Working Paper Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

On the Role of Nuclear Binding Energy in Understanding Cold Nuclear Fusion

Version 1 : Received: 11 March 2021 / Approved: 11 March 2021 / Online: 11 March 2021 (14:15:22 CET)

How to cite: U.V, S.S.; S, L. On the Role of Nuclear Binding Energy in Understanding Cold Nuclear Fusion. Preprints 2021, 2021030319 U.V, S.S.; S, L. On the Role of Nuclear Binding Energy in Understanding Cold Nuclear Fusion. Preprints 2021, 2021030319

Abstract

Following the concept of strong interaction, theoretically, fusion of proton seems to increase the binding energy of final atom by 8.8 MeV. Due to Coulombic repulsion, asymmetry effect, pairing effect and other nuclear effects, final atom is forced to choose a little bit of binding energy less than 8.8 MeV and thus it is able to release left over binding energy in the form of internal kinetic energy or external thermal energy. Thus, in cold fusion, heat release to occur, binding energy difference of final atom and base atom seems to be less than 8.8 MeV. Qualitatively, energy released during cold fusion seems to be approximately equal to 8.8 MeV minus the difference of binding energy of final and base atoms. Based on this idea, under normal conditions, for the case of 2He4, fusion of four protons can liberate (35.2-28.3)=6.9 MeV and it is 3.5 times less than the current estimates. Point to be understood is that, lesser the binding energy of final atom, higher the liberated thermal energy and vice versa. With a suitable catalyst and sufficient hydrogen under suitable pressure, if reactor’s temperature is maintained at (1000 to 1500) 0C, there seems a lot of scope for a chain reaction of cold fusion in which light isotopes transform to their next stage with increased proton number or mass number and liberate safe and clean heat energy continuously. By arranging 4 to 6 reactors and charging them periodically in tandem, required thermal energy can be produced continuously. In this new direction, by carefully selecting the base isotope and its corresponding catalyst, experiments can be conducted and ground reality of cold fusion can be understood at various temperature and pressure conditions.

Keywords

cold nuclear fusion; maximum binding energy per nucleon; nuclear experiment

Subject

PHYSICAL SCIENCES, Condensed Matter Physics

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