COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0126.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: protein-protein interaction; protein-peptide interaction; triglycine; substrate binding site; peptide; inhibitor; Proteinase K
Online: 11 August 2019 (08:37:08 CEST)
Various peptides or non-structural amino acids are recognized by their specific target proteins and perform biological role in various pathways in vivo. Understanding the interactions between target protein and peptides (or non-structural amino acids) provides key information on the molecular interactions, which can be potentially translated to the development of novel drugs. However, it is experimentally challenging to determine the crystal structure of protein-peptide complexes. To obtain structural information on substrate recognition of peptide-recognizing enzyme, X-ray crystallographic studies were performed using triglycine (Gly-Gly-Gly) as main-chain of peptide. The crystal structure of Parengyodontium album Proteinase K in complex with triglcyine was determined at 1.4 Å resolution. Two different bound conformations of triglycine were observed at the substrate recognition site. The triglycine backbone forms stable interactions with β5-α4 and α5-β6 loops of main-chain. One of the triglycine-binding conformations was identical with the binding mode of a peptide-based inhibitor from a previously reported crystal structure of Proteinase K. Triglycine has potential application X-ray crystallography to identify substrate recognition sites in peptide binding enzymes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0138.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: molecular dynamics simulation; RNA-binding; rev protein; rev response element (RRE); HIV-virus.
Online: 21 February 2018 (16:57:27 CET)
Nuclear export of viral mRNAs, is an essential step in the HIV replication cycle. This role is played by a small regulatory protein of HIV-1 called Rev.The N-terminal region of Rev contains an arginine-rich sequence. The arginine-rich motif (ARM) is located between amino acids 38-50 and forms an alpha-helical secondary structure. Expression of the structural proteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 requires the direct interaction of multiple copies of the viral Rev protein with its highly structured RNA target sequence, the Rev Response element (RRE). The major viral proteins are not produced if this transport of RNA is stopped. Therefore, knowledge of Rev structure is essential for understanding of its cooperative binding to the RRE, for understanding the mechanism of HIV infection and for the development of antiviral drugs that interfere with Rev’s essential functions and for acknowledgment of good candidate drugs for treatment of AIDS. To understand how REV interact with RRE element of HIV-RNA and its formation of oligomeric complex it is better to characterize the domain wise structure of REV with regard in function of each domain. Due to lack of structural data on Rev no single compound is reported as inhibitor of REV expect antiviral drugs. Identification of a high-affinity RNA-binding site for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev Protein is much more important. The ARM is a highly specific sequence which allows for the multimerization of Rev and also binding of REV with RNA. Here we are first time exploring the structural characteristics of REV protein both in free form and in complex with RNA at domain function level especially explore the role of ARM motif in REV HIV-1 protein as RNA binding sites by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and homology modeling studies. Results indicate that the arginine-rich motif (ARM) is crucial in stability of this complex. The residues ARG38, 39, 41, 43, 44, 48, 50, and ASN40 are most interacting with nucleobases of RRE in Crystal structure of Rev and Rev-response-element RNA complex. Our study plays a major role in elaboration of binding of RNA with REV and pave the way for further investigation for therapeutically agent for HIV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0236.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: bacterial toxin; cholera toxin; Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin; lectin; N-acetyllactosamine binding; neutral glycosphingolipids; protein-carbohydrate interactions; surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy; X-ray crystal structure
Online: 28 January 2019 (15:23:24 CET)
Diarrhoea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli is one of the leading causes of mortality in children under five years of age and is a great burden on developing countries. The major virulence factor of the bacterium is the heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), a close homologue of the cholera toxin. The toxins bind to carbohydrate receptors in the gastrointestinal tract, leading to toxin uptake and, ultimately, to severe diarrhoea. Previously, LT from human- and porcine-infecting ETEC (hLT and pLT, respectively) were shown to have different carbohydrate-binding specificities, in particular with respect to N-acetyllactosamine-terminating glycosphingolipids. Here, we probed eleven single-residue variants of the heat-labile enterotoxin with surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and compared the data to the parent toxins. In addition we present a 1.45 Å crystal structure of pLTB in complex with branched Lacto-N-neohexaose (Galbeta4GlcNAcbeta6[Galbeta4GlcNAcbeta3]Galbeta4Glc). The largest difference in binding specificity is caused by mutation of residue 94, which links the primary and secondary binding sites of the toxins. Residue 95 (and to a smaller extent also residues 7 and 18) also contribute, whereas residue 4 shows no effect on monovalent binding of the ligand and may rather be important for multivalent binding and avidity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0326.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Binding Problem; Perceptual Binding; Consciousness; Perception
Online: 25 February 2022 (08:46:39 CET)
The brain’s ability to create a unified conscious representation of an object by integrating information from multiple perception pathways is called perceptual binding. Binding is crucial for normal cognitive function. Some perceptual binding errors and disorders have been linked to certain neurological conditions, brain lesions, and conditions that give rise to illusory conjunctions. However, the mechanism of perceptual binding remains elusive. Here, we present a computational model of binding using two sets of coupled oscillatory processes that are assumed to occur in response to two different percepts. We use the model to study the dynamic behavior of coupled processes to characterize how these processes can modulate each other and reach a temporal synchrony. We identify different oscillatory dynamic regimes that depend on coupling mechanisms and parameter values. The model can also discriminate different combinations of initial inputs that are set by initial states of coupled processes. Decoding brain signals that are formed through perceptual binding is a challenging task, but our modeling results demonstrate how crosstalk between two systems of processes can possibly modulate their outputs. Therefore, our mechanistic model can help one gain a better understanding of how crosstalk between perception pathways can affect the dynamic behavior of the systems that involve perceptual binding.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0194.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: antibody; binding energy; binding landscape; logistic function; network
Online: 21 April 2022 (08:10:03 CEST)
Antibodies constitute a major component of serum on protein mass basis. We also know that the structural diversity of these antibodies exceeds that of all other proteins in the body and they react with an immense number of molecular targets. What we still cannot quantitatively describe is, how antibody abundance is related to affinity, specificity and cross reactivity. This ignorance has important practical consequences: we also do not have proper biochemical units for characterizing polyclonal serum antibody binding. The solution requires both a theoretical foundation, a physical model of the system, and technology for the experimental confirmation of theory. Here we argue that the quantitative characterization of interactions between serum antibodies and their targets requires systems-level physical chemistry approach and generates results that should help create maps of antibody binding landscape.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0628.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Binding energy in lasers; Latent Binding energy in white light; Harnessing binding energy in sunlight
Online: 31 July 2018 (15:22:46 CEST)
Physics behind collimated highly directional nature of lasers, and factors that keep the seven coloured waves that form white light together during their journey from Sun to Earth, in the face of the natural disruptive forces, is not fully understood. Energy levels were measured, in terms of alterations in induced current and voltage, in beams from a red laser, white LED light and the Sunlight before and during their disruption by diffusers (frosted glass for the lasers) and diffractors (diffraction grating for the white light) using a photovoltaic solar cell panel attached to a digital multimeter. Results show that disruption of the beams results in release of extra energy named as ‘Latent Light Binding’ Energy’. It is hypothesized that the ‘binding’ energy keeps laser waves firmly bound together both end-on and side-on enabling laser beams to travel long distances in collimated manner. Likewise, the 7 coloured waves that constitute white light are kept together, probably side-on, in their journey from the Sun to the Earth. The observation that diffraction of sunbeam is associated with increased power generation provides a new lead to improve harnessing of solar energy, where, currently, the focus is mainly on improving efficiency of photovoltaic cell.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0213.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: RORγ; plasticity; druggability; orthosteric binding pocket; allosteric binding pocket
Online: 10 July 2020 (01:50:44 CEST)
Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor γ (RORγ) is a transcription factor regulating the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17 in human T helper 17 (Th17) cells. Activating RORγ can induce multiple IL-17-mediated autoimmune diseases but may also be useful for anticancer therapy. Its deep immunological functions make RORɣ an attractive drug target. Over 100 crystal structures have been published describing atomic interactions between RORɣ and agonists and inverse agonists. In this review, we focus on the role of dynamic properties and plasticity of the RORɣ orthosteric and allosteric binding sites by examining structural information from crystal structures and simulated models. We discuss the possible influences of allosteric ligands on the orthosteric binding site. We find that high structural plasticity favors the druggability of RORɣ, especially for allosteric ligands.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0075.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Antibody binding assays; binding antibody units; Immunocompromised; Threshold
Online: 8 April 2022 (08:38:40 CEST)
Background: Identifying a specific threshold level of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies that confers protection in immunocompromised patients has been very challenging. The aim was to assess the threshold of 264 binding antibody units (BAU)/ml using four different SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays (Abbott, Beckman, Roche, and Siemens) and to establish a new optimal threshold of protection for each of the four antibody assays. Methods: This study was performed on data retrieved from 69 individuals, who received at least one dose of the Pfizer/BioNTech BNT162b2 or Moderna COVID-19 vaccine (Spikevax) at the Alphabio Laboratory in Marseille, France (European Hospital, Alphabio – Biogroup). The results were compared to the percent inhibition calculated using a functional surrogate of a standardized virus neutralization test (Genscript). Results: Samples from 69 patients were analyzed. For a reference cutoff of 264 BAU/ml, assays showed moderate to good overall concordance with Genscript: 87% concordance for Abbott, 78% for Beckman, 75% for Roche, and 88% for Siemens. Overall concordance increased consistently after applying new thresholds, i.e., 148 BAU/ml (Abbott), 48 (Beckman), 559 (Roche), and 270 (Siemens). Conclusion: We suggest specific adjusted thresholds (BAU/ml) for the four commercial antibody assays that are used to assess pre-exposure prophylaxis in immunocompromised patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0085.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: molecular dynamics; matrix metalloproteinase; domain movement; zinc binding protein; calcium binding protein
Online: 4 July 2019 (18:07:55 CEST)
Matrix Metaloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is an extracellular Zn2+ protease specific to type I and IV collagens. Its expression is associated with several inflammatory, degenerative, and malignant diseases. Conformational properties, domain movements, and interactions between MMP-2 and its associated metal ions were characterized using a 1.0 µs molecular dynamics simulation. Dihedral principle component analysis revealed 10 families of conformations with the greatest degree of variability occurring in the link region connecting the catalytic and hemopexin domains. Dynamics cross correlation analysis indicated domain movements corresponding to opening and closing of the hemopexin domain in relation to the fibronectin and catalytic domains facilitated by the link region. Interaction energies were calculated using the MMPBSA-interaction entropy analysis method and revealed strong binding energies for the catalytic Zn2+ ion 1, Ca2+ ion 1, and Ca2+ ion 3 with significant conformational stability at the binding sites of Zn2+ ion 1 and Ca2+ ion 1. Ca2+ ion 2 diffuses freely away from its crystallographically defined binding site. Zn2+ ion 2 plays a minor role in conformational stability of the catalytic domain while Ca2+ ion 3 is strongly attracted to the highly electronegative sidechains of the Asp residues around the central β-sheet core of the hemopexin domain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0044.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Bacteriophage; Lactococcus lactis; receptor-binding protein; carbohydrate binding module; phage-host interactions
Online: 2 July 2019 (11:45:19 CEST)
Abstract: With the availability of an increasing number of 3D structures of bacteriophage components, combined with powerful in silico predictive tools, it has become possible to decipher the structural assembly and functionality of phage adhesion devices. In the current study, we examined 113 members of the 936 group of lactococcal siphophages, and identified a number of Carbohydrate Binding Modules (CBMs) in the neck passage structure and major tail protein, on top of evolved Dit proteins as recently reported by us. The binding ability of such CBM-containing proteins was assessed through the construction of green fluorescent protein fusion proteins and subsequent binding assays. Two CBMs, one from the phage tail and another from the neck, demonstrated definite binding to their phage-specific host. Bioinformatic analysis of the structural proteins of 936 phages reveals that they incorporate binding modules which exhibit structural homology to those found in other lactococcal phage groups and beyond, indicating that phages utilize common structural “bricks” to enhance host binding capabilities. The omnipresence of CBMs in Siphophages supports their beneficial role in the infection process, as they can be combined in various ways to form appendages with different shapes and functionalities, ensuring their success in host detection in their respective ecological niches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0318.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: BA.2.75 variant; Gibbs energy of binding; binding rate; infectivity; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 21 September 2022 (09:44:34 CEST)
Omicron BA.2.75 may become the next globally dominant strain of COVID-19 in 2022. BA.2.75 sub-variant has acquired more mutations (9) in spike protein and other genes of SARS-CoV-2 than any other variant. Thus, its chemical composition and thermodynamic properties have changed comparing to earlier variants. In this paper Gibbs energy of binding and antigen-receptor binding rate is reported for the BA.2.75 variant. Gibbs energy of binding (driving force of binding) of Omicron BA.2.75 variant is more negative than that of the competing variants BA.2 and BA.5.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0034.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Hemopexin; Hemoglobin; protein-protein binding; hemin
Online: 2 March 2022 (06:56:02 CET)
Abstract: Background: Hemopexin (Hx) is a plasma glycoprotein that scavenges heme (Fe(III) protoporphyrin IX), Hx have important implication in hemolytic disorders and hemorrhagic condition because the release of hemoglobin increase labile heme, which is potentially toxic producing oxidative stress. Hx has been considered for therapeutic use and diagnostics. In this work, we analyzed and mapped interaction sequences of Hx with hemin and hemoglobin (2) Methods: Spot-synthesis technique was used to map human hemopexin (P02790) binding to hemin and human hemoglobin, a library of 15 amino acid peptides with a 10-amino acid overlap was designed to represent the entire coding region (aa 1-462) of hemopexin and synthesized onto cellulose membranes. In silico approach was performed to analyze amino acid frequency in identified interaction regions, and molecular docking was applied for protein-protein interaction (3) Results: Seven linear peptide sequences in Hx were identified to bind hemin (H1-H7), and five were described for Hb (Hb1-Hb5) interaction, with just two sequences shared between hemin and Hb. Amino acid composition of identified sequences demonstrated that Histidine residues are relevant for heme binding, H105, H293, H373, H400, H429, and H462 was distributed in H1-H7 peptide sequences, but other residues may also play an important role. Molecular docking analysis demonstrated Hx association with the β-chain of Hb, with several hot spot amino acids that coordinated interaction. (4) Conclusions: This study highlights new insights on Hx-hemin binding motifs and protein-protein interactions with Hb. Binding sequences and identified specific peptides can be used for therapeutic purposes and diagnostics, as hemopexin is under investigation to treat different diseases, and there is an urgent need for diagnostics of labile heme for monitoring hemolysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0403.v1
Online: 19 August 2021 (12:05:34 CEST)
The main aim of this study is to identify inhibitory binding potent of the available commercially alkaloids, against the crystal structure of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) protein by in silico studies. The inhibitory data of the compounds should be compared with the internal ligand as well as standard AChE inhibitor Aricept (which is used for the treatment of all stages of Alzheimer’s disease). AutoDock 4.0 is used for the docking study, conformational orientation site analysis, and, with the help of docking, we have calculated parameters like binding energy and inhibition constant. Docking's study showed that Glabridin, Isorosmanol, Quercetin, Honokiol, Eckol, Sargaquinoic acid, and Ginsedosides revealed strong binding affinity with the enzyme. Moreover, The ADMET profiling and physicochemical properties of the selected compounds are evaluated using the Molinspiration and Data warrior software. By showing a strong binding affinity value, positive bioactivity score, and good pharmacokinetic properties, the top compound was determined. After evaluation with all parameters, the compound Glabridin and Ginsedosides show the most potent inhibitory effect towards the acetylcholinesterase, so this compound could be used as a novel is required to treat Alzheimer's disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0392.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: atrial-fibrillation; multi-target; drug promiscuity; druggable binding site; flecainide; Nav1.5; Kv1.5; binding site comparison; polypharmacology
Online: 30 May 2022 (10:10:41 CEST)
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Its treatment includes antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) to modulate the function of cardiac ion channels. However, AADs have been limited by proarrhythmic effects, non-cardiovascular toxicities as well as often modest antiarrhythmic efficacy. Theoretical models showed that combined blockade of Nav1.5 (and its current INa) and Kv1.5 (and its current, IKur) ion channels yield a synergistic anti-arrhythmic effect without effect on ventricles. We focused on Kv1.5 and Nav1.5 to search for structural similarities in their binding site (BS) for flecainide (a common blocker and widely prescribed AAD), as a first step for prospective rational multi-target directed ligand (MTDL) design strategies. We presented a computational workflow for flecainide BS comparison in a flecainide-Kv1.5 docking model and a solved structure of flecainide-Nav1.5 complex. The workflow includes docking, molecular dynamics, BS characterization and pattern matching. We identified a common structural pattern in flecainide BS for these channels. The latter belongs to the inner cavity and consist of a hydrophobic patch and a polar region, involving residues from S6 helix and P-loop. Since the rational MTDL design for AF is still incipient, our findings could advance multi-target atrial-selective strategies for AF treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0013.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: dextransucrases; GH70; lactic acid bacteria; sucrose-active enzymes; carbohydrate binding module; glucansucrase; cellulose binding domain; Leuconostoc
Online: 1 September 2021 (12:12:00 CEST)
The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have great potential to produce homoexopolysaccharides (HoPS), have been the subject of extensive research efforts, given their health benefits and physicochemical properties. The HoPS functional properties are determined by structural characteristics of varied molecular weights, types of glycosidic linkages, degrees of branching and chemical composition. The dextransucrases (DSases) are responsible of the synthesis of a kind of HoPS (dextran polymers), which are among the first biopolymers produced at industrial scale with applications in medicine and biotechnology. The concept of glycodiversification opens additional applications for DSases. In that sense the design and characterization of new DSases is of prime importance. Previously, we described the isolation and characterization of a novel extracellular dextransucrase (DSR-F) encoding gene. In this study, from DSR-F, we design a novel chimeric dextransucrase DSR-F-∆SP-∆GBD-CBM2a, where DSR-F-∆SP-∆GBD is fused to the carbohydrate-binding module (CBM2a) of the β-1-4 exoglucanase/xylanase Cex (Xyn10A) of Cellulomonas fimi ATCC 484. This dextransucrase variant is active and without alteration in its specificity. The DSR-F-∆SP-∆GBD-CBM2a is purified by cellulose affinity chromatography for the very first time. Our results indicate that new hybrids and chimeric DSases with novel binding capacity to cellulose can be designed to obtain glyco-biocatalysts from renewable lignocellulosic materials.
