Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

An Advax-adjuvanted Inactivated Cell-culture Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine Induces Broadly Neutralising Anti-flavivirus Antibodies and T-cell Immunity and Provides Single Dose Protection

Version 1 : Received: 2 October 2021 / Approved: 4 October 2021 / Online: 4 October 2021 (09:05:14 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Komiya, T.; Honda-Okubo, Y.; Baldwin, J.; Petrovsky, N. An Advax-Adjuvanted Inactivated Cell-Culture Derived Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine Induces Broadly Neutralising Anti-Flavivirus Antibodies, Robust Cellular Immunity and Provides Single Dose Protection. Vaccines 2021, 9, 1235. Komiya, T.; Honda-Okubo, Y.; Baldwin, J.; Petrovsky, N. An Advax-Adjuvanted Inactivated Cell-Culture Derived Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine Induces Broadly Neutralising Anti-Flavivirus Antibodies, Robust Cellular Immunity and Provides Single Dose Protection. Vaccines 2021, 9, 1235.

Journal reference: Vaccines 2021, 9, 1235
DOI: 10.3390/vaccines9111235

Abstract

ccJE+Advax is an inactivated cell culture Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine formulated with Advax™, a novel polysaccharide adjuvant based on delta inulin. This vaccine has previously shown promise in murine and equine studies and the current study sought to better understand its mechanism of action and assess the feasibility of single dose vaccine protection. Mice immunised with ccJE-Advax had higher serum neutralisation titres than those immunised with ccJE alone or with alum adjuvant. ccJE+Advax induced extraordinarily broad cross-neutralising antibodies against multiple flaviviruses including West Nile virus (WNV), Murray Valley Encephalitis Virus (MVEV), St Louis Encephalitis virus (SLE) and Dengue-1 and -2 viruses. Notably, the DENV-2 cross-neutralising antibodies from ccJE+Advax immunised mice uniquely had no DENV-2 antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) activity, by contrast to high ADE activity seen with DENV-1 cross-reactive antibodies induced by mbJE or ccJE alone or with alum adjuvant. JEV-stimulated splenocytes from ccJE+Advax immunised mice showed increased IL-17 and IFN-γ production, consistent with a mixed Th1 and Th17 response, whereas ccJE-alum was associated with production of mainly Th2 cytokines. There is an ongoing lack of human vaccines against particular flaviviruses, including WNV, SLE and MVEV. Given its ability to provide single-dose JEV protection as well as to induce broadly neutralising antibodies free of ADE activity, ccJE+Advax vaccine could be highly useful in all situations where rapid protection is desirable but ADE needs to be avoided, e.g. during a local outbreak or for use in travellers or the military requiring rapid travel to JEV endemic regions.

Keywords

Japanese encephalitis; Vaccine, Flavivirus; Antibody-dependent enhancement; Advax; Adjuvant

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