REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0388.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: cancer stem cells; plasticity; Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition; metastasis; microenvironment
Online: 29 December 2019 (14:51:39 CET)
Intratumoral heterogeneity is a major ongoing challenge in the effective therapeutic targeting of cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that a fraction of cells within a tumor termed Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) are primarily responsible for this diversity resulting in therapeutic resistance and metastasis. Adding to this complexity, recent studies have shown that there can be different subpopulations of CSCs with varying biochemical and biophysical traits resulting in varied dissemination and drug-resistance potential. Moreover, cancer cells can exhibit a high level of plasticity or the ability to dynamically switch between CSC and non-CSC states or among different subsets of CSCs. The molecular mechanisms underlying such plasticity has been under extensive investigation and the trans-differentiation process of Epithelial to Mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been identified as a major contributing factor. Besides genetic and epigenetic factors, CSC plasticity is also shaped by non-cell-autonomous effects such as the tumor microenvironment. In this review, we discuss the recent developments in understanding CSC plasticity in tumor progression at biochemical and biophysical levels, and the latest in silico approaches being taken for characterizing cancer cell plasticity with implications in improving existing therapeutic approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0507.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: α-linolenic acid; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; metastasis; apoptosis; oral cancer; OSCC
Online: 9 October 2023 (14:46:21 CEST)
Oral cancer ranks sixth among Taiwan's top 10 cancers, and most patients with poor prognosis acquire metastases. The essential fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) has been found to diminish many cancer properties. However, the anti-cancer activity of ALA in oral cancer has yet to be determined. Migration and invasion assays confirmed OSCC cells' EMT capabilities, whereas flow cytometry and Western blotting identified the molecular pathways. ALA dramatically reduced cell growth in a concentration dependent manner, according to the findings. Low concentrations of ALA (100 or 200 μM) inhibit colony formation, expression of Twist and EMT-related proteins, expression of MMP2/-9 proteins and enzyme activity, as well as cell migration and invasion. Treatment with high concentrations of ALA (200 or 400 μM) greatly increases JNK phosphorylation and c-jun nuclear accumulation, then upregulates the FasL/caspase8/caspase3 and Bid/cytochrome c/caspase9/caspase3 pathways, leading to cell death. Low concentrations of ALA inhibit SAS and GNM cell migration and invasion by suppressing Twist and downregulating EMT-related proteins, or by decreasing the protein expression and enzyme activity of MMP-2/-9, whereas high concentrations of ALA promote apoptosis by activating the JNK/FasL/caspase 8/caspase 3-extrinsic pathway and the Bid/cytochrome c/caspase 9 pathway. ALA demonstrates potential as a treatment for OSCC patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1783.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: human mesenchymal stem cells; mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET); epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT); HAND2; HAND2-AS1; senescence; stem cell plasticity
Online: 26 September 2023 (10:46:24 CEST)
We have previously developed several successful decellularization strategies yielding porcine cardiac extracellular matrices (pcECMs), which exhibit tissue-specific bioactivity and bioinductive capacity when cultured with various pluri- and multipotent stem cells. Here, we studied the tissue-specific effects of the pcECM on seeded human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) phenotype using reverse transcribed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) arrays for cardio-vascular related genes. We further corroborated interesting findings at the protein level (flow cytometry and immunological stains) as well as bioinformatically using several mRNA sequencing and protein databases of normal and pathologic adult tissue expression, as well as during human embryonic organogenesis. We discovered that upon seeding of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on the pcECM they displayed partial MET toward endothelial phenotypes (CD31+) and morphologies, which were preceded by an early spike (~day 3 onward after seeding) in HAND2 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels compared to plate controls. CRISPR-Cas9 knockout (KO) of HAND2 and its associated antisense long non-coding RNA (HAND2-AS1) regulatory region resulted in proliferation arrest, hypertrophy, and senescent-like morphology. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that HAND2 and HAND2-AS1 are highly correlated in expression, are expressed in many different tissue types albeit at distinct yet tightly regulated expression levels. Deviation (down or up regulation) from these basal tissue expression levels are associated with a long list of pathologies. We thus suggest that HAND2 expression levels may finetune cell plasticity possibly affecting senescence and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition states, through yet unknown mechanisms. Targeting this pathway may represent a promising new therapeutic approach for a wide range of diseases, including cancer, degenerative disorders, and aging. Nevertheless, further investigations are required to better understand the molecular players involved, potential inducers and inhibitors of this pathway, and eventually potential therapeutic applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0069.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Cell Migration; Cancer cell migration; normal epithelial cell motility
Online: 1 November 2023 (11:18:02 CET)
Cellular locomotion is required for survival, fertility, proper embryonic development, regeneration, and wound healing. Cell migration is a major component of metastasis, which accounts for two-thirds of all solid tumor deaths. While many studies have demonstrated increased energy requirements, metabolic rates, and migration of cancer cells compared to normal cells, few have systematically compared normal and cancer cell migration as well as energy requirements side by side. Thus, we investigated how non-malignant and malignant cells migrate utilizing several cell lines from the breast and lung. Initial screening was done in an unbiased high-throughput manner for the ability to migrate/invade on collagen and/or Matrigel. We unexpectedly observed that all the non-malignant lung cells moved significantly faster than cells derived from lung tumors regardless of growth media used. Given the paradigm-shifting nature of our discovery, we pursued possible mechanisms responsible. Neither mass, cell doubling, nor volume, accounted for the individual speed and track length of the normal cells. Non-malignant cells had higher levels of ATP at premigratory-wound induction stages. Meanwhile, cancer cells also increased ATP at premigratory-wound induction – but not to the levels of the normal cells, indicating the possibility for further therapeutic investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1910.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: TAp73; PDAC; SMAD4; transforming growth factor-β; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; cell migration
Online: 27 June 2023 (12:53:45 CEST)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a fatal disease due to early metastatic spread, late diagnosis and the lack of efficient therapies. A major driver of cancer progression and hurdle to successful treatment is transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. Recent data from pancreatic cancer mouse models have shown that transcriptionally active p73 (TAp73), a p53 family member, inhibits tumor progression through promoting tumor suppressive canonical TGF-β/Smad signaling, while preventing non-canonical TGF-β signaling through extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2. Here, we have studied whether this mechanism also operates in human PDAC. Using the PDAC-derived tumor cell lines PANC-1 and HPAFII, we show that TAp73 induces the expression of the epithelial marker and invasion suppressor E-cadherin and the common-mediator Smad, SMAD4, while at the same time suppressing expression of the EMT master regulator SNAIL and basal and TGF-β1-induced activation of ERK1 and ERK2. Using dominant-negative and RNA interference-based inhibition of SMAD4 function we went on to show that inhibition of ERK activation by TAp73 is mediated through SMAD4. Intriguingly, both SMAD4 and the α isoform of TAp73 - but not the isoform - interfered with cell migration as shown by xCELLigence technology. Our findings highlight the role of TAp73-SMAD4 signaling in tumor suppression of human PDAC and identify direct inhibition of basal and TGF-β-stimulated pro-invasive ERK activation as an underlying mechanism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0198.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: BRCA1; cancer stem cell; cell cycle; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; DNA damage response; gastric cancer; molecular network
Online: 13 October 2021 (11:06:51 CEST)
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) networks are essential in acquiring the drug resistance and cancer malignant features in cancer stem cells (CSCs). In this regard, gene expression profiles in diffuse- and intestinal-type gastric cancer (GC) have been analyzed to reveal the network pathways in EMT and CSCs, since the diffuse-type GC has much more mesenchymal features than intestinal-type GC that has the intestinal features. The study results revealed that the activation state of several canonical pathways related to cell cycle regulation was altered. The canonical pathway on Cell cycle: G1/S checkpoint regulation was activated in diffuse-type GC, and canonical pathways on Cell cycle control of chromosomal replication and Cyclins and cell cycle regulation were activated in intestinal-type GC. Canonical pathway related to Role of BRCA1 in DNA damage response was activated in intestinal-type GC, where BRCA1, which is related to G1/S phase transition was up-regulated in intestinal-type GC. Several microRNAs (miRNAs), including mir-10, mir-17, mir-19, mir-194, mir-224, mir-25, mir-34, mir-451, and mir-605, were identified to have direct relationships of RNA-RNA interaction in Cell cycle: G1/S checkpoint regulation pathway. Additionally, cell cycle regulation may be altered in EMT conditions. The alterations in activation states of the pathways related to cell cycle regulation in diffuse- and intestinal-type GC would indicate the significance of cell cycle regulation in EMT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1083.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma, PDAC, cancer stem cells, EMT, Epithelial-Mesenchymal-Transition, Heterogeneity, Plasticity, Adhesion, Migration, Invasion, Metastasis
Online: 16 November 2023 (11:36:00 CET)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is mostly diagnosed at advanced or even metastasized stages limiting patient´s prognosis. Metastasis requires high tumor cell plasticity implying phenotypic switching in response to changing environments. Here, Epithelial-Mesenchymal-Transition (EMT), being associated with the gain of cancer stem cell (CSC) properties, and its reversion are important. Since it is poorly understood whether different CSC-phenotypes exist along the EMT-axis and how these impact malignancy-associated properties, we aimed to characterize CSC-populations of epithelial and mesenchymal PDAC cells. Single-cell cloning revealed CSC (Holoclone) and non-CSC (Paraclone) clones from the PDAC cell lines Panc1 and Panc89. Panc1 Holoclone cells showed a mesenchymal phenotype dominated by high expression of the stemness marker Nestin, while Panc89 Holoclone cells exhibited a SOX2-dominated epithelial phenotype. Panc89 Holoclone cells showed enhanced cell growth and self-renewal capacity but slow cluster-like invasion. Contrarily, Panc1 Holoclone cells showed slower cell growth and self-renewal ability but were highly invasive. Moreover, cell variants differentially responded to chemotherapy. In vivo, Panc1 and Panc89 cell variants significantly differed regarding number and size of metastases as well as organ manifestation leading to different survival outcomes. Overall, these data support the existence of different CSC-phenotypes along the EMT-axis in PDAC manifesting in different metastatic propensities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0659.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Pirin; cancer; epithelial
Online: 25 December 2020 (13:00:28 CET)
Pirin is an oxidative stress (OS) sensor belonging to the functionally diverse cupin superfamily of proteins. Pirin is a suggested quercetinase and transcriptional activator of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) pathway. Its biological role in cancer development remains as a novel area of study. This review shows accumulating evidence on the contribution of Pirin in epithelial cancers, signaling pathways involved, and as a suggested therapeutic target. Finally, we propose a model in which Pirin is upregulated by physical, chemical or biological factors involved in OS and cancer development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0713.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Mesenchymal Epithelial Transition; Cellular Reprogramming; OVOL1; OVOL2; Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition
Online: 30 July 2020 (10:21:43 CEST)
OVOL proteins (OVOL1 and OVOL2), vertebrate homologs of Drosophila OVO, are critical regulators of epithelial lineage determination and differentiation during embryonic development in tissues such as kidney, skin, mammary epithelia, testis. OVOL inhibits EMT and can promote MET; moreover, they can regulate the stemness of cancer cells, thus playing an important role during cancer cell metastasis. Due to their central role in differentiation and maintenance of epithelial lineage, OVOL overexpression has been shown to be capable of reprogramming fibroblasts to epithelial cells. Here, we review the roles of OVOL mediated epithelial differentiation across multiple contexts – embryonic development, cancer progression, and cellular reprogramming.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0252.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: signal transduction; γ-ionizing radiation; cancer invasion; non-small cell lung cancer; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; tumor microenvironment
Online: 22 January 2020 (03:04:00 CET)
Previously, we demonstrated that IR triggers the invasion/migration of A549 cells via activation of an EGFR–p38/ERK–STAT3/CREB-1–EMT pathway. Here, we have demonstrated the involvement of a novel intracellular signaling mechanism in γ-ionizing radiation (IR)-induced migration/invasion. Expression of receptor-interacting protein (RIP) 1 was initially increased upon exposure of A549, a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line, to IR. IR-induced RIP1 is located downstream of EGFR and involved in the expression/activity of matrix metalloproteases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and vimentin, suggesting a role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our experiments showed that IR-induced RIP1 sequentially induces Src-STAT3-EMT to promote invasion/migration. Inhibition of RIP1 kinase activity and expression blocked induction of EMT by IR and suppressed the levels and activities of MMP-2, MMP-9, and vimentin. IR-induced RIP1 activation was additionally associated with stimulation of the transcriptional factor NF-κB. Specifically, exposure to IR triggered NF-κB activation and inhibition of NF-κB suppressed IR-induced RIP1 expression followed by a decrease in invasion/migration as well as EMT. Based on the collective results, we propose that IR concomitantly activates EGFR and NF-κB and subsequently triggers the RIP1–Src/STAT3–EMT pathway, ultimately promoting metastasis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2242.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: malignant pleural mesothelioma; oxidative stress; redox-sensitive factors; asbestos; epithelial mesenchymal transition; proliferation
Online: 30 June 2023 (14:41:47 CEST)
Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive cancer associated to asbestos exposure. MPM pathogenesis has been related both to oxidative stress, evoked by and in response to asbestos fibers exposure, and the Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), an event induced by oxidative stress itself and related to cancer proliferation and metastasis. Asbestos related primary oxidative damage is counteracted in the lung by various redox-sensitive factors, often hyperactivated in some cancers. Among these redox-sensitive factors, Apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE-1)/Redox effector factor 1 (Ref-1) has been demonstrated to be overexpressed in MPM and lung cancer, but the molecular mechanism has not yet fully understood. Moreover, asbestos exposure has been associated to induced EMT event, via some EMT transcription factors, such as Twist, Zeb-1 and Snail-1, in a possible crosstalk with oxidative stress and inflammation events. To demonstrate this hypothesis, we inhibited/silenced Ref-1 in MPM cells: as a consequence, both EMT (Twist, Zeb-1 and Snail-1) markers and cellular migration/proliferation were significantly inhibited. Take as a whole, these results show, for the first time, a crosstalk between oxidative stress and EMT in MPM carcinogenesis and invasiveness, so improving the knowledge to better address a preventive and therapeutic approach against this aggressive cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0255.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: oral squamous cell carcinoma; prognosis; overall survival; disease free survival; connexin 43; EMMPRIN; E-cadherin; vimentin; metastasis; epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition