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: calmodulin; calmodulin binding proteins; calmodulin binding motifs; calcium signalling; EF hands; heart arrythmia; neurodegeneration; Dictyostelium discoideum
Online: 15 December 2019 (15:44:35 CET)
Dictyostelium discoideum is gaining increasing attention as a model organism for the study of calcium binding and calmodulin function in basic biological events as well as human diseases. After a short overview of calcium-binding proteins, the structure of Dictyostelium calmodulin and the conformational changes effected by calcium ion binding to its four EF hands is compared to its human counterpart, emphasizing the highly conserved nature of this central regulatory protein. The calcium-dependent and -independent motifs involved in calmodulin binding to target proteins are discussed with examples of the diversity of calmodulin binding proteins that have been studied in this amoebozoan. The methods used to identify and characterize calmodulin binding proteins is covered followed by the ways Dictyostelium is currently being used as a system to study several neurodegenerative diseases and how it could serve as a model for studying calmodulinopathies such as those associated with specific types of heart arrythmia. Because of its rapid developmental cycles, its genetic tractability, and a richly endowed stock center, Dictyostelium is in a position to become a leader in the field of calmodulin research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0522.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: RNA Nucleotides; Uracil; Intermolecular Binding; Cyclic Compounds
Online: 30 April 2020 (08:58:21 CEST)
Exogenous RNA comprises the genetic material associated with several diseases which require immediate treatment, and thus mechanisms to hinder intracellular translation and reproduction of RNA viral agents are of great importance. Applying recent developments from this lab in methods relating to the interaction of DNA with steroid hormones, cyclic compounds are presented for intermolecular binding to nucleic acids. The requirements to achieve binding with RNA nucleotide pairs are described, which involve at a minimum functional elements positioned to interact with the lateral phosphate groups for each of the RNA strands through coupling with a positively charged ion, such as Mg2+, Ca2+, or Zn2+ ions; and an intermolecular hydrogen bond with the oxygen element of uracil at the carbon two location. Additional features of the binding molecules are examined for enhancements and differentiation in binding capability and include aromatic groups that have both a structural role of steric hindrance and a functional role to stabilize the binding mechanisms. Several categories of cyclic compounds are associated to have specific binding capabilities, and the interaction of these structures with potential receptor molecules are evaluated for assessment in delivery and binding of the compound to nucleic acids.
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: carbon; atomic structure; electron-dynamics; potential energy; force-exertion; atomic binding
Online: 17 May 2019 (08:36:23 CEST)
Many studies discuss carbon-based materials because of the versatility of its element. They include different opinions for scientific problems and discuss fairly at convincing and compelling levels within the scope and application. A gas-state carbon atom converts into various states depending on its conditions of processing. The electron transfer mechanism in the gas-state carbon atom is responsible to convert it into various states, namely, graphite, nanotube, fullerene, diamond, lonsdaleite and graphene. The shape of ‘energy trajectory’ enables transferring electrons from the left- and right-sides of an atom is like a parabola. That ‘energy trajectory’ is linked to states (filled state and suitable nearby unfilled state) where force-exertion along the poles of transferring electrons is remained balance. So, the mechanism of originating different states of a gas-state carbon atom is under the involvement of energy first. This is not the case for atoms executing confined inter-state electron-dynamics as the force is involved first. Graphite-, nanotube- and fullerene-state atoms ‘partially evolve partially develop’ (form) their structures. These possess one-dimensional, two-dimensional and four-dimensional ordering of atoms, respectively. Their structural formation also comprises ‘energy curve’ having a shape-like parabola. Transferring suitable filled state electron to suitable nearby unfilled state is under a balance force exerting along the poles. The graphite structure under only attained-dynamics of atoms can also be formed but in two-dimension. Here, binding energy between graphite-state carbon atoms is for a small difference of exerting forces along their opposite poles. Structural formation in diamond, lonsdaleite and graphene atoms involve energy to gain required infinitesimal displacements of electrons through which they maintain orientationally-controlled exerting forces along dedicated poles. In this study, the growth of diamond is found to be south to east-west (ground) where atoms bound ground to south. Thus, diamond atoms merge for a tetra-electron ground to south topological structure. Lonsdaleite atoms merge for a bi-electron ground to just-south topological structure. The growth of graphene is found to be north to ground where atoms bound ground to north. Thus, graphene atoms merge for a tetra-electron ground to north topological structure. Glassy carbon exhibits layered-topological structure where, tri-layers of gas-, graphite- and lonsdaleite-state atoms successively bind in repetitive order. Nanoscale hardness is also sketched based on different force-energy behaviors of different state carbon atoms. Here, structure evolution in each carbon state atom explores its own science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0439.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: acetylcholine binding protein; acetylcholinesterase; green pesticide, molecular docking
Online: 26 August 2022 (03:21:21 CEST)
2-Methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one was prepared by reaction of anthranilic acid, acetic anhydride and ammonium acetate. The reaction of 2-methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one with N-aryl-2-chloroacetamides in acetone in the presence of potassium carbonate gave nine N-aryl-2-(2-methyl-4-oxoquinazolin-3(4H)-yl)acetamide compounds. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of their IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and HR-MS spectral data. These synthesized compounds containing the 2-methyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-4-one moiety exhibited excellent activity against Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae with LC50 values in the range of 2.085-4.201 μg/mL after 72 h exposure. Interestingly, these compounds did not exhibit toxicity to the non-target organism Diplonychus rusticus. In silico molecular docking revealed acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to be potential molecular targets. These data indicated the larvicidal potential and environmental friendliness of these N-aryl-2-(2-methyl-4-oxoquinazolin-3(4H)-yl)acetamide derivatives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0331.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Drug-Target Binding Affinity; Multi-Instance Learning; Transformer
Online: 18 August 2022 (03:58:34 CEST)
The prediction of drug-target interactions plays a fundamental role in facilitating drug discovery, where the goal is to find prospective drug candidates. With the increase in the number of drug-protein interactions, machine learning techniques, especially deep learning methods, have become applicable for drug-target interaction discovery because they significantly reduce the required experimental workload. In this paper, we present a spontaneous formulation of the drug-target interaction prediction problem as an instance of multi-instance learning. We address the problem in three stages, first organizing given drug and target sequences into instances via a private-public mechanism, then identifying the predicted scores of all instances in the same bag, and finally combining all the predicted scores as the output prediction. A comprehensive evaluation demonstrates that the proposed method outperforms other state-of-the-art methods on three benchmark datasets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0572.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: muscle; circRNA; RNA binding protein; molecular interactions; function
Online: 25 February 2021 (10:09:04 CET)
Muscle is one of the most critical organs for mammals, which governs multiple movement and physiological functions. Circular RNA (circRNA) is a kind of novel endogenous RNA without 5'-Caps and 3'-poly(A) structures formed by pre-mRNA's back-splicing. RNA binding proteins (RBPs) control the production and degradation of circRNA, help nucleus-cytoplasm transport and locate circRNA, and regulate circRNA translation. Therefore, circRNAs and the chaperoned RBPs play critical roles in muscle growth, development, and disease progression. In this review, we systematically characterize the possible molecular mechanism of circRNA-protein interactions. Also, we summarize the latest researches on circRNA-protein interactions in muscle development and diseases. Besides, we provide several valid prediction methods and experimental verification approaches. Our review reveals the importance of circRNAs and their protein chaperones and provides a reference for further study in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0363.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Ebola virus; filovirus; lipid binding; matrix protein; VP24
Online: 17 July 2020 (06:00:08 CEST)
Viral protein 24 (VP24) from Ebola virus (EBOV) was first recognized as a minor matrix protein that associates with cellular membranes. However, more recent studies shed light on its roles in inhibiting viral genome transcription and replication, facilitating nucleocapsid assembly and transport, and interfering with immune responses in host cells through downregulation of interferon (IFN)-activated genes. Thus, whether VP24 is a peripheral protein with lipid binding ability for matrix layer recruitment has not been explored. Here we examined the lipid binding ability of VP24 with a number of lipid binding assays. The results indicated that VP24 lacked the ability to associate with lipids tested regardless of VP24 posttranslational modifications. We further demonstrate that the presence of the EBOV major matrix protein VP40 did not promote VP24 membrane association in vitro or in cells. Further, no protein-protein interactions between VP24 and VP40 were detected by co-immunoprecipitation. Confocal imaging and cellular membrane fractionation analyses in human cells suggested VP24 did not specifically localize at the plasma membrane inner leaflet. Overall, we provide evidence that EBOV VP24 is not a lipid binding protein and its presence in the viral matrix layer is likely not dependent on direct lipid interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0213.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: intermolecular binding affinity; drug target binding affinity; computer-aided drug design (CADD); artificial intelligence-integrated drug discovery (AIDD); machine learning
Online: 11 August 2022 (08:40:37 CEST)
Thanks to the continued development of experimental structural biology and the half-a-century old Protein Data Bank, 2021 saw a big step forward in the development of protein structure prediction with deep learning algorithms. Recently, DeepMinds AlphaFold has determined the structures of ∼ 200 million proteins from 1 million species. The speed of this progress raise the question of what becomes possible for computational drug discovery and design when we have a systems-wide account of the structures and motions of most proteins. Therefore, this article puts forward the concept of a general intermolecular binding affinity calculator (GIBAC): Kd = f(molA, molB, envPara), towards the acceleration of traditional computer-aided drug design (CADD) and artificial intelligence-integrated drug discovery (AIDD), for both small molecules and biologics such as therapeutic proteins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0384.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: thiadizines; serotonin transporter (SERT); serotonin-1A receptor; serotonin-3 receptor; docking; docking energy; binding affinity; binding mechanism; c-Fos; immunohistochemistry; electrophysiology
Online: 26 October 2021 (12:32:43 CEST)
L-17 is a thiadiazine derivative with putative anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and antidepressant-like properties. In this study, we applied combined in silico, ex vivo, and in vivo electrophysiology techniques to reveal the potential mechanism of action of L-17. PASS 10.4 Professional Extended software suggested that L-17 might have pro-cognitive, antidepressant, and antipsychotic effects. Docking energy assessment with AutoDockVina predicted that the binding affinities of L-17 to the serotonin transporter (SERT) and serotonin receptors 3 and 1A (5-HT3 and 5-HT1A) receptors are compatible to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine and selective antagonists of 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors, granisetron and WAY100135, respectively. Acute pre-treatment with L-17 robustly increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the amygdala (central nucleus), suggesting increased neuronal excitability in this brain area after L-17 administration. Acute L-17 also dose-dependently inhibited of 5-HT neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). This inhibition was partially reversed by subsequent administration of WAY100135, suggesting the involvement of extracellular 5-HT. Based on in silico predictions, c-Fos immunohistochemistry, and in vivo electrophysiology, we suggest that L-17 is a potent 5-HT reuptake inhibitor and/or partial 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. Thus, L-17 might be a representative of a new class of antidepressant drugs. Since L-17 also possesses neuro- and cardio-protective properties, it can be useful in post-stroke and post-myocardial infarction (MI) depression. In general, combined in silico predictions and ex vivo neurochemical and in vivo electrophysiological assessment might be a useful strategy for early preclinical assessment of the affectivity and neural mechanism in action of the novel CNS drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0322.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: binding agent; disintegrating agent; natural polymer; mucilage; Coccinia grandis
Online: 18 November 2021 (11:14:32 CET)
Mucilage from Coccinia grandis was extracted, isolated by maceration technique and precipitated, accordingly. The mucilage was evaluated for its physicochemical, binding, and disintegrant properties in tablets using paracetamol as a model drug. The crucial physicochemical properties such as flow properties, solubility, swelling index, loss on drying, viscosity, pH, microbial load, cytotoxicity were evaluated and the compatibility was analysed using sophisticated instrumental methods (TGA, DTA, DSC, and FTIR). The binding properties of the mucilage were used at three different concentrations and compared with starch and PVP as standard binders. The disintegrant properties of mucilage were used at two different concentrations and compared with standard disintegrants MCCP, SSG, and CCS. The wet granulation technique was used for the preparation of granules and was evaluated for the flow properties. The tablets were punched and evaluated for their hardness, friability, assay, disintegration time, in vitro dissolution profiles. In vitro cytotoxicity study of the mucilage was performed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell line using cytotoxic assay by MTT method. The outcome of the study indicated that the mucilage had good performance when compared with starch and PVP. Further, the mucilage acts as a good disintegrant than MCCP, SSG and CCS to paracetamol tablets. Moreover, the in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation results demonstrated that the mucilage is non-cytotoxic to human cells and is safe.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0500.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Clinching; binding mechanism; process chain; torsion test; electrical test
Online: 21 July 2021 (15:33:17 CEST)
The multi-material design and the adaptability of a modern process chain require joining connections with specifically adjustable mechanical, thermal, chemical or electrical properties, whereby previous considerations have focused primarily on the mechanical properties. With clinching, the multitude of possible combinations of requirements, materials and component or joint geometry makes it impossible to determine these joint properties empirically. As a result of the established and empirically based procedure, no model exists to date that considers all questions of joinability, i.e. the materials (suitability for joining), the design (joining safety) and the production (joining possibility) and allows a calculation of the achievable properties. It is therefore necessary to describe the physical properties of the joint as a function of the three bonding mechanisms force closure, form closure and material closure in relation to the application. This approach enables the illustration of the relationships along the causal chain "joint requirement - binding mechanism - joining parameters". In this way the adaptability of the mechanical joining technology can be improved. A geometric comparison is made using metallographic cross sections, of clinched joints of the combination of aluminum and steel. The torsional testing of the rotationally symmetric clinching points for detection of the mechanical stress state are qualified as examination method and technological test. By measuring the electrical resistance in the base material, in the clinch joint and during the production cycle (after clinching, before precipitation hardening and after precipitation hardening), this change in the stress state can also be detected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0525.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: HIV-RT; ribonuclease H; dual inhibitors; docking; putative binding
Online: 23 February 2021 (15:51:40 CET)
Current therapeutic protocols for the treatment of HIV infection consist of the combination of diverse anti-retroviral drugs in order to reduce the selection of resistant mutants and to allow for the use of lower doses of each single agent to reduce toxicity. However, avoiding drugs interactions and patient compliance are issues not fully accomplished so far. In this respect the identification of single agents with multitarget potential might represent the ideal solution. Accordingly, a small library of biphenylhydrazo 4-arylthiazoles derivatives has been synthesised and evaluated to investigate the ability of the new derivatives to simultaneously inhibit both associated functions of HIV reverse transcriptase. All compounds were active towards the two functions, although at different concentrations. The substitution pattern on the biphenyl moiety appears relevant to determine the activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0189.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Zika virus (ZIKV); TFs Binding Motifs; Transcription Factors (TFs)
Online: 8 December 2020 (09:47:18 CET)
In silico analysis is a promising approach for understanding biological events in complex diseases. Herein, we report an in silico analysis of the entire genome of virus ZikaSPH2015 strain, which was performed in order to identify the occurrence of specific motifs on genomic sequence of Zika Virus that is able to bind and therefore, sequester host’s Transcription Factors (TFs) as well as subsequently predict a possible interactions within host genome. Accordingly to obtained results of this original computational work-flow it is possible to hypothesize that these TFs Binding Motifs might be able to explain the complex and heterogeneous phenotype presentation in Zika Virus affected fe-tus/newborns, as well as the less severe condition in adults. Moreover, the proposed in silico protocol identified thirty three different TFs same as the distribution of TFBSs (Transcription Factor Binding Sites) on ZikaSPH2015 strain, potentially able to influence genes and pathways with biological functions confirming that this approach could find potential answers on disease pathogenesis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0727.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: vitamin D; muscle; parathyroid hormone; vitamin D-binding protein
Online: 30 September 2020 (08:11:15 CEST)
