Preprint Review Version 2 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Sagacious Epitope Selection for Vaccines, and Both Antibody-Based Therapeutics and Diagnostics: Tips From Virology and Oncology

Version 1 : Received: 28 September 2021 / Approved: 29 September 2021 / Online: 29 September 2021 (15:42:58 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 3 November 2021 / Approved: 3 November 2021 / Online: 3 November 2021 (08:26:47 CET)

How to cite: Gan, S.K.; Phua, S.; Yeo, J.Y. Sagacious Epitope Selection for Vaccines, and Both Antibody-Based Therapeutics and Diagnostics: Tips From Virology and Oncology . Preprints 2021, 2021090501 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202109.0501.v2). Gan, S.K.; Phua, S.; Yeo, J.Y. Sagacious Epitope Selection for Vaccines, and Both Antibody-Based Therapeutics and Diagnostics: Tips From Virology and Oncology . Preprints 2021, 2021090501 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202109.0501.v2).

Abstract

The target of an antibody plays a significant role in the success of antibody-based therapeutics and diagnostics, and to an extent, that of vaccine development. This importance is focussed on the target binding site – epitope, where epitope selection as a part of design thinking beyond traditional antigen selection using whole cell or whole protein immunisation can positively impact success. With purified recombinant protein production and peptide synthesis to display limited/selected epitopes, intrinsic factors that can affect the functioning of resulting antibodies can be more easily selected for. Many of these factors stem from the location of the epitope that can affect accessibility of the antibody to the epitope at a cellular or molecular level, direct inhibition of target antigen activity, conservation of function despite escape mutations, and even non-competitive inhibition sites. Through the incorporation of novel computational methods for predicting antigen changes to model-informed drug discovery and development, superior vaccines and antibody-based therapeutics or diagnostics can now be more easily designed to mitigate failures. With detailed examples, this review highlights the new opportunities, factors and methods of predicting antigenic changes for consideration in sagacious epitope selection.

Keywords

Antigen Selection; Epitope Selection; Antibody Targeting; Epitope Accessibility; Antibody Engineering; Protein Engineering; Drug Targeting; Model-Informed Drug Discovery and Development

Subject

LIFE SCIENCES, Immunology

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 3 November 2021
Commenter: Samuel Gan
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: Rewritten parts of the manuscript for clarity and updated literature. 
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