REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0943.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: arbovirus; monoclonal antibody; flavivirus; alphavirus; neutralizing antibody; antibody discovery
Online: 14 September 2023 (03:51:07 CEST)
Antibody-based passive immunotherapy has been used effectively in the therapy and prophylaxis of infectious diseases. Outbreaks of the emerging viral infections from arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) represent a global public health problem due to the rapid spread and urge actions and treatment of the infected individuals to combat them. Preparedness in advance developing antivirals and studies related to the epidemiology could protect us from damages and losses. Immunotherapy based on monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has shown to be very specific to combat infectious diseases and several illnesses. Recent advances in the mAb discovery techniques allowed the development and approval of a wide number of therapeutic mAbs. This review focuses on the technological approaches available to select neutralizing mAbs for emerging arbovirus infections and outstanding strategies to obtain highly effective and potent mAbs. The characteristics of mAbs developed as prophylactic and therapeutic antiviral agents for the dengue, Zika, chikungunya and West Nile virus are presented, as well as the protective effect verified in animal model studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1211.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SARS-COV-2; Health care workers; IgG antibody; Neutralizing antibody; Antibody avidity
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:35:40 CEST)
: (1) Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are a well-known risk group for coronavirus infections with increased working hours in a potentially infectious environment. We evaluated both IgG and Neutralizing antibody levels, with IgG avidity index and persistence among health workers. (2) Methods: 1001 HCWs were tested for both IgG and Neutralizing antibodies. IgG avidity testing and one-year follow-up testing were done on selected HCWSs. (3) Results: COVID-19 IgG antibody levels were high among 299 (94.62%) HCWs with a history of COVID-19 infection (p <0.0001) compared with 479 (69.92%) HCWs who were not infected with COVID-19 during the first and second wave. A total of 899 (89.81%) HCWs had more than 50% neutralizing antibodies while the remaining 102 (10.19%) HCWs had less than 50% of Neutralizing antibodies. The avidity index was maintained at almost 40% (Gray zone). Both antibody levels were found markedly increased after one year when compared to initial results. (4) Conclusions: Healthcare workers are at a 2.29-fold higher risk of infection; Two folds higher IgG levels in HCWs involved in COVID-19 duty and their persistence for a longer time than in other groups signifies IgG antibody role in the prevention of severe disease in HCWs involved in Covid-19 patient care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0360.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: EpCAM; monoclonal antibody; recombinant antibody; colorectal carcinoma
Online: 28 March 2022 (10:11:34 CEST)
The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a cell surface glycoprotein, which is widely expressed on normal and cancer cells. EpCAM is involved in cell adhesion, proliferation, survival, stemness, and tumorigenesis. Therefore, EpCAM is thought to be a promising target for cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this study, we established anti-EpCAM monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) using the Cell-Based Immunization and Screening (CBIS) method. We characterized them using flow cytometry, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. One of the established recombinant anti-EpCAM mAbs, recEpMab-37 (mouse IgG1, kappa), reacted with EpCAM-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells (CHO/EpCAM) or a colorectal carcinoma cell line (Caco-2). In contrast, recEpMab-37 did not react with EpCAM-knocked out Caco-2 cells. The KD of recEpMab-37 for CHO/EpCAM and Caco-2 was 2.0 × 10-8 M and 3.2 × 10-8 M, respectively. In western blot analysis, recEpMab-37 detected EpCAM of CHO/EpCAM and Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, recEpMab-37 could stain formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded colorectal carcinoma tissues by immunohistochemistry. Taken together, recEpMab-37, established by CBIS method, is useful for detecting EpCAM in various applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0229.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 antibody; reproducibility crisis; peptide mass fingerprinting; monoclonal antibody; trace-ability; identity; antibody identification; antibody light chain; MALDI-TOF-MS
Online: 16 March 2022 (10:01:41 CET)
During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, many virus-binding monoclonal antibodies have been developed for clinical and diagnostic purposes. This underlines the importance of antibodies as universal bioanalytical reagents. However, little attention is given to the reproducibility crisis that scientific studies are still facing to date. In a recent study, not even half of all research antibodies mentioned in publications could be identified at all. This should spark more efforts in the search for practical solutions for the traceability of antibodies. For this purpose, we used thirty-five monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 to demonstrate how sequence-independent antibody identification can be achieved by simple means applied onto the protein. First, we examined the intact and light chain masses of the antibodies relative to the reference material NIST-mAb 8671. Already half of the antibodies could be identified based solely on these two parameters. In addition, we developed two complementary peptide mass fingerprinting methods with MALDI-TOF-MS that can be performed in 45 minutes and had a combined sequence coverage of over 80%. One method is based on the partial acidic hydrolysis of the protein by 5 mM of sulfuric acid at 99 °C. Furthermore, we established a fast way for a tryptic digest without an alkylation step. We were able to show that the distinction of clones is possible simply by a brief visual comparison of the mass spectra. In this work, two clones originating from the same immunization gave the same fingerprints. Later, a hybridoma sequencing confirmed the sequence identity of these sister clones. In order to automate the spectral comparison for larger libraries of antibodies, we developed the online software ABID 2.0 (https://gets.shinyapps.io/ABID/). This open-source software determines the number of matching peptides in the fingerprint spectra. We propose that publications and other documents critically relying on monoclonal antibodies with unknown amino acid sequences should include at least one antibody fingerprint. By fingerprinting an antibody in question, its identity can be confirmed by comparison with a library spectrum at any time and context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0117.v1
Online: 13 February 2019 (15:16:44 CET)
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), one of the major pro-inflammatory cytokines, plays a key role in an effective immune response. However, the chronic presence of TNFα can lead to several inflammatory disorders like rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, Crohn’s disease etc. Inhibition of TNFα by pharmacological inhibitors or antibodies has proven to be effective in palliative treatment to some extent. The aim of this study was to develop an anti-TNFα antibody which may be used as a therapeutic option to inhibit TNFα-mediated cytotoxicity. We characterized several hybridoma clones secreting monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to human-TNFα. Four mAbs rescued L929 fibroblast cells from TNFα-triggered cell death and one of these, namely C8 was found to have the highest affinity. To gain insights into the mechanism by which mAb C8 inhibits human TNFα-mediated toxicity, the epitope corresponding to the mAb was delineated. The antigenic determinant was found to comprise of the stretch of amino acids 99-120, of which, 102-104 (QRE) form the core epitope. The observation was supported by bioinformatics analyses of an antigen-antibody complex model. In addition, the binding affinity of mAb C8 to TNFα was found to be comparable with that of Infliximab which is a commercially available anti TNFα mAb.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1348.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: podocalyxin; PODXL; cancer-specific monoclonal antibody; defucosylated antibody; pancreatic cancer
Online: 20 October 2023 (11:46:59 CEST)
Podocalyxin (PODXL) overexpression is associated with poor clinical outcomes in various tumors. PODXL is involved in tumor malignant progression through the promotion of invasiveness and metastasis. Therefore, PODXL has been considered as a promising target of monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based therapy. However, PODXL also plays an essential role in normal cells such as vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells.Therefore, cancer-specificity or selectivity is required for the reduction of adverse effects on normal cells. Here, we developed an anti-PODXL cancer-specific mAb (CasMab), PcMab-6 (IgG1, kappa), by immunizing mice with soluble PODXL ectodomain derived from a glioblastoma LN229 cell.PcMab-6 reacted with the PODXL-positive LN229 cells, but not with PODXL-knockout LN229 cells in flow cytometry. Importantly, PcMab-6 recognized pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cell lines (MIA PaCa-2, Capan-2, and PK-45H), but did not react with normal lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). In contrast, one of the non-CasMabs, PcMab-47 showed high reactivity to both the PDAC cell lines and LECs. Next, we engineered PcMab-6 into a mouse IgG2a type (PcMab-6-mG2a) and a humanized IgG1-type (humPcMab-6) mAbs, and further produced the core fucose-deficient types (PcMab-6-mG2a-f and humPcMab-6-f, respectively) to potentiate the antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Both PcMab-6-mG2a-f and humPcMab-6-f exerted ADCC and complement-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in the presence of effector cells and complements, respectively. In the PDAC xenograft model, both PcMab-6-mG2a-f and humPcMab-6-f exhibited potent antitumor effects. These results indicated that humPcMab-6-f could apply to antibody-based therapy against PODXL-expressing pancreatic cancers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0281.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Antibody; PG16; HIV-1; peptides; antibody mimetic peptides; molecular dynamics
Online: 5 May 2023 (03:08:46 CEST)
PG16 is a broadly neutralizing antibody that binds to the gp120 subunit of the HIV-1 Env protein. The major interaction site is formed by the unusually long complementarity determining region (CDR) H3. The CDRH3 residue Tyr100H is known to represent a tyrosine sulfation site; however, this modification is not present in the experimental complex structure of PG16 with full-length HIV-1 Env. To investigate the role of sulfation for this complex, we modeled the sulfation of Tyr100H and compared the dynamics and energetics of the modified and unmodified complex by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show that sulfation does not affect the overall conformation of CDRH3, but still enhances gp120 interactions both at the site of mutation and for the neighboring residues. This stabilization affects not only protein-protein contacts, but also the interactions between PG16 and the gp120 glycan shield. Further, we also investigated whether PG16-CDRH3 is a suitable template for the development of peptide mimetics. For a peptide spanning residues 93-105 of PG16 we obtained an experimental EC50 value of 3nM for the binding of gp120 to the peptide. This affinity can be enhanced by almost one order of magnitude by artificial disulfide bonding between residues 99 and 100F. In contrast, any truncation results in significantly lower affinity, suggesting that the entire peptide segment is involved in gp120 recognition. Their high affinity makes PG16-derived peptides useful building blocks for further optimization to obtain a potent inhibitor that efficiently blocks HIV-1 infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0506.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: antiviral therapy; antiviral antibodies; antibody combination therapy; antibody potency; potency assays
Online: 18 April 2023 (08:30:07 CEST)
Viral diseases represent a major public health concern and an ever-present risk for developing into a future pandemic. Antiviral antibody therapeutics, either alone or in combination with other therapies, have emerged as valuable preventative and treatment options, including during a global emergency. Here we will discuss polyclonal and monoclonal antiviral antibody therapies, focusing on the unique biochemical and physiological properties that make them well suited as therapeutic agents. We will describe the methods of antibody characterization and potency assessment throughout development, highlighting similarities and differences between polyclonal and monoclonal products as appropriate. In addition, we will consider the benefits and challenges of antiviral antibodies when used in combination with other antibodies or other types of antiviral therapeutics. Lastly, we will discuss novel approaches to the characterization and development of antiviral antibodies and identify areas that would benefit from additional research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0075.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Antibody binding assays; binding antibody units; Immunocompromised; Threshold
Online: 8 April 2022 (08:38:40 CEST)
Background: Identifying a specific threshold level of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies that confers protection in immunocompromised patients has been very challenging. The aim was to assess the threshold of 264 binding antibody units (BAU)/ml using four different SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays (Abbott, Beckman, Roche, and Siemens) and to establish a new optimal threshold of protection for each of the four antibody assays. Methods: This study was performed on data retrieved from 69 individuals, who received at least one dose of the Pfizer/BioNTech BNT162b2 or Moderna COVID-19 vaccine (Spikevax) at the Alphabio Laboratory in Marseille, France (European Hospital, Alphabio – Biogroup). The results were compared to the percent inhibition calculated using a functional surrogate of a standardized virus neutralization test (Genscript). Results: Samples from 69 patients were analyzed. For a reference cutoff of 264 BAU/ml, assays showed moderate to good overall concordance with Genscript: 87% concordance for Abbott, 78% for Beckman, 75% for Roche, and 88% for Siemens. Overall concordance increased consistently after applying new thresholds, i.e., 148 BAU/ml (Abbott), 48 (Beckman), 559 (Roche), and 270 (Siemens). Conclusion: We suggest specific adjusted thresholds (BAU/ml) for the four commercial antibody assays that are used to assess pre-exposure prophylaxis in immunocompromised patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0280.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: podoplanin, PDPN, tumor malignancy, tumor marker, antibody therapy, cancer-specific monoclonal antibody, CasMab
Online: 19 January 2022 (16:05:50 CET)
Podoplanin (PDPN) is a cell-surface mucin-like glycoprotein that plays a critical role in tumor development and normal development of the lung, kidney, and lymphatic vascular systems. PDPN is overexpressed in several tumors and is involved in their malignancy. PDPN induces platelet aggregation through binding to platelet receptor C-type lectin-like receptor 2. Furthermore, PDPN modulates signal transductions that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, invasion, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and stemness, all of which are crucial for the malignant progression of tumor. In the tumor microenvironment (TME), PDPN expression is up-regulated in the tumor stroma, including cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and immune cells. CAFs play significant roles in the extracellular matrix remodeling and the development of immunosuppressive TME. Additionally, PDPN functions as a co-inhibitory molecule on T cells, indicating the involvement with immune evasion. In this review, we describe the mechanistic basis and diverse roles of PDPN in malignant progression of tumor and discuss the possibility of the clinical application of PDPN-targeted cancer therapy, including cancer-specific monoclonal antibodies, and chimeric antigen receptor T technologies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0326.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: stroke; antibody therapy; monoclonal antibody; inflammation; acid-sensing ion channel; receptor; growth factors
Online: 28 May 2019 (10:05:26 CEST)
Acute ischemic strokes are the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of neurological disability worldwide. The oxygen and glucose deprivation associated with ischemic strokes not only leads to neuronal cell death, but also increases the inflammatory response and decreases functional output of the brain. The only intervention approved by US Federal Drug and Food Administration for treatment of ischemic strokes is tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), however, such treatment can only be given within 4.5 hours of the onset of stroke-like symptoms. This narrow time-range limits its application, and it also might induce detrimental rather than beneficial effects to stroke patients by treatment of the tPA. In order to reduce the infarct volume of an acute ischemic stroke while increasing the time period for treatment, emerging therapies reveal great potential by targeting inflammation, growth factors, ion channels, and neurotransmitter receptors with monoclonal antibody (MAB). With successfully application in the treatment of cancer patient by MAB, in this review, we will focus on recent advances on stroke therapy by using MAB on the treatment of stroke by targeting inflammation, growth factors, ion channels, and neurotransmitter receptors. Therefore, developing specific MAB targeting the signaling pathway of stroke will contribute to stroke therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: CD44; monoclonal antibody; esophageal cancer
Online: 1 March 2022 (10:32:33 CET)
CD44 is a cell surface glycoprotein, which is widely expressed on normal and cancer cells. CD44 is involved in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, survival, stemness, and chemo-resistance. Therefore, CD44 is thought to be a promising target for cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this study, we established anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) by immunizing mice with CD44v3-10 ectodomain and screening using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We then characterized them using flow cytometry, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. One of the established clones (C44Mab-46; IgG1, kappa) reacted with CD44s-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells (CHO/CD44s) or esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell lines (KYSE70 and KYSE770). The KD of C44Mab-46 for CHO/CD44s, KYSE70, and KYSE770 was 1.1×10-8 M, 4.9×10-8 M, and 4.1×10-8 M, respectively. C44Mab-46 detected CD44s of CHO/CD44s and KYSE70, and CD44v of KYSE770 in western blot analysis. Furthermore, C44Mab-46 strongly stained esophageal squamous carcinoma cells in immunohistochemistry using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded ESCC tissues. Taken together, C44Mab-46 is very useful for detecting CD44 in various applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0607.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: immunohistochemistry; phage display; monoclonal antibody
Online: 29 October 2020 (10:25:14 CET)
Immunohistochemistry is a widely used technique for research and diagnostic purposes that relies on the recognition by antibodies of antigens expressed in tissues. However, tissue processing and particularly formalin fixation affect the conformation of these antigens through the formation of methylene bridges. Although antigen retrieval techniques can partially restore antigen immunoreactivity, it is difficult to identify antibodies that can recognize their target especially in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Most of the antibodies currently used in immunohistochemistry have been obtained by animal immunization; however, in vitro display techniques represent alternative strategies that have not been fully explored yet. This review provides an overview of phage display-based antibody selections using naïve antibody libraries on various supports (fixed cells, dissociated tissues, tissue fragments, and tissue sections) that have led to the identification of antibodies suitable for immunohistochemistry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0169.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: HER2; breast cancer; monoclonal antibody; antitumor activities; mouse xenograft model; antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity
Online: 4 July 2023 (09:38:15 CEST)
Two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), trastuzumab and pertuzumab, were clinically approved. We previously developed a highly sensitive and specific anti-HER2 mAb, H2Mab-139 (mouse IgG1, kappa). In this study, we produced a defucosylated IgG2a version of anti‑HER2 mAb (H2Mab-139-mG2a-f) to enhance ADCC-mediated antitumor activity. H2Mab-139-mG2a-f exhibits a high binding affinity in flow cytometry with the dissociation constant (KD) determined to be 3.9 × 10‑9 M and 7.7 × 10‑9 M against HER2‑overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 (CHO/HER2) and HER2-positive BT-474 cells, respectively. Moreover, we showed that H2Mab-139-mG2a-f exerted ADCC and complement-dependent cytotoxicity against CHO/HER2 and BT-474 cells in vitro and exhibited potent antitumor activities in the xenograft models. These results indicated that H2Mab-139-mG2a-f exerts antitumor effects against HER2-positive human breast cancers and could be useful for an antibody treatment regimen for HER2-positive human cancers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1756.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: PDPN; lung cancer; glioblastoma; monoclonal antibody; antitumor activities; mouse xenograft model; antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity
Online: 20 October 2023 (12:26:35 CEST)
We previously developed a highly sensitive and specific anti-PDPN mAb, LpMab-23 (mouse IgG1, kappa). In this study, we produced a humanized IgG1 version (humLpMab-23) and its defucosylated form (humLpMab-23-f) of an anti‑PDPN mAb to potentiate the ADCC activity. The humLpMab-23 could recognize PDPN‑overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 (CHO/PDPN) and PDPN-positive PC-10 and LN319 cells by flow cytometry. Furthermore, we found that humLpMab-23-f exerted ADCC and complement-dependent cytotoxicity against CHO/PDPN, PC-10 and LN319 cells in vitro and exhibited potent antitumor activities in the xenograft models. These results indicated that humLpMab-23-f could be useful for an antibody treatment regimen for PDPN-positive human cancers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0345.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Oral Adjuvant (OAdj); Piglet Clinical Trial; Antibody Positivity Rate; FMD Vaccine Antibody Titer; Immunological Index
Online: 5 May 2023 (10:05:52 CEST)
FMD is a highly contagious animal disease that occurs in cloven-hoofed animals including pigs. To prevent FMD, vaccines and adjuvants are used to induce an immune response, but it is not sufficient to show the effect of preventing viral infection. In this study, we conducted to evaluate the increasing effect of FMD vaccine SP antibody by administrating Zn-ASP to 100 pigs from three test pig farms with feed. FMD vaccine antibody titer and immunological index were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, and hematological and blood biochemical parameters were analyzed using an automatic blood analyzer. The titer of FMD vaccine SP antibody in the 0.2% Zn-ASP-administered group significantly increased compared to that in the positive control group only injected with FMD vaccine at 4 weeks after the first vaccination and at 4, 8 and 16 weeks after the second vaccination, respectively (p<0.05). The FMD vaccine SP antibody positive rate was 100% until shipment. IFN-γ and IgA were significantly increased by Zn-ASP administration 4 weeks after the first vaccination and 4 weeks after the second vaccination (p<0.05). On the other hand, serum AST, and CPK (p<0.001) were significantly decreased by Zn-ASP. Our results show that the administration of Zn-ASP is effective in enhancing the antibody titer and immunity of the FMD vaccine by FMD vaccination, and it is thought that it can be used as an oral adjuvant (OrAd) to prevent viral diseases such as FMD.