Online: 5 September 2023 (07:54:11 CEST)
Background: Metastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is associated with poor patient prognosis. Metastasis is a complex process involving various proteins, tumor cell alterations including changes caused by the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, and interactions with the tumor microenvironment (TME). In this study, we investigate a combined protein marker system consisting of connexin 43 (Cx43), EMMPRIN (CD147), E-cadherin and vimentin during the invasive metastatic process of OSCC and the possibility of using this system for prognosis prediction. Methods: The protein expression profiles of Cx43, EMMPRIN, E-cadherin and vimentin were investigated by immunohistochemistry in tissue samples from 24 OSCC patients. The metastatic process was mapped through different regions of interest (ROI) of adjacent healthy oral mucosa (OM), center of primary OSCC, invasive front (IF), and local cervical lymph node metastases (LNM). Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were the primary clinical endpoints. Results: Significant changes in the expression profiles of the different marker proteins were detected between the different ROIs (all p values < 0.05). Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed a significant effect of increased EMMPRIN expression towards IF on DFS (p = 0.019) and OS (p = 0.023). The combined predictive analysis showed a significant predictive value of the marker system for DFS (p = 0.0017) and OS (p = 0.00044). Conclusions: The combined marker system was able to significantly predict patient prognosis. An increase in EMMPRIN expression towards IF showed the strongest effect and could be an interesting new antimetastatic therapy approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1866.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Sesamum orientale L. cv. “Gökova”; L929 fibroblast cells; A549 lung epithelial cells; MCF-7 breast epithelial cells; Cisplatin; BCL-XL gene; Cas3 and Cas9 genes
Online: 27 June 2023 (09:08:02 CEST)
In addition to its use as a food additive, sesame is also very popular in conventional drugs because of its antifungal, anticancer, analgesic, antioxidant, and antiproliferative, vitamin B and E supplier, serum cholesterol and blood pressure-lowering, wound healing potential. In this study, the cytotoxicity, wound healing, and anticancer (antiproliferation) properties of the ex-tract obtained from in vitro cultures of Sesamum orientale L. cv. "Gökova" were investigated using in L929 fibroblast, MCF-7 breast, and A549 lung epithelial cell lines. In our study, the cisplatin was also used as a control group to compare the anticancer efficacy of our plant extract. The IC50 values obtained from cell treatments were 922.73 µg.ml-1 (plant extract) and 33.09 µg.ml-1 (cispla-tin) for A549 µg.ml-1, 1837.07 µg.ml-1 (plant extract) and 19.27 µg.ml-1 (cisplatin) for MCF-7, and 154.70 µg.ml-1 (plant extract) for L929, respectively. The subcytotoxic doses of the treated plant extract provided the healing of artificially created wounds on L929 fibroblast cell cultures within 48 hours. For the evaluation of the anticancer activity, it was also determined that transcriptomic analyzes of BCL-XL gene, which is negatively correlated with apoptotic pathway, and Cas3 and Cas9 genes, which are positively correlated with apoptotic pathway, showed a statistically sig-nificant increase in A549 and MCF-7 cell lines treated with plant extract or cisplatin. In the light of the results obtained from the present study, it was seen that sesame plant extract may have wound healing potential at decreasing doses and anticancer activity potential at increasing dos-es. The present study can be a useful resource for the development of a drug with wound healing and/or antiproliferative potential, with applications to be made in different cell lines in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0490.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: CD44; Cancer Stem Cells; Tumorigenesis; Drug Resistance; Immune Markers; Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition; Therapeutic Targeting
Online: 25 January 2021 (12:23:49 CET)
One of the most used markers of cancer stem cells in several cancers, including colorectal cancer and breast cancer, is CD44. CD44 is a glycoprotein that traverses the cell membrane and binds to many ligands including hyaluronan resulting in activation of signaling cascades. Several reports have shown conflicting data on the expression of CD44 and that the expression depends on modes of investigations and subtypes of cancers. In addition, the correlation between CD44 expression and drug resistance, immune infiltration, EMT, metastasis and patients prognosis in several cancer types remains unclear. This study investigated CD44 expression in several cancers and explored its relationship with tumorigenesis using various publicly available databases, including The Cancer Genome Atlas, GEPIA, Oncomine, Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer and Tumor Immune Estimation Resource. Our analysis reveals that CD44 is differentially expressed in different cancers. CD44 expression is significantly associated with cancer patients’ survival in gastric, pancreatic and colorectal cancers. In addition, CD44 expression is closely linked with immune infiltration and immune suppressive features in pancreatic, colon adenocarcinoma and stomach cancer. High CD44 expression was significantly correlated with the expression of drug resistance-, EMT- and metastasis- linked genes. Tumors expressing high CD44 have higher mutation burden and afflict older patients than tumors expressing low CD44. Cell lines expressing high CD44 are more resistant to anti-cancer drugs compared to those expressing low CD44. Protein-protein interaction investigations and functional enrichment analysis showed that CD44 interacts with gene products related to cell-substrate adhesion, migration, platelet activation, and cellular response to stress. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that these genes play key roles in biological adhesion, cell component organization, locomotion, G-α-signaling and the response to stimulus. Overall, this investigation reveals that CD44 play significant roles in tumorigenesis, can be used as a prognostic biomarker in several cancers and can be therapeutically targeted in cancer therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1790.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: TAp73; PDAC; RAC1b; Biglycan; SMAD3; SMAD4; transforming growth factor-β; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; cell migration
Online: 26 September 2023 (11:48:58 CEST)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a fatal disease due to early metastatic spread, late diagnosis and the lack of efficient therapies. A major driver of cancer progression and hurdle to successful treatment is the desmoplastic reaction of the tumor stroma, the formation of which is orchestrated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. Recent data from pancreatic cancer mouse models have shown that the TGF-β pathway is controlled by transcriptionally active p73 (TAp73) through secretion of biglycan (Bgn) via intermittent expression of the TGF-β signaling intermediates, Smad3 and Smad4. Genetic knockout of TP73, and, as a consequence, deficient induction of Smad3/Dpc4 and secretion of Bgn led to activation of TGF-β signaling through a (Smad-independent) ERK pathway, favoring epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell motility. Except for BGN, these functions of TAp73 have recently been shown to also operate in human PDAC cells and are reminiscent of what we previously observed for the small GTPase, RAC1b. This prompted us to hypothesize that TAp73 and RAC1b are part of the same tumor-suppressive pathway in human PDAC cells. The two objectives of this study, therefore, were to reveal i) if the regulatory interactions between TAp73 and Bgn previously discovered in murine PDAC-derived cells also operate in their human counterparts, and ii) if RAC1b collaborates with TAp73 in these tumor-suppressive activities in human PDAC cells. Using a variety of experimental approaches, including mutual rescue experiments, we were able to show that the previously proposed tumor-suppressive TAp73-Smad4-Bgn signaling also operates in human cells and that RAC1b is as an upstream activator of this pathway. Our findings highlight the complex role of TGF-β in pancreatic tumorigenesis and might have implications for therapeutic approaches targeting this growth factor for inhibition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0371.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: collagen biomatrix; optimization; modification; corneal epithelial cells; limbal epithelial stem cells; biocompatibility
Online: 22 February 2023 (03:03:50 CET)
Since the past few decades, numerous modifications and innovations have been done to design the optimal corneal biomatrix for corneal epithelial cells (CECs) or limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs) carriers. However, researchers have yet to discover the ideal optimization strategies in the development of corneal biomatrix design and its effects on cultured CECs or LESCs. This review further discusses and summarizes recent optimization strategies to develop an ideal collagen biomatrix and its interaction with CECs and LESCs. Using PRISMA guidelines, the articles published from June 2012 to June 2022 were systematically searched using Web of Science (WoS), Scopus, PubMed, Wiley, and EBSCOhost databases. The literature search identified 444 potential relevant published articles, with 29 relevant articles selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria after the screening and appraising processes. The current paper highlights the physicochemical and biocompatibility (in vitro and in vivo) characterization methods, which were inconsistent throughout the different studies. Despite the variability in the methodology approach, the reviewer postulated that the modification of the collagen biomatrix improves its mechanical and biocompatibility properties toward CECs and LESCs. All findings were discussed in this review; thus, it provides a general view of up-to-date trends in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0225.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: LMO7, secretome, FAK. hypertonicity, osmotic stress, epithelial integrity, epithelial barrier, cortical stress fiber
Online: 14 November 2022 (01:16:06 CET)
In kidney, epithelial barrier has diverse functions in body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, and urine production. Maintaining epithelial integrity fundamentally builds up physiological functionality of the renal epithelial barrier (REB). Specially, the REB) states regularly in osmotic dynamics. The osmotic dynamics gives rise of osmotic pressure that is a physical force. Overloading of osmotic pressure can crack epithelial integrity and damage REB. How REB endures the osmotic pressure force yet remains enigmatic. LMO7 (LIM domain only 7) is a protein associated with cell-cell junctional complex and cortical F-actin. LMO7 upregulation was observed in cells cultured in hypertonic condition. In kidney, LMO7 predominantly distributes in epithelial cells in renal tubules. Hypertonic stimulation leads to assembly of LMO7 and F-actin in cortical stress fibers in renal epithelial cells. Hypertonic-isotonic alternation as pressure force pushing plasma membrane inward/outward was set as osmotic disturbance and was applied to test FAK signaling and LMO7 functioning in maintaining junctional integrity. Along with junctional integrity, LMO7 depleted cells resulted in loss of junctional integrity in the epithelial sheet cultured hypertonic medium or hypertonic-isotonic alternation. On the other hand, FAK inhibited by PF-573228 leads to failure in robust cortical F-actin assembly and association of LMO7 with cortical F-actin in epithelial cells responding upon hypertonic stress. Epithelial integrity in context of osmotic stress, LMO7 and FAK signaling both involves in assembling robust cortical F-actin and maintaining junctional integrity. The LMO7 elaborately manages FAK activation in renal epithelial cells, which was evidently demonstrated in NRK-52E cells who have excessive FAK activation and lost epithelial integrity when cells with LMO7 depletion exposed to hypertonic environment. Our data suggests that LOM7 manages FAK activation and is responsible for maintaining REB under osmotic disturbance.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: epithelial mesenchymal plasticity (EMP); epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT); mesenchymal epithelial transition (MET); E/M Hybrid; partial EMT; computational biology; mathematical modeling; cancer
Online: 10 February 2021 (15:04:19 CET)
The epithelial-mesenchymal (E/M) hybrid state has emerged as an important mediator of elements of cancer progression, facilitated by epithelial mesenchymal plasticity (EMP). We review here evidence for the presence, prognostic significance, and therapeutic potential of the E/M hybrid state in carcinoma. We further assess modelling predictions and validation studies to demonstrate stabilised E/M hybrid states along the spectrum of EMP, as well as computational approaches for characterising and quantifying EMP phenotypes, with particular attention to the emerging realm of single-cell approaches through RNA sequencing and protein-based techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0354.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: MWCNT; senescence; pulmonary fibrosis; epithelial
Online: 14 May 2021 (17:05:25 CEST)
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes are engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) that have a fiber-like structure which may be a concern for the development of cellular senescence. Premature senes-cence, a state of irreversible cell cycle arrest, is implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic lung dis-eases such as pulmonary fibrosis (PF). However, the crosstalk between downstream pathways mediating fibrotic and senescent responses of MWCNTs is not well defined. Here, we exposed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS2B) to MWCNTs for up to 72 hours and demonstrate that MWCNTs increase reactive oxygen species production (ROS) accompanied by inhibition of cell growth and proliferation. In addition, exposure resulted in the increase of p21 protein and senes-cence associated β-galactosidase (SA β-gal) activity. We also determined that co-exposure with the cytokine, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) exacerbated cellular senescence indicated by increased protein levels of p21, p16, and γH2A.X Furthermore, the production of fibronectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) was significantly elevated with the co-exposure compared to MWCNTs or TGF-β alone. Together, this suggests that the senescence potential of MWCNTs may be enhanced by pro-fibrotic mediators in the surrounding microenvironment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1118.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; heat shock transcription factor 1; HSF1 inhibitor; human mammary epithelial cells
Online: 18 September 2023 (08:51:33 CEST)
HSF1 is a well-known Heat Shock Protein expression regulator in response to stress. It also regulates processes important for growth, development, or tumorigenesis. Here, we studied the HSF1 influence on the phenotype of non-tumorigenic human mammary epithelial (MCF10A and MCF12A) and several triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. MCF10A and MCF12A differ by HSF1 levels, morphology, growth in the matrigel, expression of epithelial (CDH1) and mesenchymal (VIM) markers (MCF10A are epithelial cells, MCF12A resemble mesenchymal cells). HSF1 down-regulation led to reduced proliferation rate and spheroid formation in matrigel by MCF10A cells, while it did not affect the MCF12A proliferation but led to CDH1 up-regulation and the formation of better-organized spheroids. HSF1 overexpression in MCF10A resulted in reduced CDH1 and increased VIM expression, and the acquisition of elongated fibroblast-like morphology. The above results suggest that elevated levels of HSF1 may direct mammary epithelial cells toward a mesenchymal phenotype while lowering HSF1 could reverse the mesenchymal phenotype to an epithelial one. Therefore, HSF1 may be involved in the remodeling of mammary gland architecture over the female lifetime. Moreover, HSF1 levels positively correlated with the invasive phenotype of triple-negative breast cancer cells, and their growth was inhibited by the HSF1 inhibitor, DTHIB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0364.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Oct4; Sox2; AURKA; Vimentin; breast cancer; Alisertib; epithelial to mesenchymal transition; asymmetric cell division; NUMB; stem cell; diagnostics; intervention; chemotherapy
Online: 9 October 2023 (15:14:51 CEST)