Vitamin D, unlike the micronutrients, vitamins A, E and K, is largely obtained, not from food, but by the action of solar UV light on its precursor, 7-dehydrocholesterol, in skin. With the decline in UV light intensity in winter, most skin production of vitamin D occurs in summer. Because no defined storage organ or tissue has been found for vitamin D, it has been assumed that adequate vitamin D status in winter can only be maintained by oral supplementation. Skeletal muscle cells have now been shown to incorporate the vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) from blood into the cell cytoplasm where it binds to cytoplasmic actin. This intracellular DBP provides an array of specific binding sites for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) which diffuses into the cell from the extracellular fluid. When intracellular DBP undergoes proteolytic breakdown, the bound 25(OH)D is then released and diffuses back into blood. This uptake and release of 25(OH)D by muscle, accounts for the very long half-life of this metabolite in the circulation. As 25(OH)D concentration in blood declines in winter, its cycling in and out of muscle cells appears to be upregulated. Parathyroid hormone is the most likely factor enhancing the repeated cycling of 25(OH)D between skeletal muscle and blood. This mechanism appears to have evolved to maintain adequate vitamin D status in winter.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0685.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: vitamin D; muscle; parathyroid hormone; vitamin D-binding protein
Online: 30 August 2020 (18:31:44 CEST)
Vitamin D, unlike the micronutrients, vitamins A, E and K, is largely obtained, not from food, but by the action of solar UV light on its precursor, 7-dehydrocholesterol, in skin. With the decline in UV light intensity in winter, most skin production of vitamin D occurs in summer. Because no defined storage organ or tissue has been found for vitamin D, it has been assumed that adequate vitamin D status in winter can only be maintained by oral supplementation. Skeletal muscle cells have now been shown to incorporate the vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) from blood into the cell cytoplasm where it binds to cytoplasmic actin. This intracellular DBP provides an array of specific binding sites for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) which diffuses into the cell from the extracellular fluid. When intracellular DBP undergoes proteolytic breakdown, the bound 25(OH)D is then released and diffuses back into blood. This uptake and release of 25(OH)D by muscle, accounts for the very long half-life of this metabolite in the circulation. As 25(OH)D concentration in blood declines in winter, its cycling in and out of muscle cells appears to be upregulated. Parathyroid hormone is the most likely factor enhancing the repeated cycling of 25(OH)D between skeletal muscle and blood. This mechanism appears to have evolved to maintain adequate vitamin D status in winter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0264.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: RBFOX3; HTERT; gastric cancer; promoter-binding protein; cancer biomarker
Online: 16 April 2020 (08:17:44 CEST)
Tumor invasion, metastasis, and recrudesce remain a considerable challenge in the treatment of gastric cancer (GC). Herein, we first identified that RBFOX3 (RNA binding protein fox-1 homolog 3) was significantly up-regulated in GC tissues and negatively linked to the survival rate of GC patients. RBFOX3 promoted cell division and cell cycle progression in vitro as well as in vivo. Furthermore, RBFOX3 increased cell invasion and migration ability. Interestingly, both the suppression of GC cell multiplication and invasion moderated by the silencing of RBFOX3 was rescued by HTERT up-regulation. Additionally, RBFOX3 augmented the resistance of GC cells to 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) by repressing RBFOX3. Mechanistically, exogenous up-regulation of RBFOX3 triggered promoter activity and HTERT expression thereby enhancing the division and development of GC cells. Importantly, our findings revealed that RBFOX3 interacted with AP-2β to modulate the HTERT expression as demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation analysis. In conclusion, our study indicates that high expression of RBFOX3 promotes GC progression and development but predicts worse prognosis by stimulating HTERT signaling. Moreover, the results suggest that the RBFOX3/AP-2β/HTERT pathway is a novel target for the development of therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of GC reappearance and metastasis.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0068.v1
Online: 7 October 2019 (12:15:26 CEST)
I have recently reiterated that the cross-bridge is a calcium ATPase that is inhibited by magnesium and this arises because in normal hearts Myosin binding Protein-C prevents the use of MgATP as rate limiting substrate ensuring that Ca2+ replaces Mg2+ in the excitation pathway. Here I revisit the studies on [Ca2+] dependency of ATPase and tension under diastolic stretch with a different conclusion on Hill coefficients. This reveals the underlying mechanisms of the Frank-Starling Law and Hypertrophic myopathy are not the same, the former being kinase controlled.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0067.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Calcium; Actomyosin Kinetics; Myosin Binding Protein-C; Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Online: 7 October 2019 (12:12:35 CEST)
In an attempt to correct misunderstandings this article brings together the observations on Calcium, Myosin Binding Protein-C and Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in the basic function of cardiac muscle. A finding of many years ago is reiterated in a novel enzyme kinetic format with defined rate limiting step which makes CaATP the apparent substrate of the actomyosin cross-bridge. The relationship of these kinetics to recent observations on disruption of myosin binding protein-C is described along with how this bears on the understanding of the related cardiomyopathies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0163.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: equol; bioavailable testosterone; total testosterone; sex hormone-binding globulin
Online: 17 June 2019 (10:53:28 CEST)
Little is known about the association between equol and bioavailable testosterone (BT) in adults. We examined the associations of urinary equol concentrations with serum total, bioavailable and free testosterone (FT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfide (DHEAS), free androgen index (FAI) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations. This cross-sectional study included 1904 women aged 59.7 years. Urinary equol and serum sex hormone concentrations were measured. Overall, urinary equol tended to be inversely associated with bioactive forms of androgenic indices (BT, FT or FAI) but not with total testosterone (TT) or DHEAS. Urinary equol was also positively associated with SHBG. In multi-covariate-adjusted analyses stratified by menopausal status, graded and inverse associations between urinary equol and bioactive forms of androgenic indices (BT, FT and FAI) were observed in postmenopausal women (all p-trends <0.05), but not in premenopausal women. A significant positive association between urinary equol and SHBG was observed only in postmenopausal women. No significant associations were observed between urinary equol and TT or DHEAS in either group. A path analysis indicated that these associations of equol with androgens in postmenopausal women might be mediated by SHBG. Our findings indicated urinary equol exhibited graded and inverse associations with BT or FT but not TT in women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0213.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: CUBAN; Ubiquitin-binding domains (UBDs); KHNYN; NEDD8; NMR spectroscopy
Online: 22 February 2019 (07:56:43 CET)
Ubiquitin binding domains (UBDs) are modular elements that bind non-covalently to ubiquitin and act as downstream effectors and amplifiers of the ubiquitination signal. With few exceptions, UBDs recognize the hydrophobic path centered on Ile44 (Leu-8, Ile-44, Val-70). Nevertheless, a variety of different orientations, which can be attributed to specific contacts between each UBD and surface residues surrounding the hydrophobic patch, specify how each class of UBD recognizes ubiquitin. Here, we describe the structure of a novel ubiquitin-binding domain that we identified in NEDD4 binding protein 1 (N4BP1). By performing protein sequence analysis, mutagenesis and NMR spectroscopy of the 15N isotopically labelled protein, we demonstrate that a Phe-Pro motif in N4BP1 recognizes the canonical hydrophobic patch of ubiquitin. This recognition mode resembles the molecular mechanism evolved in the CUE (Coupling of ubiquitin conjugation to ER degradation) domain family, where an invariant proline, usually following a phenylalanine, is required for binding to ubiquitin. Interestingly, the UBD of N4BP1 is evolutionary related to CUBAN (Cullin binding domain associating with NEDD8) (40% identity and 47% similarity), a protein module that also recognizes the ubiquitin-like NEDD8, which is the closest relative of ubiquitin (58% identity and 80% similarity). By performing circular dichroism and 15N NMR chemical shift perturbation of N4BP1 in complex with ubiquitin, we demonstrate that the UBD of N4BP1 lacks the NEDD8 binding properties observed in CUBAN and it recognizes the Ile44-centered patch of ubiquitin through a dedicated binding site, which share some of the features observed in the CUE domain family. Moreover, we show that, in addition to mediating the interaction with ubiquitin and ubiquitinated substrates, both the CUBAN and the UBD of N4BP1 are poly-ubiquitinated in cells. This modification is dependent on the presence of a functional domain. We believe that the structural and functional characterization of this novel UBD will allow a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing N4BP1 function, while at the same time providing a valuable tool for clarifying how the discrimination between ubiquitin and the highly related NEDD8 is achieved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0356.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: Anomalous diffusion; FRAP; Numerical Simulations; PH -domain, Membrane Binding
Online: 19 July 2018 (11:17:03 CEST)
FRAP technique have been used for decades to measure movements of molecules in 2D. Data obtained by FRAP experiments in cell plasma membranes are assumed to be described through means of two parameters, a diffusion coefficient D (as defined in a pure Brownian model) and a mobile fraction M. Nevertheless, it has also been shown that recoveries can be nicely fit using anomalous sub-diffusion. FRAP at variable radii has been developed using the Brownian diffusion model to access geometrical characteristics of the surrounding landscape of the molecule. Here we performed numerical simulations of continuous time random walk (CTRW) anomalous subdiffusion and interpreted them in the context of variable radii FRAP. These simulations were compared to experimental data obtained at variable radii on living cells using the PH domain of the membrane binding protein EFA6 (exchange factor for ARF6, a small G protein). This protein domain is an excellent candidate to explore the structure of the interface between cytosol and plasma membrane in cells. By direct comparison of our numerical simulations to the experiments, we show that this protein does not exhibit anomalous diffusion in BHK cells. The non Brownian PH-EFA6 dynamics observed here is more related to spatial heterogeneities such as cytoskeleton fences effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0096.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear & High Energy Physics Keywords: Strong coupling constant, strong elementary charge, nuclear binding energy.
Online: 5 July 2018 (14:27:40 CEST)
We review the basics of nuclear binding energy scheme assumed to be associated with the existence of a new strong elementary charge associated with square root of reciprocal of the strong coupling constant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0259.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: long non-coding RNA; cell type specific; alternative splicing; functional enrichment; RNA-binding proteins; protein binding lncRNA sponges; secondary RNA structure; cancer
Online: 26 June 2019 (05:23:29 CEST)
Background: Recent developments in our understanding of the interactions between long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) and cellular components have improved treatment approaches for various human diseases including cancer, vascular diseases, and neurological diseases. Although investigation of specific lncRNAs revealed their role in the metabolism of cellular RNA, our understanding of their contribution to post-transcriptional regulation is relatively limited. In this study, we explore the role of lncRNAs in modulating alternative splicing and their impact on downstream protein-RNA interaction networks. Results: Analysis of alternative splicing events across 39 lncRNA wildtype and knockout RNA-sequencing datasets from three human cell lines: HeLa (Cervical Cancer), K562 (Myeloid Leukemia), and U87 (Glioblastoma), resulted in high confidence (fdr < 0.01) identification of 4432 skipped exon events and 2474 retained intron events, implicating 759 genes to be impacted at post-transcriptional level due to the loss of lncRNAs. We observed that a majority of the alternatively spliced genes in a lncRNA knockout were specific to the cell type, in agreement with the finding that genes affected by alternative splicing also displayed enriched functions in a cell type specific manner. To understand the mechanism behind this cell-type specific alternative splicing patterns, we analyzed RNA binding protein (RBP)-RNA interaction profiles across the spliced regions. Conclusions: Despite limited RBP binding data across cell lines, alternatively spliced events detected in lncRNA perturbation experiments were associated with RBPs binding in proximal intron-exon junctions, in a cell type specific manner. The cellular functions affected by alternative splicing were also affected in a cell type specific manner. Based on the RBP binding profiles in HeLa and K562 cells, we hypothesize that several lncRNAs are likely to exhibit a sponge effect in disease contexts, resulting in the functional disruption of RBPs due to altered titration of the RBPs from their target loci. We propose that such lncRNA sponges can extensively rewire the post-transcriptional gene regulatory networks by altering the protein-RNA interaction landscape in a cell-type specific manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0639.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: chromatin immunoprecipitation with massively parallel sequencing, transcription factors binding sites prediction; cooperative binding of transcription factors; composite elements; motifs conservation; classification of transcription factors; ETS transcription factor family; direct binding of transcription factors; overlap of motifs
Online: 20 August 2020 (13:43:09 CEST)
Background: Transcription factors (TFs) are main regulators of eukaryotic gene expression. The cooperative binding to genomic DNA of at least two TFs is the widespread mechanism of transcription regulation. Cooperating TFs can be revealed through the analysis of co-occurrence of their motifs. Methods: We applied Motifs Co-Occurrence Tool (MCOT) that predicted pairs of spaced or overlapped motifs (composite elements, CEs) for a single ChIP-seq dataset. We improved MCOT capability for prediction of asymmetric CEs with one of participating motifs possessing higher conservation than another does. Results: Analysis of 119 ChIP-seq datasets for 45 human TFs revealed that almost for all families of TFs the co-occurrence with an overlap between motifs of target TFs and more conserved partner motifs was significantly higher than that for less conserved partner motifs. The asymmetry toward partner TFs was the most clear for partner motifs of TFs from ETS family. Conclusion: Co-occurrence with an overlap of less conserved motif of a target TF and more conserved motifs of partner TFs explained a substantial portion of ChIP-seq data lacking conserved motifs of target TFs. Among other TF families, conservative motifs of TFs from ETS family were the most prone to mediate interaction of target TFs with its weak motifs in ChIP-seq.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0589.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: serotonin transporter (SERT); thiadiazines; serotonin receptors 3 and 1A (5-HT3 and 5-HT1A); docking energy; binding affinity; binding mechanisms; electrophysiology in vivo
Online: 25 February 2021 (15:23:26 CET)
L-17 is a thiadiazine derivative with putative anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and antidepressant-like properties. In this study, we applied combined in silico and in vivo electrophysiology techniques to reveal the potential mechanism of action of L-17. PASS 10.4 Professional Extended software suggested that L-17 might have pro-cognitive, antidepressant, and antipsychotic effects. Docking energy assessment with AutoDockVina predicted that the binding affinities of L-17 to the serotonin transporter (SERT) and serotonin receptors 3 and 1A (5-HT3 and 5-HT1A) are compatible to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine and selective antagonists of 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors, granisetron and WAY100135, respectively. However, while the binding mechanisms of L-17 to the SERT and 5-HT1A receptor were similar to fluoxetine and WAY100135, its interacting with 5-HT3 receptor might be substantially different from this of granisetron. Acute administration of L-17 led to dose-dependent inhibition of firing activity of 5-HT neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus. This inhibition was partially reversed by subsequent administration of WAY100135. Based on both in silico and in vivo electrophysiology assessments, we suggest that L-17 is a potent 5-HT reuptake inhibitor and a putative partial agonist of 5-HT1A receptors. As such, L-17 in particular and thiadiazine derivatives, in general, might be a representative of a new class of antidepressant drugs. Since L-17 also possesses neuro- and cardioprotective properties, it can be useful in affective illness developing due to the general medical condition, such as post-stroke and post-myocardial infarction (MI) depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0532.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: metal doping; nickel-based catalyst; transition metals; synthesis; hydrogen oxidation reaction; exchange current density; alkaline medium; DFT; hydrogen binding energy; hydroxide binding energy
Online: 27 September 2018 (04:59:46 CEST)
Carbon supported nanoparticles of monometallic Ni catalyst and binary Ni-Transition Metal (Ni-TM/C) electrocatalytic composites were synthesized via chemical reduction method, where TM stands for the doping elements Fe, Co, and Cu. The chemical composition, structure and morphology of the Ni-TM/C materials were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The electrochemical properties towards hydrogen oxidation reaction in alkaline medium were studied using the rotating disc electrode and cycling voltammetry methods. A significant role of the TM dopant in the promotion of the hydrogen electrooxidation kinetics of the binary Ni-TM/C materials were revealed. A record-high in exchange current density value of 0.060 mA cm2Ni was measured for Ni3Fe1/C, whereas the monometallic Ni/C counterpart has only shown 0.039 mA cm2Ni. In order to predict the feasibility of the electrocatalysts for hydrogen chemisorption, density functional theory was applied to calculate the hydrogen binding energy and hydroxide binding energy values for bare Ni and Ni3TM1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0348.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Naltrexone; mu-opioid receptor; MD simulations; MMGBSA; binding free energy
Online: 27 June 2022 (04:09:30 CEST)
Naltrexone (NTX) is a potent opioid antagonist with good blood-brain barrier permeability, targeting different endogenous opioid receptors, particularly the mu-opioid receptor (MOR). Therefore, it represents a promising candidate for drug development against drug addiction. However, the details of the molecular interactions of NTX and its derivatives with MOR are not fully understood, hindering ligand-based drug discovery. In the present study, taking advantage of the high-resolution X-ray crystal structure of the murine MOR (mMOR), we constructed a homology model of the human MOR (hMOR). A solvated phospholipid bilayer was built around the hMOR and submitted to microsecond (µs) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to obtain an optimized hMOR model. NTX and its derivatives were docked into the optimized hMOR model and submitted to µs MD simulations in an aqueous membrane system. The MD simulation results were submitted to Molecular Mechanics Generalized-Born surface area (MMGBSA) binding free energy calculations and principal component analysis. Our results revealed that NTX and its derivatives showed differences in protein-ligand interactions; however, they shared contact with residues at TM2, TM3, H6, and TM7. The binding free energy and principal component analysis revealed the structural and energetic effects responsible for the higher potency of NTX compared to its derivatives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0269.v1
Subject: Keywords: mannose-binding lectin; Oreochromis niloticus lectin; TiO2 nanotubes; biocompatibility; osseointegration.