DATASET | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0011.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: antigen-antibody complex structure; interfacial electrostatic feature; Machine Learning-Based Antibody Design; Protein Data Bank
Online: 1 March 2020 (12:39:55 CET)
The importance of antibodies in health care and the biotechnology research and development demands not only knowledge of their experimental structures at high resolution, but also practical implementation of this knowledge for both effective and efficient design and production of antibody for its use in both medical and research applications. While the experimental wet-lab approach is usually costly, laborious and time-consuming, computational (dry-lab) approaches, in spite of their intrinsic limitations in comparison with its experimental (wet-lab) counterpart, provide a cheaper and faster alternative option. For the first time, this article reports a comprehensive set of structural electrostatic features extracted from experimentally determined antigen-antibody-related structures, including especially those structural electrostatic features at the interfaces of all experimentally determined antigen-antibody complex structures as of February 29, 2020, to facilitate effective and efficient machine learning-based computational antibody design using currently available experimental structures inside Protein Data Bank.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0805.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: mouse CXCR3; monoclonal antibody; CBIS method
Online: 14 November 2023 (05:37:03 CET)
C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3, CD183) is a G-protein-coupled receptor for CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11. CXCR3 signaling induces chemotaxis of immune cells to inflammation sites and promotes inflammation in inflammatory diseases. Various mouse models to mimic the pathogenesis of each disease have been developed to understand mechanisms and evaluate therapeutics for these diseases. Although CXCR3 is an attractive target to suppress inflammation, anti-CXCR3 therapeutic agents have not been approved. In this study, we established a novel anti-mouse CXCR3 (mCXCR3) monoclonal antibody, Cx3Mab-4 (rat IgG1, kappa), using the Cell-Based Immunization and Screening method. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that Cx3Mab-4 bound to mCXCR3-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 (CHO/mCXCR3) cells, but did not react to parental CHO-K1 cells. The dissociation constant of Cx3Mab-4 was determined as 1.3 × 10-9 M, indicating that Cx3Mab-4 possesses a high affinity to mCXCR3-expressing cells. Cx3Mab-4 could be useful for targeting CXCR3-expressing cells in preclinical mouse models.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0501.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: mouse CXCR4; monoclonal antibody; CBIS method
Online: 8 November 2023 (15:52:54 CET)
The CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4, CD184) is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family that is expressed in most leukocytes. Overexpression of CXCR4 is associated with poor prognosis in not only hematopoietic malignancy but also solid tumors. Because CXCR4 is an attractive target for tumor therapy, reliable preclinical murine models using anti-CXCR4 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been warranted. This study established a novel anti-mouse CXCR4 (mCXCR4) mAb using the Cell-Based Immunization and Screening (CBIS) method. Flow cytometric analysis showed that an anti-mCXCR4 mAb, Cx4Mab-1 (rat IgG2a, kappa), recognized mCXCR4-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 (CHO/mCXCR4) cells and endogenously mCXCR4-expressing mouse myeloma P3X63Ag8U.1 (P3U1) cells. Furthermore, Cx4Mab-1 did not recognize mCXCR4-knockout P3U1 cells. The dissociation constants of Cx4Mab-1 for CHO/mCXCR4 and P3U1 were determined as 6.4 × 10−9 M and 2.3 × 10-9 M, respectively, indicating that Cx4Mab-1 possesses a high affinity to both endogenous and exogenous mCXCR4-expressing cells. These results indicate that Cx4Mab-1 could be a useful tool for preclinical mouse models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0841.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: HCVcoreAg; antibody; aptamer; nanoribbon biosensor; diagnostics
Online: 13 October 2023 (04:34:39 CEST)
The performance of the nanoribbon biosensor upon the use of two different types of molecular probes — the antibodies and the aptamers against HCVcoreAg — has been tested. The sensor chips employed are based on “silicon-on-insulator structures”. Two different HCVcoreAg preparations have been tested: recombinant b-galactosidase-conjugated HCVcoreAg (“Virogen”, USA) and recombinant HCVcoreAg (“Vector-Best”, Russia). Upon the detection of either type of the antigen preparation, the lowest concentration of the antigen detectable in buffer with pH 5.1 has been found to be approximately equal, amounting to ~10–14 M. This value has been found to be similar upon the use of either type of molecular probes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0232.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Antibody-drug conjugate; cancer; clinical trials
Online: 5 June 2023 (04:13:02 CEST)
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) have provided new therapeutic options and significant promise for patients with cancers, particularly where existing treatments are limited. Substantial effort in ADC development is underway globally, with 13 ADCs currently approved and many more in development . Therapeutic benefits of ADCs leverage the ability to selectively target cancer cells through antibody binding, resultant relative sparing of non-malignant tissues, and the targeted delivery of a cytotoxic payload. Consequently, this drug class has demonstrated activity in multiple malignancies refractory to standard therapeutic options [1-4]. Despite this, limitations exist, including narrow therapeutic windows, unique toxicity profiles, development of therapeutic resistance, and appropriate biomarker selection [5-7]. This review will describe the development of ADCs, their mechanisms of action, pivotal trials, and approved indications and identify common themes. Current challenges and opportunities will be discussed for this drug class in cancer therapeutics at a time when significant developments in antibody therapies, immunotherapy and targeted agents are occurring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0399.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: CD44; CD44v9; monoclonal antibody; colorectal cancer
Online: 22 March 2023 (14:21:41 CET)
Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, and has been shown as a cell surface marker of cancer stem-like cells in various cancers. Especially, the splicing variants of CD44 (CD44v) are overexpressed in cancers, and play critical roles in cancer stemness, invasiveness, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Therefore, the understanding of the function of each CD44v is indispensable for the CD44-targeting therapy. CD44v9 contains the variant 9-encoded region, and its expression predicts poor prognosis in patients with various cancers. CD44v9 plays critical roles in the malignant progression of tumors. Therefore, CD44v9 is a promising target for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Here, we developed sensitive and specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against CD44 by immunizing mice with CD44v3–10-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary CHO-K1 (CHO/CD44v3–10) cells. We first determined their critical epitopes using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and characterize their applications to flow cytometry, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. One of the established clones, C44Mab-1 (IgG1, kappa) reacted with a peptide of the variant 9-encoded region, indicating that C44Mab-1 recognizes CD44v9. C44Mab-1 reacted with CHO/CD44v3–10 cells or colorectal cancer cell lines (COLO201 and COLO205) by flow cytometry. The apparent dissociation constant (KD) of C44Mab-1 for CHO/CD44v3–10, COLO201, and COLO205 was 2.5 × 10−8 M, 3.3 × 10−8 M, and 6.5 × 10−8 M, respectively. Furthermore, C44Mab-1 was able to detect the CD44v3–10 in western blotting, and endogenous CD44v9 in immunohistochemistry using colorectal cancer tissues. These results indicated that C44Mab-1 is useful for detecting CD44v9 not only in flow cytometry or western blotting but also in immunohistochemistry against colorectal cancers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0153.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: CD44; CD44v6; monoclonal antibody; colorectal cancer
Online: 9 January 2023 (09:02:06 CET)
CD44 is a cell surface glycoprotein, and its isoforms are produced by the alternative splicing with the standard and variant exons. The CD44 variant exon containing isoforms (CD44v) are overexpressed in carcinomas. CD44v6 is one of the CD44v, and its overexpression predicts poor prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. CD44v6 plays critical roles in CRC adhesion, proliferation, stemness, invasiveness, and chemoresistance. Therefore, CD44v6 is a promising target for cancer diagnosis and therapy for CRC. In this study, we established anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) by immunizing mice with CD44v3-10-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 (CHO) cells. We then characterized them using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. One of the established clones (C44Mab-9; IgG1, kappa) reacted with a peptide of variant 6-encoded region, indicating that C44Mab-9 recognizes CD44v6. Furthermore, C44Mab-9 reacted with CHO/CD44v3-10 cells or CRC cell lines (COLO201 and COLO205) by flow cytometry. The apparent KD of C44Mab-9 for CHO/CD44v3-10, COLO201, and COLO205 was 8.1 × 10−9 M, 1.7 × 10−8 M, and 2.3 × 10−8 M, respectively. C44Mab-9 detected the CD44v3-10 in western blotting, and partially stained the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded CRC tissues in immunohistochemistry. Collectively, C44Mab-9 is useful for detecting CD44v6 in various applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0245.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Age; Antibody titers; Diphtheria; Immunosenescence; Vaccine
Online: 12 July 2021 (11:33:20 CEST)
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the antibody responses in two adult age groups after diphtheria vaccination. Study Design: An observational analytic study was carried out to determine the difference in serum titer of anti-diphtheria antibody. Methods: Serum antibody titers were measured just before and 3 months after injection of Diphtheria toxoid vaccine. Vaccine was given to two adult age groups of health care personnel in hospital: the young (< 40 years) and the middle-aged (≥ 40 years). Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test (p < 0.05). Results: Significant increase in serum anti-diphtheria antibody titers were recorded after vaccination in both age group (p < 0.001 in young adult and p = 0.001 in middle-aged adult, respectively). There were no substantial differences between the two groups in terms of antibody titer before vaccination (p = 0.741), 3 months after vaccination (p = 0.317) and in the increase of antibody titer (p = 0.479). Conclusions: This study showed that there was no significant difference in the increase of anti-diphtheria antibody titers between the two age groups, proving that both young and middle-aged adults had an equal immune response to a given diphtheria vaccine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0270.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Chikungunya; congenital infection; antibody cross-reactivity
Online: 20 December 2019 (07:31:14 CET)
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus that causes febrile illness punctuated by severe polyarthralgia. After the emergence of CHIKV in the Western Hemisphere, multiple reports of congenital infections were published that documented neurological complications, cardiac defects, respiratory distress, and miscarriage. The Western Hemisphere is endemic to several alphaviruses and whether antigenic cross-reactivity can impact the course of infection has not been explored. Recent advances in biomedical engineering have produced cell co-culture models that replicate the cellular interface at the maternal fetal axis. We employed a trans-well assay to determine if cross-reactive antibodies affected the movement and replication of CHIKV across placental cells and into an embryoid body. The data show that antibodies to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) significantly reduced CHIKV viral load in embryoid bodies. The data highlight that viral pathogenesis can be cell-specific and that exploiting antigenic cross-reactivity could be an avenue for reducing the impact of congenital CHIKV infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1444.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: residue detection; pretilachlor; monoclonal antibody; ic-ELISA
Online: 22 November 2023 (16:49:06 CET)
Pretilachlor is a chloroacetamide herbicide, mainly used for the control of weeds and broadleaf weeds in rice, and widely used in China. For the detection of residues of pretilachlor in the en-vironment and food, a highly sensitive and specific monoclonal antibody against pretilachlor was prepared, and the half maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the monoclonal antibody was validated to be 31.47±2.35 μg/L. An indirect competitive ELISA (ic-ELISA) based on the antibody with a linear range of 6.25~100 μg/L was developed for the detection of pretilachlor residues in the environment and food crops. The specificity of the antibody was explained by computer simula-tions and experimental validation. No cross-reactivity of this monoclonal antibody to alachlor, acetochlor and metalaxyl, and it cross-reacted less than 3.0% to both butachlor and propisochlor. The limits of detection (LOD) for pretilachlor in lake, rice, and soil samples were 4.83~5.23 μg/L. The recoveries of all samples were 78.3%~91.3%. The ic-ELISA method was validated by high-performance liquid chromatography, thus, it can be used for residue detection of pretilachlor in the environment and grains.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0725.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: dPD-L1; monoclonal antibody; peptide immunization; immunohistochemistry
Online: 9 August 2023 (07:11:56 CEST)
Immune checkpoint blockade therapy has shown successful clinical outcomes in multiple human cancers. In dogs, several types of tumors resemble human tumors in many respects. Therefore, several groups have developed the anti-dog programmed cell death ligand 1 (dPD-L1) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and showed efficacy in several canine tumors. To examine the abundance of dPD-L1 in canine tumors, anti-dPD-L1 diagnostic mAbs for immunohistochemistry are required. In this study, we immunized the peptide in the dPD-L1 intracellular domain, and established anti-dPD-L1 mAbs, L1Mab-352 (mouse IgG1, kappa) and L1Mab-354 (mouse IgG1, kappa). In enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, L1Mab-352 and L1Mab-354 showed high binding affinity to the dPD-L1 peptide, and the dissociation constants (KD) were determined as 6.9 ×10-10 M and 7.2 ×10-10 M, respectively. Furthermore, L1Mab-352 and L1Mab-354 were applicable for the detection of dPD-L1 in immunohistochemical analysis in paraffin-embedded dPD-L1-expressed cells. These results indicated that L1Mab-352 and L1Mab-354 are useful for detecting dPD-L1 in immunohistochemical analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0900.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: HER2; monoclonal antibody; ADCC; CDC; antitumor activity
Online: 13 July 2023 (09:23:17 CEST)
Breast cancer patients with high levels of HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) expression had worse clinical outcomes. Anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) is the most important therapeutic modality for HER2-positive breast cancer. We previously immunized mice with the ectodomain of HER2 to create the anti-HER2 mAb, H2Mab-77 (mouse IgG1, kappa). This was then altered to produce H2Mab-77-mG2a-f, an afucosylated mouse IgG2a. In the present work, we examined the reactivity of H2Mab-77-mG2a-f and antitumor effects against breast cancers in vitro and in vivo. BT-474, an endogenously HER2-expressed breast cancer cell line, was identified by H2Mab-77-mG2a-f with a strong binding affinity [a dissociation constant (KD): 5.0 × 10-9 M]. H2Mab-77-mG2a-f could stain HER2 of breast cancer tissues in immunohistochemistry and detect HER2 protein in western blot analysis. Furthermore, H2Mab-77-mG2a-f demonstrated strong antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) for BT-474 cells. MDA-MB-468, a HER2-negative breast cancer cell line, was unaffected by H2Mab-77-mG2a-f. Additionally, in the BT-474-bearing tumor xenograft model, H2Mab-77-mG2a-f substantially suppressed tumor development when compared to the control mouse IgG2a mAb. In contrast, the HER2-negative MDA-MB-468-bearing tumor xenograft model showed no response to H2Mab-77-mG2a-f. These findings point to the possibility of H2Mab-77-mG2a-f as a treatment regimen by showing that it has antitumor effects on HER2-positive breast tumors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2090.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: COVID-19 vaccine; booster; underlying diseases; antibody
Online: 29 June 2023 (10:10:56 CEST)
Data on immunogenicity, immune response persistency, and safety of COVID-19 boosters in patients with comorbidities are limited. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate and compare three different boosters in individuals who received two doses of the BBIBP-CorV vaccine including underlying diseases and healthy cases as control. One hundred forty subjects including 63 ones with at least one of three underlying diseases (UD) (including obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus) and 77 healthy ones (HC) who had received a booster dose (either PastoCovac Plus or PastoCovac or BBIBP-CorV) were enrolled. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was assessed before the booster injection and 28, 60, 90, and 180 days after it. Moreover, the adverse events (AEs) were recorded on days 7 and 21 post-booster shot for evaluating safety outcomes. Significantly increased titers of anti-spike, anti-RBD, and neutralizing antibodies were observed in both UD and HC groups 28 days after the booster dose, although the titer rise of anti-spike IgG and anti-RBD IgG was insignificantly inferior in the UD group compared to the HC group. All antibodies’ titers declined, with no significant differences between the two groups over time. Notably, all specific antibodies persisted up to 180 days; particularly the neutralizing antibody in both groups. Furthermore, no significant difference in antibody levels was observed between each UD subgroup and the HC group, except for neutralizing antibodies in the hypertension sub-group. PastoCovac Plus and PastoCovac boosters induced higher antibodies’ fold rise in UD individuals than BBIBP-CorV booster recipients. Safety outcomes did not show any serious AEs after the booster injection. The overall incidence of AEs post the booster injection was higher in the UD group than the HC group. Furthermore, the highest systemic AEs rate was reported in the UD group receiving the BBIBP-CorV booster. In conclusion, administration of COVID-19 boosters can equally induce robust and persistent humoral immune responses in individuals with or without UD primarily vaccinated with 2-doses of the BBIBP-CorV. Protein-based boosters with higher antibodies' fold rise and lower AEs in individuals with comorbidities might be considered a better choice for these individuals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1161.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Multiple myeloma; belantamab mafodotin; antibody-drug-conjugate.