Aurora Kinase A being overexpressed in majority of cancers, appear to be an attractive therapeutic target. However, a Phase III clinical trial of Alisertib, a selective AURKA inhibitor, resulted in no better response compared to the comparator arm of chemotherapeutic regimen raising question regarding ability of the same to target the undetectable stem cell functions. In silico analysis indicated regulation of AURKA by the stemness factors Oct4 and Sox2. TCGA data indicated positive correlation of each of the factors with AURKA which were eventually validated in cell lines, patient tissues and blood by flow cytometry along with Oct4 binding on AURKA promoter being detected by ChIP assay. However, indirect immunofluorescence and cell cycle analyses indicated proliferation-independent AURKA functions during asymmetric cell division, a characteristic feature of stem cells. Thorough screening of the AURKA positive cells in patient samples denoted epithelial to mesenchymal transition and significant upregulation of Vimentin, a mesenchymal marker and ABCG2, a drug resistance marker under Oct4 or Sox2 influence. Overall, our study demonstrated combinatorial selection Oct4, Sox2, AURKA, Vimentin and ABCG2 for diagnostics and intervention of circulating breast cancer stem cells as a blood-based, cost-effective and simple approach which will be beneficial in reducing relapse.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cancer; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; hybrid; metastasis
Online: 3 February 2020 (06:54:32 CET)
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been well recognized for its essential role in cancer progression as well as normal tissue development. In cancer cells, activation of EMT permits the cells to acquire migratory and invasive abilities and stem-like properties. However, simple categorization of cancer cells into epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes misleads the understanding of the complicated metastatic process, and contradictory results from different studies also indicate the limitation of application of EMT theory in cancer metastasis. Nowadays, growing evidence suggests the existence of an intermediate status between epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes, i.e., the “hybrid epithelial-mesenchymal (hybrid E/M)”state, provides a possible explanation for those conflicting results. Appearance of hybrid E/M phenotype offers a more plastic status for cancer cells to adapt the stressful environment for proceeding metastasis. In this article, we review the biological importance of the dynamic changes between the epithelial and the mesenchymal states. The regulatory mechanisms encompassing the translational, post-translational, and epigenetic control for this complex and plastic status are also discussed .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1843.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: ttubal ligation; epithelial hyperplasia; SCOUT; p53 signature
Online: 30 October 2023 (06:24:10 CET)
Abstract Objectives To investigate histopathological changes and serous carcinoma precursors such as secretory cell outgrowths (SCOUTs) and p53 signature in bilateral tubal ligation (BTL) materials performed during cesarean section (S/C). Materials and Methods 138 patients who underwent S/C and tubal sterilization (TS) between October 2020 and May 2021 at Konya City Hospital. Patients’ data were obtained from the haospital’s system. All data andd findings were investigated and statistically evaluated. Results The mean age was 34.62 years (22 - 44), the mean gravity was 4.89 (2-15) and the mean parity was 3.46 (1-10). 5.79% SCOUT, 7.24% atypia and 9.42% p53 signatures were observed. Significant correlations were shown between epithelial cell lineage and age and between KI-67, SCOUT, and gravity, between KI-67 results and gravity and parity, and between P53 score and age. Conclusion TS is a common, safe, and effective method worldwide. Today, BTL is increasing along with increasing S/C ratios. In addition to the reduced risk of ovarian cancers with ligation alone, precursor lesions such as hyperplasia, SCOUT, p53 signature, and STIL/ Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) are encountered in the ampulla materials obtained. Considering the low rates of re-anastomosis, tubal excision may be recommended instead of ligation in women of relatively higher gravity and age.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0114.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ACE-2; nicotine; smoke; cigarette; epithelial cells.
Online: 6 October 2020 (09:43:40 CEST)
Prevalence studies of current smoking among hospitalized COVID-19 patients demonstrated an unexpectedly low prevalence of current smoking among patients with COVID-19. The aim of the present proposal was to evaluate the effect of smoke from cigarettes on ACE-2 in bronchial epithelial cells. Normal bronchial epithelial cells (H292) were exposed to smoke by an air-liquid-interface (ALI) system and ACE-2 membrane protein expression was evaluated after 24 hours from exposure. Our transcriptomics data analysis showed a significant selective reduction of membrane ACE-2 expression (about 25%) following smoking exposure. Interestingly, we observed a positive direct correlation between ACE-2 reduction and nicotine delivery. Furthermore, by stratifying GSE52237 as a function of ACE-2 gene expression levels, we highlighted 1012 genes related to ACE-2 in smokers and 855 in non-smokers. Furthermore, we showed that 161 genes involved in the endocytosis process were highlighted using the online pathway tool KEGG. Finally, 11 genes were in common between the ACE-2 pathway in smokers and the genes regulated during endocytosis, while 12 genes with non-smokers. Interestingly, six in non-smokers and four genes in smokers were closely involved during the viral internalization process. Our data may offer a pharmaceutical role of nicotine as potential treatment option in COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0033.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: IPF; alveolar epithelial cells; intermediate epithelial cells; transitional states, lysotracker; flow cytometry; lung transcriptomic profile, CK5; NGFR; CD24
Online: 2 December 2021 (11:38:12 CET)
Idiopathic lung fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and fatal degenerative lung disease of unknown etiology. Although in its final stages it implicates in a reactive manner all lung cell types, the initial damage involves the alveolar epithelial compartment, in particular the alveolar epithelial type 2 cells (AEC2s). AEC2s serve dual progenitor and surfactant secreting functions, both of which are deeply impacted in IPF. Thus, we hypothesize that the size of the surfactant processing compartment, as measured by Lysotracker incorporation, allows the identification of different epithelial states in the IPF lung. Flow cytometry analysis of epithelial Lysotracker incorporation delineates two populations (Lysohigh and Lysolow) of AEC2s which behave in a compensatory manner during bleomycin injury and in the donor/IPF lung. Employing flow cytometry and transcriptomic analysis of cells isolated from donor and IPF lungs, we demonstrate that the Lysohigh population expresses all classical AEC2 markers and is drastically diminished in IPF. The Lysolow population, which is increased in proportion in IPF, co-expresses AEC2s and basal cell markers resembling the phenotype of the previously identified intermediate AEC2 population in the IPF lung. In that regard, we provide an in-depth flow-cytometry characterization of Lysotracker uptake, HTII-280, proSP-C, mature SP-B, NGFR, KRT5 and CD24 expression in human lung epithelial cells. Combining functional analysis with extra- and intra- cellular marker expression and transcriptomic analysis, we advance the current understanding of epithelial cell behavior and fate in lung fibrosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0453.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotypes; Collective cell migration; epithelial-mesenchymal heterogeneity; mathematical modeling; cell-state transition; live-cell imaging
Online: 23 August 2021 (14:32:04 CEST)
The Epithelial- Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) is a biological phenomenon associated with explicit phenotypic and molecular changes in cellular traits. Unlike the earlier-held popular belief of it being a binary process, EMT is now thought of as a landscape including diverse hybrid E/M phenotypes manifested by varying degrees of the transition. These hybrid cells can co-express both epithelial and mesenchymal markers and/or functional traits, and can possess the property of collective cell migration, enhanced tumor-initiating ability, and immune/targeted therapy-evasive features, all of which are often associated with worse patient outcomes. These characteristics of the hybrid E/M cells have led to a surge in studies that map their biophysical and biochemical hallmarks that can be helpful in exploiting their therapeutic vulnerabilities. This review discusses recent advances made in investigating hybrid E/M phenotype(s) from diverse biophysical and biochemical aspects by integrating live cell-imaging, cellular morphology quantification and mathematical modeling, and highlights a set of questions that remain unanswered about the dynamics of hybrid E/M states.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0623.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP OCT); ultrasound; urethral pain syndrome; epithelial atrophy; epithelial hyperplasia; inflammation; fibrosis; image evaluation
Online: 26 September 2020 (11:23:45 CEST)
Urethral pain syndrome (UPS) is still a pathology in which the diagnosis is formulated as a "diagnosis of exclusion". The exact pathogenetic mechanisms are not yet fully understood and clear recommendations for the prevention and treatment of UPS are absent. The goal of the study was to assess the condition of the tissues in the female urethra in UPS, by using transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) and cross-polarization optical tomography (CP OCT). TVUS showed an expansion in the diameter of the internal lumen of the urethra, especially in the proximal region compared with the norm. Compression elastography revealed areas with increased stiffness (presence of fibrosis) in urethral and surrounding tissues. When studied with CP OCT it was shown that with UPS, the structure of the tissues in most cases was changed: trophic alterations in the epithelium (hypertrophy or atrophy) and fibrosis of underlying connective tissue were observed. The proximal fragment of the urethra with UPS underwent changes identical to those of the bladder neck. This paper showed that the introduction of new technology — CP OCT — in conjunction with TVUS will allow verification of structural changes in tissues of the lower urinary tract at the level of their architectonics and will help doctors understand better the basics of the UPS pathogenesis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0009.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: endometrium; endometriosis; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; EMT; claudins; keratins
Online: 1 June 2023 (03:10:51 CEST)
In the pathogenesis of endometriosis, the differences between the eutopic and ectopic endometrium as well as between the eutopic endometrium with and without endometriosis are repeatedly pointed out. Various mechanisms have been suggested to explain these changes among them epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Recently, we suggested based on immunohistochemical data that most of the changes occur after and not before implantation of endometrial cells into ectopic locations. Furthermore, the subtle changes between eutopic endometrium with and without endometriosis and maintenance of epithelial cell-to cell contacts only suggest a partial EMT. In this study, we have re-analyzed the mRNA expression array data of eutopic and ectopic endometrium with respect to expression changes and EMT. Especially, we found that the similarity between eutopic endometrium with and without endometriosis is extremely high (~99.1%). In contrast, eutopic endometrium compared to ectopic endometrium only shows an overall similarity of ~95.3%. Analysis of some EMT-associated genes revealed small differences in the mRNA expression levels of some members of the claudin family. The array data suggest that the changes in eutopic endometrium at the beginning of the disease are quite subtle and that the majority of differences occur after implantation into ectopic locations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1600.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Breast cancer; Rutin; Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition; Metastasis; Angiogenesis
Online: 23 May 2023 (07:41:57 CEST)
Rutin has been reported as a potential anti-cancer agent for several decades. This study evaluated the effects of rutin on the proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Increasing concentrations of rutin significantly stimulated the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells compared to controls. Wound scratch assay demonstrated that rutin had an inducing effect on the migration of the cells. In MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells, rutin upregulated MKI67, VIM, CDH2, FN1, and VEGFA and downregulated CDH1 and THBS1 genes. It also increased N-cadherin and VEGFA and decreased E-cadherin and thrombospondin 1 protein expression. Our data indicated that rutin could stimulate proliferation, migration, and pro-angiogenic activity in two different breast cancer cell lines. This phytoestrogen induced invasion and migration of both cell lines by a mechanism involving the EMT process. This suggests that rutin may act as a breast cancer-promoting phytoestrogen.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0429.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; oral epithelial cells; alternative receptors
Online: 24 March 2023 (12:20:07 CET)
The oral cavity is thought to be one of the portals for SARS-CoV-2 entry. Because there is limited evidence of active oral infection by SARS-CoV-2 viruses, we assessed the capacity of SARS-CoV-2 to infect and replicate in oral epithelial cells. Oral gingival epithelial cells (hTERT TIGKs), salivary gland epithelial cells (A-253), and oral buccal epithelial cells (TR146), which occupy different regions of the oral cavity, were challenged with replication competent SARS-CoV-2 viruses and with pseudo-typed viruses expressing SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins. All oral epithelial cells expressing undetectable or low levels of human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) but high levels of the alternative receptor CD147 were susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Viral dynamics in hTERT TIGKs were different from those in A-253 and TR146 cells. For example, levels of viral transcripts were sustained in hTERT TIGKs but were significantly decreased in A-253 and TR146 cells at day 3 after infection. Analysis of oral epithelial cells infected by replication competent SARS-CoV-2 viruses expressing GFP showed that the signals of GFP and SARS-CoV-2 mRNAs were not evenly distributed. Taken together, our results demonstrated oral epithelial cells were susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 viruses despite of low or undetectable levels of hACE2, suggesting that alternative receptors contribute to SARS-CoV-2 infection and may be considered for development of future vaccines and therapeutics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0634.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: silica; nanoparticles; ATP; purinergic receptor; airway; epithelial cell
Online: 26 May 2021 (11:45:50 CEST)
Because of their low cost and easy production silica nanoparticles (NPs) are amply used in multiple manufactures as anti-caking, densifying and hydrophobic agents. However, this has increased the exposure levels of the general population and has raised concerns about possible toxicity of this nanomaterial. NPs are known to affect the function of the airway epithelium, but the biochemical pathways targeted by these particles remain largely unknown. Here we investigated the effects of NPs on the responses of cultured human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cells to the damage-associated molecular pattern ATP, using fluorometric measurements of intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Upon stimulation with extracellular ATP these cells displayed a concentration-dependent increase in intracellular Ca2+, which was mediated by release from intracellular stores. Silica NPs inhibited the Ca2+ responses to ATP within minutes of application and at low micromolar concentrations, which are significantly faster and more potent than those previously reported for the induction of cellular toxicity and pro-inflammatory responses. NPs-induced inhibition appeared to be independent from the increase in intracellular Ca2+ they produce, and via a non-competitive mechanism. These findings suggest that NPs reduce the ability of airway epithelial cells to mount ATP-dependent protective responses such as the increase in mucociliary clearance and cough.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0514.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Senescence; Immortalization; Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition; Carcinogenesis; Hypothesis
Online: 25 January 2021 (15:31:18 CET)
