is universal and believed to be the most important reservoir for E. coli from which infections can originate. It is currently unknown to what extent Dutch E. coli carriage strains in the community reflect isolates causing disease. In this study, we will perform comparative genomics to infer the population structures of human-derived ESBL-PEc from community- and hospital-acquired infections and from community-based faecal carriage samples in the Netherlands. Furthermore, we will describe the molecular epidemiology of E. coli isolates causing invasive disease (BSI). Methods: This study uses four different microbiological data sources: 1) ESBL-PEc from patients with community-acquired UTI tested in primary care between May and November 2017, 2) ESBL-PEc from urine cultures obtained from patients hospitalized between January 2014 and December 2016, 3) E. coli from blood cultures obtained from patients hospitalized between January 2014 and December 2016, and 4) ESBL-PEc from faecal samples collected in a national population- prevalence study performed between January 2014 and January 2017. Clinical epidemiological data was collected from all patients and all isolates were subjected to whole genome sequencing. Discussion: The EPIGENEC study (EPIdemiology and GENetics of E. coli) will describe the molecular epidemiology of E. coli BSI and assess the genomic population structure of ESBL-PEc strains from community-acquired and nosocomial infections, and of ESBL-PEc reflecting community-based faecal carriage. Information from these studies may assist in optimizing surveillance strategies and determining targets and potential impact of future new preventive measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0053.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: epidemiology of fungal infections; infection burden; Uruguay
Online: 6 February 2018 (06:52:38 CET)
We aimed to estimate for the first time the burden of fungal infections in Uruguay. Data on population characteristics and underlying conditions were extracted from the National Statistics Institute, the World Bank, national registries and published articles. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies extrapolating from the literature. Population structure: total 3,444,006; 73% adults; 35% women younger than 50 years. Size of populations at risk: HIV infected 12,000; acute myeloid leukemia 126; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 30; solid organ transplants 134; COPD 272,006 (19.7% of older than 40); asthma in adults 223,431 (prevalence 9%); cystic fibrosis in adults 48; tuberculosis 613 (incidence 26.2%), lung cancer 1,400 (ASR incidence 27.4). Annual incidence estimations per 100,000: 22.4 invasive aspergillosis, 16.4 candidaemia, 3.7 Candida peritonitis, 1.62 Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, 0.75 cryptococcosis, severe asthma with fungal sensitisation 217, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis 165, recurrent Candida vaginitis 6,323, oral candidiasis 74.5 and oesophageal candidiasis 25.7. Although some under and overestimations could have been made, we expect that at least 127,525 people suffer from serious fungal infections each year. Sporothrichosis, histoplasmosis, paracoccidioidomycosis and dermatophytosis are known to be frequent but no data are available to make accurate estimations. Given the magnitude of the burden of fungal infections in Uruguay, efforts should be made to improve surveillance, strengthen laboratory diagnosis and warrant access to first line antifungals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0448.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: moderate exercise; vigorous exercise; upper respiratory infection; immunity
Online: 10 January 2023 (02:31:03 CET)
The practice of physical activity is an effective non-pharmacological strategy for preventing and treating chronic diseases. A large body of evidence has contributed to establishing a positive correlation between a physically active lifestyle and health benefits, including enhanced vaccination responses, lower numbers of senescent T-cells, increased T-cell proliferative capacity, lower levels of inflammatory cytokines, and improved neutrophil and macrophage function. While females are generally thought to exert more robust immune responses than males in response to a variety of challenges, and both male and female sex hormones have been suggested as mediators of immune function, research on this topic has not always been designed with a sex-specific lens. The goal of this review is to summarize the available experimental and clinical evidence linking exercise and immune function in male and female subjects, with an emphasis on sex differences and sex-specific mechanisms. Overall, the available evidence indicates that moderate exercise and physical activity improves immune function in both sexes, whereas prolonged and high-intensity exercise temporarily impairs immune responses at a higher degree in females. A role of male and female sex hormones in these sex-specific effects is also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0383.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Obstructive Sleep Apnea; COVID-19; Hospitalization; Infection; Epidemiology
Online: 26 September 2022 (08:02:12 CEST)
Background: Medical comorbidities increase the risk of severe COVID-19 infection. In some studies, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been identified as a comorbid condition that is associated with an increased prevalence of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization, but few have investigated this association in a general population. Research Question: In a general population, is OSA associated with increased odds of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization and are these altered with COVID-19 vaccination? Study Design: Cross-sectional survey of a diverse sample of 15,057 U.S. adults Results: COVID-19 infection and hospitalization rates were 38.9% and 2.9% respectively. OSA or OSA symptoms were reported in 19.4%. In logistic regression models adjusted for demographic, socio-economic and comorbid medical conditions, OSA was positively associated with COVID-19 infection (aOR: 1.58, 95%CI: 1.39-1.79) and COVID-19 hospitalization (aOR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.17-2.05). In fully adjusted models, boosted vaccination status was protective against both infection and hospitalization. Boosted vaccination status attenuated the association between OSA and COVID-19 related hospitalization, but not infection. Participants with untreated or symptomatic OSA were at greater risk for COVID-19 infection; those with untreated, but not symptomatic OSA were more likely to be hospitalized. Interpretation: In a general population sample, OSA is associated with a greater likelihood of having had a COVID-19 infection and a COVID-19 hospitalization with the greatest impact observed among persons experiencing OSA symptoms or who were untreated for their OSA. Boosted vaccination status attenuated the association between OSA and COVID-19 related hospitalization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0046.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: infectious keratitis; corneal infection; antibiotic susceptibility; antimicrobial resistance
Online: 4 July 2022 (09:41:43 CEST)
Infectious keratitis (IK) represents a major cause of corneal blindness. This study aims to investigate the demographics, risk factors, microbiological characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of IK in Taiwan over the past 15 years. A retrospective population-based study was conducted using the Chang Gung Research Database. Patients with IK were identified by diagnostic codes for corneal ulcer from 2004 to 2019. Of 7807 included subjects, 45.2% of patients had positive corneal cultures. The proportion of contact lens-related IK declined, while that of IK related to systemic diseases grew. The percentage of isolated gram-positive bacteria surpassed that of gram-negative bacteria in the 15-year period. The prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed a decreasing trend (p = 0.004), whereas coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) and Propionibacterium species were increasingly detected (p < 0.001). Overall, the trend of antibiotic susceptibility of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria did not change throughout the study period. The susceptibility to the test antibiotics maintained over 90% in gram-negative isolates during 15 years. Vancomycin preserved 100% susceptibility to all gram-positive isolates. Since most tested antibiotics exhibited stable susceptibility over decades, this study reinforced that fluoroquinolones and fortified vancomycin continue to be good empiric therapies for treating bacterial keratitis in Taiwan.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0125.v1
Online: 10 May 2022 (03:44:27 CEST)
Gal-3BP is a multifunctional glycoprotein involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions known to be upregulated in cancer and various viral infections, including HIV-1, HCV and SARS-CoV-2, with a key role in regulating the antiviral immune response. Studies have identified a direct correlation between circulating levels of Gal-3BP and the severity of disease and/or disease progression for some viral infections, including SARS-CoV-2, suggesting a role of Gal-3BP in these processes. Due to Gal-3BP’s complex biology, the molecular mechanisms underlying its role in viral diseases have been only partially clarified. Gal-3BP induces the expression of IFN and pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6, mainly interacting with galectin-3, targeting TRAF-6 and TRAF-3 complex, thus having a putative role in the modulation of TGF-β signaling. In addition, an antiviral activity of Gal-3BP has been ascribed to a direct interaction of the protein with virus components. In this review, we explored the role of Gal-3BP in viral infections and the relationship between Gal-3BP upregulation and disease severity and progression, mainly focusing on SARS-CoV-2. Augmented knowledge of Gal-3BP role in virus infections can be useful to evaluate its possible use as a prognostic biomarker and as a putative target to block or attenuate severe disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0634.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: deubiquitinase; envelope protein; USP38; virus infection; Zika virus
Online: 28 July 2021 (17:02:36 CEST)
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, and its infection may cause severe neurodegenerative diseases. The outbreak of ZIKV in 2015 in South American has caused severe human congenital and neurologic disorders. Thus, it is vitally important to figure out inner mechanism of ZIKV infection. Here, our data suggested that the ubiquitin-specific peptidase 38 (USP38) played an important role in host resistance to ZIKV infection, during which ZIKV infection did not affect USP38 expression. Mechanistically, USP38 bound to ZIKV envelope (E) protein through its C-terminal domain and attenuated its K48-linked and K63-linked polyubiquitination, thereby repressed the infection of ZIKV. In addition, we found that the deubiquitinase activity of USP38 was essential to inhibit ZIKV infection, and the mutant that lacked the deubiquitinase activity of USP38 lost ability to inhibit the infection. In conclusion, we found a novel host protein USP38 against ZIKV infection, and this may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment and prevention of ZIKV infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0236.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: CPE; drains; hospital plumbing; environmental contamination; infection control
Online: 12 July 2021 (09:37:00 CEST)
Sink waste traps and drains are a reservoir for multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria in the hospital environment. It has been suggested that these bacteria can migrate through hospital plumbing. Hospital waste traps were installed in a laboratory model system where sinks were connected through a common wastewater pipe. Enterobacterales populations were monitored using selective culture, MALDI-TOF identification and antibiotic resistance profiling before and after a wastewater backflow event. When transfer between sinks was suspected, isolates were compared using whole-genome sequencing. Immediately after the wastewater backflow, two KPC-producing Enterobacter cloacae were recovered from a waste trap in which Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) had not been detected previously. The isolates belonged to ST501 and ST31 and were genetically indistinguishable to those colonising sinks elsewhere in the system. Following inter-sink transfer, KPC-producing E. cloacae ST501 successfully integrated into the microbiome of the recipient sink and was detected in the waste trap water at least six months after the backflow event. Seven weeks and three months after the backflow, other inter-sink transfers involving Escherichia coli ST5295 and KPC-producing E. cloacae ST501 were also observed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0429.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Fusarium graminearum; mycotoxins; wheat; natural infection; epidemic year
Online: 16 June 2021 (09:34:11 CEST)