Online: 12 August 2021 (08:42:44 CEST)
Titanium and its alloys are used biomaterials for medical and dental applications, due to their mechanical and physical properties. The surface modifications of titanium with bioactive molecules can increase the osseointegration by improving the interface between the bone and implant. Titanium dioxide nanotubes (TiO2NTs) have excellent bioactivity inducing cell adhesion, spreading, growth and differentiation. In this work, TiO2NTs were functionalized with a lectin from the plasma of the fish Oreochromis niloticus aiming to favour the adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast-like cells, improving its biocompatibility. The TiO2NTs were obtained by anodization of titanium and annealed at 400 °C for 3 h. The resulting TiO2NTs were characterized by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. The successfully incorporation of OniL on the surface of TiO2NTs by spin coating was demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIE) and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectrum (ATR-FTIR). Our results showed that TiO2-NTs were successfully synthesized in a regular and well-distributed way. The functionalization of TiO2-NTs with OniL favoured adhesion, proliferation, and the osteogenic activity of osteoblast-like cells, suggesting its use to improve the quality and biocompatibility of titanium-based biomaterials.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0309.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: mTORC1; RHEB; G-Protein; Allosteric activation; Kinase domain; Binding kinetics
Online: 11 June 2021 (09:14:14 CEST)
The mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is activated by the small G-protein, RHEB-GTPase. On lysosome, RHEB activates mTORC1 by binding the domains of N-heat, M-heat, and FAT, which allosterically regulates ATP binding in the active site for further phosphorylation. The crucial role of RHEB in regulating growth and survival through mTORC1, makes it a targetable site for anti-cancer therapeutics. However, the binding kinetics of RHEB to mTORC1 is still unknown at the molecular level. Therefore, we studied the kinetics by in vitro and in-cell protein-protein interaction (PPI) assays. For this, we used the split-luciferase system (NanoBiT®) for in-cell studies, and prepared proteins for the in vitro measurements. Consequently, it was shown that RHEB binds to the whole mTOR both in the presence or absence of GTPɣS, with five-fold weaker affinity in the presence of GTPɣS. Also, RHEB bound to the truncated mTOR fragments of N-heat domain (60-167) and M-heat domain (967-1023) in a GTP independent manner. Furthermore, RHEB bound to the truncated kinase domain (2148-2300) with higher affinity also in GTP independently. In conclusion, RHEB binds two different binding sites of mTOR, which probably regulates the kinase activity of mTOR through multiple different molecular mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0541.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: α-Amylase inhibition; Tannic acid; Mixing order; Binding interactions; Adsorption
Online: 22 March 2021 (15:35:35 CET)
The effects of mixing orders of tannic acid (TA), starch and α-amylase on the enzyme inhibition of TA were studied, including mixing TA with α-amylase before starch addition (order 1), mixing TA with pre-gelatinized starch before α-amylase addition (order 2) and co-gelatinizing TA with starch before α-amylase addition (order 3). It was found that the enzyme inhibition was always highest for order 1 because TA could bind with the enzyme active site thoroughly before digestion occurred. Both order 2 and 3 reduced α-amylase inhibition through decreasing binding of TA with the enzyme, which resulted from the non-covalent physical adsorption of TA with gelatinized starch. Interestingly, at low TA concentration, α-amylase inhibition for order 2 was higher than order 3, while at high TA concentration, the inhibition was shown with opposite trend, which arose from the difference in the adsorption property between the pre-gelatinized and co-gelatinized starch at the corresponding TA concentrations. Besides, both the crystalline structures and apparent morphology of starch were not significantly altered by TA addition for order 2 and 3. Conclusively, although a polyphenol may have an acceptable inhibitory activity in vitro, the actual effect may not reach the expected one when taking processing procedures into account.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: cold nuclear fusion; maximum binding energy per nucleon; nuclear experiment
Online: 11 March 2021 (14:15:22 CET)
Following the concept of strong interaction, theoretically, fusion of proton seems to increase the binding energy of final atom by 8.8 MeV. Due to Coulombic repulsion, asymmetry effect, pairing effect and other nuclear effects, final atom is forced to choose a little bit of binding energy less than 8.8 MeV and thus it is able to release left over binding energy in the form of internal kinetic energy or external thermal energy. Thus, in cold fusion, heat release to occur, binding energy difference of final atom and base atom seems to be less than 8.8 MeV. Qualitatively, energy released during cold fusion seems to be approximately equal to 8.8 MeV minus the difference of binding energy of final and base atoms. Based on this idea, under normal conditions, for the case of 2He4, fusion of four protons can liberate (35.2-28.3)=6.9 MeV and it is 3.5 times less than the current estimates. Point to be understood is that, lesser the binding energy of final atom, higher the liberated thermal energy and vice versa. With a suitable catalyst and sufficient hydrogen under suitable pressure, if reactor’s temperature is maintained at (1000 to 1500) 0C, there seems a lot of scope for a chain reaction of cold fusion in which light isotopes transform to their next stage with increased proton number or mass number and liberate safe and clean heat energy continuously. By arranging 4 to 6 reactors and charging them periodically in tandem, required thermal energy can be produced continuously. In this new direction, by carefully selecting the base isotope and its corresponding catalyst, experiments can be conducted and ground reality of cold fusion can be understood at various temperature and pressure conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0150.v2
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: chaperone function; heat-shock proteins; lipid binding; phosphatidylserine; protein refolding
Online: 29 July 2020 (12:18:02 CEST)
HspA1A, a molecular chaperone, translocates to the plasma membrane (PM) of stressed and cancer cells. This translocation results in HspA1A’s cell-surface presentation, which renders tumors radiation insensitive. To specifically inhibit the lipid-driven HspA1A’s PM translocation and devise new therapeutics it is imperative to characterize the unknown HspA1A’s lipid-binding regions and determine the relationship between the chaperone and lipid-binding functions. To elucidate this relationship, we determined the effect of phosphatidylserine (PS)-binding on the secondary structure and chaperone functions of HspA1A. Circular dichroism revealed that binding to PS resulted in minimal modification on HspA1A’s secondary structure. Measuring the release of inorganic phosphate revealed that PS-binding had no effect on HspA1A’s ATPase activity. In contrast, PS-binding showed subtle but consistent increases in HspA1A’s refolding activities. Furthermore, using a Lysine-71-Arginine mutation (K71A; a null-ATPase mutant) of HspA1A we show that although K71A binds to PS with affinities similar to the WT, the kinetics of the binding are significantly different, probably because of the mutant’s inability to achieve specific conformations. These observations suggest a two-step binding model that includes conformational changes and strongly support the notion that the chaperone and lipid-binding activities of HspA1A are dependent but the regions mediating these functions do not overlap. These findings provide the basis for future interventions to inhibit HspA1A’s PM-translocation in tumor cells, making them sensitive to radiation therapy.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0192.v1
Subject: Keywords: SARS-CoV2; corona virus; affinity proteomics; glycoproteins; glycoprotein-binding domains
Online: 11 May 2020 (10:24:43 CEST)
We analyzed the affinity-proteomics data of saliva absorbed to plate-bound Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, and identified major virus-binding proteins as MUC7, MUC5B, DMBT1, and neutrophil defensins. Furthermore, we found that saliva from healthy donors inhibited the binding of Spike-protein-specific polyclonal antibodies to Spike antigen. These data suggest that the Spike protein’s glycoprotein-binding domains (GBD) may be targeted to block virus adherence or entry of SARS-CoV-2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0263.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: 3-MBA; gold clusters; ESI-MS; HPLC-MS; bidentate binding
Online: 26 August 2019 (11:08:56 CEST)
Gold clusters protected by 3-MBA ligands (MBA = mercaptobenzoic acid, -SPhCO2H) have attracted recent interest for their unusual structures and advantageous ligand-exchange and bioconjugation properties. Azubel et al. first determined the core structure of an Au68-complex, which was estimated to have 32 ligands (3-MBA groups). To explain the exceptional structure-composition and reaction properties of this complex, and its larger homologs, Tero et al. proposed a “dynamic stabilization” via carboxyl O-H--Au interactions. Herein, we report the first results of an integrated LC/MS analysis of unfractionated samples of gold / 3-MBA clusters, spanning the narrow size range 13.4 to 18.1 kDa. Using high-throughput procedures adapted from bio-macromolecule analyses, we show that integrated capillary HPLC-ESI-MS, based upon aqueous-methanol mobile phases and ion-pairing reverse-phase chromatography, can separate several major components from the nanoclusters mixture that may be difficult to resolve by standard native gel electrophoresis due to their similar size and charge. For each component, one obtains a well-resolved mass spectrum, nearly free of adducts or signs of fragmentation. A consistent set of molecular mass determinations is calculated from detected charge-states tunable from 3- (or lower), to 2+ (or higher). One thus arrives at a series of new compositions (n, p) specific to the Au/3-MBA system. The smallest major component is assigned to the previously unknown (48, 26); the largest one is evidently (67, 30), vs. the anticipated (68, 32). Various explanations for this discrepancy are considered. A prospective is given for the several members of this novel series, along with a summary of the advantages and present limitations of the micro-scale integrated LC/MS approach to characterize such metallic-core macro-molecules, and their derivatives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0290.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: β-D-glucan; glucan binding protein; host defense; innate immunity
Online: 24 May 2019 (08:56:43 CEST)
The recognition of (1→3)-β-D-glucans (BGs) by β-1,3-D-glucan recognition protein (BGRP) found in invertebrates plays a significant role in the activation of toll pathway and pro-phenol oxidase system in insect host defense against fungal invasion. To examine the structural diversity of BGs in BGRP interaction, the binding specificity of BGRPs cloned from four different insectswas characterized using ELISA. Recombinant BGRPs expressed as Fc-fusion proteins of human IgG1 bound to solid phase BGs. Because of the binding specificities, the BGRPs were categorized into two different ultrastructure- binding characters. The BGRPs from Silkworm and Indian meal moth bound to BGs containing triple-helical structure. Other BGRPs from red flour beetle and yellow mealworm beetle showed no binding to triple-helical BGs, but to alkaline-treated BGs, which have partially opened helical conformation. These evidences suggest that the innate immune system distinguishes different BG conformations and it is equipped for the diversity of BG structures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0350.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: mannose-binding lectin; poultry; production system; pathogens; innate immune response
Online: 15 November 2018 (08:37:05 CET)
Bacterial pathogens have been attributed to poultry housing structure, financial strength, and incessant use of antibiotics, variable seasons and management systems practiced. Variant forms of bacterial pathogens can be detected by recognizing the molecular pattern of the pathogens through an innate immune mechanism such as mannose-binding lectin. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) possesses an innate pattern recognition molecule that easily sequestered to region of infections and inflammations. This works by attaching itself to antigen surface thus hinders proliferation and disease activity in the host organism. Baker’s method, nephelometric assays technique, Enzyme-Linked Immunosurbent Assay technique, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Deoxyribonucleic Acid typing and other biotechnology related methods are techniques used in detecting and quantifying MBL. Mannose-binding lectin levels in serum can be influenced by age, management systems, feed formulation strategies and seasons. Therefore, knowledge of MBL should be encouraged in all aspect of poultry production, in order to discourage incessant use of drugs at a slight exposure to prevailing bacterial which can help in maximizing cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0021.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: clays; ashes aflatoxins; binding capacity; in-vitro and contaminated feeds
Online: 2 November 2018 (05:23:11 CET)
Aflatoxins in feeds cause great health hazards to animals and in advance, to human. Potential of crude clays designated AC, KC, CC and MC and ashes VA and RA were evaluated for their capacity to adsorb aflatoxins B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2) relative to a commercial binder MycobinderR (Evonik Industries AG) using in-vitro technique. On average, CC, VA, KC, MC, AC, RA and MycobindR adsorbed 39.9%, 51.3%, 61.5%, 62.0%, 72.6%, 84.7% and 98.1% of the total aflatoxins in buffered solution, respectively. The capacity of AC and RA was statistically (p<0.05) better in binding aflatoxins next to MycobindR. Capacity of the TBM and MycobindR to bind aflatoxins, seemed to follow the trend of their cation exchange capacity (CEC). The CEC (meq/100g) of CC, MC, KC, VA, AC, RA and MycobindR were 7.0, 15.4, 18.8, 25.4, 27.2, 27.2 and 38.9, respectively. On average 96.3%, 42.7%, 80.8% and 32.1% of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 were adsorbed, respectively. Binding capacity of the clays and ashes relative to MycobindR was about 100% for AC and RA, 50% for KC, MC and VA and 33.3% for CC. The AC and RA seem to be promising resources in binding aflatoxins in solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0137.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: ice-binding proteins; antifreeze proteins, cold finger, ice affinity purification.