The origin of cancer remains one of the most important enigmas in modern biology. The prevailing paradigm has failed to grasp a comprehensive view of the disease. Naturally, therapies developed under the current assumptions are inadequate and cancer is practically an incurable disease. Meanwhile, descriptive studies continuously extend the molecular complexity of cancer without an equivalent advancement in its understanding. Furthermore, they tend to accumulate inconsistencies inexplicable under the classical view. This paper presents a compelling theory of the origin of carcinomas. By hypothesis, a series of generic events in epithelial tissues promoted by cellular aging and inflammation enables the reactivation of developmental programs. The origin of carcinomas in vivo is described as the time-ordered cell state transitions undergone by epithelial cells in the hyperplasia due to replicative senescence and inflammation towards a mesenchymal undifferentiated endogenous cell state with cancerous behavior. In support of the theory, the molecular, cellular, and histopathological evidence is critically reviewed. A plausible model for the origin of carcinomas is presented to explain the mechanism underlying carcinogenesis from an evolutive and developmental perspective. The implications of the hypothesis in the current strategies for cancer prevention and treatment are discussed along with rational alternatives and some predictions for possible experimental validation.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: cancer stem cell; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; molecular network
Online: 25 November 2020 (13:47:19 CET)
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in the acquisition of cancer stem cell (CSC) feature and drug resistance, which are the main hallmarks of cancer malignancy. Although previous findings have shown that several signaling pathways are activated in cancer progression, the precise mechanism of signaling pathways in EMT and CSCs are not fully understood. In this study, we focused on the intestinal and diffuse-type gastric cancer (GC), and analyzed the gene expression of public RNAseq data to understand the molecular pathway regulation in different subtypes of gastric cancer. Network pathway analysis was performed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Total 2815 probe set IDs were significantly different between intestinal- and diffuse-type GC data in cBioPortal Cancer Genomics. The 10 genes including male-specific lethal 3 homolog (Drosophila) pseudogene 1 (MSL3P1), CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 1B (CKS1B), DEAD-box helicase 27 (DDX27), golgi to ER traffic protein 4 (GET4), chromosome segregation 1 like (CSE1L), translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 34 (TOMM34), YTH N6-methyladenosine RNA binding protein 1 (YTHDF1), ribonucleic acid export 1 (RAE1), par-6 family cell polarity regulator beta (PARD6B), and MRG domain binding protein (MRGBP) were found to have difference in gene expression in intestinal- and diffuse-type GC. Total 463 direct relationships with 3 molecules (MYC, NTRK1, UBE2M) were found in the biomarker-filtered network generated by network pathway analysis. The networks and features in intestinal- and diffuse-type GC have been investigated and profiled in bioinformatics. Our results revealed the signaling pathways networks in intestinal- and diffuse-type GC, bringing new light for the elucidation of drug resistance mechanisms in CSCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0475.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT); hybrid EMT; partial EMT; mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET); SCAND1; SCAN zinc finger; MZF1; cancer prognosis
Online: 31 October 2022 (08:57:38 CET)
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a reversible cellular program that transiently places epithelial (E) cells into pseudo-mesenchymal (M) cell states. The malignant progression and resistance of many types of carcinomas depends on EMT activation, partial EMT and hybrid E/M status in neoplastic cells. EMT is activated by tumor microenvironmental TGFβ signal and EMT-inducing transcription factors, such as ZEB1/2 in tumor cells. However, reverse EMT factors are less studied. We demonstrate that transcription factor SCAND1 can revert mesenchymal and hybrid E/M phenotype of cancer cells to a more epithelial, less invasive status and inhibit their proliferation and migration. SCAND1 is a SCAN domain-containing protein and hetero-oligomerizes with SCAN-zinc finger transcription factors, such as MZF1, for accessing DNA and transcriptional co-repression of target genes. We found that SCAND1-MZF1 co-expression and interaction correlated with maintaining epithelial features, whereas the simultaneous loss of SCAND1 and MZF1 correlated with mesenchymal features of tumor cells. Overexpression of SCAND1 over endogenous MZF1 in DU-145 prostate cancer cells reverted their hybrid E/M status into cobblestone morphology with increased epithelial adhesion by E-cadherin and β-catenin relocation. Consistently, co-expression analysis in TCGA PanCancer Atlas revealed that both SCAND1 and MZF1 co-express and are negatively correlated with EMT driver genes, including CTNNB1, ZEB1, ZEB2 and TGFBR, in prostate tumor specimens. In addition, SCAND1 overexpression suppressed tumor cell proliferation by reducing the MAP3K-MEK-ERK signaling pathway. Of note, SCAND1-overexpressing DU-145 cells migrated slower than control cells with decreased lymph node metastasis of prostate cancer in a mouse tumor xenograft model. Kaplan-Meyer analysis showed high expression of MZF1 and SCAND1 to correlate with better prognoses in pancreatic cancer and head and neck cancers, although with poorer prognosis in kidney cancer. Overall, these data suggest that the combination of SCAND1-MZF1 complexes may revert the EMT mechanism in cancer to establish an epithelial phenotype. These effects seem to include co-repression of EMT-driver genes and suppression of tumor cell proliferation via inhibition of the MAP3K-MEK-ERK signaling pathway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0308.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Xenobiotic; Drug; Oral fibro epithelial polyps; Rothia mucilaginosa; Bacteriome
Online: 16 November 2022 (12:45:26 CET)
The proportion of human cells to the microbial cell is 1:1. These procaryotes use efflux pumps and enzymes to prevent cellular intoxication of ions and compounds respectively. There is promising evidence on the role of the gut microbiome and its enzymes in metabolizing xenobiotics. The genetic potential of oral bacteria in drug and xenobiotic metabolism is yet to be unveiled. This study aimed to characterize the bacteriome associated with oral fibroepithelial polyps (FEP) and to predict the genetic potential. A representative sub-sample of 22 clinically diagnosed oral FEP (the control group) was selected from a main case-control study. Amplification of nucleotides of extracted DNA from frozen tissues was performed for the V1 to V3 region and sequencing of the amplicon with Illumina’s 2 X 300–bp chemistry. Classification of high-quality nonchimeric merged reads was done to the species level with a prioritized BLASTN-based algorithm. Downstream compositional analysis was performed with QIIME (Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology). Functional prediction of bacteriome was obtained by PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States). Rothia mucilaginosa, Streptococcus mitis, Gamella haemolysans, Streptococcus sp. oral taxon 431, and Rothia dentocariosa accounted for the top five taxa among 810 bacterial species according to the percentage of average relative abundance. Rothia mucilaginosa was elevated statistically significantly (p< 0.05). The genetic potential of xenobiotics and drug metabolism catalyzed by the P450 enzymes was observed for the first time as an attribute of bacteriome associated with oral FEP tissues dominated by R. mucilaginosa. This finding needs further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1398.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: cancer; canine; mammary tumors; epithelial to mesenchymal transitionว doxorubicin
Online: 22 September 2023 (06:33:35 CEST)
Canine mammary tumors represent one of the leading malignant pathology in female dogs, displaying the importance of efficient therapeutic findings, beside the golden standard surgery, able to limit the development of the disease. Studies in human cancers demonstrated that Doxorubicin presents a good effect in different biological processes like apoptosis, autophagy, cell cycle, cell invasion and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Our study following the effects of Doxorubicin on two canine mammary cancer cell lines P114 and CMT-U27, showing an inhibitory effect in cell proliferation and an expression alteration of the EMT related genes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1382.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Silica nanoparticles; COX-2; PGE2; Alveolar epithelial cells; ROS; FoxO1
Online: 22 August 2023 (07:37:29 CEST)
The risk of lung exposure to silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) and related lung inflammatory injury is increasing with the wide application of SiNPs in a variety of industries. A growing body of research has revealed that cyclooxygenase (COX)-2/ prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) up-regulated by SiNPs toxicity has a role during pulmonary inflammation. The detailed mechanisms underlying SiNPs-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 synthesis remain unknown. The present study aims to dissect the molecular components involved in COX-2/PGE2 up-regulated by SiNPs in human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (HPAEpiCs) which are one of the major targets while SiNPs are inhaled. In the present study, we demonstrated that SiNPs induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 release, which were inhibited by pretreatment with a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger (edaravone) or the inhibitors of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2, PF-431396), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, AG1478), phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K, LY294002), protein kinase B (Akt, Akt inhibitor VIII), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (p38 MAPK inhibitor VIII), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK)1/2 (SP600125), Forkhead Box O1 (FoxO1, AS1842856), and activator protein 1 (AP-1, Tanshinone IIA). In addition, we also found that SiNPs induced ROS-dependent Pyk2, EGFR, Akt, p38 MAPK, and JNK1/2 activation in these cells. These signaling pathways induced by SiNPs could further cause c-Jun and FoxO1 activation and translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus. AP-1 and FoxO1 activation could increase COX-2 and PGE2 levels induced by SiNPs. Finally, the COX-2/PGE2 axis might promote the inflammatory responses in HPAEpiCs. In conclusion, we suggested that SiNPs induced COX-2 expression accompanied by PGE2 synthesis mediated via ROS/Pyk2/EGFR/PI3K/Akt/p38 MAPK- and JNK1/2-dependent FoxO1 and AP-1 activation in HPAEpiCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0769.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: airway epithelial cells; cell culture; MACS; dispase; cold lung digestion
Online: 12 July 2023 (08:57:55 CEST)
Airway epithelial cells (AECs) play a key role in maintaining lung homeostasis, epithelium regeneration and the initiation of pulmonary immune responses. To isolate and study murine AECs investigators have classically used short and hot (1h 37°C) digestion protocols. Here, we present a workflow for efficient AECs isolation and culture, utilizing long and cold (20h 4°C) dispase II digestion of murine lungs. This protocol yields a greater number of viable AECs compared to an established 1h 37°C dispase II digestion. Using a combination of flow cytometry and immunofluorescent microscopy, we demonstrate that compared to the established method, the cold digestion allows for recovery of a 3-fold higher number of CD45-CD31-EpCAM+ cells from murine lungs. Their viability is increased compared to established protocols, they can be isolated in larger numbers by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS), and they result in greater numbers of KRT5+p63+ colonies in vitro. Our findings demonstrate that temperature and duration of murine lung enzymatic digestion have a considerable impact on AEC yield, viability, and ability to form colonies in vitro. We believe this workflow will be helpful for studying lung AECs and their role in the biology of lung.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0327.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Ovarian cancer; PARP inhibitors; epithelial to mesenchymal transition; drug response
Online: 13 April 2023 (14:30:07 CEST)
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy, largely due to metastasis and drug resistant recurrences. Fifteen percent of ovarian tumors carry mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2, rendering them vulnerable to treatment with PARP inhibitors such as olaparib. Recent studies have shown that TGFβ can induce “BRCAness” in BRCA wild-type cancer cells. Given that TGFβ is a known driver of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and the con-nection between EMT and metastatic spread in EOC and other cancers, we asked if TGFβ and EMT alter susceptibility of EOC to PARP inhibition. Epithelial EOC cells were transiently treated with soluble TGFβ and their clonogenic potential, expression and function of EMT and DNA repair genes, and response to PARP inhibitors compared with untreated controls. A second epithelial cell line was compared to its mesenchymal derivative for EMT and DNA repair gene expression and drug responses. We found that TGFβ and EMT resulted in downregulation of genes responsible for homologous recombination (HR) and sensitized cells to olaparib. HR efficiency was reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, mesenchymal cells displayed sensitivity to olaparib, cis-platin, and the DNA-PK inhibitor Nu-7441. Therefore, treatment of disseminated, mesenchymal tumors may represent an opportunity to expand clinical utility of PARP inhibitors and similar agents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0779.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Lineage Plasticity; Tumor Progression; Metastasis; Therapy Resistance; Epithelial-Mesenchymal Plasticity
Online: 31 May 2021 (13:48:08 CEST)
Lineage plasticity, the switching of cells from one lineage to another has been recognized to be a cardinal property essential for embryonic development, tissue repair and homeostasis. However, such a highly regulated process goes awry when cancer cells exploit this inherent ability to their advantage, resulting in tumorigenesis, relapse, metastasis and therapy resistance. In this review, we summarize our current understanding on the role of lineage plasticity in tumor progression and therapeutic resistance in multiple cancers. Lineage plasticity can be triggered by treatment itself and is reported across various solid as well as liquid tumors. Here we focus on the importance of lineage switching in tumor progression and therapeutic resistance of solid tumors such as the prostate, lung, hepatocellular and colorectal carcinoma and the myeloid and lymphoid lineage switch observed in leukemias. Besides this, we also discuss the role of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in facilitating the lineage switch in biphasic cancers such as aggressive carcinosarcomas. We also discuss the mechanisms involved, current therapeutic approaches and challenges that lie ahead in taming the scourge of lineage plasticity in cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0444.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SMAD; Sjӧgren’s syndrome; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; fibrosis; TGF-β; inflammation
Online: 17 March 2021 (14:43:37 CET)
There is considerable interest in delineating the molecular mechanisms of action of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), considered as central player in a plethora of human conditions, including cancer, fibrosis and autoimmune disease. TGF-β elicits its biological effects through membrane bound serine/threonine kinase receptors which transmit their signals via downstream signalling molecules, SMADs, which regulate the transcription of target genes in collaboration with various co-activators and co-repressors. Until now, therapeutic strategy for primary Sjӧgren’s syndrome (pSS) has been focused on inflammation, but, recently, the involvement of TGF-β/SMADs signalling has been demonstrated in pSS, although TGFβ family members seems to have ambiguous effects on the function of pSS salivary glands. Based on these premises, this review highlights recent advances in unravelling the molecular basis for the multi-faceted functions of TGF-β in pSS that are dictated by orchestrations of SMADs, and describe TGF-β/SMADs value as both disease markers and/or therapeutic target for pSS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0946.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SOX11; epithelial-mesenchymal; transition; E-cadherin; vimentin; ovarian; cancer; metastasis; survival
Online: 14 August 2023 (05:34:42 CEST)
Background: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancies with serous carcinoma being the most common histopathologic subtype. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) correlates with an increased metastatic potential, whereas the transcription factor SOX11 is overexpressed in diverse malignancies. Methods: In the present study, we aim to evaluate the potential role of the immunohistochemical expression of SOX11 in 30 serous ovarian carcinomas in association with E-cadherin and Vimentin expression as well as with patients’ clinicopathological data. Results: Most of the examined cases showed concurrent expression of E-cadherin and Vimentin, whereas SOX11 was expressed in a minority of the cases (26,7%). Interestingly, the positive cases had more frequently a metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis compared to the negative cases (p=0.09), an association, however, of marginal significance. Moreover, there was a negative correlation between E-Cadherin and SOX11 expression (p=0,0077) and a positive correlation between Vimentin and SOX11 expression (p=0,0130). Conclusions: The present work, for the first time, provides preliminary evidence SOX11 overexpression alongside E-cadherin loss in the promotion of EMT in serous ovarian cancer, thereby endorsing tumor metastasis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1491.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT); Gastric cancer; lipopolysaccharides (LPS); Nivolumab; TGF-β