Fusarium graminearum is a dangerous pathogen of the cereals producing mycotoxins (trichothecene and zearalenone) harmful for human and animal health. There were evaluated sixteen winter wheat varieties for their response in conditions of natural infection with F. graminearum in the epidemic year 2019, being well known that accumulation of mycotoxins (DON, ZON and T-2) is induced by different biotic and abiotic factors. Field plot was organized in Latin rectangle randomized with three replicates. For all evaluated wheat varieties were collected field data (incidence, severity and infection degree of the fungus F. graminearum) and laboratory data (mycotoxins concentration in grains) that have been processed using the software JASP (Version 0.14) for descriptive statistics, and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Microsoft Excel 2019 was used to calculate Pearson’s correlation coefficients. The results showed negative corelation between plants’ density and F. graminearum attack frequency. Positive correlations were found between DON and T-2 and between DON and fungus attack intensity. This work highlights that during a F. graminearum epidemic year some of the most influential factors in the contamination with harmful mycotoxins (DON, ZON and T-2) are: plants density, frequency of the attack on ear, diseased ears and attack intensity on ears.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0664.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Pathogen; Herd Immunity Threshold; R-naught; Infection dynamics
Online: 27 May 2021 (10:33:34 CEST)
In this article we have presented a new perception of herd immunity threshold (HIT) which considers that only a “band of population” are susceptible to any pathogenic infection. This is termed as the “effective herd immunity threshold” (EHIT) and the progression of the disease (caused by this pathogenic infection) is mainly determined by this EHIT value. We have argued here that this EHIT value (considering the immunity band picture in the population) will be substantially lower than the estimated canonical HIT values obtained from various existing models. We propose that the actual prediction of the disease progression should now be calculated using the EHIT values.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0143.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Co-infection; Drug resistance; Gut microbiota; Salmonellosis; Schistosoma
Online: 7 May 2021 (12:02:03 CEST)
Antibiotic inefficacy in treating bacterial infections is largely studied in the context of developing resistance mechanisms. However, little attention has been paid to combined diseases mechanisms, interspecies pathogenesis and the resulting impact on antimicrobial treatment. This review will consider the co-infections of Salmonella and Schistosoma mansoni. It summarises the protective mechanisms that the pathophysiology of the two infections confer, which leads to an antibiotic protection phenomenon. This review will elucidate the functional characteristics of the gut microbiota in the context of these co-infections, the pathogenicity of these infections in infected mice, and the efficacy of the antibiotics used in treatment of these co-infections over time. Salmonella-Schistosoma interactions and the mechanism for antibiotic protection are not well established. However, antimicrobial drug inefficacy is an existing phenomenon in these co-infections. The treatment of schistosomiasis to ensure the efficacy of antibiotic therapy for bacterial infections should be considered in co-infected patients.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0115.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: intramammary infection; spa typing; antimicrobial susceptibility; dairy cow
Online: 5 September 2020 (04:51:45 CEST)
In the present study, we aimed to determine the antimicrobial resistance and genetic structure of a population of S. aureus recovered from transient and persistent intramammary infections and nares/muzzles. We investigated the antimicrobial resistance of 189 S. aureus strains using a broad antimicrobial susceptibility profile. Furthermore, 107 S. aureus isolates were strain-typed using staphylococcal protein-A (spa) typing. Here, a great proportion of strains exhibited multidrug resistance to antimicrobials, including resistance to critically important antimicrobials, although no methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains were found. Our study did not strengthen the idea that extramammary niches (i.e., nares/muzzles) are an important source for S. aureus. A discrepancy in the antimicrobial resistance between S. aureus strains isolated from nasal/muzzles and milk samples was observed. Furthermore, S. aureus isolates from transient and persistent IMIs did not differ by spa typing, suggesting that the persistence of bovine IMIs was determined by cow factors. Thus, the high level of multidrug-resistant S. aureus found in the two herds studied together with the predominance of a well udder-adapted S. aureus strain may contribute to the history of the high prevalence of mastitis caused by S. aureus, leading to great animal and public health concerns.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0641.v1
Online: 26 July 2020 (16:45:25 CEST)
Currently, the COVID‐19 has directly affected the millions of humans lives. The symptoms of the disease involving fever, malaise, chest infection, and breathing difficulties, were identified, and its existence is continuously becoming restructured. The World Health Organization (WHO) had mentioned the wide diagnostics test besides COVID-19 that would also assist medical facilities to recognize infectious diseases as well as currently focusing efficiently on preventing and afterward defeating this viral disease. The infection is usually transmitted among human beings in direct contact, greatest through the liquid bubbles generated through cough, sneeze, or speaking. This paper reviews the COVID 19 pandemic, its history, current updates, contact tracing applications, and use of emerging technologies like the Internet of Things (IoT) and Blockchain for stopping the spreading and provide service online to the patient from a distance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0140.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Genome; fimbrial; plasmid; ST131; Escherichia coli; evolution; infection
Online: 8 May 2020 (09:39:35 CEST)
The human gut microbiome includes beneficial, commensal and pathogenic bacteria that possess antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes and exchange these predominantly through conjugative plasmids. Escherichia coli is a significant component of the gastrointestinal microbiome and is typically non-pathogenic in this niche. In contrast, extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) including ST131 may occupy other environments like the urinary tract or bloodstream where they express genes enabling AMR and host adhesion like type 1 fimbriae. The extent to which non-pathogenic gut E. coli and infectious ST131 share AMR genes and key associated plasmids remains understudied at a genomic level. Here, we examined AMR gene sharing between gut E. coli and ST131 to discover an extensive shared preterm infant resistome. In addition, individual ST131 show extensive AMR gene diversity highlighting that analyses restricted to the core genome may be limiting and could miss AMR gene transfer patterns. We show that pEK499-like segments are ancestral to most ST131 Clade C isolates, contrasting with a minority with substantial pEK204-like regions encoding a type IV fimbriae operon. Moreover, ST131 possess extensive diversity at genes encoding type 1, type IV, P and F17-like fimbriae, particular within subclade C2. The type, structure and composition of AMR genes, plasmids and fimbriae varies widely in ST131 and this may mediate pathogenicity and infection outcomes.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0364.v1
Online: 24 March 2020 (14:54:49 CET)
Background: Covid-19 was first reported in Wuhan, China in Dec 2019. Since then, it has been transmitted rapidly in China and the rest of the world. While Covid-19 transmission rate has been declining in China, it is increasing exponentially in Europe and America. Although there are numerous studies examining Covid-19 infection, including an archived paper looking into the meteorological effect, the role of outdoor air pollution has yet to be explored rigorously. It has been shown that air pollution will weaken the immune system, and increase the rate of respiratory virus infection. We postulate that outdoor air pollution concentrations will have a negative effect on Covid-19 infections in China, whilst lockdowns, characterized by strong social distancing and home isolation measures, will help to moderate such negative effect. Methods: We will collect the number of daily confirmed Covid-19 cases in 31 provincial capital cities in China during the period of 1 Dec 2019 to 20 Mar 2020 (from a popular Chinese online platform which aggregates all cases reported by the Chinese national/provincial health authorities). We will also collect daily air pollution and meteorology data at the city-level (from the Chinese National Environmental Monitoring Center and the US National Climatic Data Center), daily inter-city migration flows and intra-city movements (from Baidu). City-level demographics including age distribution and gender, education, and median household income can be obtained from the statistical yearbooks. City-level co-morbidity indicators including rates of chronic disease and co-infection can be obtained from related research articles. A regression model is developed to model the relationship between the infection rate of Covid-19 (number of confirmed cases/population at the city level) and outdoor air pollution at the city level, after taking into account confounding factors such as meteorology, inter- and intra-city movements, demographics, and co-morbidity and co-infection rates. In particular, we shall study how air pollution affects infection rates across different cities, including Wuhan. Our model will also study air pollution would affect infection rates in Wuhan before and after the lockdown. Expected findings: We expect there be a correlation between Covid-19 infection rate and outdoor air pollution. We also expect that reduced intra-city movement after the lockdowns in Wuhan and the rest of China will play an important role in reducing the infection rate. Interpretation: Infection rate is growing exponentially in major cities worldwide. We expect Covid-19 infection rate is related to the air pollution concentration, and is strongly dependent on inter- and intra-city movements. To reduce the infection rate, the international community may deploy effective air pollution reduction plans and social distancing policies.
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: SARS-CoV2; spike; receptor–ligand docking; super infection
Online: 20 March 2020 (08:30:40 CET)
SARS-CoV2 (corona virus) has spread globally at an unprecedented rate; so far, increasing SARS-CoV2-infected individuals have been identified. Although the situation in China is improving and is currently under control, the outbreak in other countries and its pandemic management is only beginning to develop. Based on 154 SARS-CoV2 genome sequence analyses, we used receptor–ligand docking to identify one potential point mutation (V354F) on the spike structure which enhances spike binding to ACE2 receptors underlying potential super infection. Importantly, the V354F site on spike S1 had been identified in 5/10 infected French patients living in Paris, who sharing 100% identical SARS-CoV2 genomes. With Covid-19 cases increasing rapidly in France that could lead to a new explosion, we suggest that the French government should identify all potential super spreaders and treat them accordingly. In summary, our study provides on of the measures to avoid the potential second worldwide explosion of SARS-CoV2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0291.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: co-infection; coronavirus disease 2019; COVID-19; influenza
Online: 19 March 2020 (02:00:47 CET)
Background: On late December 2019, a viral pneumonia known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was originated from China and spread very rapidly in the world. Therefore, COVID-19 became a global concern and health problem. Methods: We presented four patients in this study. They were selected from patients who presented with pneumonia symptoms and were suspicious for COVID-19 and referred to the intended centers for COVID-19 diagnosis and management of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in the south of Iran. Two nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal throat swab samples were collected from each patient and tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection by real-time reverse-transcriptase–polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR), and also samples were sent for influenza viruses and all the respiratory panel. Results: In the present report, four patients were diagnosed in the starting days of COVID-19 disease in our center in south of Iran with co-infection of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus. Conclusions: This co-infection of COVID-19 and influenza highlights the importance of considering SARS-CoV-2 PCR assay regardless of other positive findings for other pathogens in the primary test during the epidemic.