Online: 28 April 2023 (10:12:31 CEST)
Despite the recent approval of novel immunotherapies, as immunomodulatory drug, proteasome inhibitors and anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies, Multiple Myeloma (MM) remains incurable and the acquisition of triple-refractoriness leads to really dismal outcomes, in even earlier lines of therapy. More recently, innovative therapeutic strategies targeting B cell maturation antigen (BCMA), highly expressed on the plasma cell surface, are drawing different future landscapes in terms of effectiveness and outcomes. Belantamab Mafodotin, a first-in-class anti-BCMA antibody drug conjugates, demonstrated good efficacy and safety profile in triple-refractory patients in the phase 2 DREAMM-2 trial and it was approved for the treatment of MM triple-exposed patients with >4 prior lines of therapy. Here, starting from Belantamab Mafodotin clinical trials also exploring combination studies and different schedules in order to improve its efficacy and toxicity, we focused on real life experiences all over the world, which have confirmed clinical trial data and encourage further Belantamab Mafodotin investigations
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0309.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: mouse CCR6; monoclonal antibody; epitope; ELISA; SPR
Online: 16 March 2023 (14:13:28 CET)
CC chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) is one of the members of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family that is upregulated in many immune-related cells, including B lymphocytes, effector and memory T cells, regulatory T cells, and immature dendritic cells. Coordination between CCR6 and its ligand CC motif chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) is deeply involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases, such as cancer, autoimmune diseases, and psoriasis. Therefore, CCR6 is an attractive target for therapy and is being investigated as a diagnostic marker for patients. In a previous study, we developed an anti-mouse CCR6 (mCCR6) monoclonal antibody (mAb), C6Mab-13 (rat IgG1, kappa), applicable for flow cytometry by immunizing a rat with N-terminal peptide of mCCR6. This study investigated the binding epitope of C6Mab-13 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) methods with the synthesized point mutated-peptides within 1-20 amino acids region of mCCR6. In ELISA, C6Mab-13 lost the reaction to the alanine-substituted peptide of D11A. The epitope of C6Mab-13 was identified to be Asp11 in ELISA. Furthermore, in SPR analysis, the dissociation constants (KD) could not be calculated for G9A and D11A mutants due to lack of binding. The SPR analysis demonstrated that the C6Mab-13 epitope comprises Gly9 and Asp11. Taken together, the key binding epitope of C6Mab-13 was determined to be around Asp11 on mCCR6. Based on the epitope information, C6Mab-13 could be useful for further functional analysis of mCCR6 in future studies.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0016.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: enfortumab vedotin; brain metastases; antibody-drug conjugate
Online: 1 February 2023 (16:46:24 CET)
Abstract: Enfortumab vedotin (EV), an antibody-drug conjugate directed against Nectin-4, signif-icantly prolonged survival when compared with standard chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma who previously received platinum-based chemo-therapy and a PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitor. The confirmed overall response rate in the phase 3 EV301 trial leading to approval was 40.6%. However, no data have been published about the activity in brain metastases. Here, we present three patients from different centers with brain metastases receiving EV. A 58-year-old male Caucasian patient, who was heavily pretreated for urothelial carcinoma with visceral metastases and a solitary clinically active brain metastasis, started on EV 1.25 mg/kg on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle. The first evaluation after three cycles of EV showed a partial remission by RECIST v1.1 with a near complete response in the brain metastasis and disappear-ance of the neurological complaints. The patient is currently still receiving EV. A second, 74-year-old male patient started on the same regimen, after previous progression on platinum-based chemotherapy and maintenance avelumab. The patient achieved complete response and remained on therapy for five months. However, therapy was discontinued at the patient’s re-quest. Shortly after, he developed new leptomeningeal metastases. Upon rechallenge with EV, there was a significant reduction in the diffuse meningeal infiltration. A third, 50-year-old male Caucasian patient also received EV, after previous progression on cisplatin-gemcitabine and ate-zolizumab maintenance followed by palliative whole brain radiotherapy and two cycles of vin-flunine. The first evaluation after three cycles of EV showed a significant reduction of the brain metastases. The patient is currently still receiving EV. These are the first reports on efficacy of EV in patients with urothelial carcinoma and active brain metastases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0256.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Zika virus; intravaginal infection; superchallenge; neutralizing antibody
Online: 18 October 2022 (07:45:22 CEST)
Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks in Central and South America caused severe public health problems in 2015 and 2016. These outbreaks were finally contained through several methods, including mosquito control using insecticides and repellents. Additionally, the development of herd immunity in these countries might have contributed to containing the epidemic. While ZIKV is mainly transmitted by mosquito bites, mucosal transmission via bodily fluids, including the semen of infected individuals, has also been reported. We evaluated the effect of mucosal ZIKV infection on continuous subcutaneous challenges in a cynomolgus monkey model. Repeated intravaginal inoculations of ZIKV did not induce detectable viremia or clinical symptoms, and all animals developed a potent neutralizing antibody, protecting animals from the subsequent subcutaneous superchallenge. These results suggest that viral replication at mucosal sites can induce protective immunity without causing systemic viremia or symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0048.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: antibody; immunotherapy; CRISPR/HDR; FC optimization; hybridoma
Online: 2 August 2022 (08:10:26 CEST)
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are major drivers behind immunosuppressive mechanisms and present a major hurdle for cancer therapy. Tregs are characterized by high expression of CD25, which is a potentially valuable target for Treg depletion to alleviate immune suppression. The preclinical anti-CD25 (αCD25) antibody, clone PC-61, has met with modest anti-tumor activity, due to its capacity to clear Tregs from circulation and lymph nodes but not those that reside in the tumor. Optimization of the Fc domain of this antibody clone has been shown to enhance intratumoral Treg depletion capacity. Here, we generated a stable cell line that produces optimized recombinant Treg depleting antibodies. A genome engineering strategy in which CRISPR-Cas9 was combined with homology directed repair (CRISPR-HDR) was utilized to optimize the Fc domain of the hybridoma PC-61 for effector functions by switching it from the original rat IgG1 to a mouse IgG2a isotype. In a syngeneic tumor mouse model the resulting αCD25-m2a antibody mediated effective depletion of tumor resident Tregs leading to a high effector T cell (Teff) to Treg ratio. Moreover, combination of the αCD25-m2a with αPD-L1 treatment augmented tumor eradication in mice, demonstrating the potential for αCD25 as a cancer immunotherapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0090.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: COVID-19; Immunotherapy; Immunomodulator; Antibody; Plasma; Immunoglobulins
Online: 5 July 2020 (17:01:31 CEST)
Since the outbreak of SARS CoV-2 infection (Covid-19), healthcare professionals worldwide have been trying to find disease management and control alternatives to encourage immunotherapies. Immunotherapy is an efficient therapeutic option used against comparable viral contaminations such as MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. The aim of the current study is to assess the existing knowledge associated with SARS-CoV-2 immunotherapy. Information available in published articles and their quality highlights the importance of following strict scientific rules for clinical outcomes. Thus, these studies have shown enough data to confirm that immunomodulation is the main topic investigated in research about Covid-19 therapy. Therefore, it is possible saying that immunotherapy is certainly the appropriate option against this virus.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0184.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; diagnosis; antibody; serology; screening
Online: 6 April 2020 (14:09:34 CEST)
To date, viral RNA detection is almost the only way to confirm SARS-CoV-2infectionin practice.However, variousreasons can cause low sensitivity for RNA detection, and thisposes aserious challenge to disease control. We tested the performance of detecting total antibody(Ab) and IgM levels in serum by the methods of chemiluminescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and colloidal golddetection. The datashowed that the sensitivity and specificity for detecting total Ab and IgM levels were high by all three methods, and the sensitivity was higher for detecting total Ab than for detecting IgM. Evidence from studieshas shown thatviral RNA testingcombinedwith serological testing could increase the diagnostic sensitivity while maintaining a high specificity. Specific serology testsfor SARS-CoV-2 havegreat value for clinical practice and public health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1691.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: antibody-antigen complex; biotin; ELISA; immunoassays; interference; streptavidin
Online: 24 August 2023 (09:53:04 CEST)
The use of antibiotics grown promoter has been banned, due led problems with drug residues in animal products and increased bacterial resistance. For several reasons there is a growing interest in the scientific community in immunoglobulin Y as antibiotic alternative and their oral administration in the polyclonal antibody (pAb) format, to maintain animal health and performance, do not require IgY purification for large-scale production, resulting in protein impurities and high concentration of biotin in the samples. The signal amplification through non-covalent interaction of biotin with streptavidin has been extensionally used by many laboratories for several diagnosis diseases and scientific research in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, the riches sources of biotin as egg yolk, leading to high biotin concentrations in samples, harming the accuracy of diagnostic and proteins concentrations tests. This study aimed to evaluate the biotin influence on measurement of Immunoglobulin Y in egg yolk freeze dried samples from immunized laying hens by immunoassays using biotin-avidin/streptavidin. The IgY concentration changed down in immunoassays using biotin-avidin/streptavidin. The detection of IgY in yolk samples by ELISA using streptavidin–biotin binding as part of the assay methodology requires some technology to neutralize high concentration of biotin on sample or more steps beyond delipidation to isolate the target protein. Otherwise, an ELISA without the use of streptavidin-biotin binding would be more advisable to avoid biotin and targets protein relationship and prevent biotin interference on results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0056.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Covid-19; antibody response; vaccination; kidney transplant recipients
Online: 1 August 2023 (10:38:45 CEST)
The Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with a high rate of mortality in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). The current vaccine strategy for KTRs seems to be unable to provide effective protection against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)  and the occurrence of severe COVID-19 in some vaccinated KTRs suggested a lack of immunity. We analized here the antibody response in a group of 32 kidney transplant recipients (KTR) followed at the Nephrology and Dialysis unit of the Hospital Pio XI of Desio, Italy, compared with a group of 23 healthy workers classified as Late responders (HCW-LR) (10 males age 27-62) and 13 females (age 46-64). We observed that the patients need additional vaccine boosters due to their immunocompromised status and therapy to protect them from infections related to viral variants, in accordance with the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1845.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: hepatitis D; prevalence; anti-HDV antibody; HDV RNA
Online: 27 July 2023 (10:26:46 CEST)
Background: It is assumed that the prevalence of hepatitis D in HBsAg-positive individuals reaches 4.5-13% in the world, and on average about 3% in Europe. Data from several European countries, including Slovakia, are missing or are from an older period. Methods: We analyzed all available data on hepatitis D from Slovakia, including reports from the Slovak Public Health Authority and the results of one prospective study, and three smaller surveys. The determination of anti-HDV IgG and IgM antibodies and/or HDV RNA was used to detect hepatitis D. Results: In the years 2005-2022, no confirmed case of acute or chronic HDV infection was reported in Slovakia. The presented survey includes a total of 343 patients, of which 126 were asymptomatic HBsAg carriers, 33 acute hepatitis B, and 184 chronic hepatitis B cases. In a recent prospective study of 206 HBsAg-positive patients who were completely serologically and virologically examined for hepatitis B and D, only 1 anti-HDV IgG positive and no anti-HDV IgM or HDV RNA positive cases were detected. In other smaller surveys, 2 anti-HDV IgG positive patients were found without the possibility of HDV RNA confirmation. In total, only 3 of 329 HBsAg-positive patients (0.91%) tested positive for anti-HDV IgG antibodies and none of 220 tested positive for HDV RNA. Conclusion: The available data show that Slovakia is one of the countries with a very low prevalence of HDV infection reaching less than 1% in HBsAg-positive patients. Routine testing for hepatitis D is lacking in Slovakia, and therefore it is necessary to implement testing of all HBsAg-positive individuals according to international recommendations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0195.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: artificial intelligence; protein structure; protein modeling; nanobody; antibody
Online: 11 April 2023 (05:13:24 CEST)
The number of applications for nanobodies is steadily expanding, positioning these molecules as fast-growing biologic products in the biotechnology market. Several of their applications require protein engineering, which in turn would greatly benefit from having a reliable structural model of the nanobody of interest. However, as with antibodies, structural modeling of nanobodies is still a challenge. With the rise of artificial intelligence (AI), several methods have been developed in recent years that attempt to solve the problem of protein modeling. In this study, we have compared the performance in nanobody modeling of several state-of-the-art AI-based programs, either designed for general protein modeling, such as AlphaFold2, OmegaFold, ESMFold and Yang-Server, or specifically designed for antibody modeling, such as IgFold, and Nanonet. While all these programs performed rather well in constructing the nanobody framework and CDRs 1 and 2, modeling of CDR3 sill represents a big challenge. Interestingly, tailoring an AI method for antibody modeling does not necessarily translate into better results for nanobodies.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0181.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: CCR6; monoclonal antibody; peptide immunization; flow cytometry; immunohistochemistry
Online: 9 March 2023 (13:45:12 CET)