Online: 21 June 2023 (07:28:13 CEST)
Lipopolysaccharides are a type of polysaccharide mainly present in the bacterial outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Recent studies have revealed that lipopolysaccharides contribute to the immune response of the host by functioning as a cancer antigen. We retrospectively recruited 198 patients with gastric cancer who underwent surgery. The presence of lipopolysaccharides was determined using immunohistochemical staining, with the intensity score indicating positivity. The relationship between lipopolysaccharides and CD8, PD-L1, TGFBI (a representative downstream gene of TGF-β signaling), E-cadherin, and claudin-4 (epithelial–mesenchymal transition markers) was also investigated. Thereafter, we identified 20 patients with advanced gastric cancer receiving nivolumab and investigated the relationship between lipopolysaccharides and nivolumab sensitivity. After staining for lipopolysaccharides in the nucleus of cancer cells, 150 negative (75.8%) and 48 positive cases (24.2%) were found. The lipopolysaccharide-positive group showed increased cancer stromal TGFBI expression (p < 0.0001) and PD-L1 expression in cancer cells (p = 0.0029). Lipopolysaccharide positivity was significantly correlated with decreased E-cadherin expression (p = 0.0055) and claudin-4 expression (p = 0.029); however, no significant correlation was found between lipopolysaccharide expression and overall survival rate (p = 0.71). Among cases receiving nivolumab, the lipopolysaccharide-negative and -positive groups had a disease control rate of 66.7% and 11.8%, respectively (p = 0.049). Lipopolysaccharide positivity was associated with TGF-β signaling and epithelial–mesenchymal transition and was considered to promote therapeutic resistance to nivolumab.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0415.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity; stemness; landscape; phenotypic plasticity; cancer stem cells; metastasis
Online: 15 April 2021 (12:57:56 CEST)
Establishing macrometastases at distant organs is a highly challenging process for cancer cells, with extremely high attrition rates. A very small percentage of disseminated cells have the ability to dynamically adapt to their changing micro-environments through reversibly switching to another phenotype, aiding metastasis. Such plasticity can be exhibited along one or more axes – epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity (EMP) and cancer stem cells (CSCs) being the two most studied, and often tacitly assumed to be synonymous. Here, we review the emerging concepts related to EMP and CSCs across multiple cancers. Both processes are multi-dimensional in nature; for instance, EMP can be defined on morphological, molecular and functional changes, which may or may not be synchronized. Similarly, self-renewal, multi-lineage potential, and anoikis and/or therapy resistance may not all occur simultaneously in CSCs. Thus, arriving at rigorous functional definitions for both EMP and CSCs is crucial. These processes are dynamic, reversible, and semi-independent in nature; cells traverse the inter-connected high-dimensional EMP and CSC landscapes in diverse paths, each of which may exhibit a distinct EMP-CSC coupling. Our proposed model offers a potential unifying framework for elucidating the coupled decision-making along these dimensions and highlights a key set of open questions to be answered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2044.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: epithelial-mesenchymal transition; cytoskeleton; extracellular matrix remodeling; ovarian cancer; anoikis resistance; metastasis
Online: 30 August 2023 (07:10:00 CEST)
Background: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a biological process where epithelial cells lose their adhesive properties and gain invasive, metastatic, and mesenchymal properties. Maintaining the balance between epithelial and mesenchymal stage is essential for tissue homeo-stasis. Many of the genes promoting mesenchymal transformation has been identified; however, our understanding of the genes responsible for maintaining the epithelial phenotype is limited. Our objective was to identify genes responsible for maintaining the epithelial phenotype and in-hibiting EMT. Methods: RNA seq was performed using an vitro model of EMT. CTGF expres-sion was determined by qPCR and Western blot analysis. Knockout of CTGF was done using the CTGF sgRNA CRISPR/CAS9. Tumorigenic potential was determined using NCG mice. Results: Knocked-out of CTGF in epithelial ovarian cancer cells leads to the acquisition of functional characteristics associated with the mesenchymal phenotype such as Anoikis resistance, cytoskel-eton remodeling, increased cell stiffness, and acquisition of invasion and tumorigenic capacity. Conclusions: We identified CTGF is an important regulator of the epithelial phenotype, and its loss is associated with early cellular modifications required for EMT. We describe a novel role for CTGF, regulating cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix interactions necessary for conserva-tion of epithelial structure and function. These findings provide a new window to understand the early stages on mesenchymal transformation
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1026.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: epithelial-mesenchymal transition; prostate cancer; tissue biomarkers; microRNA; EMT-related proteins; metastasis
Online: 14 July 2023 (16:12:32 CEST)
Prostate cancer is the most occurred malignant disease in the male population in over one-half of the countries and still constitutes the fifth leading cause of death in 2020, worldwide. Metastatic prostate cancer is a lethal malignancy that mostly is terminated within several years through the patient's death. Researchers should focus on the phenomenon which is rigorously appertaining to metastatic cascade and operating as an initiator of metastases to provide the knowledge needed to solve the problem of diagnostics and treatment of advanced prostate cancer patients. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition is one such phenomenon. The current review is based mainly on three papers published in 2021, which describe the most important tissue-specific factors managing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and are discussed with scientific papers published in acknowledged journals. The effect of the current review is the specification of profiles of precise tissue factors predicting the progression of the prostate neoplasm to its metastatic stage in a new edition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0718.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: keyword1; scleroderma; keyword 2; autoantibody; keyword 3; epithelial cell, keyword 4; fibrosis
Online: 11 July 2023 (11:30:24 CEST)
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem connective tissue disease characterized by pathological processes involving autoimmunity, vasculopathy, and resultant extensive skin and organ fibrosis. Recent studies have demonstrated activation and aberrant wound healing responses in the epithelial layer of the skin in this disease, implicating the epithelial keratinocytes as a source of pro-fibrotic and inflammatory mediators. In this paper we investigated the role of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies directed against epithelial cells, as potential initiators and propagators of pathological keratocyte activation and the ensuing SSc fibrotic cascade. A keratinocyte cell-based ELISA is used to evaluation binding of SSc IgG. SSc skin biopsies were stained by immunofluorescence for the presence of IgG in the keratinocyte layer. Moreover, IgG purified from SSc sera is evaluated for the potential to activate keratinocytes in tissue culture and to induce signaling in TLR2 & 3 reporter cell lines. We demonstrate enhanced binding of SSc IgG to keratinocytes, and activation of these cells leading to release of IL-1α, representing a potential initiating pathway in this disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0153.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: epithelial; smooth muscle; interaction; pulmonary disease; airway; asthma; COPD; bronchial re-modeling
Online: 13 June 2023 (10:49:12 CEST)
Chronic pulmonary diseases such as asthma, COPD, and Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are significant causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Currently, there is no radical treatment for many chronic pulmonary diseases, and the treatment options focus on relieving the symptoms and improving lung function. Therefore, efficient therapeutic agents are highly needed. Bronchial epithelial cells and airway smooth muscle cells and their crosstalk play a significant role in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Thus, targeting the interactions of these two cell types could open the door to a new generation of effective therapeutic options. However, the studies on how these two cell types interact and how their crosstalk adds up to respiratory diseases are not well established. With the rise of modern research tools and technology, such as lab-on-chip, organoids, co-culture techniques, and advanced immunofluorescence imaging, a substantial degree of evidence about these cell interactions emerged. Hence, this contribution aims to summarize the growing evidence of bronchial epithelial cells and airway smooth muscle cells crosstalk under normal and pathophysiological conditions. The review first deliberates the effects of both healthy and stressed epithelial cells on airway smooth muscle cells, taking into account three themes; contraction, migration, and proliferation. Then, it discusses the impact of airway smooth muscle cells on the epithelium in inflammatory settings. Later, it examines the role of airway smooth muscle cells in the early development of bronchial epithelial cells and their recovery after injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0364.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Polymeric micelles; cannabidiol (CBD); spray-drying; ocular drug delivery; corneal epithelial cells
Online: 19 November 2021 (14:48:27 CET)
Ocular drug delivery is one of the most challenging administration routes due to the very low drug bioavailability. In this work, we produce and characterize mucoadhesive mixed polymeric micelles (PMs) made of chitosan and poly(vinyl alcohol) backbones graft-hydrophobized with short poly(methyl methacrylate) blocks and use them to encapsulate cannabidiol (CBD), an anti-inflammatory cannabinoid. CBD-loaded mixed PMs are physically stabilized by ionotropic crosslinking of the CS domains with sodium tripolyphoshate and spray-drying. These mixed PMs display CBD loading capacity of 20% w/w and sizes of 100-200 nm, and spherical morphology (cryogenic-transmission electron microscopy). The good compatibility of the unloaded and CBD-loaded PMs is assessed in a human corneal epithelial cell line. Then, we confirm the permeability of CBD-free PMs and nanoencapsulated CBD in cornea cell monolayers under liquid-liquid and air-liquid conditions. Overall, our results highlight the potential of these polymeric nanocarriers for ocular drug delivery.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0315.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Indoor; PM10; pulmonary disease; inflammation; IFN; type I interferon; cytokine; epithelial cell
Online: 14 August 2020 (09:22:59 CEST)
Indoor dusts are collectively formed from anthropogenic and atmospheric activities. Particle matter 10 (PM10) is inhalable and causes significant inflammation by interaction with the pulmonary epithelial barrier. The mediators involved in bronchial epithelial cells response to dust are remined unknown. The air-liquid interface of our lung on chip model was exposed to indoor dust collected from highly polluted houses in Delhi, India. The media were collected after 4 days and cytokine levels were measured. We found that the concentration of IFN, IFNγ, Interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL1b, TNFa, and Granulocyte monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were significantly increased after exposure to indoor dust. IFN type I pathways were a major response from dust exposure. Further investigation is needed to determine the mechanism of action and targets of dust in bronchial epithelial cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0199.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: IBD; intestinal barrier; Lactobacillus reuteri; Lactobacillus acidophilus; Trans Epithelial Electrical Resistance (TEER)
Online: 29 December 2017 (08:36:36 CET)
Maintenance of intestinal barrier integrity is crucial for preventing inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) onset and exacerbations. In this work we study the effect of a fixed combination of Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus acidophilus and herbal extracts in an in vitro inflammation experimental model. Caco-2 cell monolayer was exposed to INF-γ+TNF-α or to LPS; Trans Epithelial Electrical Resistance (TEER) and paracellular permeability were investigated. ZO-1 and occludin tight junctions (TJs) were also investigated by mean of immunofluorescence. The pre-treatment with the fixed combination of probiotics and herbal extracts prevented the inflammation-induced TEER decrease, paracellular permeability increase and TJs translocation. In summary the fixed combination of probiotics and herbal extracts investigated in this research was found to be an interesting candidate for targeting the re-establishment of intestinal barrier function in IBDs conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0640.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: hyper convolution spectra; epithelial tissues; paramagnetism; diamagnetism; opto-magnetic images; cancer detection; accuracy
Online: 9 November 2023 (14:24:05 CET)
In this paper, a relatively new hyper convolution spectra for characterization liquid, viscoelastic and solid samples is presented. Special attention is paid to the biophysical characterization of epithelial tissues and early detection of cancer of the skin, cervix, colon, and oral cavity. The method is based on the use of two types of white light, diffuse and polarized, from the same LED light sources. Based on the subtraction of the intensity values of these two lights and using the hyper convolution algorithm, the ratio of paired and unpaired electrons of tissue is obtained. This ratio correlates well with the state of the tissue: normal, irritating, precancerous, and cancerous. First, a proof-of-concept studies were performed, and later clinical studies on samples from one thousand two hundred fifteen people were performed. It showed that hyper Opto-Magnetic Imaging Spectroscopy (OMIS) can detect epithelial tissue cancers with an accuracy of 85-96%. Bearing in mind that the OMIS method also acquires the biophysical characteristics of the deeper skin layers (epidermis, basement membrane, dermis) by analysing convolution spectra of RGB channels of both diffuse and polarized white light, it is possible to apply this method in cosmetics (skin hydration, collagen, and elastin states, etc.). During OMIS applications, we noticed places where improvements could be made to increase method’s accuracy using advanced machine learning methodologies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0361.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: inconsistent outcomes; epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk; altered identity; duodenal-jejunal bypass; biliopancreatic limb; GIP
Online: 21 March 2023 (01:36:35 CET)
Metabolic surgery can promote integrated physiologic improvement to ameliorate metabolic illness, particularly type 2 diabetes. Nevertheless, the therapeutic scope has been limited by unexpectedly inconsistent surgical outcomes. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to overcome the obstacles by determining the core mechanism of conflicting results. The surgical anatomy, clinical course, and outcomes of various metabolic surgeries, including modified types of duodenal-jejunal bypass procedures, were compared to comprehend specific surgical patterns from distinctive perspectives. Patients in exclusively nonobese groups are subjected to avoid compounding by weight fluctuations. During intestinal anastomosis, the epithelial identity of the succeeding intestine is replaced by that of the proximal epithelium through altered crosstalk between the epithelium and opposing mesenchymal cells. The rapid turnover rate and compensatory proliferation of the succeeding intestine accelerate the propagation of the replaced epithelium. Propagation of replaced epithelium could provoke inconsistent outcomes of metabolic surgery. The major determinants of the conflicting results of metabolic surgery are inadequate duodenal exclusion and inappropriate length of the biliopancreatic limbs. The replaced enteroendocrine cells during regeneration provoke inconsistent outcomes of metabolic surgery. The critical factors are the type and density of enteroendocrine cells distributed at the terminal end of the preceding proximal intestine.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0203.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: neural induction; embryogenesis; tumorigenesis; neural stemness; tumorigenicity; pluripotency; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; tumor microenvironment