Online: 12 March 2020 (03:02:03 CET)
Novel coronavirus infection is a recent infective agent that causes severe potentially fatal pneumonia. The clinical presentation includes asymptomatic infection, severe pneumonia, and acute respiratory failure. Data pertaining to the clinical presentation of solid organ transplant recipients are scarce. Two cases of novel coronavirus infection in two recipients of renal transplant with variable clinical presentations and outcomes are reported. The first patient presented with progressive respiratory symptoms, acute renal failure, and passed away, whereas the second one, although presented with respiratory tract symptoms and hypoxemia remained stable and exhibited an excellent clinical recovery despite recent reception of thymoglobulin induction. This paper reports rare cases of novel coronavirus infection in renal transplant recipients. For an enhanced insight of the novel coronavirus infection and acute kidney injury on the clinical presentation, severity, and outcome in solid organ transplant recipients, further investigations are required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0299.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; infection; scRNA-Seq; ACE2; spermatogonia
Online: 21 February 2020 (02:42:15 CET)
In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was identified in patients with pneumonia (called COVID-19) in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. SARS-CoV-2 shares high sequence similarity and uses the same cell entry receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), as does severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Several studies have provided bioinformatic evidence of potential routes for SARS-CoV-2 infection in respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive and urinary systems. However, whether the reproductive system is a potential target of SARS-CoV-2 infection has not been determined. Here, we investigate the expression pattern of ACE2 in adult human testis at the level of single-cell transcriptomes. The results indicate that ACE2 is predominantly enriched in spermatogonia, Leydig and Sertoli cells. Gene ontology analyses indicate that GO categories associated with viral reproduction and transmission are highly enriched in ACE2-positive spermatogonia while male gamete generation related terms are down-regulated. Cell-cell junction and immunity related GO terms are increased in ACE2-positive Leydig and Sertoli cells, but mitochondria and reproduction related GO terms are decreased. These findings provide evidence that human testes are a potential target of SARS-CoV-2 infection which may have significant impact on our understanding of the pathophysiology of this rapidly spreading disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0160.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: rabies; uDISCO; 3D imaging; rabies pathogenicity; astrocyte infection
Online: 16 January 2020 (08:52:30 CET)
Although conventional immunohistochemistry for neurotropic Rabies virus (RABV) usually shows a high preference for neurons, non-neuronal cells are also potential target cells and abortive infection of astrocytes is considered a main trigger of innate immunity in the CNS. While in vitro studies indicated differences between field and less virulent lab-adapted RABVs, a systematic and quantitative comparison of astrocyte tropism in vivo is lacking. Here, a recently developed solvent-based tissue clearing technique was used to measure the RABV cell tropism in infected brains. Immunofluorescence analysis of 1 mm-thick tissue slices enabled 3D segmentation and quantification of infection frequencies of astrocytes and neurons. Comparison of highly virulent street virus clones from fox, dog, and raccoon with three lab strains of intermediate and low virulence revealed remarkable differences in the ability to infect astrocytes in vivo. While all viruses and infection routes led to comparable neuron infection frequencies, striking differences were detected for the infection of astrocytes. Consistent and inoculation route-independent astrocyte infection by field viruses, together with route-dependent or undetectable astrocyte infection by lab-adapted or vaccine viruses strongly suggests a model in which the ability to establish productive astrocyte infection in vivo functionally distinguishes field and attenuated lab RABV strains.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0170.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: sphingomonas; gram-negative bacterial infection; skin disease; bacterial
Online: 12 December 2019 (10:01:35 CET)
Sphingomonas paucimobilis is an opportunist pathogen bacillus gram-negative aerobic with a rare occurrence. We present a case in an immunocompetent man successfully treated by surgical debridement, purulent drainage and with an associated course of antibiotics. A large necrotic infection, approximately 5 cm x 3 cm, in a 74-year-old man was identified. Empirical antibiotic therapy with ciprofloxacin 400mg EV 12/12 hours, associated with clindamycin 600mg EV 6/6 hours and pain control was done through dipyrone 1gr, tramadol 400 mg. Deep venous thrombosis was prevented through the prescription of enoxaparin 40mg subcutaneous once a day during hospitalization. The case was well illustrated with pictures throughout treatment. Complete healing was achieved after 90 days. Herein, we present a case of cutaneous contamination. The presented case is the third cutaneous contamination case reported in the literature and the first reported case in the Amazonia region in Brazil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0076.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: surgical site infection; breast surgery; breast implants; complications
Online: 4 July 2019 (11:32:17 CEST)
Purpose: Surgical site infection (SSI) is a significant complication of non-reconstructive and reconstructive breast. This study aimed to assess SSI after breast surgery over 5 years in a single center in Poland. The microorganisms responsible for SSI and their antibiotic susceptibility were determined. Materials/methods: Data of 2129 patients acquired over 5 years postoperatively by the [center] were analyzed. Results: SSI was diagnosed in 132 patients (6.2%) and was an early infection in most cases (65.2%). The incidence of SSI was highest in patients who underwent subcutaneous amputation with simultaneous reconstruction using an artificial prosthesis (14.6%) and breast reconstruction via the TRAM flap method (14.3%). Gram-positive bacteria were responsible for SSI in most cases (72.1%), and these were mainly Staphylococcus strains (53.6%). These strains were 100% susceptible to all beta-lactam antibiotics (except penicillin), but were less susceptible to macrolides and lincosamides. Conclusions: SSI is a serious problem, and attention should be focused on its prevention. Reconstruction using an artificial prosthesis or via the TRAM flap method is connected to increased SSI incidence. Further studies are required to prevent SSI following breast surgery.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0094.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Bacteriophages, Septic wound infection, MDR, Biofilms, Phage Cocktails
Online: 11 June 2019 (10:08:07 CEST)
Lytic bacteriophages have the efficacy to act and eradicate pathogenic bacteria as an attractive tool in the near future. Bacteriophages specifically kill multidrug-resistant bacteria even which have the capacity to form biofilms. The present review mainly focused on the efficacy of bacteriophages and cocktails as therapeutic agents against predominate MDR-bacteria and their biofilms which are isolated from septic wound infections. The body of evidence includes data from studies investigating bacteriophages from sewage samples as novel antibacterial and antibiofilm agents against pathogenic bacteria. The goal of this review is to present an overview on predominant bacteria from septic wound infection, the biofilm-forming capacity of bacteria, lytic effect of bacteriophages and phage cocktails with an emphasis on the application of bacteriophages against septic wound causing bacteria.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0254.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: dengue; chikungunya; Leptospira; co-infection; Colombia; Latin America
Online: 12 November 2018 (03:21:38 CET)
Background: The febrile patient from tropical areas, in which emerging arboviruses are endemic, represent a diagnostic challenge and potential co-infections with other pathogens (i.e bacteria or parasites) are usually overlooked. Objectives: We present a case of an elderly woman diagnosed with dengue, chikungunya and Leptospira interrogans co-infection. Study Design: Case report. Results: An 87-year old woman from Colombia complained of upper abdominal pain, arthralgia, myalgia, hyporexia, malaise and intermittent fever accompanied with progressive jaundice. She had a medical history of chronic heart failure (Stage C, NYHA III), without documented cardiac murmurs, right bundle branch block, non-valvular atrial fibrillation, hypertension, and chronic venous disease. Her cardiac and pulmonary status quickly deteriorated after 24 hours of her admission without electrocardiographic changes and she required ventilatory and vasopressor support. In the next hours the patient evolved to pulseless electrical activity and then she died. Dengue IgM, NS1 ELISA, MAT for Leptospira interrogans and RT-PCR for chikungunya, were positive. Discussion: This case illustrates a multiple co-infection in a febrile patient from a tropical area of Latin America that evolved to death.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0093.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: bacterial pathogens; host-pathogen interaction; infection biology; omics
Online: 27 August 2017 (11:18:27 CEST)
By providing useful tools to study host-pathogen interactions, next-generation omics has recently enabled the study of gene expression changes in both pathogen and infected host simultaneously. However, since great discriminative power is required to study pathogen and host simultaneously throughout the infection process, the depth of quantitative gene expression profiling has proven to be unsatisfactory when focusing on bacterial pathogens, thus preferentially requiring specific strategies or the development of novel methodologies based on complementary omics approaches. In this review, we focus on the difficulties encountered when making use of omics approaches to study bacterial pathogenesis. Besides, we review different omics strategies (i.e. transcriptomics, proteomics and secretomics) and their applications for studying interactions of pathogens with their host.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0062.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: microbiome; probiotics, dietary supplements; nutrition; HIV infection, inflammation
Online: 8 May 2017 (12:10:17 CEST)
Microbiota plays a key role in various body’s functions, physiological, metabolic and immunological processes, through different mechanisms such as the regulation of the development and/or functions of different types of immune cells in the intestines. Several evidences indicate that alteration in the gut microbiota can influence infectious and non-infectious diseases. Bacteria that resides on the mucosal surface or within the mucus layer participate in interactions with the host immune system, and a healthy gut microbiota is essential for the development of mucosal immunity. The immunomodulatory activity of probiotics has been proposed in several bowel disorders or in aging-related dysfunctions. In HIV infected patients, the intestinal immune system is affected and inflammation persists during ART therapy too. Several studies are in progress to investigate the ability of probiotics to modulate epithelial barrier functions, microbiota composition and microbial translocation in HIV infection. This mini-review aims to suggest how the use of probiotics is beneficial not only in maintaining a healthy status but also to improve conditions in HIV subjects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0234.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: D-mannose; urinary tract infection; FimH adhesin; product classification
Online: 13 January 2023 (03:30:36 CET)