Online: 16 January 2018 (07:56:40 CET)
Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) have several functions that permit their hosts to thrive in the presence of ice. The ability of IBPs to control ice growth makes them potential additives in various industries ranging from food storage and cryopreservation to anti-icing systems. For IBPs to be used in commercial applications, however, methods are needed to produce sufficient quantities of high-quality proteins. Here, we describe a new method for IBP purification, termed falling water ice purification (FWIP). The method is based on the affinity of IBPs for ice. A crude IBP solution is allowed to flow continuously over the large chilled vertical surface of a commercial ice machine. The temperature of the surface is lowered gradually until ice crystals are produced, to which the IBPs bind but other solutes do not. As in other ice affinity methods, FWIP does not require molecular tags and is suitable for purifying recombinant IBPs as well as IBPs from natural sources. The advantage of FWIP over other ice affinity methods is that it exploits an ice machine designed to produce large volumes of clear ice daily. This system can be easily scaled up and suits the purification of industrial quantities of IBPs. The FWIP method significantly advances the use of IBPs in research and industry.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0253.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Bioinorganic chemistry; metal-binding; structural biology; zinc; iron; copper; transition metals
Online: 17 June 2022 (09:30:07 CEST)
All living organisms require some metal ions for their energy production as well as metabolic and biosynthetic processes. Within cells, metal ions are involved in the formation of adducts interact with metabolites and macromolecules (proteins and nucleic acids). The proteins that require binding to one or more metal ions to be able to carry out their physiological function are called metalloproteins. About one third of all protein structures in the Protein Data Bank involve metalloproteins. Over the past few years there has been a tremendous progress in the number of computational tools and techniques making use of 3D structural information to support the investigation of metalloproteins. This trend has been boosted also by the successful applications of neural networks and deep learning approaches in molecular and structural biology at large. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the development and availability of resources dealing with metalloproteins from a structure-based perspective. We start by addressing tools for the prediction of metal-binding sites (MBSs) using structural information on apo-proteins. Then, we provide an overview of methods for and lessons learned from the structural comparison of MBSs in a fold-independent manner. We then move to describing databases of metalloprotein/MBS structures. Finally, we summarize recent DL applications enhancing the functional interpretation of metalloprotein structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0365.v3
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: binding affinity prediction; machine learning; data quality; data quantity; deep learning
Online: 23 May 2022 (11:16:49 CEST)
Prediction of protein-ligand binding affinities is crucial for computational drug discovery. A number of deep learning approaches have been developed in recent years to improve the accuracy of such affinity prediction. While the predicting power of these systems have advanced to some degrees depending on the dataset used for model training and testing, the effects of the quality and quantity of the underlying data have not been thoroughly examined. In this study, we employed erroneous datasets and data subsets of different sizes, created from one of the largest databases of experimental binding affinities, to train and evaluate a deep learning system based on convolutional neural networks. Our results show that data quality and quantity do have significant impacts on the prediction performance of trained models. Depending on the variations in data quality and quantity, the performance discrepancies could be comparable to or even larger than those observed among different deep learning approaches. In particular, the presence of proteins during model training leads to a dramatic increase in prediction accuracy. This implies that continued accumulation of high-quality affinity data, especially for new protein targets, is indispensable for improving deep learning models to better predict protein-ligand binding affinities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0328.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: cytochrome oxidase; thyroid hormones; steroid hormones; Bile Acids Binding Site; regulation
Online: 21 January 2022 (13:36:04 CET)
Thyroid hormones regulate tissue metabolism establishing an energy balance in the cell, in particular by affecting oxidative phosphorylation. Their long-term impact is mainly associated with changes in gene expression, while the short-term effects may differ in mechanism. Our work is devoted to short-term effects of hormones T2, T3, and T4 on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) mediated by a direct contact with the enzyme. The data obtained indicate the existence of two separate sites of CcO interaction with thyroid hormones differing in location, affinity and specificity to hormone binding. It is shown that T3 and T4 but not T2 inhibit oxidase activity of CcO in solution and on membrane preparations with Кi≈100–200 M. In solution, T3 and T4 compete in a 1:1 ratio with the detergent dodecyl-maltoside for binding to the enzyme. Peroxidase and catalase partial activities of CcO are not sensitive to hormones while electron transfer from heme a to the oxidized binuclear center is affected. We believe that T3 and T4 are ligands of the Bile Acid Binding Site found in the 3D structure of CсO by Ferguson-Miller’s group, and hormone induced inhibition is associated with dysfunction of the K- proton channel. Similar conclusion we made recently with regard to steroid-like compounds. It is found that T2, T3, and T4 inhibit superoxide generation by oxidized CcO in the presence of excess Н2О2. Inhibition is characterized by Ki values of 0.3 – 5 M and apparently affects the formation of О2• at the protein surface. The second binding site for thyroid hormones presumably coincides with the point of tight T2 binding on the Va subunit described in the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0137.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: RNA binding proteins; SF1; Hrb87F; Bru1; Drosophila; flight muscle; RNAi; splicing
Online: 5 August 2021 (10:42:09 CEST)
The proper regulation of RNA processing is critical for muscle development and the fine-tuning of contractile ability between muscle fiber-types. RNA binding proteins (RBPs) regulate the diverse steps in RNA processing including alternative splicing, which generates fiber-type specific isoforms of structural proteins that confer contractile sarcomeres with distinct biomechanical properties. Alternative splicing is disrupted in muscle diseases such as myotonic dystrophy and dilated cardiomyopathy, and is altered after intense exercise as well as with aging. It is therefore important to understand splicing and RBP function, but currently only a small fraction of the hundreds of annotated RBPs expressed in muscle have been characterized. Here we demonstrate the utility of Drosophila as a genetic model system to investigate basic developmental mechanisms of RBP function in myogenesis. We find that RBPs exhibit dynamic temporal and fiber-type specific expression patterns in mRNA-Seq data and display muscle-specific phenotypes. We performed knockdown with 105 RNAi hairpins targeting 35 RBPs and report associated lethality, flight, myofiber and sarcomere defects, including flight muscle phenotypes for Doa, Rm62, mub, mbl, sbr, and clu. Interestingly, knockdown phenotypes of spliceosome components, as highlighted by phenotypes for A-complex components SF1 and Hrb87F (hnRNPA1), revealed level- and temporal-dependent myofibril defects. We further show that splicing mediated by SF1 and Hrb87F is necessary for Z-disc stability and proper myofibril development, and strong knockdown of either gene results in impaired localization of Kettin to the Z-disc. Our results expand the number of RBPs with a described phenotype in muscle and underscore the diversity in myofibril and transcriptomic phenotypes associated with splicing defects. Drosophila is thus a useful model to gain disease-relevant insight into cellular and molecular phenotypes observed when expression levels of splicing factors, spliceosome components and splicing dynamics are altered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0618.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Binding sites; Optimization; cell free bacteria condition for metal bio-sorbents
Online: 25 March 2021 (13:59:50 CET)
Bacteria a Microscopic organisms are the most inexhaustible and flexible of microorganisms and constitute a huge division of the whole living earthly biomass, certain microorganisms were found to amass metallic components at a high limit Was Known as Bacterial Bio-sorption Due to their little size, capacity to become under controlled conditions, and their Accommodation to an extensive variety of ecological situations; Potent metal bio-sorbents among microorganisms, at low pH esteems, cell divider ligands are protonated and contend essentially with metals for official. With expanding pH, more ligands, such as amino and carboxyl groups, could be exposed, leading to attraction between these negative charges and the metals, and consequently increment bio-sorption onto the cell surface. Starting with Isolation and identification of heavy metal-resistant bacteria from rock Ore. Studying Factors Affecting Uranium Bio-sorption, Optimization of bacterial growth conditions and optimum for metal uptake by free and immobilized bacterial cells and Desorption ratio of uranium ions adsorbed by Coli. /alginate, All this evidence suggest that functions groups Represented in our study are responsible for metal uptake in our bacterial biomass beside change in peaks position which assigned for it's groups confirm bio-sorption of metal ions from waste due to ions charge interaction comparing with immobilized we found increase in no of binding sites indicate that immobilized bacterial have high efficiency for metal up take which also change in peaks position which assigned for its groups confirm bio-sorption of metal ions from waste due to ions charge interaction, Where the high bio-sorption yield obtained by bacteria, the Uranium & heavy metal bioremediation process expects microorganisms to be joined to a strong surface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0452.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: fission yeast; kinesin-14; RNA-binding protein; mitotic spindle; heat stress
Online: 17 March 2021 (16:52:41 CET)
Cells form a bipolar spindle during mitosis to ensure accurate chromosome segregation. Proper spindle architecture is established by a set of kinesin motors and microtubule-associated proteins. In most eukaryotes, kinesin-5 motors are essential for this process, and genetic or chemical inhibition of their activity leads to the emergence of monopolar spindles and cell death. However, these deficiencies can be rescued by simultaneous inactivation of kinesin-14 motors, as they counteract kinesin-5. We conducted detailed genetic analyses in fission yeast to understand the mechanisms driving spindle assembly in the absence of kinesin-5. Here we show that deletion of the nrp1 gene, which encodes a putative RNA-binding protein with unknown function, can rescue temperature sensitivity caused by cut7-22, a fission yeast kinesin-5 mutant. Interestingly, kinesin-14/Klp2 levels on the spindles in the cut7 mutants were significantly reduced by the nrp1 deletion, although the total levels of Klp2 and the stability of spindle microtubules remained unaffected. Moreover, RNA-binding motifs of Nrp1 are essential for its cytoplasmic localization and function. We have also found that a portion of Nrp1 is spatially and functionally sequestered by chaperone-based protein aggregates upon mild heat stress and limits cell division at high temperatures. We propose that Nrp1 might be involved in post-transcriptional regulation through its RNA-binding ability to promote the loading of Klp2 on the spindle microtubules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0524.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: zinc finger; protein; MM/GBSA; DNA binding; molecular dynamics; mutation; linkers
Online: 19 November 2020 (21:21:37 CET)
Zinc finger proteins (ZFP) play important roles in cellular processes. The DNA binding region of ZFP consists of 3 zinc finger DNA binding domains connected by amino acid linkers, the sequence TGQKP connects ZF1 and ZF2, and TGEKP connects ZF2 with ZF3. Linkers act to tune the zinc finger protein in the right position to bind its DNA target, the type of amino acid residues and length of linkers reflect on ZF1-ZF2-ZF3 interactions and contribute to the search and recognition process of ZF protein to its DNA target. Linker mutations and the affinity of the resulting mutants to specific and nonspecific DNA targets were studied by MD simulations and MM_GB(PB)SA. The affinity of mutants to DNA varied with type and position of amino acid residue. Mutation of K in TGQKP resulted in loss in affinity due to the loss of positive K interaction with phosphates, mutation of G showed loss in affinity to DNA, WT protein and all linker mutants showed loss in affinity to a nonspecific DNA target, this finding confirms previous reports which interpreted this loss in affinity as due to ZF1 having an anchoring role, and ZF3 playing an explorer role in the binding mechanism. The change in ZFP-DNA affinity with linker mutations is discussed in view of protein structure and role of linker residues in binding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0359.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: food allergens; egg allergy; milk allergy; fish allergy; amyloids; IgE-binding
Online: 16 July 2020 (13:31:23 CEST)
Several animal food allergens assembly into amyloids under gastric-like environments. These aggregated structures provide Gad m 1 with an enhanced IgE interaction due to the amyloid assembly of the epitope regions. However, whether these properties are unique of Gad m 1 or common to other food allergens has not yet been addressed. Using Bos d 5, Bos d 12 and Gal d 2 as food allergen models and Gad m 1 as control, aggregation reactions and the sera of milk, egg and fish allergic patients we have analyzed the IgE interaction of the distinct amyloids. We found that amyloids formed by Bos d 12 and Gal d 2 full-length and truncated chains are recognized by the IgEs of milk and egg allergic patient sera. As with Gad m 1, in most cases amyloid recognition is higher than that of the precursor structure. Bos d 5 was not recognized under any fold by the IgE of the sera studied. These results support that formation of IgE-binding amyloids might be a common feature to animal food allergen.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0206.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: serine protease; interferon; ribonucleoproteins; RNA binding proteins; SERPIN; A1AT; hemostasis rebalancing
Online: 17 June 2020 (03:20:54 CEST)
Emerging paradigms in interferon (IFN) biology suggest a dynamic INF induced interactome that extends through broader Interferon Stimulated Gene (ISG)- induction, which implicates interferon- ISG coordinated cross-talk with mRNA processing, post-translational modification and metabolic processes that underlie pathological (viral, autoimmune and tumor biology) and physiological (stem cell regenerative pathways) processes. INF immune responses can also be triggered by endogenous host-derived molecules that are generated in response to cellular stress or hemostasis imbalance to establish tissue repair and regeneration in first place, however, overactivation or lack of countermeasures can result in host tissue damage. The proteases are integral to viral and tumor pathology, and importantly serine proteases TMPRSS2 and trypsin have been identified as important molecular determinants underlying COVID-19 pathology, and emergence of coronaviruses cultured in vitro, respectively. We propose that pathogen associated proteases can act as novel stress-inducers to facilitate viral- competent immunomodulation. We term it as Protease Induced Transcriptomic/ epi-Transcriptomic Reshaping (PITTR) of host cells to counter cellular stress. We present a novel experimental model and our preliminary findings of trypsin- primed Caco-2 cells (CPT) that result in translational halt comparable to cells grown under serum-starvation conditions (CSS). CPT at escalating trypsin concentration (CPT- EC) induce upregulation of selective proteins that majorly map to ribosomal, RNA transport, and spliceosome ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). The inclusion of proinflammatory IL1-b to CPT (CPT- IL) resulted in global overexpression of proteins comparable to Caco-2 cells cultured in growth-factor rich serum conditions (CFBS), indicating a likely de-repression of trypsin- induced translational halt. Caco-2 cells display abortive interferon proteome under differential trypsin conditions (CPT, CPT-EC and CPT-IL), which is marked by complete lack of INF generation despite induction of intermediate ISGs, suggestive of protease (trypsin)- dependent regulation of INF response. Viruses regulate the proteome of stress granules (SGs) that are induced to cope transient translational halt as a central adaptive response to pathogen induced cellular stress. The integral components of SGs include non-translating mRNA, ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) and RNA binding proteins (RBPs), which together form biological condensates through a biophysical process involving weak electrostatic interactions through intrinsically disordered regions in RBPs resulting in liquid- liquid phase separation. We compared the CPT- EC proteome to the Mammalian Stress Granules Proteome (MSGP) database to explore potential RBPs that could possibly regulate INF response (and could act as potential anti-viral targets). Notably, differentially upregulated RNPs and potential RBPs from ISG family including ADAR and PRKRA, and RNA helicases implicated in viral pathogenesis were found to be upregulated in the CPT- EC proteome further strengthening the role of proteases (trypsin) in regulating INF pathways independent of the pathogen. We propose that the supplementation of viable SARS-CoV-2 viral loads to trypsin- primed host cells could recapitulate an infectious disease model, which may closely phenocopy pathogen- driven inflammation and signaling events. Based on the global downregulation of seven SERPINS (serine protease inhibitors) linked to thromboinflammation in our LCMS profiling data, we support the candidature of serine protease inhibitors for protease mediated viral pathologies. COVID-19 is increasingly linked to coagulopathy and resemblance to Neutrophil Extracellular Trap (NET) related thromboinflammatory features; SERPIN A1AT (alpha 1 antitrypsin) being a potent neutrophil- elastase inhibitor and a negative regulator of coagulation complement pathway may be a promising candidate for establishing hemostasis rebalancing in COVID-19 pathology.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0476.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: androgen insensitivity syndrome; androgen receptor; ligand binding domain; pathogenic mutation; bioinformatics
Online: 27 April 2020 (03:59:38 CEST)