Online: 9 March 2023 (06:57:01 CET)
Characterization of cancer cells and neural stem cells indicates that tumorigenicity and pluripotency are coupled cell properties determined by neural stemness, and tumorigenesis represents a process of progressive loss of original cell identity and gain of neural stemness. This reminds of a most fundamental process required for the development of the nervous system and body axis during embryogenesis, i.e., embryonic neural induction. Neural induction is that, in response to extracellular signals that are secreted by the Spemann-Mangold organizer in amphibians or the node in mammals and inhibit epidermal fate in ectoderm, the ectodermal cells lose their epidermal fate and assume the neural default fate and consequently, turn into neuroectodermal cells. They further differentiate into the nervous system and also some non-neural cells via interaction with adjacent tissues. Failure in neural induction leads to failure of embryogenesis, and ectopic neural induction due to ectopic organizer or node activity or activation of embryonic neural genes causes a formation of secondary body axis or a conjoined twin. During tumorigenesis, cells progressively lose their original cell identity and gain of neural stemness, and consequently, gain of tumorigenicity and pluripotency, due to various intra-/extracellular insults in cells of a postnatal animal. Tumorigenic cells can be induced to differentiation into normal cells and integrate into normal embryonic development within an embryo. However, they form tumors and cannot integrate into animal tissues/organs in a postnatal animal because of lack of embryonic inducing signals. Combination of studies of developmental and cancer biology indicates that neural induction drives embryogenesis in gastrulating embryos but a similar process drives tumorigenesis in a postnatal animal. Tumorigenicity is the manifestation of aberrant occurrence of pluripotent state in a postnatal animal. Pluripotency and tumorigenicity are both but different manifestations of neural stemness in pre- and postnatal stage, respectively, of animal life. The unique property of neural stemness is derived from the evolutionary advantage of neural genes and the neural-biased state of the last common unicellular ancestors of metazoan. Based on these findings, I discuss about some confusion in cancer research, propose to distinguish the causality and associations and discriminate causal and supporting factors involved in tumorigenesis, and suggest revisiting the focus of cancer research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0090.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: epithelial cell; antibody response; basic reproduction number; transcritical bifurcation; impulsive control; drug holidays
Online: 6 September 2022 (10:25:07 CEST)
Mathematical modeling is crucial in investigating the pandemic of the ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The primary target area of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is epithelial cells in the human lower repertory track. During this viral infection, infected cells can initiate innate and adaptive immune responses to viral infection. Immune response in COVID -19 infection can lead to longer recovery time and more severe secondary complications. We formulate a target cell limited mathematical model by incorporating a saturation term for SARS-CoV-2 infected epithelial cell loss reliant on infected cell levels. Forward and backward bifurcation between disease-free and endemic equilibrium points has been analyzed. Global stability of both disease-free and endemic equilibrium is provided. We have seen that the disease-free equilibrium is globally stable for $R_0<1$, and endemic equilibrium exists and is globally stable for $R_0>1$. Impulsive application of drug dosing has been applied for the treatment of covid-19 patients. Also, the dynamics of the impulsive system are discussed when a patient takes drug holidays. The numerical simulations are performed in support of our analytical findings and for the qualitative analysis of the system's dynamics with and without impulse drug dosing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0287.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: prostate cancer; castrate resistance, non-metastatic CRPC, clinical trial, epithelial mesenchymal transition, STAT3
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:28:10 CEST)
Nearly one third of men will incur biochemical recurrence after treatment for localized prostate cancer. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the therapeutic mainstay, however almost all patients will eventually transition to a castrate resistant state (castrate resistant prostate cancer, CRPC). Subjects with CRPC generally develop symptomatic metastatic disease (mCRPC) and incur mortality several years later. Prior to metastatic disease, men acquire non-metastatic CRPC (nmCRPC) which lends the unique opportunity for intervention to delay disease progression and symptoms. This review addresses current therapies for nmCRPC, as well as novel therapeutics and pathway strategies targeting men with nmCRPC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0315.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: cancer stem cells; tumor microenvironment; metastasis; chemoresistance; epithelial to mesenchymal transition; clinical trials
Online: 19 May 2020 (14:01:27 CEST)
Despite great strides being achieved in improving cancer patients’ outcomes through better therapies and combinatorial treatment, several hurdles still remain due to therapy resistance, cancer recurrence and metastasis. Drug resistance, culminating in relapse and metastatic disease continue to be associated with fatal disease. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cancer cells known to be resistant to therapy and cause metastasis. Whilst the debate on whether CSCs are the origins of the primary tumor rages on, CSCs have been further characterised in many cancers with data illustrating that CSCs display great abilities to self-renew, withstand therapies due to enhanced epithelial to mesenchymal (EMT) properties, enhanced expression of ABC membrane transporters, activation of several survival signaling pathways and increased immune evasion DNA repair mechanisms. CSCs also display great heterogeneity with the consequential lack of specific CSC markers presenting a great challenge to their targeting. In this updated review we re-visit CSCs within the tumor microenvironment (TME) and present novel treatment strategies targeting CSCs. These promising strategies include targeting CSCs-specific properties using small molecule inhibitors, immunotherapy, microRNA mediated inhibitors, epigenetic methods as well as targeting CSC niche-microenvironmental factors and differentiation. Lastly, we present recent clinical trials undertaken to try to turn the tide against cancer by targeting CSC-associated drug resistance and metastasis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1965.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Farnesoid X receptor; gut microbiota; intestinal epithelial barrier; colon cancer; Klotho; fibroblast growth factor
Online: 30 October 2023 (16:39:45 CET)
The farnesoid X receptor (FXR)/βKlotho/fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) pathway is crucial for maintaining the intestinal barrier and preventing colorectal cancer (CRC). We used an FXR ago-nist, GW4064, and FXR knockout (KO) mice to investigate the role of FXR/Klothos/FGFs pathways in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction and colon carcinogenesis. The results showed that upregulation of FXR in enterocytes effectively ameliorated intestinal tight junction markers (claudin1, Zonula occludens-1), inflammation, and bile acid levels, thereby protecting mice from intestinal barrier dysfunction and colon carcinogenesis. GW4064 treatment increased FXR, αKlotho, βKlotho, FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23 in wild-type mice exposed to LPS, while FXR KO mice had decreased levels. FXR KO mice exhibited elevated colon cancer markers (β-catenin, LGR5, CD44, CD34, Cyclin D1) under LPS, underscoring the pivotal role of FXR in inhibiting the development of colon tumorigenesis. The varying gut microbiota responses in FXR KO mice versus wild-type mice post-LPS exposure emphasize the pivotal role of FXR in pre-serving intestinal microbial health, involving Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides acidifaciens, and Helicobacter hepaticus. Our study validates the effectiveness of GW4064 in alleviating LPS-induced disruptions to the intestinal barrier and colon carcinogenesis, emphasizing the importance of the FXR/αKlotho/βKlotho/FGFs pathway and the interplay between bile acids and gut microbiota.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0978.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: paranasal sinus; chronic rhinosinusitis; CRS; epithelial cell; eosinophil; oncostatin M; OSM; OSM receptor; OSMR
Online: 17 October 2023 (08:05:36 CEST)
ABSTRACT: Objectives: Oncostatin M (OSM), a member of the interleukin (IL)-6 family of cytokines, is known to elicit pathogenic effects involving disruption of the epithelial barrier function as a part of immunological response networks. It is not yet known how these integrated cytokine signals influence inflammation and other physiological processes in the pathology of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). We investigated the expression and distribution of OSM and OSM receptor (OSMR) in sinonasal specimens of CRS patients, and we compared the results with a panel of inflammatory cytokine levels and clinical features. Materials and Methods: We classified CRS patients as eosinophilic (ECRS, n=36) or non-eosinophilic (non-ECRS, n=35) based on the Japanese Epidemiological Survey of Refractory Eosinophilic Chronic Rhinosinusitis (JESREC) phenotypic criteria, and we compared their cases with those of 68 non-CRS subjects. We also examined stimulatory effects of OSM on the expression levels of cytokine receptors by using the human bronchial epithelium cell line BEAS-2B. Results: An RT-PCR showed that the OSM mRNA levels were significantly increased in the ethmoid sinus mucosa of the CRS patients. The OSM mRNA levels were positively correlated with those of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-13, and OSMR-β. In BEAS-2B cells, OSM treatment induced significant increases in the OSMR-β, IL-1R1, and IL-13Ra mRNA levels. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that OSM is involved in the pathogenesis of CRS in both type 1 and type 2 inflammation, suggesting the OSM signaling pathway as a potential therapeutic target for modulating epithelial stromal interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0485.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cell proliferation; epithelial glands; interactive biopsy guidance; malignancy score; risk stratification; individual treatment recommendations.
Online: 26 December 2022 (10:59:37 CET)
A key step in providing management/treatment options to men with suspected prostate cancer (PCa) is categorizing the risk for the presence of benign, low risk, intermediate risk, or high-risk disease. Our novel modality brings new evidence, based on the long-known hallmark characteristic of PCa – decreased Zinc (Zn), which is the most direct metabolic sign of malignancy and its aggressiveness. To date, this approach has not been adopted for clinical use for a number of reasons that are described in this article and which have been addressed by our approach: Zn has to be measured on fresh samples, prior to fixating in formalin, therefore samples have to be scanned during the biopsy session; as Zn depletion occurs in the glands, where the tumors develop, estimation of the glands’ levels in the scanned tissue along with their compactness, are essential for accurate diagnosis. Combined with the Zn depletion, this facilitates a reliable assessment of the disease aggressiveness. Data gathered in the clinical study described here indicate that in addition to improving the biopsy quality by real-time interactive guidance, a malignancy score can now be established for the entire prostate, allowing higher granularity personalized risk stratification and more decisive treatment decisions for all PCa patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0185.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Trueperella pyogenes; bovine endometrial epithelial cells; inflammasome; tight junction; apoptosis; Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1
Online: 8 October 2020 (22:07:15 CEST)
Trueperella pyogenes is a common opportunistic pathogen which is one of the main causes of postpartum endometritis in dairy cows. As a substitute for antibiotics, the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 has been used in a wide range of clinical treatments. Our experiments were designed to establish a model of anti-damage which LGR-1 was used to protect bovine endometrial epithelial cells (BEECs) from inflammatory damage and cell destruction caused by T. pyogenes. Increased expression of NLRP3 inflammasomes and cytokines was observed following T. pyogenes challenge, but this increase was relieved by LGR-1 pretreatment. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses revealed that T. pyogenes infection also results in the damage of tight junction proteins in BEECs. The expression levels of Claudin-1, Occludin, and ZO-1 were decreased in cells only infected with T. pyogenes but not in cells pretreated with LGR-1. Moreover, the detection of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and apoptotic proteins BAX, cytochrome c, as well as the activating effector caspase-3 revealed that T. pyogenes induced apoptosis of BEECs, which was also confirmed by DAPI staining to observe the morphological changes of the nuclei of cell apoptosis and by TUNEL staining to locate the cells undergoing apoptosis. Our data indicate that LGR-1 ameliorates the T. pyogenes–induced barrier dysfunction of BEECs and pre-application of LGR-1 could be an effective strategy for controlling T. pyogenes infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0781.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: porcine circovirus; swine influenza A virus; epithelial cells; macrophages; co-infection; viral pathogenesis; virus replication
Online: 23 April 2023 (07:22:26 CEST)
The pathogenesis of porcine circovirus type 2b (PCV2b) and swine influenza A virus (SwIV) during co-infection in swine respiratory cells is poorly understood. To elucidate the impact of PCV2b/SwIV co-infection, newborn porcine tracheal epithelial cells (NPTr) and immortalized porcine alveolar macrophages (iPAM 3D4/21) were co-infected with PCV2b and SwIV (H1N1 or H3N2 genotype). Viral replication, cell viability and cytokine mRNA expression were determined and compared between single-infected and co-infected cells. Finally, 3’mRNA sequencing was performed to identify the modulation of gene expression and cellular pathways in co-infected cells. It was found that PCV2b significantly decreased and improved SwIV replication, in co-infected NPTr and iPAM 3D4/21 cells respectively, compared to single infected cells. Interestingly, PCV2b/SwIV co-infection synergistically up-regulated IFN expression in NPTr cells whereas in iPAM 3D4/21 cells, PCV2b impaired the SwIV IFN induced response, both correlating with SwIV replication modulation. RNA-sequencing analyses revealed that the modulation of gene expression and enriched cellular pathways during PCV2b/SwIV H1N1 co-infection is regulated in a cell type-dependent-manner. This study revealed different outcomes of PCV2b/SwIV co-infection in porcine epithelial cells and macrophages and provides new insights on porcine viral co-infections pathogenesis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0432.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Non-genetic heterogeneity; multistability; drug-tolerant persisters; phenotypic plasticity; biological noise; epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity; PAGE4
Online: 24 September 2021 (12:44:34 CEST)
Despite identical genetic constitution, a cancer cell population can exhibit phenotypic variations termed as non-genetic/non-mutational heterogeneity. Such heterogeneity – a ubiquitous nature of biological systems – has been implicated in metastasis, therapy resistance and tumour relapse. Here, we review the evidence for existence, sources and implications of non-genetic heterogeneity in multiple cancer types. Stochasticity/ noise in transcription, protein conformation and/or external microenvironment can underlie such heterogeneity. Moreover, the existence of multiple possible cell states (phenotypes) as a consequence of the emergent dynamics of gene regulatory networks may enable reversible cell-state transitions (phenotypic plasticity) that can facilitate adaptive drug resistance and higher metastatic fitness. Finally, we highlight how computational and mathematical models can drive a better understanding of non-genetic heterogeneity and how a systems-level approach integrating mathematical modelling and in vitro/in vivo experiments can map the diverse phenotypic repertoire, and identify therapeutic vulnerabilities of an otherwise clonal cell population.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: microRNA; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; 5-fluorouracil; oxaliplati; FOLFOX; chemoresistance; pharmacogenetics; pharmacoepigenetics; EMT-transcription factors; biomarker.