Background: the nature of alpha-D-mannose - natural aldohexose sugar, C-2 glucose epimer, whose intended use is for preventing urinary tract infections - in the interaction with E. coli is addressed in order to drive the issue of its regulatory classification as a medicinal product or medical device. Methods: PRISMA systematic review approach was applied; Delphi Panel method used to target consensus on statements retrieved from evidence. Results: Based of regulatory definitions and research evidences, the mechanism of D-mannose does not involve a metabolic or immunological action while there is an uncertainty regarding the pharmacological action. Specific interaction between the product and the bacteria within the body occurs, but its nature is inert: it does not induce a direct response activating or inhibiting body processes. Moreover, the action of D-mannose takes place, even if inside the bladder, outside the epithelium on bacteria that have not yet invaded the urothelial tissue. Therefore, its mechanism of action is not directed to host structures but to structures (bacteria) external to the host's tissues. Conclusions: From a regulatory perspective, D-mannose maintains the current medical device classification: new regulations and legal judgments can add further considerations. From a pharmacological perspective, research is driven versus synthetic mannosides: no further considerations are expected on alpha-D-mannose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0018.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: complication; dexamethasone; IMiD; infection; lenalidomide; multiple myeloma; neutropenia; Rd
Online: 1 September 2022 (09:46:28 CEST)
Lenalidomide-based regimens are effective treatment options for patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). However, they are associated with an increased risk of infectious complications. This study examines the clinical factors influencing the occurrence of infection in MM patients treated with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (Rd). A retrospective analysis of all patients who received the Rd regimen between 2017-2021 at our institution was performed. The study group consisted of 174 patients and the median age was 65 years. Most patients (n=110, 63.2%) received the Rd treatment in second-line treatment. The majority of patients (64.3%) received bortezomib-based regimens in the first line of treatment. The median progression-free survival was 12.6 (95% CI: 9.5 – 16.2) months, and the median overall survival was 22.3 (95% CI: 15.9 – 28.6) months. The overall response rate was 64.1%, 12.7% of patients achieved complete response and 20.4% had a very good partial response. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, hypoalbuminemia (OR 4.2, 95%CI:1.6-11.2, p= 0.0039), autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) before Rd (OR 2.6, 95% CI:1.0- 6.7, p= 0.048) and anemia grade ≥3 (OR 5.0, 95%CI: 1.8-14.0, p= 0.002) were independent factors related to the occurrence of infections. In conclusion, in this large cohort of RRMM patients, AHSCT before Rd regimen therapy, hypoalbuminemia and anemia during treatment were identified as three independent factors influencing the frequency of infections during Rd therapy. Patients with established risk factors may benefit from optimal supportive therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0436.v1
Online: 24 September 2021 (13:00:37 CEST)
Cesarean Section (CS) is one of the most frequently executed surgical procedures in gynecology and obstetrics. After a cesarean section, surgical site infection (SSI) increases hospital stay, lengthens maternal morbidity, and upsurges treatment costs. The current study determines the prevalence and risk factors for surgical site infection following cesarean section in China. A retrospective study was conducted on 23 cases of pregnant women who underwent cesarean section and incision severe infection and detection from March 2017 to January 2020 at Wuhan Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital in China as the study group, and 20 cases of uninfected cesarean section during the same period were selected as the control group. Data were compared with the controls based on study variables and the presence of SSI. The mean age was 31±2.6. High fever and blood loss were observed in serous SSI-infected patients. The incidence rate of severe surgical site infection was 0.15 %. SSI was observed to be expected in pregnant women who had premature rupture of membrane before surgery (p < 0.001), who underwent postoperative antibiotic therapy (p < 0.001), and the patients who had gestational diabetes mellitus (p <0.001) and hematoma (p < 0.001) during surgery. Hence, following a cesarean section, surgical site infection is common. This research discovered several modifiable risk factors. SSI is associated with multifactorial rather than a single one. The development and strict implementation of a procedure by all health care practitioners can successfully reduce and prevent infection rates following cesarean section.
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Phylogenetics; Subclinical infection; FMD outbreaks; Disease control; Surveillance; Sentinels
Online: 30 August 2021 (11:54:39 CEST)
The genetic diversity of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) poses a challenge to the successful control of the disease, and it is important to identify the emergence of different strains in endemic settings. The objective of this study was to evaluate sampling of clinically healthy livestock at slaughterhouses as a strategy for genomic FMDV surveillance. Serum samples (n = 11875) and oropharyngeal fluid (OPF) samples (n = 5045) were collected from asymptomatic cattle and buffalo on farms in eight provinces in southern and northern Vietnam (2015 to 2019) to characterize viral diversity. Outbreak sequences were collected between 2009 and 2019. In two slaughterhouses in southern Vietnam, 1200 serum and OPF samples were collected from asymptomatic cattle and buffalo (2017 to 2019) as a pilot study on the use of slaughterhouses as sentinel points of surveil-lance. VP1 sequences were analyzed using discriminant principal component analysis and time-scaled phylodynamic trees. Six of seven serotype O and A clusters circulating in southern Vietnam from 2017-19 were detected at least once in slaughterhouses, sometimes pre-dating outbreak sequences associated with the same cluster by 4-6 months. Routine sampling at slaughterhouses may provide timely and cost-effective strategy for genomic surveillance to identify circulating and emerging FMDV strains.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0618.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Dengue; Flavivirus; serotype-1; primary infection; dengue warning signs
Online: 28 July 2021 (10:21:00 CEST)
Dengue is an overlooked tropical disease for which billions of people are at risk. The disease, caused by a Flavivirus with four distinct serotypes, is transmitted primarily by urbanized Aedes mosquito species. The infection leads to a spectrum of clinical manifestations, with the majority being asymptomatic. Primary dengue and, to a greater extent, subsequent infection, mainly secondary dengue infection, are associated with increased severity. Increased global travel and recreational tourism expose naïve individuals to dengue, the most common arboviral infections in travelers. We describe a cluster of possible primary acute dengue infections in a group of 12 individuals who presented to Bangkok Hospital for Tropical Diseases in 2017. Infection was confirmed by dengue NS1 antigen and multiplex real-time RT-PCR. Nine individuals required hospitalization, and four developed dengue warning signs. The mean arterial pressure was significantly lower in the group with dengue warning signs. The period from the day of arrival in Thailand and the first day of symptoms was significantly shorter in adolescents with warning signs. Leukocytes, neutrophils, and platelets declined significantly at defervescence and were negatively correlated with day of illness. Six clinical isolates were identified as dengue serotype-1, with identical sequences suggesting that these patients were infected with the same virus.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0337.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: antibacterial agents; antibiotics; COVID-19; drug misuse; odontogenic infection
Online: 14 May 2021 (14:03:42 CEST)
This review revisits clinical use of antibiotics for most common acute oro-dental conditions; we aim to provide evidence governing antibiotics use when access to oral healthcare is not available, as during the ongoing outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. In this rapid review, articles were retrieved after conducting a search on PubMed and Google Scholar. Relevant publications were selected and analyzed. Most recent systematic reviews with/without meta-analyses and societal guidelines were selected. Data were extracted, grouped, and synthesized according to the respective subtopic analysis. There were evidence supporting the use of antibiotics in common oro-dental conditions as temporary measure when immediate care is not accessible, such as in case of localized oral swellings as well as to prevent post-extraction complications. No sufficient evidence could be found in support of antibiotic use for pain resulting from pulpal origin. Consequently, antibiotic use may be justified to defer treatment temporarily or reduce risk of complications in case of localized infection and tooth extraction, when no access to immediate dental care is possible.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0009.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-2; Dentistry; Infection Control; Coronavirus; Disinfection
Online: 3 May 2021 (16:03:40 CEST)
The onset of the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has challenged the worldwide healthcare sector, including dentistry. The highly infectious nature of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus and risk of transmission through aerosol generating procedures has profoundly impacted the delivery of dental care services globally for months causing prioritization of critical dental needs and suspension of routine dental procedures. As dental practices with strengthened infection control strategies and preventive measures are re-opening in the “new normal” period, it is the responsibility of healthcare professionals to constantly analyze new data and limit the spread of COVID-19 in dental care settings. With the new variants of SARS-CoV-2 rapidly emerging in different geographic locations, a definite need to comply more than ever with the rigorous public health measures to mitigate COVID -19 transmission exists. The aim of this article is to provide dental clinicians with essential information regarding both the spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus and protective measures against COVID-19 transmission in dental facilities. By compiling guidance and standard protocols recommended by credible national and international organizations, this article serves as an aid to navigating through this unprecedented time with ease. Much to learn about COVID-19 exists and because of constant ongoing research, we are not aware of all of the newly found information. However, in this paper, we reviewed the available literature recommended for the best current practices that must be taken for a dental office to function safely and successfully.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0621.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: RSV; ribavirin; Aerogen® solo; SPAG-2; children; infection
Online: 29 October 2020 (15:38:09 CET)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is associated with adverse outcomes among immunocompromised patients. Inhaled ribavirin has been shown to improve mortality rates. The Small-Particle Aerosol Generator delivery system (SPAG-2) is the only FDA-cleared device to deliver inhaled ribavirin. However, it is difficult to set up and maintain. We developed a method for delivery of this medication using the vibrating mesh nebulizer (Aerogen®). We did not observe any adverse events with this method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0375.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: co-infection; SARS-CoV-2; pike glycoprotein; stop mutations
Online: 17 September 2020 (05:33:59 CEST)