CC chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family that is highly expressed in B lymphocytes, effector and memory T cells, regulatory T cells, and immature dendritic cells. CCR6 has been revealed to have important functions in many pathological conditions, such as cancer, intestinal bowel disease, psoriasis, and autoimmune diseases. The only CCR6 chemokine ligand, CC motif chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20), is also involved in pathogenesis by interacting with CCR6. The CCL20/CCR6 axis is drawing attention as an attractive therapeutic target for various diseases. In this study, we developed novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against human CCR6 (hCCR6) using the peptide immunization method, which are applicable to flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. The established anti-hCCR6 mAb, clone C6Mab-19 (mouse IgG1, kappa), reacted with hCCR6-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 (CHO/hCCR6), HepG2 (human liver carcinoma), and HuH-7 (human differentiated hepatoma) cells in flow cytometry. The dissociation constant (KD) of C6Mab-19 was determined as 3.0 × 10−10 M for CHO/hCCR6, 6.9 × 10−10 M for HepG2, and 1.8 × 10−10 M for HuH-7. Thus, C6Mab-19 could bind to exogenously and endogenously expressed hCCR6 with extremely high affinity. Furthermore, C6Mab-19 could stain formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lymph node tissues from a patient with non-Hodgkin lymphoma by immunohistochemistry. Therefore, C6Mab-19 is suitable for detecting hCCR6-expressing cells and tissues, and could be useful for pathological analysis and diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0028.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: EGFR; HER2; bispecific antibody; ADCC; CDC; canine osteosarcoma
Online: 5 October 2022 (09:45:16 CEST)
The overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) has been reported in various human tumors, including breast, gastric, lung, colorectal, and pancreatic cancers. Humanized anti‐EGFR and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been shown to improve patients’ survival. Canine tumors resemble human tumors in the initiation and progression. We previously established a defucosylated mouse-dog chimeric anti‐EGFR mAb (E134Bf) and a mouse-dog chimeric anti‐HER2 mAb (H77Bf), which exerted antitumor activities in canine tumor xenograft models. Here, we produced E134Bf antibody fused to H77Bf single chain Fv at the light chains (E134Bf-H77scFv). The bispecific E134Bf-H77scFv recognized dog EGFR (dEGFR) and dog HER2 (dHER2)-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells by flow cytometry. E134Bf-H77scFv also reacted with dEGFR and dHER2‐positive canine osteosarcoma D-17 cells, and possesses a high binding-affinity (KD: 1.3x10-9 M). Furthermore, E134Bf-H77scFv exerted antibody‐dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement‐dependent cytotoxicity against D-17 cells in the presence of canine mononuclear cells and complement, respectively. Moreover, administration of E134Bf-H77scFv suppressed the development of D-17 xenograft tumor in mice early compared with the control dog IgG, E134Bf and H77Bf alone. These results indicate that E134Bf-H77scFv exerts antitumor activities against dEGFR/dHER2-positive canine tumors, and could be a valuable treatment regimen for canine tumors.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0194.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: antibody; binding energy; binding landscape; logistic function; network
Online: 21 April 2022 (08:10:03 CEST)
Antibodies constitute a major component of serum on protein mass basis. We also know that the structural diversity of these antibodies exceeds that of all other proteins in the body and they react with an immense number of molecular targets. What we still cannot quantitatively describe is, how antibody abundance is related to affinity, specificity and cross reactivity. This ignorance has important practical consequences: we also do not have proper biochemical units for characterizing polyclonal serum antibody binding. The solution requires both a theoretical foundation, a physical model of the system, and technology for the experimental confirmation of theory. Here we argue that the quantitative characterization of interactions between serum antibodies and their targets requires systems-level physical chemistry approach and generates results that should help create maps of antibody binding landscape.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0015.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: tilapia broodstock; inactivated vaccines; maternal passive immunity; antibody
Online: 4 January 2022 (15:41:19 CET)
Tilapia lake virus (TiLV), a major pathogen of farmed tilapia, is known to be vertically transmitted. Here, we hypothesize that Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) broodstock immunized with a TiLV inactivated vaccine can mount a protective antibody response and passively transfer maternal antibodies to their fertilized eggs and larvae. To test this hypothesis, three groups of tilapia broodstock, each containing 4 males and 8 females, were immunized with either a heat-killed TiLV vaccine (HKV), a formalin-killed TiLV vaccine (FKV) (both administered at 3.6 ×106 TCID50 per fish), or with L15 medium. Booster vaccination with the same vaccines was given 3-weeks later, and mating took place 1 week thereafter. Broodstock blood sera, fertilized eggs and larvae were collected from 6-14 weeks post-primary vaccination for measurement of TiLV-specific antibody (anti-TiLV IgM) levels. In parallel, passive immunization using sera from the immunized female broodstock was administered to naïve tilapia juveniles to assess if antibodies induced in immunized broodstock were protective. The results showed that anti-TiLV IgM was produced in the majority of both male and female broodstock vaccinated with either the HKV or FKV and that and that these antibodies could be detected in the fertilized eggs and larvae from vaccinated broodstock. Higher levels of maternal antibody were observed in fertilized eggs from broodstock vaccinated with HKV than those vaccinated with FKV. Low levels of TiLV-IgM were detected in some of the 1-3-day old larvae but were undetectable in 7-14-day old larvae from the vaccinated broodstock, indicating a short persistence of TiLV-IgM in larvae. Moreover, passive immunization proved that antibodies elicited by TiLV vaccination were able to confer 85% to 90% protection against TiLV challenge in naïve juvenile tilapia. In conclusion, immunization of tilapia broodstock with TiLV vaccines could be a potential strategy for the prevention of TiLV in tilapia fertilized eggs and larvae, with HKV appearing to be more promising than FKV for maternal vaccination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0263.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Antibody titer; Broiler chicken; IBD vaccines; Immunogenicity evaluation
Online: 19 October 2021 (08:51:54 CEST)
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is one of the most endemic diseases of commercial poultry in Ethiopia. Vaccination has been practiced as the major means of IBD prevention and control. A study was conducted to determine and compare the immunogenicity of two commercially available IBD vaccines in broiler chicken with maternally derived antibody (MDA). Day-old chickens of 270 were randomly assigned to three groups, group 1 vaccinated with brand 1 vaccine at 7th and 19th days and group 2 with brand 2 vaccine at 15th and 22nd days while group 3 were kept as control. Six chickens were also randomly selected and bled on day 1 for differential leukocyte count (DLC) and determination of MDA. Representative chickens from each group were bled at 24th and 42nd days of age for antibody titration using the indirect ELISA test. DLC scores were determined in the 1st and 24th days. The result revealed highly significant differences (P = 0.001) between group 1 and group 2 in DLC at 24th days of age. Antibody titers against IBD were differed significantly (P = 0.02) at 24th and 42nd days of age in broilers vaccinated with brand 1 and brand 2 vaccines. It is concluded that although both brands of vaccine induce an adequate immunological response at the end of the experiment, brand 1 vaccine has shown significantly high antibody titers against the IBDV and DLC than brand 2.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0501.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Antigen Selection; Epitope Selection; Antibody Targeting; Epitope Accessibility; Antibody Engineering; Protein Engineering; Drug Targeting; Model-Informed Drug Discovery and Development
Online: 3 November 2021 (08:26:47 CET)
The target of an antibody plays a significant role in the success of antibody-based therapeutics and diagnostics, and to an extent, that of vaccine development. This importance is focussed on the target binding site – epitope, where epitope selection as a part of design thinking beyond traditional antigen selection using whole cell or whole protein immunisation can positively impact success. With purified recombinant protein production and peptide synthesis to display limited/selected epitopes, intrinsic factors that can affect the functioning of resulting antibodies can be more easily selected for. Many of these factors stem from the location of the epitope that can affect accessibility of the antibody to the epitope at a cellular or molecular level, direct inhibition of target antigen activity, conservation of function despite escape mutations, and even non-competitive inhibition sites. Through the incorporation of novel computational methods for predicting antigen changes to model-informed drug discovery and development, superior vaccines and antibody-based therapeutics or diagnostics can now be more easily designed to mitigate failures. With detailed examples, this review highlights the new opportunities, factors and methods of predicting antigenic changes for consideration in sagacious epitope selection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0508.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Alphavirus; Antibody; Assembly; Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus; Structure
Online: 22 July 2021 (07:52:20 CEST)
Alphaviruses are arboviruses that cause arthritis and encephalitis in humans. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus (EEEV) is a mosquito transmitted alphavirus that is implicated in severe encephalitis in humans with high mortality. However, limited insights are available into its fundamental biology of EEEV and residue-level details of its interactions with host proteins. In recent years, outbreaks of EEEV have been reported mainly in the United States, raising concerns about public safety. This review article summarizes recent advances in the structural biology of EEEV based mainly on recent single particle cryogenic electron microscopy (cryoEM) structures. Together with functional analyses of EEEV and related alphaviruses, these structural investigations provide clues to how EEEV interacts with host proteins, which may open avenues for the development of therapeutics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0206.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: adnectin; biosensor; Fibronectin; monobody; non-antibody scaffold; therapeutic
Online: 19 January 2020 (03:25:24 CET)
As a non-antibody scaffold, monobodies based on the fibronectin type III (FN3) domain overcome antibody size and complexity while maintaining analogous binding loops. However, antibodies and their derivatives remain the gold standard for design of new therapeutics. In response, clinical therapeutic proteins based on the FN3 domain are beginning to use native fibronectin function as a point of differentiation. The small and simple structure of monomeric monobodies confers increased tissue distribution and reduced half-life, whilst the absence of disulphide bonds improves stability in cytosolic environments. Where multi-specificity is challenging with an antibody format that is prone to mis-pairing of chains, FN3 domains in the fibronectin assembly already interact with a large number of molecules. As such, multiple monobodies engineered for interaction with therapeutic targets are being combined in a similar beads-on-a-string assembly which improves both efficacy and pharmacokinetics. Furthermore, full length fibronectin is able to fold into multiple conformations as part of its natural function and a greater understanding of how mechanical forces allow for the transition between states will lead to advanced applications that truly differentiate the FN3 domain as a therapeutic scaffold.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0383.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ADCC; glycosylation; kifunensine; plant made pharmaceuticals; monoclonal antibody
Online: 16 November 2018 (07:24:35 CET)
N-glycosylation has been shown to affect the pharmacokinetic properties of several classes of biologics including monoclonal antibodies, blood factors, and lysosomal enzymes. In the last two decades, N-glycan engineering has been employed to achieve a N-glycosylation profile that is either more consistent or aligned with a specific improved activity (i.e. effector function or serum half-life). In particular, attention has focused on engineering processes in vivo or in vitro to alter the structure of the N-glycosylation of the Fc region of anti-cancer monoclonal antibodies in order to increase antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Here we applied the mannosidase I inhibitor kifunensine to the Nicotiana benthamiana transient expression platform to produce an afucosylated anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab). We determined the optimal concentration of kifunensine used in the infiltration solution, 0.375 µM, which was sufficient to produce exclusively oligomannose glycoforms, at a concentration 14 times lower than previously published levels. The resulting afucosylated rituximab revealed a 14-fold increase in ADCC activity targeting the lymphoma cell line Wil2-S when compared with rituximab produced in the absence of kifunensine. When applied to the cost-effective and scalable N. benthamiana transient expression platform, the use of kifunensine allows simple in-process glycan engineering without the need for transgenic hosts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0066.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: antibody titre; vaccination; dog; canine distemper virus; Jos
Online: 20 September 2016 (10:14:26 CEST)
Determination of antibody titre of dogs vaccinated against canine distemper in Jos North and South local Government Areas of Plateau State was carried out by collection of sera of vaccinated dogs and administration of well-structured questionnaires to dog owners. The samples collected were analyzed using the immune-blot ELISA Kit to determining the antibody titre (immunoglobulin G). It indicated that dogs vaccinated against the disease mounted adequate protective immunity. The result revealed that 54 (90.0%) of the sampled dogs have protective immunity, with those given more than one dose having higher level of protective antibody. Statistically, the result showed that the antibody titre did not differ significantly in relation to immunity and sex, breed, age and location but significant difference was seen in relation to number of primary vaccination. The result also revealed that those dogs that received booster doses (secondary vaccination) had more protective antibody. The study was aimed at evaluating the antibody titre of dogs vaccinated against canine distemper in Jos, Plateau State.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0906.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: HER2; cancer-specific monoclonal antibody; screening; epitope; flow cytometry
Online: 28 November 2023 (03:35:30 CET)
Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in breast and gastric cancers is an important target for monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy. All therapeutic mAbs, including anti-HER2 mAbs, exhibit adverse effects probably due to the recognition of antigens expressed in normal cells. Therefore, tumor-selective or specific mAbs can be beneficial in reducing the adverse effects. In this study, we established a novel cancer-specific anti-HER2 antibody, named H2Mab-250/H2CasMab-2 (IgG1, kappa). H2Mab-250 reacted with HER2-positive breast cancer BT-474 and SK-BR-3 cells. Importantly, H2Mab-250 did not react with non-transformed normal epithelial cells (HaCaT and MCF 10A) and immortalized normal epithelial cells in flow cytometry. In contrast, most anti-HER2 mAbs including H2Mab-119 (IgG1, kappa) reacted with both cancer and normal epithelial cells. Furthermore, a core-fucose deleted IgG2a-type H2Mab-250 (H2Mab-250-mG2a-f) could trigger the antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity activity to BT-474, but not to HaCaT cells. Furthermore, H2Mab-250-mG2a-f exhibited an in vivo antitumor effect against BT-474 xenograft. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that H2Mab-250 possesses much higher reactivity to the HER2-positive breast cancer tissues compared to H2Mab-119, and did not react with normal tissues, including heart, breast, stomach, lung, colon, kidney, and esophagus. The epitope mapping demonstrated that the Trp614 of HER2 domain IV mainly contributes to the recognition by H2Mab-250. H2Mab-250 could contribute to the development of chimeric antigen receptor-T or antibody-drug conjugates without adverse effects for breast cancer therapy.