Online: 13 November 2020 (10:47:43 CET)
The FOLFOX scheme, based on the association of 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin, is the most frequently indicated chemotherapy scheme for patients diagnosed with metastatic colorectal cancer. Nevertheless, development of chemoresistance is one of the major challenges associated with this disease. It has been reported that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is implicated in microRNA-driven modulation of tumor cells response to 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin. Besides, from pharmacogenomic research it is known that overexpression of genes encoding dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD), thymidylate synthase (TYMS), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), the DNA repair enzymes ERCC1, ERCC2, and XRCC1, and the phase 2 enzyme GSTP1 impair the response to FOLFOX. It has been observed that EMT is associated with overexpression of DPYD, TYMS, ERCC1, and GSTP1. In this review we investigated the role of miRNAs as EMT promotors in tumor cells, and its potential effect on upregulation of DPYD, TYMS, MTHFR, ERCC1, ERCC2, XRCC1 and GSTP1 expression, which would lead to resistance of CRC tumor cells to 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin. This constitutes a potential mechanism of epigenetic regulation involved in late-onset of acquired resistance in mCRC patients under FOLFOX chemotherapy. Expression of these biomarkers microRNA could serve as tools for personalized medicine, and as potential therapeutic targets in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1188.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: metabolic surgery; type 2 diabetes; postoperative hyperglycemia; duodenal exclusion; biliopancreatic limb length; altered epithelial identity; GIP
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:49:18 CEST)
Metabolic surgery can promote comprehensive physiological improvements to alleviate metabolic disorders, particularly for patients with type 2 diabetes. Nevertheless, the therapeutic scope has been limited owing to unexpectedly inconsistent surgical outcomes. Therefore, this study to overcome these obstacles by determining the fundamental mechanism underlying the conflicting outcomes. The surgical anatomy, clinical course, and outcomes of various metabolic surgeries, including modified duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) procedures, were compared to understand the specific surgical patterns from different perspectives comprehensively. Patients in the nonobese group were exclusively included to prevent confounding effects from overweight patients with type 2 diabetes. Following intestinal anastomosis, the epithelial identity of the succeeding intestine was replaced by that of the proximal epithelium owing to altered crosstalk between the epithelium and opposing mesenchymal cells. Subsequent intestinal compensatory proliferation and rapid turnover rate accelerate the spread of the replaced epithelium. The main factors contributing to inconsistent outcomes of metabolic surgery are inadequate duodenal exclusion and inappropriate biliopancreatic limb length. Replacement of enteroendocrine cells during regeneration can lead to inconsistent outcomes in metabolic surgery. The type and density of enteroendocrine cells distributed at the terminal end of the proximal intestine play a significant role in diverse outcomes of metabolic surgery.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1104.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: paratuberculosis; in vivo; in vitro; ex vivo; infection model; macrophage; neutrophil; epithelial cell; rabbit; experimental infection
Online: 15 August 2023 (08:47:07 CEST)
Paratuberculosis (PTB) is a chronic granulomatous enteritis caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) that affects a wide variety of domestic and wild animals. It is considered as one of the diseases with the highest economic impact in the ruminant industry. Despite many efforts and intensive research, PTB control is still controversially discussed and diagnostic and immunoprophylactic tools lack great limitations. Thus, models play a crucial role in understanding the pathogenesis of infection and disease, and in testing novel vaccine candidates. Here, we review the potential and limitations of different experimental approaches currently used in PTB research, focusing on laboratory animals and cell based models. The aim of this review is to offer a vision of the models that have been used and what has been achieved or discovered with each one so that the reader can choose the best model to answer their scientific questions and prove their hypotheses. Also, we bring forward new approaches that we consider worth exploring in the near future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0867.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Sex differences; Chronic Kidney Disease; Atherosclerosis; Foam Cells; Parietal Epithelial Cells (PECs); Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEi)
Online: 13 June 2023 (03:22:47 CEST)
Background: This study analyzes sex-based differences in renal structure and response to the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Methods: ApoE-/- mice (8 weeks old) received enalapril (5 mg/kg/day, subcutaneous) or PBS as a control for an additional 14 weeks. Each group consisted of six males and six females. Results: Females exhibited elevated LDL-cholesterol levels, while males presented higher creatinine levels and proteinuria. Enalapril effectively reduced blood pressure in both groups, but proteinuria decreased significantly only in females. Plaque size analysis and assessment of kidney inflammation revealed no significant sex-based differences. However, males displayed more severe glomerular injury, with increased mesangial expansion, mesangiolysis, glomerular foam cells and activated parietal epithelial cells (PECs). Enalapril mitigated mesangial expansion, glomerular inflammation (particularly in females), and the hypertrophy of PECs in males. Conclusion: This study demonstrates sex-based differences in the response to enalapril in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Males exhibited more severe glomerular injury, while enalapril provided renal protection, particularly in females. These findings suggest potential sex-specific considerations for ACE inhibitor therapy in chronic kidney disease and atherosclerosis cardiovascular disease. Further research is needed to elucidate the underlying mechanism behind these observations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0464.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: prostate cancer; six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate; biomarker; immunotherapy; cancer vaccine; T-cell engaging antibody
Online: 29 July 2022 (14:02:03 CEST)
Six-Transmembrane Epithelial Antigen of the Prostate 1-4 (STEAP1-4) compose a family of metalloproteinases involved in iron and copper homeostasis and other cellular processes. Thus far, five homologs are known: STEAP1, STEAP1B, STEAP2, STEAP3, and STEAP4. In prostate cancer, STEAP1, STEAP2, and STEAP4 are overexpressed while STEAP3 expression is downregulated. Although the metalloreductase activities of STEAP1-4 are well-documented, their other biological functions are not. Furthermore, the properties and expression levels of STEAP heterotrimers, homotrimers, heterodimers, and homodimers are not well-understood. Nevertheless, studies over the last few decades have provided sufficient impetus to investigate STEAP1-4 as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for prostate cancer. In particular, STEAP1 is the target of many emerging immunotherapies. Herein, we give an overview of the structure, physiology, and pathophysiology of STEAP1-4 to provide context for past and current efforts to translate STEAP1-4 into the clinic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0358.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; TGF-β1; cAMP; A-kinase anchoring protein; Ezrin; AKAP95; Yotiao; cigarette smoke; COPD
Online: 31 October 2019 (02:15:56 CET)
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a role in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) can inhibit transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) mediated EMT. Although compartmentalization via A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) is central to cAMP signaling, functional studies on their therapeutic value in the lung EMT process are lacking. Bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B, primary HAE cells) were exposed to TGF-β1. Epithelial (E-cadherin, ZO-1) and mesenchymal markers collagen Ӏ (mRNA, protein) were analyzed. St-Ht31 disrupted AKAP-PKA interactions. TGF-β1 release was measured by ELISA. TGF-β1-sensitive AKAPs Ezrin, AKAP95 and Yotiao were silenced using siRNA. Cell migration was analyzed by wound healing assay, xCELLigence, Incucyte. Prior to TGF-β1, dibutyryl-cAMP (dbcAMP), fenoterol, rolipram, cilostamide, forskolin were used to elevate intracellular cAMP. TGF-β1 induced morphological changes, decreased E-cadherin but increased collagen Ӏ and cell migration, a process reversed by PF-670462. TGF-β1 altered (mRNA, protein) expression of Ezrin, AKAP95 and Yotiao. St-Ht31 decreased E-cadherin (mRNA, protein), but counteracted TGF-β1-induced collagen Ӏ upregulation. Cigarette smoke (CS) increased TGF-β1 release, activated TGF signaling, augmented cell migration and reduced E-cadherin expression, a process blocked by TGF-β1 neutralizing antibody. Silencing of Ezrin, AKAP95 and Yotiao diminished TGF-β1-induced collagen Ӏ expression, as well as TGF-β1-induced cell migration. Fenoterol, rolipram, and cilostamide, in AKAP silenced cells pointed to distinct cAMP compartments. We conclude that Ezrin, AKAP95 and Yotiao promote TGF-β1-mediated EMT, linked to a TGF-β1 release by CS. AKAP members define the ability of fenoterol, rolipram and cilostamide to modulate the EMT process, and are potential relevant targets in the treatment of COPD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0087.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CR); inflammation; nasal polyps; epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT); Polyp derived mesenchymal stem cells (PO-MSCs)
Online: 4 August 2020 (11:07:19 CEST)
Chronic rhinosinusitis is a common inflammatory disease of paranasal sinuses, which causes rhinorrhea, nasal congestion and hyposmia. The genetic predisposition or the exposure to irritants can sustain the inflammatory response and the development of nasal polyposis. Nasal polyps are benign and teardrop-shaped growths that project in the nasal cavities and originate from the ethmoid sinuses. This inflammatory process is associated with high expression of IL-5 cytokine and infiltration of eosinophils. Humanized monoclonal antibodies targeting IL-5 or its receptor, represent a therapeutic strategy in the treatment of nasal polyposis in combination with corticosteroids. The molecular pathogenesis of nasal polyps in CRS patients is associated to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process in which epithelial cells lose their typical phenotype acquiring a mesenchymal phenotype. TGFβ/SMAD, ERK, and Wnt/β-catenin pathways are altered in EMT during the nasal tissue remodeling. miRNA and inhibitor molecules targeting these altered signaling pathways are able to interfere with EMT; which could lead to alternative therapies. Nasal polyps are an alternative source of mesenchymal stem cells which can be easily isolated from surgical biopsies. A molecular understanding of the biology of PO-MSCs will contribute to delineating inflammatory process underlying the development of nasal polyps.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0206.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: helial-mesenchymal transition; EMT spectrum; hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotypes; CTC clusters; stemness; immune suppression; EMT metrics; systems biology
Online: 18 April 2019 (08:02:27 CEST)
Cancer cells can acquire a spectrum of stable hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal (E/M) states during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Cells in these hybrid E/M phenotypes often combine epithelial and mesenchymal features and tend to migrate collectively commonly as small clusters. Such collectively migrating cancer cells play a pivotal role in seeding metastases and their presence in cancer patients indicates an adverse prognostic factor. Moreover, cancer cells in hybrid E/M phenotypes tend to be more associated with stemness which endows them with tumor-initiation ability and therapy resistance. Most recently, cells undergoing EMT have been shown to promote immune suppression for better survival. A systematic understanding of the emergence of hybrid E/M phenotypes and the connection of EMT with stemness and immune suppression would contribute to more effective therapeutic strategies. In this review, we first discuss recent efforts combining theoretical and experimental approaches to elucidate mechanisms underlying EMT multi-stability (i.e. the existence of multiple stable phenotypes during EMT) and the properties of hybrid E/M phenotypes. Following we discuss non-cell-autonomous regulation of EMT by cell cooperation and extracellular matrix. Afterwards, we discuss various metrics that can be used to quantify EMT spectrum. We further describe possible mechanisms underlying the formation of clusters of circulating tumor cells. Last but not least, we summarize recent systems biology analysis of the role of EMT in the acquisition of stemness and immune suppression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1599.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: pregnancy associated plasma protein-A; breast cancer; triple negative breast cancer; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; cancer therapy; cancer biomarker; immunotherapy
Online: 24 July 2023 (10:35:57 CEST)
Pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) plays an integral role in breast cancer (BC), especially triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). This subtype accounts for the most aggressive BC, possesses high tumor heterogeneity, is least responsive to standard treatments and has the poorest clinical outcomes. There is a critical need to address the lack of effective targeted therapeutic options available. PAPP-A is a protein that is highly elevated during pregnancy. Frequently, higher PAPP-A expression is detected in tumors than in healthy tissues. The increase in expression coincides with increased rates of aggressive cancers. In BC, PAPP-A has been demonstrated to play a role in tumor initiation, progression, metastasis including epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as well as acting as a biomarker for predicting patient outcomes. In this review, we present the role of PAPP-A, with specific focus on TNBC. The structure and function of PAPP-A, belonging to the pappalysin subfamily, and its proteolytic activity are assessed. We highlight the link of BC and PAPP-A with respect to the IGFBP/IGF axis, EMT, the window of susceptibility and the impact of pregnancy. Importantly, the relevance of PAPP-A as a TNBC clinical marker is reviewed and its influence on immune-related pathways are explored. The relationship and mechanisms involving PAPP-A reveal the potential for more treatment options that can lead to successful immunotherapeutic targets and the ability to assist with better predicting clinical outcomes in TNBC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0384.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: pulmonary organoids; induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs); anterior foregut endoderm; mesoderm; alveoli epithelial cells; SARS-Cov2; iPSC disease modelling