There is a rising global concern for the ongoing outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 due to its high transmission rate and unavailability of treatment. Through the binding of its spike glycoprotein with angiotensin type 2 (ACE2), SARS-CoV-2 can efficiently get in the cells of patients and start its pandemic cycle. Herein, the biological diversity of SARS-CoV-2 infection was assessed in Babylon province of Iraq by investigating the possible genetic variations of the spike glycoprotein. A specific coding region of 795 bp within the viral spike (S) gene was amplified from 19 patients who suffered from obvious symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Sequencing results identified fifteen novel nucleic acid variations with a variety of distributions within the investigated samples. The electropherograms of all the identified variations showed obvious co-infections with at least two different viral strains per sample. Within these co-infections, the majority of samples exhibited three nonsense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)s, p.301Cdel, p.380Ydel, and p.436del, which yielded three truncated SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoproteins of 301, 380, and 436 amino acids length, respectively. The network and phylogenetic analyses indicated that for all viral infections were derived from multi-ancestral origins. Results inferred from the specific clade-based tree entailed that some viral strains were derived from European G-clade sequences. In conclusion, our data demonstrated the absence of any single strain infection among all investigated viral samples in the studied area, which may entail a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 in this country. Through the identified high frequency of truncated spike proteins, we suggest that defective SARS-CoV-2 may depend on helper strains having intact spikes in its infection. Alternatively, another putative ACE2-independent route of viral infection way also suggested. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the co-infection of multiple strains of SARS-CoV-2 in patients with COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0390.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Zika; Yellow fever; cross reactive; flavivirus; congenital infection; enhancement
Online: 24 May 2020 (17:12:58 CEST)
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that originated in Africa but emerged in Latin America in 2015. In this region, other flaviviruses such as Dengue (DENV), West Nile, and Yellow Fever Virus (YFV) also circulate, allowing for possible antigenic cross-reactivity to impact viral infections and immune responses. Studies have found antibody mediated enhancement between DENV and ZIKV, but the impact of YFV antibodies on ZIKV infection has not been fully explored. ZIKV infections cause congenital syndromes, such as microcephaly, necessitating further research into ZIKV vertical transmission through the placental barrier. Recent advancements in biomedical engineering have generated co-culture methods that allow for in vitro recapitulation of the maternal: fetal interface. This study utilized a transwell assay, which is a co-culture model utilizing human placental syncytiotrophoblasts, fetal umbilical cells, and a differentiating embryoid body to replicate the maternal: fetal axis. To determine if cross reactive YFV vaccine antibodies impact the pathogenesis of ZIKV across the maternal fetal axis, maternal syncytiotrophoblasts were inoculated with ZIKV or ZIKV incubated with YFV vaccine anti-sera, and viral load was measured 72 hours post inoculation. The data show that the impact of YFV on ZIKV replication is cell line dependent. In differentiating embryoids, the presence of YFV antibodies enhanced ZIKV infection. Since viral pathogenesis, and the impact of antigenic cross-reactive antibodies, is cell line specific at the maternal-fetal axis, this suggests there may be discreet mechanisms that impact congenital ZIKV infections.
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; companion animals; cross-infection
Online: 17 May 2020 (15:27:24 CEST)
Since the COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 break out in Wuhan China from Dec. 2019, it has spread to hundreds of countries up to now. Scientists from all over the world have paid tremendous efforts to research and try to control the disease. Previous studies suggested that some of the wild animals could be intermediate hosts between humans and origination of SARS-CoV-2, and some companion animals of humans can be infected by SARS-CoV-2, which raised our curiosity about cross-infection of SARS-CoV-2 between animals and humans. Thus, we select some kinds of animals that might have contact with humans to estimate the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 in different animals by evolutionary analysis of their receptors for SARS-CoV-2. The results show that some companion animals of the Felidae family like the cat has a higher infection possibility while the species of the Rodent family like the rat and mouse having close contact with humans show an opposite result, which consist with recent animal experiments and researches. These should raise concerns about cross-infection between human and companion animals or animals having close contact with humans which might turn animals into depositaries of the coronavirus even after control of SARS-CoV-2 spreading and cause second or more waves of infections after social reopening. Another side of our results stands by the opinion that bioinformatic analysis can be consistent with experiments in some respects so that we can prevent unnecessary sacrifice of laboratory animals in future experiments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0104.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: COVID-19; dental care; infection control; universal precautions; aerosol
Online: 7 May 2020 (05:21:20 CEST)
Dental services are significantly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Almost all dental procedures carry a high infection risk for providers and patients due to spread of aerosols. As a consequence, national public health agencies, and dental professional associations have issued guidelines for enhanced infection control, personal protection equipment and limiting care to urgent or emergency services. However, there is no dental service concept for disaster preparedness or response that might be applied. Similarly, pathways to care provision in a post-pandemic future are missing. We propose Safe Aerosol-free, Emergent Dentistry (SAFE Dentistry) as one approach to dental services during and emerging from pandemics. The concept’s starting point is the identification of the most common patient needs. The next step is to replace common treatments relating to the most common needs with alternative interventions with less infection risk because they do not generate aerosols. SAFE Dentistry is innovative, safe, and responds to the requirements of a pandemic and post-pandemic emergence where the risk of disease transmission remains high. SAFE Dentistry thereby ensures continuity of dental services while protecting providers and patients from infectious pathogens. Moreover, SAFE Dentistry allows dental service providers to remain operational and generate income even under pandemic conditions. Implementation and policy options for SAFE Dentistry include universal availability without co-payments by patients and a uniform bundled payment scheme for providers to simplify budgeting, reimbursement and to provide easier administration during a pandemic. Adaptations and adjustments of the concept are possible and encouraged, as long as the principle of avoiding aerosol-generation is maintained.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0417.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Coronavirus; COVID-19; SARS-Cov-2; infection; Physiotherapy; rehabilitation
Online: 23 April 2020 (15:22:55 CEST)
This document outlines best practice recommendations for an acute care physiotherapy for patients with COVID-19, with an emphasis on critical care rehabilitation including the patients in extra corporeal membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) support, developed for practice in Qatar but adaptable within any settings. This recommendation is the result of a combination of systematic evidence search, subsequent critical evaluation of retrieved evidence and consensus process. The agreed recommendations were integrated into a physiotherapy clinical reasoning algorithm. It includes recommendations on physiotherapy referral, screening, management categories and best practice recommendations. It is intended for use by physiotherapists and other relevant stakeholders in the acute care setting caring for adult patients with suspected and/or confirmed COVID-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0376.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: urinary tract infection; multiple sclerosis; hospitalization and mortality rate
Online: 21 April 2020 (06:03:22 CEST)
Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating, chronic, inflammatory and autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with axonal degeneration, presenting a progressive and variable course. MS patients usually have complications, such as bladder dysfunction, presence of urinary symptoms and Urinary Tract infection (UTI), which is one of the three most common non-neurological complications in MS patients. Objective: Analyze the most diverse aspects of UTI in MS patients, focusing on risk factors, prevalence, hospitalization and mortality rates of UTIs in this group. Methods: A non-systematic review of articles published on PubMed in the last 10 years with the search terms "Urinary Tract Infection" AND "Multiple Sclerosis". Discussion: MS patients have a high UTI prevalence, mainly due to the occurrence of urinary disorders in these patients. The most common symptoms of UTI in MS patients are urinary urgency, polyuria, nocturia, urinary retention, and incontinence. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most found organisms and treatment is based on antibiotic therapy. Moreover, UTIs can precipitate outbreaks, worsen the disease, causing more damage and a severe neurological condition deterioration. Therefore, UTIs in this group are associated with a high hospitalizations rate and a high mortality rate. Conclusion: UTI represents a great risk and concern in MS patients. The high prevalence, hospitalization rate and mortality rate of UTI in MS is worrying, such as the cause-consequence relationship between UTIs and the use of corticosteroids in outbreaks. Therefore, it is important to be aware of a UTI in this group to make early diagnoses, adequate management, and new infections prevention. Thus, further studies are needed to thoroughly analyze each nuance of this important comorbidity for MS patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0285.v1
Online: 16 April 2020 (16:05:27 CEST)
In December 2019, outbreak of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China and exported across the world leading to thousands of deaths and millions of suspected cases. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection into the host undergoes a huge number of complex replicative machineries which still remains unclear. Understanding the mechanism (s) of replication and mode of infection of SARS-CoV2 to human cells will help us in the development of novel vaccines or drugs for the eradication and prevention of the disease. This review compiles the knowledge of SARS-CoV2 replicative machinery, mode of infection to the human cells and the development of drugs and vaccines which are currently under clinical trials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0033.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: apoptosis; viral persistence, hepatitis C virus; immunity; chronic infection
Online: 2 October 2018 (16:34:19 CEST)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) represents a challenging global health threat in ~200 million infected individuals. Clinical data suggests that only ~10-15% of acutely HCV-infected individuals will achieve spontaneous viral clearance despite exuberant virus-specific immune responses, which is largely attributed to difficulties in recognizing the pathognomonic symptoms during the initial stages of exposure to the virus. Given the paucity of a suitable small animal model, it is also equally challenging to study the early phases of viral establishment. Further, the host factors contributing to HCV chronicity in a vast majority of acutely HCV-infected individuals largely remain unexplored. The last few years have witnessed a surge in studies showing that HCV adopts a myriad mechanisms to disconcert virus-specific immune responses in the host to establish persistence that includes, but not limited to viral escape mutations, viral growth at privileged sites, and antagonism. Here, we discussed a few hitherto poorly explained mechanisms employed by HCV that are believed to lead to chronicity in infected individuals. A better understanding of these mechanisms would aid the design of improved therapeutic targets against viral establishment in susceptible individuals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0092.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Hepatitis B; Bangladesh; prevalence; vertical transmission; occult infection; genotypes.