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is the most common disorder of sex development in people with karyotype 46,XY. Mutations in AR (androgen receptor) gene are found in most individuals with AIS. Exons 4-8, which encode LBD, were shown to be a mutation hotspot. The aim of this study was the search of mutations in the sequence of exons 6-8 which encode LBD of AR gene in patients with different clinical AIS phenotypes from Ukraine. The investigated patients were 4 women with 46,XY karyotype, SRY-positive and clinical features of AIS (2 – CAIS, 2 – PAIS). Serum levels of T, LH, and FSH were quantified by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) technology. Cytogenetic studies were performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes with further use of standard protocols of chromosomal analysis (GTG-banding). The presence of SRY sequence was confirmed by FISH with LSI SRY probe. Direct Sanger sequencing of 6-8 exons was performed in patients and family members on the PCR products on the matrix of DNA samples isolated from peripheral blood lymphocytes. Detected SNPs were analysed using gnomAD, VEP, MutationTaster, Human Splicing Finder, NetPhorest 2.1, Group-based Prediction System 5.0, and PhosphoPICK bioinformatical resources. Modelling of mutant proteins based on available 3D models was conducted using the open source software UCSF Chimera 1.14rc. We have detected 3 previously described mutations (missense mutation X:67722905 Т>С (rs9332970) in PAIS patient, missense mutation X:67722943 C>T (rs886041132) in CAIS patient and, samesense mutation X:67723745 C>T (rs137852594) in PAIS patient). We determined these mutations as pathogenic using SIFT, PolyPhen, MutationTaster, Human Splicing Finder. Moreover the synonymous mutation X:67723745 C>T (rs137852594) detected in patient with PAIS was determined as mutation affecting processes of splicing. In our study we have identified novel mutation X:67722884 T>G in CAIS patient and family members. This mutation was predicted as a pathogenic using aforementioned bioinformatical tools. STRUM calculations of the protein stability change caused by single-point mutation showed a destabilization effect of the Ile836Ser substitution ΔΔG=-2.6. Possible aberrant phosphorylation analysis revealed the ability of MAPK family, Akt family, CDK1, CDK7, CDK9, PKC kinases to phosphorylate Ser836. Results concerning the pathogenicity of X:67722905 Т>С (rs9332970), X:67722943 C>T (rs886041132), X:67723745 C>T (rs137852594) mutations detected in patients with AIS from Ukraine obtained using bioinformatical resources SIFT, PolyPhen, MutationTaster, Human Splicing Finder correlate with previously published data concerning weaker binding of androgens in patients with the same mutations. This approves informativity of using such resources for mutation pathogenicity analysis. Analysis of the ortholog proteins, subdomain structure, and aberrant phosphorylation of AR-LBD suggests novel X:67722884 T>G mutation to be pathogenic. Based on analysis of mutant protein modelling followed by assessment of free energy change using STRUM it was predicted that mutant protein binds androgens 460 times worse than wild type.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Insecta; Chemosensory proteins; Odorant binding proteins; Peptide mutation; Cell evolution; Abiogenesis
Online: 30 January 2020 (03:02:21 CET)
We remind about the dogma initially established with the nucleic acid double helix, i.e. the DNA structure as the primary source of life. However, we bring into the discussion those additional processes that were crucial to enable life and cell evolution. Studying chemosensory proteins (CSPs) and odor binding proteins (OBPs) of insects, we have found a high level of pinpoint mutations on the RNA and peptide sequences. Many of these mutations are found to be tissue-specific and induce subtle changes in the protein structure, leading to a new theory of cell multifunction and life evolution. Here, attention is given to RNA and peptide mutations in small soluble protein families known for carrying lipids and fatty acids as fuel for moth cells. A new phylogenetic analysis of mutations is presented and provides even more support to the pioneer work, i.e. the finding that mutations in binding proteins have spread through moths and various groups of insects. Then, focus is given to specific mechanisms of mutations that are not random, change α-helical profilings and bring new functions at the protein level. In conclusion, RNA and peptide mutations are not seen as representative of a multitude of diseases, but rather as an alternative way by which protocells developed to acquire multifunction and totipotency. This provides a basis for the theory of RNA/peptide mutations for birth and evolution of life on earth’s crust proposed here.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0281.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: protein structural dynamics; NQO1; ligand binding; protein stability; allostery; protein degradation
Online: 24 October 2019 (15:41:46 CEST)
Human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is a multi-functional protein whose alteration is associated with cancer, Parkinson´s and Alzheimer´s diseases. NQO1 displays a remarkable functional chemistry, capable of binding different functional ligands that modulate its activity, stability and interaction with proteins and nucleic acids. Our understanding on this functional chemistry is limited by the difficulty of obtaining structural and dynamic information on many of these states. Herein, we have used hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass-spectrometry (HDXMS) to investigate the structural dynamics of NQO1 in three ligation states: without ligands (NQO1apo), with FAD (NQO1holo) and with FAD and the inhibitor dicoumarol (NQO1dic). We show that NQO1apo has a minimally stable folded core holding the protein dimer and with FAD and dicoumarol ligand binding sites populating binding non-competent conformations. Binding of FAD significantly decreases protein dynamics and stabilizes the FAD and dicoumarol binding sites as well as the monomer:monomer interface. Dicoumarol binding further stabilizes all three functional sites, a result not previously anticipated by available crystallographic models. Our work provides an experimental perspective into the communication of stability effects through the NQO1 dimer, valuable to understand at the molecular level the effects of disease-associated variants, post-translation modifications and ligand binding cooperativity in NQO1.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0313.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: substrate-binding protein; sbp; abc transport; α/β-domain; rhodothermus arinus
Online: 27 September 2019 (12:16:07 CEST)
Substrate binding proteins (SBP) bind to specific ligands in the periplasmic region and bind to membrane proteins to participate in transport or signal transduction. Typical SBPs consist of two α/β domains and recognize the substrate by hinge motion between two domains. Conversely, short length Rhodothermus marinus SBP (named as RmSBP) exists around the methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein. We previously determined the crystal structure of RmSBP consisting of a single α/β domain, but the substrate recognition mechanism is still unclear. To better understand the short length RmSBP, we performed comparative structure analysis, computational substrate docking, and X-ray crystallographic study. RmSBP shares a high level of similarity in α/β domain with other SBP proteins, but it has a distinct topology in the C-term region. The substrate binding model suggested that conformational change in the peripheral region of RmSBP was required to recognize the substrate. We determined the crystal structures of RmSBP at pH 5.5, 6.0, and 7.5. RmSBP showed structural flexibility of the β1-α2 loop, β5-β6 loop, and extended C-term domain based on the electron density map and temperature B-factor analysis. These results provide information that will further the understanding of the function of the short length SBP.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0127.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear & High Energy Physics Keywords: three atomic gravitational constants; strong coupling constant; nuclear stability; binding energy
Online: 13 June 2019 (13:40:18 CEST)
We present simple relations for nuclear stability and nuclear binding energy with respect to three gravitational constants associated with electroweak, strong and electromagnetic interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0173.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Echinococcus granulosus; Calmodulin; Ca2+-binding protein; Immunohistochemical localization; Quantitative RT-PCR
Online: 24 May 2017 (08:07:35 CEST)
Echinococcus granulosus is a harmful cestode parasite which could cause Cystic Echinococcosis in humans, various livestock species and wild animals. Calmodulin (CaM), a Ca2+ sensor protein, is widely expressed in eukaryotes and mediates a variety of cellular signaling activities. In our study, the CaM in Echinococcus granulosus (rEgCaM) was successfully cloned and the molecular and biochemical characterizations of rEgCaM were identified. The results showed that rEgCaM was a highly conserved calcium-binding protein, consisting of 149 amino acids. Immunoblot analysis revealed that rEgCaM could be identified using E. granulosus infected sheep serum. The usage of rEgCaM as antigen was evaluated by indirect ELISA which exhibited a high sensitivity of 90.3% but low specificity (47.1%). rEgCaM was mainly located in the tegument tissues and parenchymal region of protoscoleces, the tegument and inner body of adult worm and predominantly expressed in the germinal layer. The mRNA expression of rEgCaM in PSCs were gradually decreased with the increase death of PSCs. In electrophoretic mobility tests and ANS assays, rEgCaM showed a typical calcium-binding protein characteristics. This is the first report on CaM from E. granulosus and rEgCaM is considered to be involved in some important biological function of E. granulosus as a calcium-binding protein.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0126.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Eugenol; Essential oils; Nanoencapsulation; Biopesticides; Insecticides; Odorant binding proteins; Inverted virtual screening
Online: 5 August 2022 (14:43:22 CEST)
The eugenol derivative, ethyl 4-(2-methoxy-4-(oxiran-2-ylmethyl)phenoxy)butanoate 1, with promising insecticidal capability was encapsulated in liposomal formulations of egg-phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol (Egg-PC:Ch) 70:30 and of 100% dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG). Compound-loaded Egg-PC:Ch liposomes exhibit small hydrodynamic diameters (below 100 nm), high encapsulation efficiency (88.8% ± 2.7%), higher stability and a more efficient compound release, being chosen for assays in Sf9 insect cells. Compound 1 elicited a loss of cell viability up to 80% after 72h of incubation. Relevantly, encapsulation maintained the toxicity of compound 1 towards insect cells, while it lowered toxicity towards human cells, thus showing the selectivity of the system. Structure based inverted virtual screening was used to predict the most likely targets and molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations were used to demonstrate that this molecule can form a stable complex with insect odorant binding proteins and/or acetylcholinesterase.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0109.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN); Retinol binding protein (RBP); Prognostication; End-stage renal diseases
Online: 4 August 2021 (12:06:22 CEST)
Initially, retinol-binding protein (RBP), was thought to be a biomarker for proximal convoluted tubule dysfunction could be important in chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) is an important cause of CKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Therefore, monitoring MGN patients using urinary RBP is important in effective treatment decision making and prognostication of MGN patients. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique was used to detect the RBP in the urine samples of 69 MGN patients comprising 47 primary and 22 secondary MGN, at the end of the follow-up period. The test for the urinary biomarker gave the following results: urinary RBP was detected in 27 (39.1%) and 6 (8.7%) of the primary and secondary MGN patients, respectively. The correlation analysis demonstrated a significant relationship between urinary RBP and renal function test parameters, in addition to a logistic regression analysis that proved urinary RBP as a prognostic non-invasive biomarker for primary MGN. Therefore, urinary RBP could be employed to monitor and provide effective prognosis and early treatment decisions in primary MGN.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0041.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Leptin; Metabolism; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS); TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43).
Online: 2 April 2021 (11:09:21 CEST)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is an irreversible neurodegenerative disease with no known cure. Recent studies suggest a strong metabolic component in ALS pathogenesis and have shown an inverse relationship between leptin levels and ALS progression, although the effects of leptin as a treatment have not yet been studied. Therefore, we aim to examine whether the acute treatment with leptin has beneficial effects on brain pathology and cognitive function in the transgenic TDP43A315T line of ALS. Mice were treated intranasally (IN) with 0.03mg/kg of leptin or vehicle (VH) daily for 7 days. Data showed a progressive decline in body weight and motor coordination in TDP43A315T mice. Moreover, Lep-treated TDP43A315T mice showed an earlier disease onset, along with an improvement in motor performance. Altered levels of some of the adipokines and metabolic proteins studied were found in TDP43A315T mice, which were differently expressed among Lep-treated and VH-treated animals. Furthermore, some correlations were found among the serum levels of this proteins in WT and TDP43A315T mice. As far as we know, this is the first pilot study to provide evidence of the therapeutic effect of leptin treatment in a mice model of ALS, although further studies are needed to expound on the underlying mechanisms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0643.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Fragile X Syndrome; FMRP, RNA-binding protein; Physiopathology; Genomic; Transcriptomic; Proteomic; Metabolomic
Online: 25 March 2021 (16:22:35 CET)
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a wide range of cognitive, behavioral and medical problems. It arises from the silencing of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene, and consequently, in the absence of its encoded protein, FMRP (Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein). FMRP is a ubiquitously expressed and multifunctional RNA-binding protein, primarily considered as a translational regulator. Pre-clinical studies of the past two decades have therefore focus on this function to relate FMRP’s absence to the molecular mechanisms underlying FXS physiopathology. Based on these data, successful pharmacological strategies were developed to rescue fragile X phenotype in animal models. Unfortunately, these results did not translate into human, as clinical trials using same therapeutic approaches did not reach the expected outcomes. These failures highlight the need to put into perspectives the different functions of FMRP in order to get a more comprehensive understanding of FXS pathophysiology. In this review, FMRP’s involvement on noteworthy molecular mechanisms are pointed out; ultimately contributing to various biochemicals alterations composing the fragile X phenotype.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: HIF-1α; NQO1; hypoxia; angiogenesis; cancer; protein:protein interactions; ligand binding; proteasomal degradation
Online: 18 March 2020 (08:45:33 CET)
HIF-1α is a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis involved in different stages of cancer development. Thus, HIF-1α inhibition represents an interesting target for anti-cancer therapy. It was recently shown that HIF-1α interaction with NQO1 inhibits its proteasomal degradation, thus suggesting that targeting the stability of NQO1 could led to destabilization of HIF-1α as a therapeutic approach. Since the molecular interactions of NQO1 with HIF-1α are beginning to be unraveled, we review here our current knowledge on the intracellular functions and stability of NQO1, its pharmacological modulation by small ligands, and the molecular determinants of its roles as a chaperone of many different proteins including cancer-associated factors such as p53 and p73α. This knowledge is then discussed in the context of potentially targeting the intracellular stability of HIF-1α by acting on its chaperone, NQO1. This could result in novel anti-cancer therapies.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0125.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: 2019-nCoV; Darunavir; ACE-2; Receptor Binding Domain; Metastable Conformation; FDA database
Online: 7 March 2020 (16:28:05 CET)
The transnational spread of coronavirus (2019-nCoV) first detected in Wuhan is causing global panic; thus, accelerated research into clinical intervention is of high necessity. The spike glycoprotein structure has been resolved, and its affinity to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) has been experimentally validated. Here, using computational methods, a metastable conformation of 2019-nCoV-RBD/ACE-2 complex has been revealed and FDA-database of approved drugs have been docked into the interface. Darunavir has been discovered as high ligand affinity candidate capable of disrupting communication between 2019-nCoV-RBD and ACE-2. Darunavir, in addition to its previously known anti-HIV protease inhibitor is now repurposeable for the treatment 2019-nCoV disease acting via disruption of cellular recognition, binding and invasion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0467.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Ebola virus; filovirus; lipid binding; Marburg virus; membrane trafficking; virus assembly; VP40
Online: 29 February 2020 (13:12:20 CET)
Marburg virus (MARV) is a lipid-enveloped negative sense single stranded RNA virus, which can cause a deadly hemorrhagic fever. MARV encodes seven proteins, including VP40 (mVP40), a matrix protein that interacts with the cytoplasmic leaflet of the host cell plasma membrane. VP40 traffics to the plasma membrane inner leaflet, where it assembles to facilitate the budding of viral particles. VP40 is a multifunctional protein that interacts with several host proteins and lipids to complete the viral replication cycle, but many of these host-interactions remain unknown or are poorly characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of a hydrophobic loop region in the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of mVP40 that shares sequence similarity with the CTD of Ebola virus VP40 (eVP40). These conserved hydrophobic residues in eVP40 have been previously shown to be critical to plasma membrane localization and membrane insertion. An array of cellular experiments and confirmatory in vitro work strongly suggests proper orientation and hydrophobic residues (Phe281, Leu283, and Phe286) in the mVP40 CTD are critical to plasma membrane localization. In line with the different functions proposed for eVP40 and mVP40 CTD hydrophobic residues, molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate large flexibility of residues in the EBOV CTD whereas conserved mVP40 hydrophobic residues are more restricted in their flexibility. This study sheds further light on important amino acids and structural features in mVP40 required for its plasma membrane localization as well as differences in the functional role of CTD amino acids in eVP40 and mVP40.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0062.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: C2 domain; E3 ubiquitin ligase; lipid binding; phosphoinositide; plasma membrane; smurf1; ubiquitin
Online: 8 January 2020 (04:34:28 CET)