INTERESTING IMAGES | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0542.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: neuromyelitis optica; cervical spondylotic myelopathty; neuroimaging; anti-aquaporin4 antibody)
Online: 8 November 2023 (10:45:44 CET)
The differentiation between Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is necessary, because both diseases have similar symptoms, such as motor weakness and sensory disturbances. The challenge arises when NMOSD presents with short-segment spinal cord lesions, which can mimic the clinical presentation of CSM. This case report presents an NMOSD misdiagnosed as CSM. A 66-year-old woman presented with neck pain, left arm pain, and motor weakness. She was initially diagnosed with CSM based on MRI findings that revealed the increased signal intensity of the spinal cord at the C3 to 4 levels and underwent surgery. Three years later, she had sudden left upper extremity motor weakness and mild gait disturbance. Physical exam showed left-side weakness and altered reflexes, with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) findings on cervical MRI. The CSF study revealed a 2+ AQP4-Ab finding. Finally, NMO was diagnosed. Steroid pulsed therapy and immunosuppression therapy led to improved motor function and gait after 20 days. We present a case report of a NMO patient who initially exhibited clinical and radiological features CSM but was later diagnosed with NMO. This case underscores the diagnostic challenge in distinguishing NMO from CSM, especially in elderly patients who commonly experience spinal degeneration leading to cord compression and associated cord signal changes on MRI. The misinterpretation or confusion with transverse myelitis can occur as a result. This case highlights the importance of considering NMO as a potential differential diagnosis in elderly patients with spinal degeneration, emphasizing the significance of precise and timely diagnosis for guiding optimal treatment decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0861.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis; tuberculosis; population-based study
Online: 13 October 2023 (08:10:55 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Treatment for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) must deal with immunosuppression as well as infections associated with compromised immune system, such as tuberculosis (TB). Our aim was to overcome the gap in the literature concerning the risk of incidental TB after diagnosis of AAV. Materials and Methods: This retrospective population-based cohort study was based on the data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We used a novel algorithm to identify patients with newly diagnosed granulomatous polyangiitis (GPA) or microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2012. The primary outcome was risk of incidental TB. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the association between AAV and incidental TB. Results: A total of 2,257 patients with AAV and a propensity-score matched cohort of 9,028 patients were studied. Overall, patients with AAV were at a 1.48x higher risk of contracting incidental TB than were patients in the matched cohort (adjusted HR 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-2.15). Note that the highest risk of contracting incidental TB was in the first two years following a diagnosis of AAV, with a nearly 1-fold increase in risk (adjusted HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.01-3.60). Female AAV patients were 3.24x more likely than females without AAV to develop TB (adjusted HR 3.24; 95%CI, 1.85-5.67). Conclusion: Patients with AAV face an elevated risk of contracting incidental TB, particularly within the first two years after AAV diagnosis. The risk of contracting TB is higher among female AAV patients than among females without AAV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0387.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Convalescent serum; Neutralizing antibody
Online: 4 August 2023 (12:35:21 CEST)
We investigated humoral immune responses in 222 unvaccinated Japanese people after recovery from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in 2021. Anti-spike protein IgG antibody levels and neutralizing antibody titers were measured in serum samples obtained within 20–180 days after diagnosis. The geometric mean of antibody titers was 1555 ELU/mL (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1257-1923), and the neutralizing activities (50% inhibitory dilution) was 253 (95% CI = 204-313). The antibody titer and neutralizing activity both increased with increasing disease severity, and both values were approximately 4-fold higher for hospitalized patients than for non-hospitalized patients. However, these differences were smaller in older patients. The humoral immune response, which increased with increasing disease severity, gradually decreased over time after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Most patients with mild or moderate symptoms sustained neutralizing activity for up to 180 days after the infection, the decay of the neutralizing activity in the patients with asymptomatic was rather faster than other groups. 11.7% (26/222) of patients had very low neutralizing activity, and half of these were in the age of 20s. Our study results show the importance of measuring the neutralizing activity to confirm the immune status and also estimate the timing of vaccine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1288.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: EphB4; monoclonal antibody; Cell-Based Immunization and Screening; immunohistochemistry
Online: 19 July 2023 (04:40:06 CEST)
The erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma (Eph) receptors are the largest receptor tyrosine kinases family. EphB4 is essential for cell adhesion and motility during embryogenesis. Pathologically, EphB4 is overexpressed and contributes to poor prognosis in various tumors. Therefore, sensitive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) should be developed to predict the prognosis for multiple tumors with high EphB4 expression, including breast and gastric cancers. This study aimed to develop highly sensitive and specific anti-EphB4 mAbs for several applications using the Cell-Based Immunization and Screening (CBIS) method. EphB4-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 (CHO/EphB4) cells were immunized into mice, and we established an anti-EphB4 mAb (clone B4Mab-7), which is applicable for flow cytometry, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. B4Mab-7 reacted with endogenous EphB4-positive breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468, but did not react with EphB4-knockout MCF-7 (BINDS-52) in flow cytometry. Dissociation constant (KD) values were determined to be 2.9 × 10‑9 M, 1.3 × 10‑9 M, and 3.3 × 10‑9 M by flow cytometric analysis for CHO/EphB4, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-468 cells, respectively. B4Mab-7 detected the EphB4 protein bands from breast cancer cells in western blotting, and stained breast cancer tissues immunohistochemistry. Altogether, B4Mab-7 demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity against EphB4 in various applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1905.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: CD44; CD44v10; monoclonal antibody; oral squamous cell carcinoma; immunohistochemistry
Online: 26 May 2023 (09:49:30 CEST)
CD44 is known as a cancer stem cell marker of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and plays a critical role in cancer malignant progression. Splicing variant isoforms of CD44 (CD44v) are overexpressed in cancers and considered a promising target for cancer therapy. Several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against CD44 have been developed by immunizing mice with CD44v3–10-overexpressed cancer cells. In this study, we characterized a novel clone, C44Mab-18 (IgM, kappa). C44Mab-18 reacted with CHO/CD44v3–10, but not with CHO/CD44s by flow cytometry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that the epitope of C44Mab-18 is determined to be the border sequence between variant 10 and the constant exon 16-encoded sequence. Flow cytometry showed that C44Mab-18 recognizes HSC-3, an oral squamous cell carcinoma(OSCC) cell line. The apparent dissociation constant (KD) of C44Mab-18 for CHO/CD44v3–10 and HSC-3 was determined to be 1.6 × 10−7 M and 1.7 × 10−7 M, respectively. C44Mab-18 detected CD44v3–10, but not CHO/CD44s in western blotting. Furthermore, C44Mab-18 detected endogenous CD44v10 in immunohistochemistry using OSCC tissues. Taken together, C44Mab-18 is useful for detecting CD44v10 in flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0452.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: CD44; CD44 variant 3; monoclonal antibody; flow cytometry; immunohistochemistry
Online: 17 April 2023 (10:44:35 CEST)
Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) promotes tumor progression through the recruitment of growth factors, and the acquisition of stemness, invasiveness, and drug resistance. CD44 has multiple isoforms including CD44 standard (CD44s) and CD44 variants (CD44v), which have common and unique functions in tumor development. Therefore, the elucidation of each CD44 isoform’s function in tumor is essential for the establishment of CD44-targeting tumor therapy. We have established various anti-CD44s and anti-CD44v monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) through immunization of CD44v3–10-overexpressed cells. In this study, we established C44Mab-6 (IgG1, kappa), which recognized the CD44 variant 3-encoded region (CD44v3) determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. C44Mab-6 reacted with CD44v3–10-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells (CHO/CD44v3–10) or some cancer cell lines (COLO205 and HSC-3) by flow cytometry. The apparent KD of C44Mab-6 for CHO/CD44v3–10, COLO205, and HSC-3 was 1.5 × 10−9 M, 6.3 × 10−9 M, and 1.9 × 10−9 M, respectively. C44Mab-6 could detect the CD44v3–10 in western blotting, and stained the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor sections in immunohistochemistry. These results indicate that C44Mab-6 is useful for detecting CD44v3 in various experiments, and expected for the application of tumor diagnosis and therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0581.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: CD44; CD44 variant 5; monoclonal antibody; flow cytometry; immunohistochemistry
Online: 31 January 2023 (09:08:35 CET)
Pancreatic cancer exhibits a poor prognosis due to the lack of early diagnostic biomarkers and the resistance to conventional chemotherapy. CD44 has been known as a cancer stem cell marker, and plays tumor promotion and drug resistance in various cancers. Especially, the splicing variants are overexpressed in many carcinomas, and play essential roles in the cancer stemness, invasiveness or metastasis, and resistance to treatments. Therefore, the understanding of each CD44 variant (CD44v) function and distribution in carcinomas is essential for the establishment of CD44-targeting tumor therapy. In this study, we immunized mice with CD44v3–10-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 (CHO) cells, and established various anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). One of the established clones (C44Mab-3; IgG1, kappa) recognized peptides of the variant 5-encoded region, indicating that C44Mab-3 is a specific mAb for CD44v5. Moreover, C44Mab-3 reacted with CHO/CD44v3–10 cells or pancreatic cancer cell lines (PK-1 and PK-8) by flow cytometry. The apparent KD of C44Mab-3 for CHO/CD44v3–10 and PK-1 was 7.1 × 10−10 M and 1.9 × 10−9 M, respectively. C44Mab-3 could detect the exogenous CD44v3–10 and endogenous CD44v5 in western blotting, and stained the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded pancreatic cancer cells, but not normal pancreatic epithelial cells in immunohistochemistry. These results indicate that C44Mab-3 is useful for detecting CD44v5 in various applications, and expected for the application of pancreatic cancer diagnosis and therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0392.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: CD44; CD44 variant 4; monoclonal antibody; flow cytometry; immunohistochemistry
Online: 21 December 2022 (07:40:21 CET)
CD44 has been known as a marker of tumor initiating cells, and plays pro-tumorigenic functions in many cancers. The splicing variants play critical roles in malignant progression of cancers by promoting the stemness, cancer cell invasion or metastasis, and resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. To understand each CD44 variant (CD44v) function is essential to know the property of cancers and establishment of the therapy. However, the function of the variant 4-encoded region has not to be elucidated. Therefore, specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the variant 4 are indispensable for basic research, tumor diagnosis, and therapy. In this study, we established anti-CD44 variant 4 (CD44v4) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) by immunizing mice with a peptide containing the variant 4-encoded region. We next performed flow cytometry, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry to characterized them. One of the established clones (C44Mab-108; IgG1, kappa) reacted with CD44v3-10-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells (CHO/CD44v3-10). The KD of C44Mab-108 for CHO/CD44 v3-10 was 3.4 × 10−7 M. In western blot analysis, C44Mab-108 detected CD44v3-10 in the lysate of CHO/CD44v3-10 cells. Furthermore, C44Mab-108 stained formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded oral squamous carcinoma tissues in immunohistochemistry. These results indicated that C44Mab-108 is useful to detect CD44v4 in various applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0194.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Antibody; blood-brain barrier; endosomal; liposome; nanoparticle; targeting; transferrin
Online: 13 October 2022 (11:52:50 CEST)
The blood-brain barrier (BBB), built by brain endothelial cells (BECs), is impermeable to biologics. Liposomes and other nanoparticles are good candidates for delivery of biologics across the BECs, as they can encapsulate numerous molecules of interest in an omnipotent manner. The liposomes need attachment of a targeting molecule, as BECs unfortunately are virtually incapable of uptake of non-targeted liposomes from the circulation. Experiments of independent research groups have qualified antibodies targeting the transferrin receptor as superior for targeted delivery of nanoparticles to BECs. Functionalization of nanoparticles via conjugation with anti-transferrin receptor antibodies leads to nanoparticle uptake by endothelial cells of both brain capillaries and post-capillary venules. Reducing the density of transferrin receptor-targeted antibodies conjugated to liposomes limits uptake in BECs. Opposing the transport of nanoparticles conjugated to high-affine anti-transferrin receptor antibodies, lowering the affinity of the targeting antibodies or implementing monovalent antibodies increase uptake by BECs and allows for further transport across the BBB. The novel demonstration of transport of targeted liposomes in post-capillary venules from blood to the brain is interesting and clearly warrants further mechanistic pursuit. The recent evidence for passing targeted nanoparticles through the BBB shows great promise for future drug delivery of biologics to the brain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0171.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: EpCAM; breast cancer; antitumor activities; antibody‐dependent cellular cytotoxicity
Online: 12 October 2022 (10:08:42 CEST)
The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a stem cell and carcinoma antigen, which mediates cellular adhesion and proliferative signaling by the proteolytic cleavage. In contrast to low expression in normal epithelium, EpCAM is frequently overexpressed in various carcinomas, which correlates with poor prognosis. Therefore, EpCAM has been considered as a promising target for tumor diagnosis and therapy. Using the Cell-Based Immunization and Screening (CBIS) method, we previously established an anti‐EpCAM monoclonal antibody (EpMab-37; mouse IgG1, kappa). In this study, we investigated the antibody‐dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), complement‐dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), and an antitumor activity by a defucosylated mouse IgG2a-type of EpMab-37 (EpMab-37-mG2a-f) against an EpCAM‐expressing breast cancer cell line (BT-474). EpMab-37-mG2a-f recognized BT-474 cells with a moderate binding-affinity [a dissociation constant (KD): 2.9x10-8 M] by flow cytometry. EpMab-37-mG2a-f exhibited ADCC and CDC for BT-474 cells by murine splenocytes and complements, respectively. Furthermore, administration of EpMab-37-mG2a-f significantly suppressed the BT-474 xenograft tumor development compared with the control mouse IgG. These results indicated that EpMab-37-mG2a-f exerts antitumor activities against the BT-474 xenograft, and could provide valuable therapeutic regimen for the breast cancers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0217.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: anti DENV IgM; IgG; Antibody-dependent enhancement; Cross-immunity
Online: 14 July 2022 (11:41:25 CEST)
Background: Dengue is the most common arthropod-borne sickness worldwide, impacting at least 50 million people each year. The dengue virus has four primary serotypes. Infection with one serotype confers homotypic immunity but not heterologous immunity, and secondary infections may be more severe. Although blood transfusions and organ donations have also been observed, the Aedes aegypti mosquito is the primary vector for the transmission of dengue. Infection causes a continuum of clinical illness, from asymptomatic infection to dengue fever, DHF, and dengue shock syndrome (DSS).Aim: To assess the presence of anti DENV IgG and anti DENV IgM antibodies specific to the four dengue serotypes in blood donor service donors and the importance of pre-donation screening in routine blood collection procedures.Method: 3 mL of peripheral venous blood from 507 blood donors was collected in tubes with BD vacutainer gel tube for serum separation after epidemiological records were reviewed. After that, serum was separated and tests were performed by SD Bioline Dengue Duo. Participants in the study completed a social and epidemiological questionnaire that contained information such as age, gender, and dengue diagnosis.Result: Out of the 507 blood samples that were taken, 473 (93.3%) came from male blood donors, while the remaining 34 (6.7%) belonged to female blood donors. The ratio of males to females is 13.91 to 1. The age range is 18–60 years, and the mean and standard deviation are both 27.7 and 6.5. 183 of the 507 samples produced anti DENV IgG positivity, while 324 did not. The ratio of positive to negative was 1.25:2.Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, quantitative methods for determining the presence of anti-dengue antibodies or detecting the dengue virus in blood donors in endemic areas should be devised in order to ensure the quality of blood transfusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0034.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Japanese encephalitis; Vaccine, Flavivirus; Antibody-dependent enhancement; Advax; Adjuvant