Online: 5 September 2018 (09:24:31 CEST)
Despite a considerable body of published research on Hepatitis B in Bangladesh, researchers continue to lament the lack of reliable information about Hepatitis B epidemiology. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive survey of the literature with particular focus on a number of epidemiological questions, as well as a commentary on the trends of Hepatitis B research as it has taken place in Bangladesh. The key themes to emerge from this review are: first, beyond noting a declining trend, it is difficult to provide conclusive estimates about Hepatitis B prevalence in the general population of Bangladesh. The majority of the studies, even the ones conducted on apparently healthy populations, fail to be adequately representative for the reasons explored in the article. Secondly, Hepatitis B in Bangladesh is sharply stratified across sociodemographic lines, which speaks to the role of awareness and risk exposure in Hepatitis B prevalence. Third, more research on occult infection rates is required to estimate the extent of risk posed by the current blood donation screening program, which relies exclusively on Hepatitis B surface antigen as a biomarker. The same considerations apply for the comparative importance of vertical vs. horizontal transmission, and prevalence among particular risk groups like healthcare workers with high occupational exposure. Finally, while recent studies do allow us, albeit with some ambiguity, to draw conclusions about distribution of Hepatitis B genotypes in Bangladesh, there needs to be an added emphasis on molecular epidemiology. It is hoped that the present review, the first of its kind in Bangladesh, will serve as an up-to-date summary of the course Hepatitis B epidemiology research in Bangladesh has taken thus far, as well as crucial gaps to address going forward.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0090.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; infection control practices; antibiotic resistance; pathogens; coevolution
Online: 5 August 2018 (10:18:40 CEST)
The antibiotic or antimicrobial resistance is rapidly spreading in microbes relevant to human health. Two visible major contributory factors have been the indiscriminate overuse of antimicrobials for preventing diseases in human and to enhance the productivity in agriculture sector. To mitigate the potential threat posed by post-antibiotic era, the global health stakeholders have been making extra efforts at a war footing to formulate and implement global and national plans of action. In the current article, an endeavour is made to provide a perspective to look beyond the current focus on just use of the antimicrobials. Attention has been drawn towards various obvious and not-so-obvious self-preservation infection-prevention practices in vogue from the pre-antibiotic era whose usage has been on decline in the antibiotic era for various reasons. Particularly, the practices with a clear potential to effectively decrease the spread of pathogens through contact, curtail the evolution and dissemination of the antimicrobial resistance in local environment and its introduction into the global community, should be Identified and strengthened to make them part of comprehensive hygiene and quarantine practices. Broadly, the suggestions pertaining to the personal and community hygiene including bereavement practices, isolation and quarantine of suspected pathogen carriers, and water and environment security have been made to invoke a constructive debate and discussion among various stakeholders for their evaluation and implementation to effectively delay the development of antimicrobial resistance wherever possible and disrupt its spread to pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0196.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; PCR persistent positive; respiratory infection; COVID-19
Online: 12 December 2022 (09:04:59 CET)
Background and Objectives: Most individuals infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are asymptomatic or have mild symptoms of COVID-19, which usually resolve after few days. Regardless of symptoms, infected people can transmit the virus to others especially on the first days of infection. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is used to confirm SARS-CoV-2 infection; some individuals show persistent PCR-positivity after recovering from COVID-19. In this study, 12 individuals who showed persistence of COVID-19 symptoms and of SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positivity were followed-up. Methods: nasopharyngeal samples were collected for SARS-CoV-2 detection by RT-qPCR; clinical and epidemiological data were analyzed. Results: that persistence of SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity was associated with duration of symptoms (rs 0.81338), which varied between one and 49 days, with 75% of the individuals reporting symptoms for more than two weeks; 83.33% of cases remained positive after two weeks of onset of symptoms, despite decreases in viral load. Conclusion: neither RT-qPCR test nor a symptom-based approach alone are sufficient to evaluate discontinuation of patient isolation; other factors such as viral loads and symptom severity should also be considered. Additional studies are needed to understand how RT-PCR-positivity is related to symptoms and the risk of viral transmission, and to better support isolation guidelines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0039.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA ST239, osteomyelitis, genome features, adaptation; chronic infection
Online: 2 November 2022 (03:34:29 CET)
Abstract. The increasing frequency of isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) limits the chances of effective antibacterial therapy of staphylococcal diseases and results in development of persistent infection such as bacteremia and osteomyelitis. The aim of this study was to identify features of the MRSAST239 0943-1505-2016 (SA943) genome, that contribute to the formation of both acute and chronic musculoskeletal infections. The analysis was performed using comparative genomics data of the dominant epidemic S. aureus lineages namely ST1, ST8, ST30, ST36, ST239. SA943 genome encodes proteins that provide resistance to the host immune system, suppress immunological memory and form biofilms. The molecular mechanisms of adaptation responsible for development of persistent infection were as follows: amino acid substitution in PBP2 and PBP2a, providing resistance to ceftaroline; loss of a large part of prophage DNA and restoration of nucleotide sequence of beta-hemolysin, that greatly facilitates escape of phagocytosed bacteria from phagosome and formation of biofilms; dysfunction of the AgrA system due to the presence of psm-mec and several amino acid substitutions in the AgrC; partial deletion of nucleotide sequence in genomic island vSAβ resulting in the loss of two proteases of Spl - operon; deletion of SD repeats in SdrE amino acid sequence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0021.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: herbal drugs; gut microbiota; antibiotic stewardship, uncomplicated infection, NSAID, homeostasis.
Online: 1 September 2022 (10:35:01 CEST)
Epithelial surfaces in humans are home to symbiotic microbes (i.e., microbiota) that influence the defensive function against pathogens depending on the health of the microbiota. Healthy microbiota contribute to the well-being of their host in general (e.g., via the gut-brain-axis), and their respective anatomical site in particular (e.g., oral, urogenital, skin or respiratory microbiota). Despite efforts towards a more responsible use of antibiotics, they are often prescribed for uncomplicated, self-limiting infections and can have a substantial negative impact on the gut microbiota. Treatment alternatives such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may also influence the microbiota and thus can have lasting adverse effects. Herbal drugs offer a generally safe treatment option for uncomplicated infections of the urinary or respiratory tract. Additionally, their microbiota preserving properties allow for a more appropriate therapy of uncomplicated infections without contributing to an increase in antibiotic resistance or disturbing the gut microbiota. Here, herbal treatments may be a more appropriate therapy with a generally favorable safety profile.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0251.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: adenovirus infection; adenovirus disease; cidofovir; preemptive therapy; risk factors; survival
Online: 18 July 2022 (08:13:46 CEST)
Human Adenovirus (HAdV) infection occurs in 14-16% of patients in the early months after pediatric hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and this correlates with a higher risk to develop HAdV disease and overall 6-month mortality. The main risk factors for HAdV infection are T-cell depletion of the graft by ex vivo CD34+ selection or in vivo use of alemtuzumab or anti-thymocyte serum, the development of grade III-IV graft versus host disease (GVHD), the type of donor (unrelated donor, cord blood, haploidentical or HLA mismatched parent) and severe lymphopenia (< 0.2 x 109/L). The prevention of HAdV disease is based on early intervention with antivirals in the asymptomatic patient when the permitted viral load threshold on blood (> 102-3 copies/ml) and/or on the stool (109 copies/g stool) is exceeded. Cidofovir, a monophosphate nucleotide analog of cytosine, is the primary drug for preemptive therapy, used at 5 mg/kg/week for 2 weeks followed by 3-5 mg/kg every 2 weeks. The alternative schedule is 1 mg/kg every other day (three times/week). Enhancing virus-specific T-cell immunity in the first months post-HCT by donor-derived or third-party-derived virus-specific T cells represents an innovative and promising way of intervention applicable both in prevention and therapeutic setting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0103.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: cell death; death receptors; viral infection; signaling; regulated cell death
Online: 7 June 2022 (10:09:11 CEST)