Online: 17 April 2023 (03:33:39 CEST)
Differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells to a range of useful, mature target cell types is ubiquitous in monolayer culture. To further improve the phenotype of the cells produced, 3D organoid culture is becoming increasingly prevalent. Mature organoids typically require the involvement of cells from multiple germ layers. The aim of this study was to produce pulmonary organoids from defined endodermal and mesodermal progenitors. Endodermal and mesodermal progenitors were differentiated from iPSCs then combined in 3D Matrigel hydrogels and differentiated for a further 14 days to produce pulmonary organoids. The organoids expressed a range of pulmonary cell markers such as SPA, SPB, SPC, AQP5 and T1α. Furthermore, organoids expressed ACE2 capable of binding SARS-Cov2 spike protein demonstrating the physiological relevance of the organoids produced. This study demonstrates the rapid production of pulmonary organoids using a multi-germ layer approach that could be used for studying novel respiratory disease interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0077.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol; cannabidiol; cannabinoids; NLRP3 inflammasome; STAT3; TYK2; cytokine storm; interleukins; TNF-α; macrophages; primary lung bronchial epithelial cells
Online: 8 April 2022 (08:51:26 CEST)
Cannabinoids, mainly cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are the most studied group of compounds obtained from Cannabis sativa because of their several pharmaceutical properties. Current evidence suggests a crucial role of cannabinoids as potent anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases; however, the mechanisms remain largely unclear. Cytokine storm, a dysregulated severe inflammatory response by our immune system, is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous chronic inflammatory disorders, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which results in the accumulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, we hypothesized that CBD and THC reduce the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting key inflammatory signalling pathways. The nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome signalling has been implicated in a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases, which results in the release of pyroptotic cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. Likewise, the activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) causes increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We studied the effects of CBD and THC on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in human THP-1 macrophages and primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). Our results revealed that CBD and, for the first time, THC, significantly inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation following LPS + ATP stimulation, leading to a reduction in the levels of IL-1β in THP-1 macrophages and HBECs. CBD attenuated the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and both cannabinoids inhibited the generation of oxidative stress post-LPS. Our multiplex ELISA data revealed that CBD and THC significantly diminished the levels of IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) after LPS treatment in THP-1 macrophages and HBECs. In addition, the phosphorylation of STAT3 was significantly downregulated by CBD and THC in THP-1 macrophages and HBECs, which was in turn, attributed to the reduced phosphorylation of tyrosine kinase-2 (TYK2) by CBD and THC after LPS stimulation in these cells. Overall, CBD and THC were found to be effective in alleviating the LPS-induced cytokine storm in human macrophages and primary HBECs, at least via modulation of NLRP3 inflammasome and STAT3 signalling pathways. The encouraging results from this study warrant further investigation of these cannabinoids in vivo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0296.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: W-band (75-105 GHz) MMW; H1299 human lung cancer cells; non-tumorigenic MCF-10A human epithelial cells; in vitro
Online: 15 June 2020 (06:44:57 CEST)
Therapeutically effective treatments of cancer are limited. To calibrate the efficiency of the novel technique we recently discovered to modulate cancer cell viability using tuned electromagnetic fields; H1299 human lung cancer cells were irradiated in a sweeping regime of W-band (75-105 GHz) millimeter waves (MMW) at 0.2 mW/cm2 (2 W/m2). Effects on cell morphology, cell death and senescence were examined and compared to that of non-tumorigenic MCF-10A human epithelial cells. MMW irradiation led to alterations of cell and nucleus morphology of H1299 cells, significantly increasing mortality and senescence over 14 days of observation. Extended irradiation of 10 minutes duration resulted in complete death of exposed H1299 cell population within two days, while healthy MCF-10A cells remained unaffected even after 16 minutes of irradiation under the same conditions. Irradiation effects were observed to be specific to MMW treated H1299 cells and absent in the control group of non-irradiated cells. MMW irradiation affected nuclear morphology of H1299 cells only and not of the immortalized MCF-10A cells. Irradiation with low intensity MMW shows an antitumor effect on H1299 lung cancer cells. This method provides a novel treatment modality enabling targeted specificity for various types of cancers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1819.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: epithelial ovarian cancer; complete cytoreduction; estimated blood loss; estimated blood volume; blood transfusion; intra-operative mapping; machine learning; explainable artificial intelligence
Online: 27 October 2023 (14:21:45 CEST)
There is no well-defined threshold for intra-operative blood transfusion (BT) in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) surgery. We developed a Machine Learning (ML)-driven prediction algorithm to trigger and explain a communication alert for BT based on anticipated peri-operative events irrespective of BT policies. We analysed prospectively collected data from 403 EOC patients who underwent cytoreductive surgery between 2014 and 2019. We calculated the estimated blood volume (EBV) using the formula EBV = weight x 80 and set off 10%EBV as threshold for individual intervention. Based on the known estimated blood loss (EBL) we identified two groups. We employed Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for performance metrics. The model performance for the above threshold prediction was satisfactory (AUC 0.823, 95% CI 0.76-0.88). The top feature commonly shared between interrogators was operative time (OT). Intra-operative blood loss of at least 10%EBV was associated with OT>250 minutes, primary surgery, serous histology, performance status 0, R2 resection and surgical complexity score >4. Large bowel resection, stoma formation, ileocecal resection/right hemicolectomy, mesenteric resection, bladder and upper abdominal peritonectomy were amongst sub-procedures clearly associated with increased intervention risk. Precise prediction of blood requirements is not possible unless a rough estimate of OT is known in advance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0552.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Nanoparticles; metallic compounds; airborne particulate; occupational environment; in vitro exposure; alternative testing strategies; EpiAirway™; 3D tissue models; respiratory epithelial tissues
Online: 22 December 2020 (10:40:26 CET)
Inhalation is the main route of exposure to airborne pollutants. To evaluate the safety and assess the risks of occupational hazards different testing approaches are used. 3D airway epithelial tissues allow to mimic exposure conditions in vitro, generates human-relevant toxicology data, allows to elucidate mode of action of pollutants. Gilian 3500 pumps equipped with Standard Midget Impingers were used to collect the airborne particulate from woodworking and metalworking environments. EpiAirway™ tissues were used to model half working day (4 h), full working day (8 h), and 3 working day exposures to occupational pollutants. Tissue viability was assessed using MTT assay. RT-qPCR analyses performed to analyze the expression of gelsolin, caspase-3, and IL-6. Tissue morphology was assessed by hematoxylin/eosin staining. Acute exposure to workspace pollutants slightly affected tissue viability and did not change the morphology. Both types of particles suppressed expression of gelsolin, with metalworking samples showing the most pronounced effect. A slight reduction in caspase-3 expression was observed. Particles from metalworking suppressed IL-6 expression. 3D Epithelial tissues can be used to model exposures to airborne pollutants. Exposure to particles from woodworking and metalworking had a minor effect on tissue viability but affected the expression of inflammation and apoptosis-related genes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0268.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: vaginal infection; C. albicans; dysbiosis; topic treatments; anti-inflammatory effect; antifungal effect; vaginal ecosystem; IL-8; vaginal epithelial cells; dimorphic transition; farnesol
Online: 4 May 2023 (13:27:01 CEST)
Vaginal ecosystem is a unique environment where, in physiological conditions, lactobacilli dominate. However, also pathogenic microbial species, responsible of vaginitis and vaginosis, can harbor vaginal microbiota. To extend the data published by De Seta and Larsen in Pathogens (2021), here we analyzed both the anti-Candida and anti-inflammatory properties of the vaginal gel formulation, Respecta® Balance Gel (RBG), commercialized as an adjuvant to treat vaginitis and vaginosis. We evaluated its activity by an in vitro model where a monolayer of A-431 vaginal epithelial cells was infected by Candida albicans in the presence of RBG or the placebo formulation (pRBG). Specifically, we tested the RBG capacity to counteract C. albicans virulence factors as well as their anti-inflammatory properties. Our results show that, unlike the placebo, RBG reduces ,reduces, C. albicans adhesion, its capacity to form hyphae and C. albicans-induced vaginal cell damage. Interestingly, both RBG and pRBG reduce LPS-induced IL-8 secretion (being RBG the most effective) demonstrating that also the placebo retains anti-inflammatory properties. By our experimental approach we highlight the possible role of farnesol on such effects, but we would like to point out that lactic acid, polydextrose and glycogen too must be relevant in the actual application. Taken together, our results show that RBG impairs C. albicans virulence and is able to reduce the inflammation in the vaginal environment, ultimately allowing the establishment of a balanced vaginal ecosystem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0522.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Cerium oxide NPs; acute and subchronic toxicity; in vitro; pulmonary and interstitial cell lines; human airway epithelial model; air-liquid interface; aerosolized NPs.
Online: 21 May 2021 (13:17:36 CEST)
Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are of significant relevance due to their unique properties, which have been exploited for widespread applications. Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2-NPs) are one of most exploited ENM in the industry due to their excellent catalytic and multi-enzyme mimetic properties. Thus, toxicological effects of these ENMs should be further studied. Acute and subchronic toxicity of CeO2-NPs were assessed. First an in vitro multi-dose short-term (24h) toxicological assessment was performed in three different cell lines: A549 and Calu3, representing the lung tissue, and 3T3 as an interstitial tissue model. After that, a sub-chronic toxicity assessment (90 days) of these NPs was carried out on a realistic and well stablished reconstituted primary human airway epithelial model (MucilAir™), cultured at the Air-Liquid Interface (ALI), to study long-term effects of these particles. Results showed minor toxicity of CeO2-NPs in acute exposures. However, in subchronic exposures, cytotoxic and inflammatory responses were observed in the human airway epithelial model after 60 days of exposure to CeO2-NPs. These results suggest that acute toxicity approaches may underestimate the toxicological effect of some ENM, highlighting the need of subchronic toxicological studies in order to accurately assess the toxicity of ENM and their cumulative effects in the organism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0386.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: resistance-associated secretory phenotype (RASP); extracellular vesicle (EV); exosome; oncosome; drug resistance; epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); heat shock protein (HSP); cell stress response; hypoxia; acidosis; tumor immunology
Online: 29 December 2019 (13:46:21 CET)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes or oncosomes are released with molecules unfavorable for survival from cells. In addition, accumulating evidence has shown that tumor cells often eject anti-cancer drugs such as chemotherapeutics and targeted drugs within EVs, a novel mechanism of drug resistance. The EV-releasing, drug resistance phenotype is often coupled with cellular dedifferentiation and transformation, cells undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and taking on a cancer stem cell phenotype. Recent studies have shown that the release of EVs is also involved in immunosuppression. The concept of the resistance-associated secretory phenotype (RASP) is reviewed herein.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0317.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Boswellia serrata Roxb.; Curcuma longa L.; intestinal bowel diseases (IBD); Caco-2; PBMC; HMC-1.1; mast cells; cytokines; trans epithelial electrical resistance (TEER); reactive oxygen species (ROS)
Online: 8 November 2018 (04:53:46 CET)
Inflammatory bowel diseases, which consist of chronic inflammatory conditions of the colon and the small intestine, are considered a global disease of our modern society. Recently, the interest toward the use of herbal therapies for the management of inflammatory bowel diseases has increased because of their effectiveness and favorable safety profile, compared to conventional drugs. Boswellia serrata Roxb. and Curcuma longa L. are amongst the most promising herbal drugs, however, their clinical use in inflammatory bowel diseases is limited and little is known on their mechanism of action. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of two phytochemically characterized extracts of B. serrata and C. longa in an in vitro model of intestinal inflammation. Their impact on cytokine release and reactive oxygen species production, as well as the maintenance of the intestinal barrier function and on intestinal mucosa immune cells infiltration, has been evaluated. The extracts showed a good protective effect on the intestinal epithelium at 1 µg/ml, with TEER values increasing by approximately 1.5 fold, compared to LPS-stimulated cells. C. longa showed an anti-inflammatory mechanism of action, reducing IL-8, TNF-α and IL-6 production by approximately 30%, 25% and 40%, respectively, compared to the inflammatory stimuli. B. serrata action was linked to its antioxidant effect, with ROS production being reduced by 25%, compared to H2O2-stimulated Caco-2 cells. C. longa and B. serrata resulted to be promising agents for the management of inflammatory bowel diseases by modulating in vitro parameters which have been identified in the clinical conditions.