Online: 4 October 2021 (09:05:14 CEST)
ccJE+Advax is an inactivated cell culture Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine formulated with Advax™, a novel polysaccharide adjuvant based on delta inulin. This vaccine has previously shown promise in murine and equine studies and the current study sought to better understand its mechanism of action and assess the feasibility of single dose vaccine protection. Mice immunised with ccJE-Advax had higher serum neutralisation titres than those immunised with ccJE alone or with alum adjuvant. ccJE+Advax induced extraordinarily broad cross-neutralising antibodies against multiple flaviviruses including West Nile virus (WNV), Murray Valley Encephalitis Virus (MVEV), St Louis Encephalitis virus (SLE) and Dengue-1 and -2 viruses. Notably, the DENV-2 cross-neutralising antibodies from ccJE+Advax immunised mice uniquely had no DENV-2 antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) activity, by contrast to high ADE activity seen with DENV-1 cross-reactive antibodies induced by mbJE or ccJE alone or with alum adjuvant. JEV-stimulated splenocytes from ccJE+Advax immunised mice showed increased IL-17 and IFN-γ production, consistent with a mixed Th1 and Th17 response, whereas ccJE-alum was associated with production of mainly Th2 cytokines. There is an ongoing lack of human vaccines against particular flaviviruses, including WNV, SLE and MVEV. Given its ability to provide single-dose JEV protection as well as to induce broadly neutralising antibodies free of ADE activity, ccJE+Advax vaccine could be highly useful in all situations where rapid protection is desirable but ADE needs to be avoided, e.g. during a local outbreak or for use in travellers or the military requiring rapid travel to JEV endemic regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0352.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; hepatitis B; growth factors; biomarkers; antibody array
Online: 17 February 2021 (09:36:17 CET)
Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of most common cancers with a high mortality rate. HBV/HCV infection is an important risk factor to trigger HCC. Therefore, developing serum biomarkers for early diagnosis is crucial to prolong survival in HCC patients. Methods: An antibody array technology was utilized to detect serum from 20 HBV-related HCC patients, 20 chronic hepatitis B patients and 20 normal population, whose results were further validated by ELISA. Results: Both antibody array and ELISA showed that ten growth factors (SCF R, GDF-15, HGF, FGF-4, IGFBP-1, PIGF, GH, GDNF, BDNF and IGF-1) were significantly differential in HCC patients when compared to the non-HCC population. Among these growth factors, the levels of SCF R, GDF-15, HGF, GH and IGF-1 showed significant correlation with hepatitis B and its severity, indicating that these growth factors may promote HCC progression by an HBV-specific mechanism. A therapy targeting these growth factors in hepatitis B patients may help to prevent the development of HCC. FGF4 and GH were found, for the first time, to be upregulated in HCC, suggesting that these two growth factors may serve as novel serum biomarkers for the early diagnosis of HCC. Conclusion: The combined detection of all the differential growth factors may improve the diagnostic accuracy of HCC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0159.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Enterovirus; Coxsackievirus; 2A protease; polyclonal antibody; type 1 diabetes
Online: 5 February 2021 (11:34:57 CET)
The need for antiserum for immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of enterovirus (EV) in formaldehyde fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens is increasing. The standard monoclonal antibody against EV-envelope protein (VP1), clone 5D8/1, was proven to cross-react with other proteins. Another candidate marker of EV proteins is 2A protease (2Apro), which is coded by the EV gene and translated by host cells during EV replication. We raised polyclonal antiserum by immunizing rabbits with an 18-mer peptide of Coxsackievirus B1 (CVB1)-2A protease (2Apro) and examined the specificity and sensitivity for EV on FFPE tissue samples. ELISA study showed a high titer of antibody for CVB1-2Apro. IHC demonstrated that antiserum against 2Apro reacted with CVB1-infected Vero-cells. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that 2Apro labelled by the antibody located in the same cell with VP1 stained with 5D8/1. IHC demonstrated dense positive reactions pancreatic islets of EV-associated fulminant type 1 diabetes (FT1DM), and located in the same cell stained positive with 5D8/1. Specificity of IHC staining FT1DM pancreas was confirmed by absorption with an excessive concentration of immunized peptide. In conclusion, our study provides a new polyclonal antiserum against CVB1 2Apro which may be useful for detection of EV-infected human tissues stored as archive of FFPE tissue samples.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0126.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Covid-19; SARS-CoV-2; coronavirus; seroprevalence; antibody testing
Online: 7 December 2020 (08:19:40 CET)
SARS-CoV-2 continues to widely circulate in populations globally. Underdetection is acknowledged and is problematic when attempting to capture the true prevalence. Seroprevalence studies, where blood samples from a population sample are tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies that react to the SARS-CoV-2 virus, are a common method for estimating the proportion of people previously infected with the virus in a given population. However, obtaining reliable estimates from seroprevalence studies is challenging for a number of reasons, and the uncertainty in the results is often overlooked by scientists, policy makers and the media. This paper reviews the methodological issues that arise in designing these studies, and the main sources of uncertainty that affect the results. We discuss the choice of study population, recruitment of subjects, uncertainty surrounding the accuracy of antibody tests themselves, and the relationship between antibodies and infection over time. Understanding these issues can help the reader to interpret and critically evaluate the results of seroprevalence studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Trop 2; targeted therapy; antibody-drug conjugate; solid tumors
Online: 2 December 2020 (12:35:36 CET)
Trophoblast cell-surface antigen 2 (Trop 2) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is highly expressed in various cancer types with relatively low or no baseline expression in most of normal tissues. Its overexpression is associated with tumor growth and poor prognosis; Trop 2 is therefore, an ideal therapeutic target for epithelial cancers. Several Trop 2 targeted therapeutics have recently been developed for the treatment of cancers, such as anti-Trop 2 antibodies and antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), as well as Trop 2-specific cell therapy. In particular, the safety and clinical benefit of Trop 2-based ADCs have been demonstrated in clinical trials across multiple tumor types, including those with limited treatment options, such as triple-negative breast cancer, platinum-resistant urothelial cancer, and heavily pretreated non-small cell lung cancer. In this review, we elaborate on recent advances in Trop 2 targeted modalities and provide an overview of novel insights for future developments in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0249.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; TMPRSS2; antibody epitopes; glycosylation sequons; heparin
Online: 21 June 2020 (10:12:34 CEST)
The 2019 novel SARS-like coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) entry depends on the host membrane serine protease TMPRSS2, which can be blocked by some clinically-proven drugs. Here we analyzed spatial relevance between glycosylation sequons and antibody epitopes and found that, different from SARS-CoV S, most high-surface-accessible epitopes of SARS-CoV-2 S are blocked by the glycosylation, and the optimal epitope with the highest surface accessibility is covered by the S1 cap. TMPRSS2 inhibitor treatments may prevent unmasking of this epitope and therefore prolong virus clearance and may induce antibody-dependent enhancement. Interestingly, a heparin-binding sequence immediately upstream of the S1/S2 cleavage site has been found in SARS-CoV-2 S but not in SARS-CoV S. Binding of SARS-CoV-2 with heparins may lead to exposure of S686, which then facilitates the S1/S2 cleavage, induces exposure of the optimal epitope, and therefore increases the antibody titres. A combination of heparin and vaccine (or convalescent serum) treatments thus is recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0466.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: influenza; serum; IgG; humoral antibody; original antigenic sin; hemagglutinin
Online: 6 July 2018 (07:53:32 CEST)
The first exposure to influenza is thought to impact subsequent immune responses later in life. The consequences of this can be seen during influenza epidemics and pandemics with differences in morbidity and mortality for different birth cohorts. There is a need for better understanding of how vaccine responses are affected by early exposures to influenza viruses. In this analysis of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody responses in two cohorts of military personnel we noticed differences related to age, sex, prior vaccination, deployment and birth year. These data suggest that HI antibody production, in response to influenza vaccination, is affected by these factors. The magnitude of this antibody response is associated with, among other factors, the influenza strain that circulated following birth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2161.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; vaccination; antibody response; cellular immunity; healthcare workers
Online: 31 August 2023 (09:42:22 CEST)
Vaccination has proven highly effective against severe acute res-piratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but the long-term immunogenicity and the functional preserved im-mune responses of vaccines are needed to inform evolving evi-dence-based guidelines for boosting schedules. We enrolled 205 healthcare workers into a cohort study; all had received three doses of BBIBP-CorV (China Sinopharm Bio-Beijing Company) inactivated vaccine. We assessed SARS-CoV-2 specific binding antibodies, neutralizing antibody, and peripheral T and B cell responses. We demonstrated that more robust antibody re-sponses to SARS-CoV-2 were elicited by booster immunization compared to primary vaccination. Neutralizing antibody titers to SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant were also efficiently elevated post homologous vaccine booster despite in a lower titer compared to the prototype stain. In addition to S specific humoral and cellular immunity, BBIBP-CorV also induced N-specific antibody and ef-fector T cell responses. The third-dose vaccination led to further expansion of critical polyfunctional T cell responses, likely an essential element for vaccine protection. In particular, a func-tional role for Tfh cell subsets in immunity was suggested by the correlation between both CD4+Tfh and CD8+Tfh with total anti-body, IgG, B cell responses and neutralizing antibodies. Our study details the humoral and cellular responses generated by the BBIBP-CorV booster vaccination in a seven-month follow up study. There is a clear immunologic boosting value of homolo-gous inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine boosters, a consideration for future vaccine strategies.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0721.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: mouse HER2; monoclonal antibody; cell-based Immunization and screening; CBIS
Online: 12 July 2023 (03:20:12 CEST)
Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in breast cancer is an important target of monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy such as trastuzumab. Due to the development of trastuzumab-deruxtecan, an antibody-drug conjugate, the targetable HER2-positive breast cancer patients have been expanded. To evaluate developing modalities using anti-HER2 mAbs, reliable preclinical mouse models are required. Therefore, sensitive mAbs against mouse HER2 (mHER2) should be established. This study developed mHER2 mAbs using the Cell-Based Immunization and Screening (CBIS) method. The established anti-mHER2 mAbs, H2Mab-300 (rat IgG2b, kappa) and H2Mab-304 (rat IgG1, kappa), reacted with mHER2-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 (CHO/mHER2) and endogenously mHER2-expressed cell line, NMuMG (a mouse mammary gland epithelial cell) by flow cytometry. Furthermore, these mAbs never recognized mHER2-knockout NMuMG cells. The kinetic analysis using flow cytometry indicated that the dissociation constant (KD) of H2Mab-300 and H2Mab-304 for CHO/mHER2 was 1.2 × 10−9 M and 1.7 × 10−9 M, respectively. The KD of H2Mab-300 and H2Mab-304 for NMuMG was 4.9 × 10−10 M and 9.0 × 10−10 M, respectively. These results indicated that H2Mab-300 and H2Mab-304 could apply to the detection of mHER2 using flow cytometry and may be useful to obtain the proof of concept in preclinical studies.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2234.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; booster vaccine; post-vaccine IgG antibody persistence
Online: 31 May 2023 (11:18:10 CEST)
Our aim was to evaluate the immune response of healthcare workers included in the RIPOVAC study, after receiving a booster dose (third dose), in terms of intensity and persistence of induced antibodies. In the second phase of RIPOVAC study, between December 2021 and January 2022, eight months after the second dose, 389 voluntary, immunocompetent, non-pregnant healthcare workers received a booster dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, and a serum sample was obtained. Two groups of patients were established: with and without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. In order to quantify anti-S1 IgG (AU/mL) we used CMIA (Abbott). All the health workers were anti-S IgG positive 8 months after receiving the booster dose of the vaccine, with a mean of 17040 AU/mL. In 53 patients without previous infection, antibody levels had increased by a mean of 10762 AU/mL. This figure is 7 times higher than the one produced after the second dose (1506 AU/mL). The booster dose produces a robust elevation of the antibody level, which persists at 8 months with levels up to values significantly higher than those reached after the second dose, that allow to predict a persistence of more than one year. The study demonstrates the efficacy of the booster dose of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0995.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: CD44 variant 8; monoclonal antibody; gastric cancer; flow cytometry; immunohistochemistry
Online: 15 May 2023 (07:41:36 CEST)
Gastric cancer (GC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. GC with peritoneal metastasis exhibits a poor prognosis due to the lack of diagnostic biomarkers and effective therapy. A comprehensive analysis of malignant ascites identified the genomic alterations and significant amplifications of cancer driver genes, including CD44. CD44 and its splicing variants are overexpressed in tumors, and play crucial roles in the acquisition of invasiveness, stemness, and resistance to treatments. Therefore, the development of CD44-targeting monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is important for GC diagnosis and therapy. In this study, we immunized mice with CD44v3–10-overexpressed PANC-1 cells and established several dozens of clones that produce anti-CD44v3–10 mAbs. One of the clones (C44Mab-94; IgG1, kappa) recognized the variant-8-encoded region and peptide, indicating that C44Mab-94 is a specific mAb for CD44v8. Furthermore, C44Mab-94 could recognize CHO/CD44v3–10 cells, oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line (HSC-3), or GC cell lines (MKN45 and NUGC-4) in flow cytometric analyses. C44Mab-94 could detect the exogenous CD44v3–10 and endogenous CD44v8 in western blotting and stained the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric cancer cells in immunohistochemistry. These results indicate that C44Mab-94 is useful for detecting CD44v8 in various applications and is expected to be useful for the application of GC diagnosis and therapy.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0641.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: mouse EGFR; monoclonal antibody; Cell-Based Immunization and Screening; CBIS
Online: 9 May 2023 (10:42:31 CEST)
The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) overexpression or its mutation mediates the sustaining proliferative signaling in cancers. Human EGFR-targeting monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy such as cetuximab has been approved for clinical use in patients with colorectal cancers and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. A reliable preclinical mouse model is essential to further develop the mAb therapy against EGFR. However, a mAb against mouse EGFR (mEGFR) for flow cytometry has not been established. In this study, we developed a specific and sensitive mAb for mEGFR using the Cell-Based Immunization and Screening (CBIS) method. The established anti-mEGFR mAb, EMab-300 (rat IgG1, kappa) reacted with mEGFR-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 (CHO/mEGFR) and endogenously mEGFR-expressed cell lines, including NMuMG (a mouse mammary gland epithelial cell) and Lewis lung carcinoma cells by flow cytometry. The kinetic analysis using flow cytometry indicated that the dissociation constant (KD) of EMab-300 for CHO/mEGFR and NMuMG was 4.3 × 10−8 M and 1.9 × 10−8 M, respectively. These results indicated that EMab-300 applies to the detection of mEGFR by flow cytometry, and is expected in the use of preclinical study.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0620.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: ALL; immunotherapy; antibody-drug conjugate; CAR-based therapies, targeted therapies
Online: 9 May 2023 (09:03:11 CEST)
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a blood cancer that primarily affects children but also adults. It is due to the malignant proliferation of lymphoid precursor cells that invade the bone marrow and can spread to extramedullary sites. ALL is divided into B cell (85%) and T cell lineages (10 to 15%); rare cases are associated with the natural killer (NK) cell lineage (<1%). To date, the survival rate in children with ALL is excellent while in adults continues to be poor. Despite the therapeutic progress, there are subsets of patients that still have high relapse rates after chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and an unsatisfactory cure rate. Hence, the identification of more effective and safer therapy choices represents a primary issue. In this review, we will discuss novel therapeutic options including bispecific antibodies, antibody-drug conjugates,chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-based therapies, and other promising treatments for both pediatric and adult patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0437.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: CD44; CD44 variant 7/8; monoclonal antibody; flow cytometry; immunohistochemistry