The fate of a viral infection in the host begins with various types of cellular responses, such as abortive, productive, latent, and destructive infections. Apoptosis, necroptosis, and pyroptosis are the three major types of regulated cell death mechanisms that play critical roles in viral infection response. Cell shrinkage, nuclear condensation, bleb formation, and retained membrane integrity are all signs of osmotic imbalance-driven cytoplasmic swelling and early membrane damage in necroptosis and pyroptosis. Caspase-driven apoptotic cell demise is considered in many circum-stances as an anti-inflammatory, and some pathogens hijack the cell death signaling routes to initiate a targeted attack against the host. In this review, we selected mechanisms by which viruses interfere with cell death are discussed in-depth and are used to illustrate the general principles and cellular signaling mechanisms of virus-host specific molecule interactions.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0185.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: case fatality rate; co-infection; control; COVID-19; pandemic; policy; risk; vaccination
Online: 6 May 2022 (03:38:30 CEST)
There are two contrary opinions regarding the risk if mainland China (MC) moves away from its zero-COVID policy. Some experts think the risk shall be much lower than influenza as per MC’s own COVID-19 case fatality rate (CFR), while some other experts think the risk shall be much higher than influenza as per the COVID-19 CFRs of other regions. We elucidate here that this and multiple other striking differences in the CFR between various scenarios all support and substantially resulted from the view that good IDM is highly powerful to mitigate COVID-19, where IDM (isolation-disinfection-maintenance) means isolation of COVID-19 cases from other people, disinfection of their living environments, and health maintenance (e.g., rest, nutrition, breathing). The high effect of good IDM is also supported by the theoretic functions of IDM in minimizing co-infections and maintaining body functions, and the fact that all the 505 COVID-19 deaths reported in MC in 2022 before May 5 died directly of severe underlying diseases with COVID-19. Although it is tough for people in poverty to obtain good IDM, good IDM can be feasible at home for the most mild cases and in hospitals for the most severe cases. Therefore, good IDM can be crucial to mitigating COVID-19 worldwide. It also suggests that the risk for China to end its zero-COVID policy depends on China’s control policies or measures. Based on the effect of IDM, the cautious co-existence policy was proposed for COVID-19 control. This policy could reduce the whole death toll in MC because good IDM is non-specific and can reduce deaths of various other diseases. The cautious co-existence policy (non-specific) and the vaccination policy (specific) aid each other to mitigate COVID-19, and they cannot replace each other. Those who are qualified in health for vaccination should be vaccinated against COVID-19 timely.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0297.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: miRNA; mRNA; HIV; network; bioinformatics; HAND; viral infection; CNS damage
Online: 23 February 2022 (14:13:59 CET)
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is an array of neurocognitive changes associated with HIV infection, and the roles of microRNAs in HAND are not completely revealed yet. Based on published data and publicly available databases, we constructed an integrated miRNA-mRNA network involved in HAND. Bioinformatics analyses, including gene ontology, network analysis, and KEGG pathway analysis, were applied for further study of the network and the genes of the network. The axon guidance KEGG pathway, three genes NTNG1, EFNB2, CXCL12, and 17 miRNAs which regulates them, are spotlighted in our study. This study provides new perspectives to the knowledge of miRNAs’ roles in the process of HAND, and our findings provided potential therapeutic targets and clues of HAND.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: viral persistence; flaviviruses; mosquito; tick; autophagy; interferon; wildlife; infection; arbovirus
Online: 12 August 2021 (18:28:52 CEST)
A substantial number of humans are at risk for infection by vector-borne flaviviruses, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. These viruses also infect wildlife at a considerable rate, persistently cycling between either the tick or mosquito vector to small mammals (e.g. rodents, skunks) and reptiles to non-human primates and humans. Substantially increasing evidence of viral persistence in wildlife continue to be reported. In addition to in humans, viral persistence can also be established in mammalian, reptile, arachnid, and mosquito systems, as well as insect cell lines in culture. Although a considerable amount of research has focused on the potential roles of defective virus particles, autophagy and/or apoptosis induced evasion of the immune response, the precise mechanism of flavivirus has yet to be elucidated. In this review, we present findings that aid in further understanding of how vector-borne flavivirus persistence is established in wildlife. Research studies to be discussed include determining the critical roles universal flavivirus non-structural proteins played in viral persistence, the development of relevant animal models of viral persistence, and investigating the host responses that allow vector-borne flavivirus replication without destructive effects on infected cells. These findings underscore the viral–host relationships in wildlife animals and could be used to elucidate the mechanisms for the establishment of viral persistence in these animals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0356.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: airway cell exosomes; viral infection; microglia; mitochondria; reactive oxygen species
Online: 15 July 2021 (11:12:49 CEST)
Viral infections induce exosomes containing viral material and inflammatory factors. During respiratory tract infection, exosomes can easily cross the blood-brain barrier and transmit the inflammatory signal to the brain; however, such a hypothesis has no experimental evidence. The study investigated whether exosomes from virus mimetic poly (I:C)-primed airway cells enter the brain and interact with brain immune cells microglia. Airway cells were isolated from Wistar rats and BALB/c mice; microglial cell cultures - from Wistar rats. Exosomes from poly (I:C)-stimulated airway cell culture medium were isolated by precipitation, visualised by transmission electron microscopy, and evaluated by nanoparticle analyser; exosomal markers CD81 and CD9 were determined by ELISA. For in vitro and in vivo tracking, exosomes were loaded with Alexa Fluor 555-labelled RNA. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated by DCFDA fluo-rescence and mitochondrial superoxide - by MitoSOX. The exosomes from poly (I:C)-primed airway cells entered the brain within an hour after intranasal introduction, were internalised by microglia, and induced intracellular and intramitochondrial ROS production. There was no ROS increase in microglial cells was after treatment with exosomes from airway cells untreated with poly (I:C). The data indicate that virus-primed airway cell exosomes might enter the brain and induce the activation of microglial cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0603.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Candida auris; Superbug fungus; biofilm; Candida albicans; nosocomial infection; Candidiasis
Online: 24 June 2021 (11:54:40 CEST)
The newly emerging nosocomial pathogen Candida auris is linked with persistent hospital-acquired infections and abrupt outbreaks across six continents. Genotypic analysis is indicative of the appearance of independent distinct clades of this particular fungus in different geographic locations simultaneously. Intrusive deep seated infections in addition to colonization have been diagnosed primarily in hospitalized patients and have drawn a lot of attention because of different antifungal susceptibility profiles and transmission despite strict preventive measures. Problems with the accurate identification of C. auris using phenotypic and molecular approaches has raised concerns about the detection of relevant levels of the problem. Candida family associated infections are a serious causative agent of mortality and morbidity in immune-compromised individuals. Candida auris are also known as superbug fungus that spreads rapidly all over the world. In 2009, shortly after the first case, various strains across the six continents have been recognized as nosocomial pathogens. Simultaneous and independent C. auris outbreaks appear to be of great concern for the healthcare settings as well as scientific community. Additionally, microbiological misidentification and multidrug resistance, rarely noticed for other non-albicans Candida species, lead to problems in obliteration and frequent treatment failures for C. auris infections. This review article aims to provide a comprehensive and up to date report on the global C. auris outbreaks, considering clinical along with microbiological characteristics, virulence mechanisms and susceptibility to antifungals, as well as the effectiveness of available preventive and therapeutic implementations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0207.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Suture material; Third molar surgery; Surgical wound infection; Bacterial adhesion
Online: 10 May 2021 (15:08:53 CEST)
Background: Selection and application of suture materials, has gained more importance especially with the increasing number of patients seeking oral surgeries. Since lying in a bacterial-filled environment, sutures make the tissue prone to infection. Suture material plays an important role in the reduction of the risk of infection. This study aimed to assess the success rate of an antibacterial suture named Vicryl Plus in preventing bacterial growth in the surgical site of the mandibular third molar. Methods: 27 patients were included in this double-blinded randomized clinical trial study. Surgical Extraction of the mandibular wisdom tooth was done and the incision was managed by randomly using Vicryl Plus and Vicryl sutures. After 7 days, sutures were removed and assessed microbiologically. Predominant species of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus were assessed as well as the total number of colonies on each suture. Results: There was a significant difference between two suture materials in colony number-length ratio of lactobacillus (p-value= 0.031) and total bacterial colonies (p-value=0.016); but not for S. mutans species (p-value=0.201). Conclusion: Antibacterial Vicryl suture can be a useful tool for the reduction in the rate of surgical site infection in high-risk cases and situations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0561.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Pseudomonas; antibiotic resistance; dog; infection; skin, otitis externa, perianal abscess.