SMAD ubiquitination regulatory factor 1 (Smurf1) is a Nedd4 family E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates cell motility, polarity and TGFβ signaling. Smurf1 contains an N-terminal protein kinase C conserved 2 (C2) domain that targets cell membranes and is required for interactions with membrane-localized substrates such as RhoA. Here we investigated the lipid-binding mechanism of Smurf1 C2, revealing a general affinity for anionic membranes in addition to a selective affinity for phosphoinositides (PIPs). We found that Smurf1 C2 localizes not only to the plasma membrane but also to negatively charged intracellular sites, acting as an anionic charge sensor and selective PIP-binding domain. Site-directed mutagenesis combined with docking/molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the Smurf1 C2 domain loop region primarily interacts with PIPs and cell membranes, as opposed to the β-surface cationic patch employed by other C2 domains. By depleting PIPs from the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, we found that PIP binding is necessary for plasma membrane localization. Finally, we used a Smurf1 cellular ubiquitination assay to show that the amount of ubiquitin at the plasma membrane interface depends on the lipid-binding properties of Smurf1. This study shows the mechanism by which Smurf1 C2 targets membrane-based substrates and reveals a novel interaction based on PI(4,5)P2 and PIP3 selectivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0328.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Zika Virus; Flavonoids; Azadirachta indica; Molecular Docking; Molecular Dynamics Simulation; Binding free energy
Online: 24 March 2022 (09:31:59 CET)
Zika virus (ZIKV) has been characterized as one of the potential pathogens and placed under future epidemic outbreaks by the WHO. However, lack of potential therapeutics can result in uncontrolled pandemic like other human pandemic viruses; therefore, prioritized effective therapeutics development has been recommended against ZIKV. In this context, the present study adopted the strategy to explore the lead compounds from Azadirachta indica against ZIKV via concurrent inhibition of the ZIKVpro and ZIKVRdRp proteins using molecular simulations. Initially, structure-based virtual screening of 44 bioflavonoids reported in Azadirachta indica against the crystal structures of targeted ZIKV proteins resulted in the identification of top four common bioflavonoids, viz. rutin, nicotiflorin, isoquercitrin, and hyperoside. These compounds showed substantial docking energy (-7.9 to -11.01 kcal/mol) and intermolecular interactions with essential residues of ZIKVpro (His51, Asp74, and Ser135) and ZIKVRdRp (Asp540, Ile799, and Asp665) by comparison to the reference compounds, O7N inhibitor (ZIKVpro) and Sofosbuvir inhibitor (ZIKVRdRp). Long interval molecular dynamics simulation (500 ns) on the selected docked poses reveals the stability of respective docked complexes contributed by intermolecular hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. The predicted complex stability was further supported by calculated end-point binding free energy using molecular mechanics generalized born surface area (MM/GBSA) method. Consequently, the identified common bioflavonoids are recommended as promising therapeutic inhibitors of ZIKVpro and ZIKVRdRp for further experimental assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0132.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: multidrug resistance protein 4; ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters; aging; retina; mouse; electroretinogram
Online: 4 February 2021 (10:58:06 CET)
Multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) is an energy-dependent membrane transporter that is responsible for cellular efflux of a broad range of xenobiotics and physiological substrates. In this trial, we aimed to investigate the co-effects of aging and MRP4 deficiency using gene expression microarray and morphological and electrophysiological analyses of the mouse retina. Mrp4-knockout (null) mice and wild-type (WT) mice were reared in the same condition to 8–12 wk (young) or 45–55 wk (aged). Microarray analysis identified 186 differently expressed genes from the retinas of aged Mrp4-null mice as compared to that from aged WT mice, and subsequence gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses showed that differently expressed genes were related to lens, eye development, vision, and transcellular barrier function that are involved in metabolic pathways or viral infection pathways. No significant change in thickness was observed for each retinal layer among young/aged WT mice and young/aged Mrp4-null mice. Moreover, immunohistochemical analyses of retinal cell type did not exhibit an overt change in the cellular morphology or distribution among the 4 age/genotype groups, and the electroretinogram responses showed no significant differences in the amplitude or the latency between aged WT mice and aged Mrp4-null mice. Aging would be an insufficient stress to cause some damage to the retina in the presence of MRP4 deficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0196.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: drug discovery; artificial intelligence; protein discovery; binding prediction; synthetic molecule generation; synthetic drug
Online: 20 November 2020 (11:30:03 CET)
In this paper we propose the generation of synthetic small and more sophisticated molecule structures that optimize the binding affinity to a target (ASYNT-GAN). To achieve this we leverage on three important achievements in A.I.: Attention, Deep Learning on Graphs and Generative Adversarial Networks. Similar to text generation based on parts of text we are able to generate a molecule architecture based on an existing target. By adopting this approach, we propose a novel way of searching for existing compounds that are suitable candidates. Similar to question and answer Natural Language solutions we are able to find drugs with highest relevance to a target. We are able to identify substructures of the molecular structure that are the most suitable for binding. In addition, we are proposing a novel way of generating the molecule in 3D space in such a way that the binding is optimized. We show that we are able to generate compound structures and protein structures that are optimised for binding to a target.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0283.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Decapod Crustaceans; dsRNA transport; Gene silencing mechanism; Serum dsRNA binding proteins; Systemic RNAi
Online: 13 September 2020 (12:09:03 CEST)
RNA interference (RNAi) has become a widely utilised method to study gene function, yet despite this, many of the mechanisms surrounding RNAi remain elusive. The core RNAi machinery is relatively well understood, however many of the systemic mechanisms, particularly double stranded RNA (dsRNA) transport, are not. Here, we demonstrate that dsRNA binding proteins in the serum contribute to systemic RNAi, and may be the limiting factor in RNAi capacity for species such as spiny lobsters where gene silencing is not functional. Incubating serum from a variety of species across phyla with dsRNA led to a gel mobility shift in species where systemic RNAi has been observed, with this response being absent in species where systemic RNAi has never been observed. Proteomic analysis suggested lipoproteins may be responsible for this phenomenon, and may transport dsRNA to spread the RNAi signal systemically. Following this, we identified the same gel shift in the slipper lobster Thenus australiensis and subsequently silenced the insulin androgenic gland hormone, marking the first time RNAi has been performed in any lobster species. These results pave the way for inducing RNAi in spiny lobsters, and better understanding the mechanisms of systemic RNAi in Crustacea, as well as across phyla.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0227.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: meta-analysis; transcription factor; binding site; genomics; transcriptomics; chilling stress; CBF; DREB; CAMTA
Online: 13 May 2020 (15:17:16 CEST)
At the molecular level, response to an external factor or an internal condition causes reprogramming of temporal and spatial transcription. When an organism undergoes physiological and/or morphological changes, several signaling pathways are activated simultaneously. Examples of such complex reactions are the response to temperature changes, dehydration, various biologically active substances, and others. Synergistic action of multiple pathways greatly complicates the experimental study of the molecular genetic mechanisms of the organism's reactions. As a result, a significant part of the regulatory ensemble in such complex reactions remains unidentified. We developed metaRE, an R package for the systematic search for cis-regulatory elements enriched in the promoters of the genes significantly changed their transcription in a complex reaction. metaRE mines multiple expression profiling datasets generated to test the same organism's response and identifies simple and composite cis-regulatory elements systematically associated with differential expression of genes. Here we showed metaRE performance for identification of cold stress-responsive cis-regulatory code in Arabidopsis thaliana. MetaRE identified potential binding sites for known as well as unknown cold response regulators. Software with source files, documentation, and example data files are freely available online at the repository (https://github.com/cheburechko/MetaRE).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0066.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Alu; LINE-1 (L1); X-chromosome inactivation (XCI); repetitive sequences; RNA binding strength
Online: 8 November 2018 (11:10:53 CET)
Two X chromosomes of female mammals randomly inactivate one of paternal or maternal X chromosome in early embryonic development and all the daughter cells produced from these cells retain the same feature of X chromosome inactivation, which is called X chromosome inactivation (XCI). Studying the mechanisms of XCI is important for understanding epigenetic that plays an important role in age-associated diseases. The previous studies have demonstrated that binding of RNAs and DNAs may play a role in activating gene expression. In this paper, our study aims to explore whether the mechanisms of XCI involve the RNA binding strength to X chromosome DNAs. The bioinformatics analyses based on big data were used to analyze the simulated binding strength of RNAs (RNA binding strength) to 23 chromosomes (including X chromosome and 22 human autosomes) and the characteristics of repetitive sequences in the X-inactivation centre. The results revealed that RNA binding strength of the long arm of the X chromosome that is almost entirely inactivated in XCI was significantly lower than that of all autosomes and the short arm of X chromosome, meanwhile the RNA binding strengths of inactivation regions in X chromosome were significantly lower than that of regions escaping from XCI. Different repetitive sequence clusters within the center of XCI presented a cross distribution characteristic. To further prove whether the repetitive sequences in human X chromosome involve in XCI, we cloned long interspersed element (LINE-1, L1) and short interspersed element (Alu) from human Xq13, the center of XCI, and constructed expression vectors carrying sense-antisense combination repetitive sequences (L1s or Alus). Effects of combined L1 or combined Alu sequences on expression of EGFP reporter gene were examined in stably transfected HeLa cells, which simulates the effects of repetitive sequences located on chromosomes. The results of experiments revealed transcribed L1 repetitive sequences activated EGFP reporter gene expression, so did the Alus. The experiment results suggested repetitive sequences activated genes by interaction of transcribed RNAs and DNAs. Since the binding of RNAs and DNAs can activate gene, so the low RNA binding strength of human X chromosome may be one of reasons of XCI. The cross distribution characteristics of different repetitive sequence clusters leading to a cascade of gene activation or gene inactivation may be the reason of transcriptional silencing one of the X chromosomes in female mammals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0512.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: PhaC synthase; classification; dimerization; substrate binding; exit cavity; C3-C14 alkanes; polymer composition
Online: 26 July 2018 (12:03:44 CEST)
PHA synthases (PhaC) are grouped into four classes based on the kinetics and mechanisms of reaction. The grouping of PhaC enzymes into four classes is dependent on substrate specificity, according to the preference in forming short chain length (scl) or medium chain length (mcl) polymers: class I, class III, and class IV produce scl-PHAs depending on propionate, butyrate, valerate and hexanoate precursors, while class II phaC synthesize mcl-PHAs based on the alkane (C6 to C14) precursors. PHA synthases of class I, in particular PhaCCs from Chromobacterium USM2 and PhaCCn/RePhaC1 from Cupriavidus necator/R. eutropha, have been analysed and the crystal structures of the C-domains have been determined. PhaCCn/RePhaC1 was also studied by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis. Models have been proposed for dimerization, catalysis mechanism, substrate recognition and affinity, product formation and product egress route. The assays based on amino acid substitution by mutagenesis have been useful to validate the hypothesis on the role of amino acids in catalysis and in accommodation of bulky substrates, for the synthesis of PHB co-polymers and medium chain length-PHA polymers with optimized chemical properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0463.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: α-synuclein; amyloid fibrils; fibrillogenesis; thioflavin T; equilibrium microdialysis; binding parameters; structural polymorphism
Online: 28 June 2018 (10:50:40 CEST)
In this work α-synuclein amyloid fibrils, formation of which is a biomarker of the Parkinson’s disease, were investigated with the use of fluorescent probe thioflavin T (ThT). Experimental conditions of the protein fibrillogenesis were chosen so that a sufficient number of continuous measurements can be performed to characterize and analyze all stages of this process. The reproducibility of fibrillogenesis and the structure of the obtained aggregates (that is a critical point for their further investigation) were proved using a wide range of physical-chemical methods. For determination of ThT—α-synuclein amyloid fibrils binding parameters sample and reference solutions were prepared with the use of equilibrium microdialysis. By absorption spectroscopy of these solutions ThT—fibrils binding mode with the binding constant about 104 M−1 and stoichiometry of ThT per protein molecule about 1:8 was observed. Fluorescence spectroscopy of the same solutions with the subsequent correction of the recorded fluorescence intensity on the primary inner filter effect allowed to determine another mode of ThT binding to fibrils with the binding constant about 106 M−1 and stoichiometry about 1:2500. Analysis of photophysical characteristics of the dye molecules bound to the sites of different binding modes allowed to assume the possible localization of these sites. Obtained differences in the ThT binding parameters to amyloid fibrils formed from α-synuclein and other amyloidogenic proteins, as well as in the photophysical characteristics of the bound dye, confirmed the hypothesis of amyloid fibrils polymorphism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0133.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: antioxidant potential; molecular docking; molecular descriptors; binding free energy; free radicals; oxidative stress
Online: 8 May 2018 (15:38:38 CEST)
The antioxidant activity of molecules constitutes an important factor for the regulation of redox homeostasis and reduction of oxidative stress. Cells affected by oxidative stress can undergo genetic alteration, causing structural changes and promoting the onset of chronic diseases, such as cancer. The in silico study performed here was developed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of two molecules, ZINC08706191 (Z91) and ZINC08992920 (Z20), with recognized epithelial anticancer potential. Molecular docking, chemical-quantum calculations and Pearson's correlation were performed. The Z91 and Z20 molecules showed lower binding free energy (ΔG) values for the receptor-ligand interaction than the reference molecules (caffeine – CAF and ascorbic acid – AA), and better results for values of molecular descriptors correlated with ΔG, resulting in a decrease of ΔG. Strong correlations were observed between ΔG values for the five receptors evaluated and ΔG values of the potential epithelial anticancer activity available in literature. These results attest to the significant antioxidant potential of the Z91 and Z20 molecules and their strong relation with the potential epithelial anticancer activity and may be indicated for further analysis in relation to the control of oxidative stress and epithelial anticancer activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0005.v1
Subject: Keywords: carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein; ketohexokinase; fructose; glucose transporter 5; glucose transporter 2
Online: 1 February 2018 (05:09:54 CET)
We have previously reported that 60% sucrose diet-fed ChREBP knockout mice (KO) showed body weight loss resulting in lethality. We aimed to elucidate whether sucrose and fructose metabolism are impaired in KO. Wild type mice (WT) and KO were fed a diet containing 30% sucrose with/without 0.08% miglitol, an α-glucosidase inhibitor, and these effects on phenotypes were tested. Furthermore, we compared metabolic changes of oral and peritoneal fructose injection. Thirty percent sucrose diet feeding did not affect phenotypes in KO. However, miglitol induced lethality in 30% sucrose-fed KO. Thirty percent sucrose plus miglitol diet-fed KO showed increased cecal contents, increased fecal lactate contents, increased growth of lactobacillales and Bifidobacterium and decreased growth of clostridium cluster XIVa. ChREBP gene deletion suppressed the mRNA levels of sucrose and fructose related genes. Next, oral fructose injection did not affect plasma glucose levels and liver fructose contents; however, intestinal sucrose and fructose related mRNA levels were increased only in WT. In contrast, peritoneal fructose injection increased plasma glucose levels in both mice; however, the hepatic fructose content in KO was much higher owing to decreased hepatic Khk mRNA expression. Taken together, KO showed sucrose intolerance and fructose malabsorption owing to decreased gene expression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0318.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; three-finger toxins; acetylcholine binding protein; protein – protein docking; computational modeling
Online: 14 August 2020 (09:57:35 CEST)
Three finger toxins (3FTX) are a group of peptides that affect multiple receptor types. One group of proteins affected by 3FTX are nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Structural information on how neurotoxins interact with nAChR is limited and are confined to a small group of neurotoxins. Therefore, in silico methods are valuable in understanding the interactions between 3FTX and different nAChR subtypes, but there are no established protocols to model 3FTX – nAChR interactions. We developed a homology modeling and protein docking protocol to address this issue and tested its success on three different systems. First, neurotoxin peptides co-crystallized with acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) were re-docked to assess whether Rosetta protein – protein docking can reproduce the native poses. Second, experimental data on peptide binding to AChBP was used to test whether the docking protocol can qualitatively distinguish AChBP-binders from non-binders. Finally, we docked eight peptides with known α7 and muscle-type nAChR binding properties to test whether the protocol can explain the differential activities of the peptides at the two receptor subtypes. Overall, our docking protocol succeeded in predicting both qualitative and specific aspects of 3FTX binding to nAChR and shed light on some unknown aspects of 3FTX binding to different receptor subtypes.