Online: 27 February 2023 (04:13:02 CET)
Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) has been investigated as a cancer stem cell (CSC) marker, and plays critical roles in tumor malignant progression. The splicing variants are overexpressed in many carcinomas, especially squamous cell carcinomas, and play critical roles in the promotion of tumor metastasis, the acquisition of CSC properties, and resistance to treatments. Therefore, each CD44 variant (CD44v) function and distribution in carcinomas should be clarified for the establishment of novel tumor diagnosis and therapy. In this study, we immunized mice with a CD44 variant (CD44v3−10) ectodomain and established various anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). One of the established clones (C44Mab-34; IgG1, kappa) recognized a peptide which covers both variant 7 and 8-encoded region, indicating that C44Mab-34 is a specific mAb for CD44v7/8. Moreover, C44Mab-34 reacted with CD44v3–10-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 (CHO) cells or oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell line (HSC-3) by flow cytometry. The apparent KD of C44Mab-34 for CHO/CD44v3–10 and HSC-3 was 1.4 × 10−9 M and 3.2 × 10−9 M, respectively. C44Mab-34 could detect CD44v3–10 in western blotting, and stained the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded OSCC in immunohistochemistry. These results indicate that C44Mab-34 is useful for detecting CD44v7/8 in various applications, and expected for the application of OSCC diagnosis and therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0071.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: mouse CCR3; monoclonal antibody; epitope mapping; alanine scanning; flow cytometry
Online: 3 November 2022 (07:35:45 CET)
The CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) is a receptor for CC chemokines, including CCL5/RANTES, CCL7/MCP-3, and CCL11/eotaxin. CCR3 is expressed on the surface of eosinophils, basophils, a subset of Th2 lymphocytes, mast cells, and airway epithelial cells. CCR3 and its ligands are involved in airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic asthma, ocular allergy, and cancers. Therefore, CCR3 is an attractive target for those therapies. Previously, anti-mouse CCR3 (mCCR3) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), C3Mab-3 (rat IgG2a, kappa), and C3Mab-4 (rat IgG2a, kappa) were developed using the Cell-Based Immunization and Screening (CBIS) method. In this study, the binding epitope of these mAbs was investigated using flow cytometry. The CCR3 extracellular domain-substituted mutant analysis showed that C3Mab-3, C3Mab-4, and a commercially available mAb (J073E5) recognized the N-terminal region (amino acids 1–38) of mCCR3. Next, the alanine scanning was conducted in the N-terminal region. The results revealed that Ala2, Phe3, Asn4, and Thr5 of mCCR3 are involved in C3Mab-3 binding, whereas Ala2, Phe3, and Thr5 are essential to C3Mab-4 binding, and Ala2 and Phe3 are crucial to J073E5 binding. These results reveal the involvement of the N-terminus of mCCR3 in the recognition of C3Mab-3, C3Mab-4, and J073E5.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0155.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Omicron variant; Monoclonal antibody; Neutralization; Spike protein
Online: 10 March 2022 (14:30:25 CET)
SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variants contain many mutations in its spike receptor binding domain, the target of all authorized monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Determining the extent to which Omicron variants reduced mAb susceptibility is critical to preventing and treating COVID-19. We systematically reviewed PubMed and three preprint servers, last updated February 22, 2022, of the in vitro activity of authorized mAbs against the Omicron variants. Thirty-three studies were eligible including 33 containing Omicron BA.1 susceptibility data and five that also contained Omicron BA.2 susceptibility data. The first two authorized mAb combinations, bamlanivimab/etesevimab and casirivimab/imdevimab, were inactive against the Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 variants. In 24 studies, sotrovimab (third authorized mAb) displayed a median 4.1-fold (IQR: 2.4-7.6) reduced activity against Omicron BA.1 and, in four studies, a median 26-fold (IQR:16-35) reduced activity against Omicron BA.2. In 18 studies, cilgavimab and tixagevimab independently displayed median reductions in activity of >300-fold against Omicron BA.1, while in ten studies, the cilgavimab/tixagevimab combination (fourth authorized mAb preparation) displayed a median 63-fold (IQR: 26-145) reduced activity against Omicron BA.1. In two studies, cilgavimab was approximately 100-fold more susceptible to BA.2 than to BA.1. In two studies, bebtelovimab, the most recently authorized mAb, was fully active against both the Omicron variants. Disparate results between assays were common as evidenced by a median 42-fold range (IQR: 25-625) in IC50 between assays for the eight authorized individual mAbs and three authorized mAb combinations. Highly disparate results between published assays indicates a need for improved mAb susceptibility test standardization or inter-assay calibration.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0406.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: superantigen; T-cell; B-cell; cytokine storm; interface; antibody purification
Online: 19 August 2021 (19:25:42 CEST)
Superantigens are unconventional antigens which recognise immune receptors outside the usual binding sites e.g. complementary determining regions (CDRs), to elicit a response within the target cell. T-cell superantigens crosslink T-cell receptors and MHC Class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells, leading to lymphocyte recruitment, induction of cytokine storms and T-cell anergy or apoptosis among many other effects. B-cell superantigens, on the other hand, bind immunoglobulin receptors on B-cells affecting opsonisation, IgG-mediated phagocytosis, and drive B-cells into apoptosis. Here, through a review of the structural basis for recognition of immune receptors by superantigens, we show that their binding interfaces share specific physicochemical characteristics when compared with other protein-protein interaction complexes. Given that antibody-binding superantigens have been exploited extensively in industrial antibody purification, these observations could facilitate further protein engineering to optimize the use of superantigens in this and other areas of biotechnology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0028.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Differentiation, germinal center, antibody-secreting cells, phosphorylated STATs, NF-κB1
Online: 2 December 2020 (14:17:41 CET)
Flow cytometric detection of intracellular (IC) signaling proteins and transcription factors (TFs) will help elucidate the regulation of B cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. However, simultaneous detection of signaling proteins or TFs, with membrane markers (MM) can be challenging as required fixation and permeabilization procedures can affect functionality of conjugated antibodies. Here, a phosphoflow method is presented for detection of activated NF-κB p65 and phosphorylated STAT1, STAT3, STAT5 and STAT6 together with B cell differentiation MM CD19, CD27 and CD38. Additionally, a TF-flow method is presented that allows detection of B cell TFs; PAX5, c-MYC, BCL6, AID and antibody-secreting cell (ASC) TFs BLIMP1 and XBP-1s together with MM. Applying these methods on in vitro induced human B cell differentiation cultures showed significantly different steady-state levels, and responses to stimulation, of phosphorylated signaling proteins in CD27-expressing B cell and ASC populations. The TF-flow protocol and UMAP analysis revealed heterogeneity in TF-expression within stimulated CD27 or CD38-expressing B cell subsets. The methods presented here allow for sensitive analysis of STAT and NF-κB p65 signaling and TFs together with B cell differentiation MM at single-cell resolution. This will aid further investigation of B cell responses in both health and disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0207.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: antibody; Isotype IgA; Pertuzumab; allosteric; biologics; constant region; variable region
Online: 15 May 2018 (07:51:15 CEST)
Therapeutics antibodies have increasingly shifted the paradigm of disease treatments, from small molecules to biologics, especially in cancer therapy. Despite the increasing number of antibody candidates, much remains unknown about the antibody and how its various regions interact. In fact, the constant region can govern effects that might be useful in reducing the unwanted consequences resulted from systemic circulation. For this reason, apart from the commonly used IgG isotypes, IgA antibodies are promising therapeutics drugs, given its localized mucosal effects. While the antibody Fc effector cell activity has been well explored, recent research has shown evidences that the constant region of the antibody can also influence antigen binding, challenging the conventional idea of region-specific antibody functions. To further investigate this, we analyzed the IgA antibody constant and its allosteric effects onto the antigen binding regions, using recombinant Pertuzumab IgA1 and IgA2 variants. We found mutations in the C-region to reduce Her2 binding, and our computational structural analysis showed that such allosteric communications were highly dependent on the antibody hinge, providing the evidence to consider antibodies as a whole protein rather than a sum of functional regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0207.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Antibody ID; antibody registry; Research Resource Identifier; RRID; reproducibility; quality control; documentation; traceability; clones; biochemical reagents; diagnostics; immunoassays; ELISA; western blot; immunohistochemistry; microarray; biosensor
Online: 15 February 2020 (15:46:27 CET)
Thousands of antibodies for diagnostic and other analytical purposes are on the market. However, it is often difficult to identify duplicates, reagent changes, and to assign the correct original publications to an antibody. This slows down scientific progress and might even be a cause of irreproducible research and a waste of resources. Recently, activities were started to suggest the sole use of recombinant antibodies in combination with the open communication of their sequence. In this case, such uncertainties should be eliminated. Unfortunately, this approach seems to be rather a long-term vision since the development and manufacturing of recombinant antibodies remain quite expensive in the foreseeable future. Also, nearly all commercial antibody suppliers may be reluctant to publish the sequence of their antibodies, since they fear counterfeiting. De-novo sequencing of antibodies is also not feasible today for a reagent user without access to the hybridoma clone. Nevertheless, it seems to be crucial for any scientist to have the opportunity to identify an antibody undoubtedly to guarantee the traceability of any research activity using antibodies from a third party as a tool. For this purpose, we developed a method for the identification of antibodies based on a MALDI-TOF-MS fingerprint. To circumvent lengthy denaturation, reduction, alkylation, and enzymatic digestion steps, the fragmentation was performed with a simple formic acid hydrolysis step. Eighty-nine unknown monoclonal antibodies were used for this study to examine the feasibility of this approach. Although the molecular assignment of peaks was rarely possible, antibodies could be easily recognized in a blinded test, simply from their mass-spectral fingerprint. A general protocol is given, which could be used without any optimization to generate fingerprints for a database. We want to propose that in most scientific projects relying critically on antibody reagents, such a fingerprint should be established to prove and document the identity of the used antibodies and to assign a specific reagent to a datasheet of a commercial supplier, a public database record or an antibody ID.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0216.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: CD44; CD44 variant 4; monoclonal antibody; epitope; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Online: 3 November 2023 (06:38:38 CET)
CD44 is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, and possesses various isoforms which are largely classified into CD44 standard and CD44 variant (CD44v) isoforms. Some variant-encoded regions play critical roles in tumor progression. However, the function of CD44 variant 4 (CD44v4)-encoded region has not been fully understood. Using peptide immunization, we developed an anti-CD44v4 mAb, C44Mab-108, which is useful for flow cytometry, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. In this study, we determined the critical epitope of C44Mab-108 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We used the alanine (or glycine)-substituted peptides of the CD44v4-encoded region (amino acids 271-290 of human CD44v3-10), and found that C44Mab-108 did not recognize the alanine-substituted peptides of D280A and W281A. Furthermore, these peptides could not inhibit the recognition of C44Mab-108 in flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that the critical binding epitope of C44Mab-108 includes Asp280 and Trp281 of CD44v3-10.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2124.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: cuprizone, BBB permeability, demyelination, antibody conjugates, Gd-DTPA, MRI, Evans Blue
Online: 29 June 2023 (13:19:21 CEST)
Development of new neurotherapeutics is strongly depending on appropriate animal model chosen in preclinical studies. A cuprizone model is an effective tool for studying demyelination and re-myelination processes in the brain, but BBB integrity in cuprizone model is still a topic for debate. Several publications claim that BBB remains intact during cuprizone-induced demyelination; others demonstrate results that could be explained by the increased BBB permeability. In our work we aim to analyze permeability of BBB for different macromolecules, particularly, antibody-conjugates in cuprizone-intoxicated mice. We compared the traditional approach using Evans blue injection with following dye extraction and detection of antibody-conjugates using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confocal microscopy to analyze BBB permeability in cuprizone model. First, we validated our model of demyelination by detecting changes in gene expression of myelin basic protein and proteolipid protein, and by performing MRI and histological analysis. Our results suggest that the methods with better sensitivity were able to detect the accumulation of macromolecules (such as fluorescent-labeled or gadolinium-labeled antibody conjugates) in the brain, suggesting a local BBB disruption in the demyelinating area. These findings support previous investigations that ques-tioned BBB integrity in cuprizone model and demonstrate possibility for delivery of anti-body-conjugates to demyelinated corpus callosum
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0032.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: mouse CD39; monoclonal antibody; the Cell-Based Immunization and Screening; CBIS
Online: 4 April 2023 (02:29:25 CEST)
CD39 is involved in adenosine metabolism through conversion of extracellular ATP to adenosine. Because extracellular adenosine plays a critical role in the immune suppression of tumor microenvironment, the inhibition of CD39 activity by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is one of the important strategies for tumor therapy. In this study, we developed specific and sensitive mAbs for mouse CD39 (mCD39) using the Cell-Based Immunization and Screening (CBIS) method. The established anti-mCD39 mAbs, which were established by the CBIS method including C39Mab-1 (rat IgG2a, kappa) and C39Mab-2 (rat IgG2a, lambda), reacted with not only mCD39-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 (CHO/mCD39) but also endogenously mCD39-expressed cell lines, such as L1210 (mouse lymphocytic leukemia) and J774-1 (mouse macrophage-like) cell lines through flow cytometry. Kinetic analyses using flow cytometry indicated that the dissociation constant (KD) of C39Mab-1 and C39Mab-2 for CHO/mCD39 was 7.3 × 10−9 M and 5.5 × 10−9 M, respectively. KD of C39Mab-1 and C39Mab-2 for L1210 was 3.3 × 10−9 M and 3.6 × 10−10 M, respectively. Furthermore, C39Mab-1 could detect the lysate of CHO/mCD39 by western blot analysis. These results indicate that C39Mab-1 and C39Mab-2 are useful for the detection of mCD39 in many functional studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0212.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: BCMA; CAR T cell; Multiple Myeloma; Refractory/Relapsed; ADCs; Bispecific Antibody
Online: 13 September 2021 (12:36:12 CEST)
Multiple Myeloma (MM) is one of the incurable types of cancer in plasma cells. While immense progress has been made in the treatment of this malignancy, a large percentage of patients were unable to adapt to such therapy. Additionally, these therapies might be associated with significant diseases and are not always tolerated well in all patients. Since cancer in plasma cells has no cure, patients develop resistance to treatments, resulting in R/R MM. BCMA is primarily produced on mature B cells. Its up-regulation and activation are associated with multiple myeloma in both murine and human models, indicating that this might be an effective therapeutic target for this type of malignancy. Additionally, BCMA's predictive value, association with effective clinical trials, and capacity to be utilized in previously difficult to observe patient populations, imply that it might be used as a biomarker for multiple myeloma. Numerous kinds of BCMA-targeting medicines have demonstrated antimyeloma efficacy in individuals with refractory/relapsed MM, including CAR T-cell treatments, ADCs, bispecific antibody constructs. Among these medications, CART cell-mediated BCMA therapy has shown significant outcomes in multiple myeloma clinical trials. This review article outlines CAR T cell mediated BCMA medicines have the efficiency to change the therapeutic pattern for multiple myeloma significantly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0719.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; long-term; neutralization antibody; lymphocyte functionality; viral pathogenicity.