Online: 21 April 2021 (09:02:48 CEST)
Treating infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is increasingly difficult due to high antimicrobial resistance, materialized through the presence of multiple resistance strains, as well as due to rapid development of resistance throughout treatment. The present survey was conducted to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogens, in two University Veterinary hospitals from different geographical regions of Romania (i.e., south-west - Timisoara county and north-east – Iasi county) involved in canine superficial infections. A total of 142 swab specimens were collected from dogs with superficial infections (superficial skin infections, otitis externa, perianal abscess), with the aim of assessing the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, based on phenotypic and molecular characterization. Fifty-eight samples (40.84%; 58/142) were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (according to their confirmed morphological and molecular features). Susceptibility to usual antibiotics used in the treatment of canine skin conditions was tested for all Pseudomonas strains that were isolated from canine superficial infections, using the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Drug resistance was observed in the case of all tested antibiotics. The susceptibility rate of P. aeruginosa strains that were tested in this study was in the following order: ampicillin sulbactam (55.17%; 32/58), followed by ceftazidime (53.44%; 31/58), aztreonam (51.72%; 30/58), amikacin (44.82%; 26/58), azithromycin (41.37%; 24/58), gentamycin (37.93%; 22/58), cefepime (36.20%; 21/58) meropenem (25.86%; 13/58), piperacillin-tazobactam (25.86%; 13/58) imipenem (22.41%; 13/158), ciprofloxacin (17.24%; 10/58) tobramycin (8.62; 5/58), and polymyxin B (1.72; 1/58) respectively. The results highlight the importance of antibiotic susceptibility testing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from dogs with superficial infections, in order to use an adequate treatment plan for the management of the skin condition, and other pathology (otitis externa and perianal abscesses).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0258.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: co-infection; SARS-CoV-2; Covid-19; seasonal respiratory viruses
Online: 10 December 2020 (12:53:28 CET)
Background: Co-infections of SARS-CoV-2 with respiratory viruses, bacteria and fungi have been reported to cause a wide range of illness. Objectives: We asses s the prevalence of co-infection of SARS-CoV-2 with seasonal respiratory viruses, document the respiratory viruses detected among individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2, and describe characteristics of individuals with respiratory virus co-infection detected. Methods: Specimens included in this study were submitted as part of routine clinical testing to Public Health Ontario Laboratory from individuals requiring testing for SARS-CoV-2 and/or seasonal respiratory viruses. Results: Co-infection was detected in a smaller proportion (2.5%) of individuals with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 than those with seasonal respiratory viruses (4.3%); this difference was not significant. Individuals with any respiratory virus co-infection were more likely to be younger than 65 years of age and male than those with single infection. Those with SARS-CoV-2 co-infection manifested mostly mild respiratory symptoms. Conclusions: Findings of this study may not support routine testing for seasonal respiratory viruses among all individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2, as they were rare during the study period nor associated with severe disease. However, testing for seasonal respiratory viruses should be performed in severely ill individuals, in which detection of other viruses may assist with patient management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0758.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Enterococcus faecalis; Proteus mirabilis; Polymicrobial; Biofilm; Catheter; Urinary Tract Infection
Online: 30 September 2020 (16:39:51 CEST)
Indwelling urinary catheters are common in healthcare settings and can lead to catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). Long-term catheterization causes polymicrobial colonization of the catheter and urine, for which the clinical significance is poorly understood. Through prospective assessment of catheter urine colonization, we identified Enterococcus faecalis and Proteus mirabilis as the most prevalent and persistent co-colonizers. Clinical isolates of both species successfully co-colonized in a murine model of CAUTI, and they were observed to co-localize on catheter biofilms during infection. We further demonstrate that P. mirabilis preferentially adheres to E. faecalis during biofilm formation, and that contact-dependent interactions between E. faecalis and P. mirabilis facilitate establishment of a robust biofilm architecture that enhances antimicrobial resistance for both species. E. faecalis may therefore act as a pioneer species on urinary catheters, establishing an ideal surface for persistent colonization by more traditional pathogens such as P. mirabilis.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0702.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; influenza vaccine; systematic review; infection; severity; risk
Online: 29 September 2020 (09:14:03 CEST)
We reviewed the association between seasonal influenza vaccination and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection or complicated illness or poor outcome (e.g. severe disease, need for hospitalization or ventilatory support, or death) among COVID-19 patients. None of the studies that were reviewed (n=12) found a significant increase in the risk of infection or in the illness severity or lethality, while some reported significantly inverse associations. Our findings support measures aimed at raising influenza vaccination coverage in the coming months.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0106.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Fish pathogen; host-pathogen interaction; proteomics; infection assays; virulence factors
Online: 4 September 2020 (12:51:22 CEST)
Piscirickettsia salmonis is an intracellular bacterial fish pathogen that causes piscirickettsiosis, a disease with numerous negative impacts in the Chilean salmon farming industry. Although transcriptomic studies of P. salmonis and its host have been performed, dual host-pathogen proteomic approaches during infection are still missing. Considering that gene expression not always corresponds with observed phenotype, and bacteriological culture studies inadequately reflect infection conditions, to improve the existing knowledge for the pathogenicity of P. salmonis we present here a global proteomic profiling of Salmon salar macrophage-like cell cultures infected with P. salmonis LF-89. The proteomic analyses identified several P. salmonis proteins from two temporally different stages of macrophages infection; some of them related to key functions for bacterial survival in other intracellular pathogens. Metabolic differences were observed in early-stage infection bacteria, compared to late-stage infections. Virulence factors related to membrane, LPS and surface component modifications, cell motility, toxins and secretion systems also varied between the infection stages. Pilus proteins, beta-hemolysin and the T6SS were characteristic of the early-infection stage, while fimbria, upregulation of 10 toxins or effector proteins, and the Dot/Icm T4SS were representative of the late-infection stage bacteria. Previously described virulence-related genes in P. salmonis plasmids were identified by proteomic assays during infection in SHK-1 cells, accompanied by an increase of mobile-related elements. By comparing the infected and un-infected proteome of SHK-1 cells, we observed changes in cellular and ROS homeostasis, innate immune response, microtubules and actin cytoskeleton organization and dynamics, alteration in phagosome components, iron transport and metabolism, and amino acids, nucleoside and nucleotide metabolism, together with an overall energy and ATP production alteration. Our global proteomic profiling and the current knowledge of the P. salmonis infection process allowed us to propose a model of the macrophage-P. salmonis interaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0317.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: laproscopic cholecystectomy; acute cholecystitis; gall stone; sepsis; surgical site infection
Online: 20 May 2020 (04:16:36 CEST)
Aim: Aim of our study to evaluate various factors responsible for surgical site infection after gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary surgeries. Material and Methods: Patient who underwent gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary surgery in our department were evaluated retrospectively. Various factors associated with surgical site infection were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis. Surgical site infection was defined as any culture positive discharge from the wound within 30 days of surgery.Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 23. Results: We evaluated total 331 patients operated between April 2018 to March 2020. 14 patients were lost to follow up after discharge and before completing post operative day 30. 18 patients expired before 30 days without developing SSI and were excluded from the study as per exclusion criteria. 299 patient included in the study. Total 20 patients developed surgical site infection. It showed SSI rate in our study population was 6.68%. On univariate analysis prolonged hospital stay, more blood product used, higher cdc grade of surgery, higher ASA grade, more operative time, open surgeries,colorectal and HPB surgeries were associated with surgical site infections. On multivariate analysis only prolonged hospital stay independently predicted Surgical Site Infectins. (p=0.014,0dds ratio 1.223, 95% confidence interal 1.042-1.435). Conclusion: Prolonged hospital stay independently predicts surgical site infections after gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary surgery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0206.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: 2019 novel coronavirus infection; corons; SARS-CoV; interferon; systems biology
Online: 23 March 2020 (10:27:57 CET)
As the outbreak of COVID-19 has accelerated, an urgent need for finding strategies to combat the virus is growing. Thus, gaining more knowledge on the pathogenicity mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2, the causing agent of COVID-19, and its interaction with the immune system is of utmost importance. Although this novel virus is not well known yet, its structural and genetic similarity with SARS-CoV as well as the comparable pattern of age-mortality relations suggest that the previous findings on SARS can be applicable for COVID-19. Therefore, a systems biology study was conducted to investigate the most important signaling pathways activated by the virus. The results were then validated through a literature review on COVID-19 and the other closely related viruses, SARS and MERS. Interferons have shown to play a crucial role in the defense against coronavirus diseases. CoV can impede the interferon induction in humans. Moreover, STAT1, a key protein in the interferon-mediated immune response, is antagonized by the virus. This could explain the increased response threshold of immune cells to IFNs during CoV infections. A vivid correlation between the innate immune response threshold and the fatality rates in COVID-19 can be found. Differences in the dynamics of the interferon-related innate immune responses in children, adults, and elderly may explain the reported fatality rates. The increased mortality rates in the elderly can be explained by the higher threshold of interferon-mediated immune responses. Earlier induction of interferons in children and their less developed immune system could contribute to their near to zero fatality rate. Administration of interferon-inducing agents, such as poly (ICLC), could reduce the mortality of SARS at the very early stages of the disease. Interferon-γ combination with an interferon-I might induce synergistic effects and maximize the benefits. However, in-depth research is needed to validate it and determine the optimum dosage and timing to prevent unwanted results. Such interventions can act as a double-edged sword and aid the imbalance of the immune reactions, which may occur at the later stages of the disease. With the advancement of the disease and the virus overload, the responses would shift toward immnopathogenic over-reactions and probably cytokine storm. Moderating the activity of the immune system and supportive care in such conditions might be the optimum approach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: bacterial infection; antibiotic resistance; bacteriophage; antibiotic therapy; phage therapy; review
Online: 5 July 2018 (10:09:09 CEST)
Bacteriophages, viruses that are widespread throughout the world, are highly specific for bacteria, usually of a single species and often of a particular strain. After being discovered and isolated 100 years ago, their use, called phage therapy, was instituted in medicine two years later and quickly used around the world to treat various bacterial infections. In the West, phage therapy was overshadowed in the second half of the 20th century by antibiotic therapy, which was then thought to be the definitive solution. But because of the increase in bacterial resistance to antibiotics, the idea of using bacteriophages in medicine has been reawakened. The innumerable observations reported over the years in the literature constitute an invaluable experience. We and some of our colleagues have, in the last decade treated some patients compassionately. With the available documentation and our own experience we discuss the potential indications and limitations of phage therapy. The observation of the increasing number of therapeutic failures in the announced perspective of a post-antibiotic era, we believe, that the introduction of bacteriophages into the therapeutic arsenal seems conceivable today to two preconditions: that their production as biologic drug meets current regulatory standards and that the benefit-risk assessment was conducted in a modern setting. Phage therapy could be applied as a substitution or supplement to antibiotic therapy under multiple circumstances in different modes, precise indications and limits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: Lyme disease; Borrelia burgdorferi; Tickborne disease; Chronic infection; Spirochete culture
Online: 8 March 2018 (07:08:02 CET)
Introduction: Lyme disease is a tickborne illness that generates controversy among medical providers and researchers. One of the key topics of debate is the existence of persistent infection with the Lyme spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in patients who have been treated with recommended doses of antibiotics yet remain symptomatic. Persistent spirochetal infection despite antibiotic therapy has recently been demonstrated in non-human primates. We present evidence of persistent Borrelia infection despite antibiotic therapy in patients with ongoing Lyme disease symptoms. Materials & Methods: In this pilot study, culture of body fluids and tissues was performed in a randomly selected group of 12 patients with persistent Lyme disease symptoms who had been treated or who were being treated with antibiotics. Cultures were also performed on a group of 10 control subjects without Lyme disease. The cultures were subjected to corroborative microscopic, histopathological and molecular testing for Borrelia organisms in four independent laboratories in a blinded manner. Results: Motile spirochetes identified histopathologically as Borrelia were detected in culture specimens, and these spirochetes were genetically identified as Borrelia burgdorferi by three distinct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Spirochetes identified as Borrelia burgdorferi were cultured from the blood of seven subjects, from the genital secretions of ten subjects, and from a skin lesion of one subject. Cultures from control subjects without Lyme disease were negative for Borrelia using these methods. Conclusions: Using multiple corroborative detection methods, we showed that patients with persistent Lyme disease symptoms may have ongoing spirochetal infection despite antibiotic treatment, similar to findings in non-human primates. The optimal treatment for persistent Borrelia infection remains to be determined.