Subject: Keywords: heterologous vaccine; receptor-binding domain; subunit vaccine; coronavirus; COVID-19; SARS; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 4 March 2020 (05:19:16 CET)
A SARS-CoV receptor-binding domain (RBD) recombinant protein was developed and manufactured under current good manufacturing practices in 2016. The protein known as RBD219-N1 when formulated on Alhydrogel®, induced high-level neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity with minimal immunopathology in mice after a homologous virus challenge with SARS-CoV (MA15 strain). In this report, we examined published evidence in support of whether the SARS-CoV RBD219-N1 could be repurposed as a heterologous vaccine against Coronavirus Infectious Disease (COVID)-19. Our findings include evidence that convalescent serum from SARS-CoV patients can neutralize SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, a review of published studies using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against SARS-CoV RBD and that neutralize the SARS-CoV virus in vitro, finds that some of these mAbs bind to the receptor-binding motif (RBM) within the RBD, while others bind to domains outside this region within RBD. This information is relevant and supports the possibility of developing a heterologous SARS-CoV RBD vaccine against COVID-19, especially due to the finding that the overall high amino acid similarity (82%) between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 spike and RBD domains is not reflected in RBM region (59%). However, the high similarity (94%) in the region outside of RBM offers the potential of conserved neutralizing epitopes between both viruses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0075.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear & High Energy Physics Keywords: nuclear charge radius; strong coupling constant; Fermi’s weak coupling constant; nuclear binding energy coefficient
Online: 12 October 2017 (04:39:19 CEST)
At nuclear scale, we present three heuristic relations pertaining to strong and electroweak coupling constants. With these relations, close to beta stability line, it is possible to study nuclear binding energy with a single energy coefficient of magnitude With reference to up and down quark masses, it is also possible to interpret that, nuclear binding energy is proportional to the mean mass of
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0450.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Heslington brain; intrinsically disordered protein; intrinsically disordered region; binding-induced folding; disorder-to-order transition
Online: 29 September 2022 (03:49:27 CEST)
Proteomic analysis revealed the preservation of many proteins in the “Heslington brain” (which is at least 2,600-year-old brain tissue uncovered within the skull excavated in 2008 from a pit in Heslington, Yorkshire, England). Five of these proteins (“main proteins”), heavy, medium, and light neurofilament proteins (NFH, NFM, and NFL), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and myelin basic (MBP) protein are engaged in the formation non-amyloid protein aggregates, such as intermediate filaments and myelin sheath. We used a wide spectrum of bioinformatics tools to evaluate the prevalence of functional disorder in several related sets of proteins, such as “main proteins” and their 44 interactors, as well as all other protein identified in the Heslington brain. These analyses revealed that all five “main proteins”, half of their interactors and almost one third of the Heslington brain proteins are expected to be mostly disordered. Furthermore, most of the remaining proteins are expected to contain sizable disordered regions. This is in contrary the expected substantial (if not complete) elimination of the disordered proteins from the Heslington brain. Therefore, it seems that the intrinsic disorder of NFH, NFM, NFL, GFAP, and MBP, their interactors and many other proteins might play a crucial role in preserving the Heslington brain by forming tightly folded brain protein aggregates, in which different parts are glued together via the disorder-to-order transitions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0531.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: A.thaliana; HaloTag; RNA-binding proteins; RNA pulldown assay; RNA-protein complexes; cold shock domain protein
Online: 23 July 2021 (09:32:28 CEST)
Study of RNA-protein interactions and identification of RNA targets are among the key aspects of understanding the RNA biology. Currently, various methods are available to investigate these interactions, in particular, RNA pulldown assay. In the present paper, a method based on the HaloTag technology is presented that is called Halo-RPD (HaloTag RNA PullDown). The proposed protocol uses plants with stable fusion protein expression and the MagneBeads magnetic beads to capture RNA-protein complexes directly from the cytoplasmic lysate of transgenic A. thaliana plants. The key stages described in the paper are as follows: 1) preparation of the magnetic beads 2) tissue homogenization and collection of control samples 3) precipitation and wash of RNA-protein complexes; 4) evaluation of protein binding efficacy; 5) RNA isolation; 6) analysis of the obtained RNA. Recommendations for better NGS assay designs are provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0046.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic & Molecular Physics Keywords: Biofilms; virtual screening; molecular dynamics; natural products; binding energy; trans-Aconitic acid; hit-to-lead
Online: 3 September 2020 (03:53:16 CEST)
Biofilms are communities of microorganisms that can colonize biotic and abiotic surfaces playing a significant role in the persistence of bacterial infection and antibiotic resistance. About 65% and 80% of microbial and chronic infections are produced by biofilm formation. The increase in infections by multi-resistant bacteria draws attention to the discovery of new drugs based on natural inhibitory molecules. The inhibition of diguanylate cyclases (DGCs), the enzyme implicated in the synthesis of the second messenger, cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP), involved the biofilm formation, represents a potential method for preventing the biofilm development. It has been extensively studied using PleD protein as a model of DGC for in silico studies as virtual screening and as a model for in vitro studies in biofilms formation. In the present study 224205 molecules from natural products database, ZINC15 has been evaluated through molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulation, our result suggests trans-Aconitic acid (TAA) as a possible starting point for hit-to-lead methodologies to obtain new molecules capable of inhibiting the PleD protein and hence blocking the biofilm formation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0219.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: protruding features; spherical virus; point arrays; surface modifications; VLP; drug delivery; icosahedral; nanomedicine; ligand binding
Online: 20 January 2020 (06:59:09 CET)
Since its introduction, the Triangulation number has been the most successful and ubiquitous scheme for classifying spherical viruses. However, despite its many successes, it fails to describe the relative angular orientations of proteins, as well as their radial mass distribution within the capsid. It also fails to provide any insight into critical sites of stability, modifications or possible mutations. We show how classifying spherical viruses using icosahedral point arrays, introduced by Keef and Twarock, unveils new geometric rules and constraints for understanding virus stability and key locations for exterior and interior modifications. We present a modified fitness measure which classifies viruses in an unambiguous and rigorous manner, irrespective of local surface chemistry, steric hinderance, solvent accessibility or triangulation number. We then utilize these point arrays to explain the immutable surface loops of bacteriophage MS2, the relative reactivity of surface lysines in CPMV and the non-quasiequivalent flexibility of the HBV dimers. We explain how using sister and double point arrays can function as predictive tools for site directed modifications in other systems. This success builds on our previous work showing that viruses place their protruding features along the great circles of the asymmetric unit, demonstrating that viruses indeed adhere to these geometric constraints.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0398.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear & High Energy Physics Keywords: large nuclear gravity; strong coupling constant; nuclear stability; nuclear binding energy; free nucleons; active nucleons; magic numbers; up and down Quark clusters
Online: 4 December 2019 (04:48:31 CET)
As there exist no repulsive forces in strong interaction, in a hypothetical approach, strong interaction can be assumed to be equivalent to a large gravitational coupling. Based on this concept, strong coupling constant can be defined as a ratio of the electromagnetic force and the gravitational force associated with proton, neutron, up quark and down quark. With respect to the product of strong coupling constant and fine structure ratio, we review our recently proposed two semi empirical relations and coefficients 0.00189 and 0.00642 connected with nuclear stability and binding energy. We wish to emphasize that- by classifying nucleons as ‘free nucleons’ and ‘active nucleons’, nuclear binding energy can be fitted with a new class of ‘three term’ formula having one unique energy coefficient. Based on the geometry and quantum nature, currently believed harmonic oscillator and spin orbit magic numbers can be considered as the lower and upper “mass limits” of quark clusters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0255.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: arabidopsis thaliana; floral development; flower morphology; ds transposon; classical/sequencing-based mapping; LEAFY; DNA-binding
Online: 22 November 2019 (06:39:06 CET)
The transition to reproduction is a crucial step in the life cycle of any organism. In Arabidopsis thaliana the establishment of reproductive growth can be divided into two phases: Firstly, cauline leaves with axillary meristems are formed and internode elongation begins. Secondly, lateral meristems develop into flowers with defined organs. Floral shoots are usually determinate and suppress the development of lateral shoots. Here, we describe a transposon insertion mutant in the Nossen accession with defects in floral development and growth. Most strikingly is the outgrowth of stems from the axillary bracts of the primary flower carrying secondary flowers. Therefore, we named this mutant flower-in-flower (fif). However, the transposon insertion in the annotated gene is not the cause for the fif phenotype. By means of classical and genome sequencing-based mapping, the mutation responsible for the fif phenotype was found to be in the LEAFY gene. The mutation, a G-to-A exchange in the second exon of LEAFY, creates a novel lfy allele and results in a cysteine-to-tyrosine exchange in the α1-helix of LEAFY´s DNA-binding domain. This exchange abolishes target DNA-binding, whereas subcellular localization and homomerization are not affected. To explain the strong fif phenotype against this molecular findings, several hypotheses are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0042.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: selective laser sintering (SLS); wood-plastic composites (WPC); carbon nanotube (CNT); mechanical properties; binding mechanism
Online: 7 November 2017 (02:43:15 CET)
A new type of low cost, environmentally friendly wood-plastic composites (WPC) containing carbon nanotubes(CNT)of low content 0%, 0.05wt%, 0.1wt% and 0.15wt%, wood fibers of 14wt% and polymer PES of 86wt% was manufactured by the selective laser sintering (SLS) approach of 3D printing. The experimental results showed that the incorporating of CNTs could obviously increase the mechanical properties of the wood/PES composites material. The tensile strength, bending strength and elasticity modulus were 76.3%, 227.9% and 128.7% higher with 0.1wt% CNTs than without CNTs. And the mechanical properties of specimens firstly increased and then decreased with the increasing contents of CNTs. The SEM results of the specimens’ fracture morphology indicated that the preferable bonding interfaces between wood flour grains and PES grains were achieved by adding CNTs to the composites. There are two reasons to explain why the composites possessed the superior mechanical properties: CNTs could facilitate the laser sintering process of wood plastic composites due to their thermal conductivities; also, CNTs could directly reinforce the WPC composites as reinforcement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Coumarin; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Cholinesterase inhibitor; Monoamine oxidase B inhibitor; Structure activity relationship; Albumin binding, Neuroprotection
Online: 15 September 2017 (17:34:38 CEST)
An in vitro medium-throughput screen using M. tuberculosis H37Rv was employed to screen an in-house library of structurally diverse compounds for antimycobacterial activity. From this initial screen, eleven 7-substituted coumarin derivatives with confirmed monoamine oxidase-B and cholinesterase inhibitory activities, demonstrated growth inhibition of more than 50% at a 50 µM concentration. This prompted further exploration of all the 7-substituted coumarins in our library, nineteen in total, as potential antimycobacterial agents. Four derivatives showed promising antimycobacterial activity with MIC99 values of 8.31 – 29.70 µM and 44.15 – 57.17 µM on M. tuberculosis H37Rv in independent assays using Gaste-Fe and 7H9 + OADC media, respectively. These compounds were found to bind to albumin which may explain the variations in MIC between the two assays. Preliminary antimycobacterial evaluation of moxifloxacin resistant M. tuberculosis show that these compounds are able to maintain their activity in fluoroquinolone resistant mycobacteria. Analysis of structure activity relationships for antimycobacterial versus neuronal enzyme inhibitory activity indicate that structural modification on position 4 and/or 7 of the coumarin scaffold may be utilized to improve selectivity towards either inhibition of neuronal enzymes or antimycobacterial effect. Cytotoxicity evaluations of the compounds indicate moderate cytotoxicity with slight selectivity towards mycobacteria. Further neuroprotective assays on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells indicate significant neuroprotection for selected compounds irrespective of their neuronal enzyme inhibitory properties. These coumarin molecules are thus interesting lead compounds that may provide insight into the design of new antimicrobacterial and/or neuroprotective agents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0366.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: Electron-phonon coupling; Nanoparticle; Ultrathin layer; Nonthermal melting; Tight-binding molecular dynamics; Boltzmann collision integrals; XTANT
Online: 26 May 2022 (10:44:54 CEST)
Laser irradiation of metals is widely used in research and applications. In this work, we study how the material geometry affects electron-phonon coupling in nano-sized gold samples: an ultrathin layer, nano-rod, and two types of gold nanoparticles: cubic and octahedral. We use the combined tight-binding molecular dynamics Boltzmann collision integral method implemented within XTANT-3 code to evaluate the coupling parameter in irradiation targets at high electronic temperatures (up to Te~20,000 K). Our results show that the electron-phonon coupling in all objects with the same fcc atomic structure (bulk, layer, rod, cubic and octahedral nanoparticles) is nearly identical at electronic temperatures above Te~7000 K, independently of geometry and dimensionality. At low electronic temperatures, reducing dimensionality reduces the coupling parameter. Additionally, nano-objects under ultrafast energy deposition experience nonthermal damage due to expansion caused by electronic pressure, in contrast to bulk metal. Nano-object ultrafast expansion leads to ablation/emission of atoms, and disorder inside of the remaining parts. These nonthermal atomic expansion and melting are significantly faster than electron-phonon coupling, forming a dominant effect in nano-sized gold.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0635.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Fast learning; Bayes’ theorem; navigation; language; spatial cognition; feature structures; unification; generalization; dynamic binding; metadata multiplexing.
Online: 28 June 2021 (10:06:07 CEST)
Bayesian formulations of learning imply that whenever the evidence for a correlation between events in an animal’s habitat is sufficient, the correlation is learned. This implies that regularities can be learnt rapidly, from small numbers of learning examples. This speed of learning gives maximum possible fitness, and no faster learning is possible. There is evidence in many domains that animals and people can learn at nearly Bayesian optimal speeds. These domains include associative conditioning, and the more complex domains of navigation and language. There are computational models of learning which learn at near-Bayesian speeds in complex domains, and which can scale well – to learn thousands of pieces of knowledge (i.e., relations and associations). These are not neural net models. They can be defined in computational terms, as algorithms and data structures at David Marr’s  Level Two. Their key data structures are composite feature structures, which are graphs of multiple linked nodes. This leads to the hypothesis that animal learning results not from deep neural nets (which typically require thousands of training exam-ples), but from neural implementations of the Level Two models of fast learning; and that neu-rons provide the facilities needed to implement those models at Marr’s Level Three. The required facilities include feature structures, dynamic binding, one-shot memory for many feature struc-tures, pattern-based associative retrieval, unification and generalization of feature structures. These may be supported by multiplexing of data and metadata in the same neural fibres.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0279.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: NS3 inhibitors; allosteric inhibitors; NS4A; peptidomimetics; imidazole; hepatitis C virus; molecular dynamics; Flaviviridae; DSLS; binding assay
Online: 24 January 2020 (11:11:46 CET)
The non-structural protein NS3/4A protease is a critical factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) maturation that requires activation by NS4A. Synthetic peptide mutants of NS4A were found to inhibit NS3 function. The bridging from peptide inhibitors to heterocyclic peptidomimetics of NS4A has not been in consideration in literature, and therefore, we decided to explore this strategy to develop a new class of NS3 inhibitors. In this report, a structure-based design approach was used to convert the bound form of NS4A into 1H-imidazole-2,5-dicarboxamide derivatives as first generation peptidomimetics. This scaffold mimics the buried amino acid sequence Ile-25` to Arg-28` at the core of NS4A21`-33` needed to activate the NS3 protease. Some of the synthesized MOC compounds were able to compete with and displace NS4A21`-33` for binding to NS3. For instance, N5-(4-guanidinobutyl)-N2-(n-hexyl)-1H-imidazole-2,5-dicarboxamide (MOC-24) inhibited the binding of NS4A21`-33` with a competition IC50 of 1.9 ± 0.12 µM in a fluorescence anisotropy assay, stabilized the denaturation of NS3 by increasing the aggregation temperature by ΔTagg 0.6 ± 0.140 ℃. MOC-24 also inhibited NS3 protease activity in a fluorometric assay. Molecular dynamics simulations rationalized the structure-activity relationship (SAR) differences between the active MOC-24 and the inactive MOC-26. Our data shows that MOC compounds are possibly the first examples of NS4A peptidomimetics that demonstrated promising activities against NS3 proteins.