Online: 30 July 2020 (12:16:21 CEST)
COVID-19 patients can recover with a median SARS-CoV-2 clearance of 20 days post initial symptoms (PIS). However, we observed some COVID-19 patients with existing SARS-CoV-2 for more than 50 days PIS. This study aimed to investigate the cause of viral clearance delay and the infectivity in these patients. Demographic data and clinical characteristics of 22 long-term COVID-19 patients were collected. SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid, peripheral lymphocyte count, and functionality were assessed. SARS-CoV-2-specific and neutralization antibodies were detected, followed by virus isolation and genome sequencing. The median age of the studied cohort was 59.83±12.94 years. All patients were clinically cured after long-term SARS-CoV-2 infection ranging from 53 to 112 days PIS. Peripheral lymphocytes counts were normal. Interferon gamma (IFN-ƴ)-generated CD4+ and CD8+ cells were normal as 24.68±9.60% and 66.41±14.87%. However, the number of IFN-ƴ-generated NK cells diminished (58.03±11.78%). All patients presented detectable IgG, which positively correlated with mild neutralizing activity (ID50=157.2, P=0.05). SARS-CoV-2 was not isolated, and a cytopathic effect was lacking. Only three synonymous variants were identified in spike protein coding regions. In conclusion, decreased IFN-γ production by NK cells and low neutralizing antibodies might favor SARS-CoV-2 long-term existence. Further, low viral load and weak viral pathogenicity was observed in COVID-19 patients with long-term SARS-CoV-2 infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0211.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: COVID-19; diagnosis; ELISA; RDT; point-of-care test; antibody; proteins
Online: 17 June 2020 (08:36:25 CEST)
The ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 has not only commenced a global health emergency but agitated various aspects of humanity. During this period of crisis researchers over the world have ramped their efforts to constrain the disease in all possible ways whether it is vaccination, therapy, or diagnosis. Since the spread of the disease has not yet elapsed sharing the ongoing research findings could be the key to disease control and management. An early and efficient diagnosis could leverage the outcome until a successful vaccine is developed. Molecular tests both in-house and commercial kits are preferably being used worldwide in the COVID-19 diagnosis. However, the limitation of high prices and lengthy procedures impede their use for mass testing. Keeping the constant rise of infection in mind search for an alternative test that should be cost-effective, simple, and suitable for large scale testing and surveillance is a need of an hour. One such alternative could be the immunological tests. Therefore, in the last few months deluge of immunological rapid tests has been developed and validated across the globe. The objective of the present review is to share the diagnostic performance of various immunological assays reported so far in SARS-CoV-2 case detection. The article consolidated the studies (published and preprints) related to the serological tests such as chemiluminescence, enzyme-linked and lateral flow-based point-of-care tests in COVID-19 diagnosis and updated the current scenario. This review will hopefully be an add-on in COVID-19 research and will contribute to congregate the evidence for decision-making.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0138.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: 2019-nCoV; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; ADE; antibody depedendent enhancement
Online: 8 March 2020 (15:35:27 CET)
Background: In 80% of patients, COVID-19 presents as mild disease1,2. 20% of cases develop severe (13%) or critical (6%) illness. More severe forms of COVID-19 present as clinical severe acute respiratory syndrome, but include a T-predominant lymphopenia3, high circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages in lungs, and immune dysregulation including immunosuppression4. Methods: All major SARS-CoV-2 proteins were characterized using an amino acid residue variation analysis method. Results predict that most SARS-CoV-2 proteins are evolutionary constrained, with the exception of the spike (S) protein extended outer surface. Results were interpreted based on known SARS-like coronavirus virology and pathophysiology, with a focus on medical countermeasure development implications. Findings: Non-neutralizing antibodies to variable S domains may enable an alternative infection pathway via Fc receptor-mediated uptake. This may be a gating event for the immune response dysregulation observed in more severe COVID-19 disease. Prior studies involving vaccine candidates for FCoV5,6 SARS-CoV-17-10 and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) 11 demonstrate vaccination-induced antibody-dependent enhancement of disease (ADE), including infection of phagocytic antigen presenting cells (APC). T effector cells are believed to play an important role in controlling coronavirus infection; pan-T depletion is present in severe COVID-19 disease3 and may be accelerated by APC infection. Sequence and structural conservation of S motifs suggests that SARS and MERS vaccine ADE risks may foreshadow SARS-CoV-2 S-based vaccine risks. Autophagy inhibitors may reduce APC infection and T-cell depletion12 13. Amino acid residue variation analysis identifies multiple constrained domains suitable as T cell vaccine targets. Evolutionary constraints on proven antiviral drug targets present in SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 may reduce risk of developing antiviral drug escape mutants. Interpretation: Safety testing of COVID-19 S protein-based B cell vaccines in animal models is strongly encouraged prior to clinical trials to reduce risk of ADE upon virus exposure.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0277.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: antibody; network; sequence; structure; clonality; B cell; systems biology; quantitative biology
Online: 12 October 2018 (17:01:13 CEST)
Based on the key molecule of humoral adaptive immunity, the antibody, evolution of the system comprises molecular genetic, cell biologic and immunologic mechanisms, and as a network the system is likely governed and can be characterized by physical rules as well. While deep sequencing can provide vast amounts of data related primarily to clonal relationships, functional interpretation of such data is hampered by the inherent limitations of converting sequence to structure to function. In this paper a novel model of structural interaction space, termed radial adjustment of system resolution, or RADARS, is proposed. The model is based on the radial growth of resolution of structural recognition, corresponding to increasing affinity of immune reactivity, and the virtual infinity of directions of growth, corresponding to the ability to respond to almost any molecular structure. Levels of interaction strength appear as shells of the sphere representing the system. B-cell development and immune responses can be readily interpreted in the model and quantitative properties of the antibody network can be inferred from the physical properties of a quasi-spherical system growing multi-radially. The system is described by double-Pareto distribution, sampling the lognormally distributed equilibrium constants at a rate of phi square. Finally, general strategies for merging antibody sequence space into structural space are outlined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0370.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: gold nanoparticles; homogeneous immunoassay; antibody detection; virus infection; Dengue Protein E
Online: 21 August 2018 (05:57:40 CEST)
Although there are extensive literature reports on the use of gold nanoparticle (AuNP) based homogeneous assays for detection of biomolecules, very few experimental description and procedures involving their preparation are described. In this study, AuNPs conjugated to Bovine Serum Albumin or Envelope protein from Dengue II were developed as a homogeneous immunoassay for antibody detection. We report here optimization of key parameters to prepare an immunoassay like conjugation protein concentration, centrifugation time, electrolyte addition and assay temperature. We determined that saturating protein concentrations improved AuNPs surface coverage and uniformity of the assay and addition of sodium chloride improved sensitivity of the antibody detection method and assay stability. Furthermore, we showed that dynamic light scattering can be used to monitor changes in gold nanoparticles in the preparation and detection steps. Additionally, numerical simulations of the plasmonic optical response of AuNPs were carried out to scan for size-dependent response of the AuNPs. The AuNPs homogeneous immunoassay developed was further used in the detection of antibodies in vitro to detect Dengue virus infection.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0091.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2 variant; lateral flow immunoassay; spike protein; receptor binding domain (RBD); neutralizing antibody; therapeutic antibody cocktail; epitope binning; rapid neutralization test; ACE2
Online: 2 June 2021 (16:11:29 CEST)
Identifying anti-spike antibodies that exhibit strong neutralizing activity against current dominant circulating variants and antibodies that are escaped by these variants have important implications in the development of therapeutic and diagnostic solutions as well as in improving understanding of the humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We characterized seven anti-RBD monoclonal antibodies for their binding activity, pairing capability and neutralization activity to SARS-CoV-2 and three variant RBDs (UK, SA and BR P.1) via lateral flow immunoassays. The results allowed us to group these antibodies into three distinct epitope bins. Our studies showed that two antibodies had broadly potent neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 and these variant RBDs and that one antibody did not neutralize the SA and BR P.1 RBDs. The antibody escaped by the SA and BR P.1 RBDs retained binding activity to SA and BR P.1 RBDs but was unable to induce neutralization. Further, we demonstrated that the lateral flow immunoassay can be a rapid and effective tool for antibody characterization, including epitope classification and antibody neutralization kinetics. From these studies, the potential contributions of the mutations (N501Y, E484K and K417N/T) contained in these variants’ RBDs on antibody pairing capability, neutralization activity and therapeutic antibody targeting strategy are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0023.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: monoclonal antibodies; Mabs; fusion; false positives; hapten immunoassays; competitive immunoassays; ELISA; antibody validation; antibody quality; microarray; hybridoma technology; linker recognition; high-throughput screening; HTS; heterology concept
Online: 3 November 2019 (17:00:59 CET)
The primary screening of hybridoma cells is a time-critical and laborious step during the development of monoclonal antibodies. Often critical errors occur in this phase, which supports the notion that the generation of monoclonal antibodies with hybridoma technology is difficult to control and hence a risky venture. We think that it is crucial to improve the screening process to eliminate most of the immanent deficits of the conventional approach. With this new microarray-based procedure, several advances could be achieved: Selectivity for excellent binders, high throughput, reproducible signals, avoidance of misleading avidity (multivalency) effects, and simultaneous performance of competition experiments. The latter can directly be used to select clones of desired cross-reactivity properties. In this paper, a model system with two excellent clones against carbamazepine, two weak clones and blank supernatant has been designed to examine the effectiveness of the new system. The excellent clones could be detected largely independent of the IgG concentration, which is unknown during the clone screening since the determination and subsequent adjustment of the antibody concentration is not possible in most cases. Furthermore, in this approach, the enrichment, isolation, and purification of IgG for characterization is not necessary. Raw cell culture supernatant can be used directly, even when fetal calf serum (FCS) or other complex media had been used. In addition, an improved method for the oriented antibody-immobilization on epoxy-silanized slides is presented. Based on the results of this model system, we conclude that this approach should be preferable to most other protocols leading to many of false positives, causing expensive and lengthy confirmation steps to weed out the poor clones.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0988.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Electrochemical biosensor; animal virus; detection; diagnostic assay, nucleic acid; antigen; antibody; aptamer
Online: 14 August 2023 (10:19:15 CEST)
Animal viruses are a significant threat to animal health and are easily spread across the globe with the rise of globalization. The limitations in diagnosing and treating animal virus infections have made the transmission of diseases and animal deaths unpredictable. Therefore, early diagnosis of animal virus infections is crucial to prevent the spread of diseases and reduce economic losses. To address the need for rapid diagnosis, electrochemical sensors have emerged as a promising tool. Electrochemical methods present numerous benefits, including heightened sensitivity and selectivity, affordability, ease of use, portability, and rapid analysis, making them suitable for real-time virus detection. This paper focuses on the construction of electrochemical biosensor, as well as promising biosensor models, and expounds its advantages in virus detection, which is a promising research direction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1507.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Radionuclide therapy; nuclear medicine; radiopharmaceutical; antibody; peptide; small molecule inhibitor; tumor; microenvironment
Online: 22 May 2023 (10:51:48 CEST)
Targeted radionuclide therapy is become increasingly prominent as a nuclear medicine subspe-cialty. For many decades, treatment with radionuclides has been mainly restricted to the use of iodine-131 in thyroid disorders. Currently, radiopharmaceuticals, consisting of a radionuclide coupled to a vector that binds to a desired biological target with high specificity, are being de-veloped. The objective is to be as selective as possible at the tumor level, while limiting the dose received at the healthy tissue level. In recent years, a better understanding of molecular mecha-nisms of cancer, as well as the appearance of innovative targeting agents (antibodies, peptides, small molecules) and the availability of new radioisotopes, have enabled considerable advances in the field of vectorized internal radiotherapy with a better therapeutic efficacy, radiation safety and personalized treatments. For instance, targeting the tumor microenvironment, instead of the cancer cells, now appears as particularly attractive. Several radiopharmaceuticals for therapeutic targeting have shown clinical value in severals types of tumors and have been or will soon be approved and authorized for clinical use.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1084.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: antibody-drug conjugate; lysosome; cathepsin; legumain; self-immolation; payload release; peptidomimetic; linker
Online: 16 May 2023 (04:51:34 CEST)
Antibody-Drug Conjugates (ADCs) are a powerful therapeutic modality for cancer treatment. ADCs are multi-functional biologics in which a disease-targeting antibody is conjugated to an effector payload molecule through a linker. The success of currently used ADCs has been largely attributed to the development of linker systems which allow targeted release of cytocidal payload drugs inside cancer cells. Many lysosomal proteases are over-expressed in human cancers. They can effectively cleave a variety of peptide sequences, which can be exploited in the design of ADC linker systems. As a well-established linker, valine-citrulline-p-aminobenzyl carbamate (ValCitPABC) is used in many ADCs that are already approved or under preclinical and clinical development. Although ValCitPABC and related linkers are readily cleaved by cathepsins in the lysosome while remaining reasonably stable in human plasma, many studies have shown that they are susceptible to carboxylesterase 1C (Ces1C) in mouse and rat plasma, which hinders preclinical evaluation of the ADCs. Furthermore, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, two of the most commonly observed dose-limiting adverse effects of ADCs, are believed to result from the premature hydrolysis of ValCitPABC by human neutrophil elastase. In addition to cathepsin-cleavable linkers, there is also growing interest in legumain-sensitive linkers for ADC development. Increasing plasma stability while maintaining lysosomal cleavability of ADC linkers is an objective of intensive current research. This review reports recent advances in the design and structure-activity relationship studies of various peptide/peptidomimetic linkers in this field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0072.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: glycosylation, glycoengineering, biologic, therapeutic protein, gene therapy, cell-based therapy, monoclonal antibody
Online: 3 March 2023 (10:43:51 CET)
Over recent decades, therapeutic proteins have had widespread success in treating a myriad of diseases. Glycosylation, a near universal feature of this class of drugs, is a critical quality attribute that significantly influences the physical properties, safety profile and biological activity of therapeutic proteins. Optimizing protein glycosylation, therefore, offers an important avenue to developing more efficacious therapies. In this review, we discuss specific examples of how variations in glycan structure and glycoengineering impacts the stability, safety, and clinical efficacy of protein-based drugs that are already in the market as well as those that are still in preclinical development. We also highlight the impact of glycosylation on next generation biologics such as T cell-based cancer therapy and gene therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0189.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: mouse CCR9, monoclonal antibody, epitope mapping, alanine scanning, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Online: 12 December 2022 (03:54:29 CET)
C-C chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9) is a receptor for C-C-chemokine ligand 25 (CCL25). CCR9 is crucial in the chemotaxis of immune cells and inflammatory responses. Moreover, CCR9 is highly expressed in tumors including several solid tumors and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Several preclinical studies have shown that anti-CCR9 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) exert antitumor activity. Therefore, CCR9 is an attractive target for tumor therapy. In this study, we conducted the epitope mapping of an anti-mouse CCR9 (mCCR9) mAb, C9Mab-24 (rat IgG2a, kappa), using a 1 × alanine (1 × Ala) and 2 × alanine (2 × Ala)-substitution method via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We first performed the 1 × Ala-substitution method using one alanine-substituted peptides of the mCCR9 N-terminus (amino acids 1-19). C9Mab-24 did not recognize two peptides (F14A and F17A), indicating that Phe14 and Phe17 are critical for C9Mab-24-binding to mCCR9. Furthermore, we conducted the 2 × Ala-substitution method using two consecutive alanine-substituted peptides of the mCCR9 N-terminus, and showed that C9Mab-24 did not react with four peptides (M13A–F14A, F14A–D15A, D16A–F17A, and F17A–S18A), indicating that 13-MFDDFS-18 is involved in C9Mab-24-binding to mCCR9. Overall, combining, the 1 × Ala or 2 × Ala scanning methods could be useful for understanding for target-antibody interaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0422.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: cystic fibrosis; SARS-CoV-2; Covid-19, vaccine; antibody response; humoral response
Online: 27 July 2022 (13:29:14 CEST)
During the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaign, people with CF (pwCF) were considered a clinically vulnerable population. However, data on immunogenicity of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in pwCF are lacking. We conducted a prospective study enrolling all patients aged >12 and followed-up in our CF centre, who received two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine in March-October 2021. They underwent a blood sample for quantification of antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain immediately before receiving the first dose and after 3 and 6 months from the second dose. We enrolled 143 patients (median age: 21 years, range: 13-38); of whom 16 had a previous infection. Median antibody titer (interquartile range) after 3 months from vaccination was 1288 U/mL (730-2115) and decreased to 918 U/mL (534-1488) after 6 months (P<0.0001). Median values were higher among previously infected patients as compared to those naïve to SARS-CoV-2 (9107 vs 1229 U/mL at 3 months and 4810 vs 829 U/mL at 6 months, P<0.0001) with no significant differences in the rate of decline over time (P=0.135). All pwCF mounted an antibody response after two-doses of BNT162b2 vaccine that waned at 6 months from vaccination. Age ≥30 years and use of inhaled corticosteroids were associated with a lower humoral response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0302.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: immune checkpoint; HVEM; BTLA; monoclonal antibody; cancer immunotherapy; humanized mice; prostate cancer
Online: 9 June 2021 (11:26:57 CEST)
The Herpes Virus Entry Mediator (HVEM) delivers a negative signal to T cells mainly through the B and T Lymphocyte Attenuator (BTLA) molecule and thus, could represent a novel immune checkpoint during an anti-tumor immune response. A formal demonstration that HVEM can be targeted for cancer immunotherapy is however still lacking. Here, we first show that HVEM and BTLA were associated to a worse prognosis in patients with prostate adenocarcinomas, indicating a detrimental role for this pair of molecule during prostate cancer progression. We then show that a monoclonal antibody to human HVEM significantly impacted the growth of a prostate cancer cell line in immuno-compromised NOD.SCID.gc-null mice reconstituted with human T cells. Using CRISPR/Cas9, we showed that HVEM expression by the tumor was mandatory to observe the therapeutic effect. Mechanistically, tumor control was dependent on CD8+ T cells and was associated to an increase in the proliferation and number of tumor-infiltrating leukocytes. Accordingly, the expression of genes belonging to various T cell activation pathways were enriched in tumor infiltrating leukocytes, whereas genes associated with immuno-suppressive pathways were decreased, possibly resulting in modifications of leukocyte adhesion and motility. Finally, we developed a simple in vivo assay in humanized mice to directly demonstrate that HVEM was an immune checkpoint for T-cell mediated tumor control. Our results show that targeting HVEM is a promising strategy for prostate cancer immunotherapy.