Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Trends in Pediatric Candidemia: Epidemiology, Anti-Fungal Susceptibility and Patient Characteristics in a Children’s Hospital

Version 1 : Received: 7 December 2020 / Approved: 8 December 2020 / Online: 8 December 2020 (07:47:24 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Piqueras, A.; Ganapathi, L.; Carpenter, J.F.; Rubio, T.; Sandora, T.J.; Flett, K.B.; Köhler, J.R. Trends in Pediatric Candidemia: Epidemiology, Anti-Fungal Susceptibility, and Patient Characteristics in a Children’s Hospital. J. Fungi 2021, 7, 78. Piqueras, A.; Ganapathi, L.; Carpenter, J.F.; Rubio, T.; Sandora, T.J.; Flett, K.B.; Köhler, J.R. Trends in Pediatric Candidemia: Epidemiology, Anti-Fungal Susceptibility, and Patient Characteristics in a Children’s Hospital. J. Fungi 2021, 7, 78.

Journal reference: J. Fungi 2021, 7, 78
DOI: 10.3390/jof7020078

Abstract

Background. Candida bloodstream infections (CBSIs) have decreased among pediatric populations in the United States, but remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Species distributions and susceptibility patterns of CBSI isolates diverge widely between children and adults. Awareness of these patterns can inform clinical decision-making for empiric or pre-emptive therapy of children at risk for candidemia. Methods. CBSIs occurring from 2006-2016 among patients in a large children’s hospital were analyzed for age specific trends in incidence rate, risk factors for breakthrough-CBSI and death, as well as underlying conditions. Candida species distributions and susceptibility patterns were evaluated in addition to antifungal agent use. Results. The overall incidence rate of CBSI among this complex patient population was 1.97/1,000 patient-days. About half of CBSI episodes occurred in immunocompetent children and 14% in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) patients. Antifungal resistance was minimal: 96.7% of isolates were fluconazole-, 99% were micafungin-, and all were amphotericin susceptible. Liposomal amphotericin was the most commonly prescribed antifungal agent including for NICU patients. Overall CBSI-associated mortality was 13.7%; there were no deaths associated with CBSI among NICU patients after 2011. Conclusions. Pediatric CBSI characteristics differ substantially from those in adults. Improved management of underlying diseases and antimicrobial stewardship may further decrease morbidity and mortality from CBSI while continuing to maintain low resistance rates among Candida isolates.

Subject Areas

candida; bloodstream infection; pediatric; neonatal; antifungal

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