Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Superantigen Recognition and Interactions: Functions, Mechanisms and Applications

Version 1 : Received: 18 August 2021 / Approved: 19 August 2021 / Online: 19 August 2021 (19:25:42 CEST)

How to cite: Deacy, A.M.; Gan, S.K.; Derrick, J.P. Superantigen Recognition and Interactions: Functions, Mechanisms and Applications. Preprints 2021, 2021080406 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202108.0406.v1). Deacy, A.M.; Gan, S.K.; Derrick, J.P. Superantigen Recognition and Interactions: Functions, Mechanisms and Applications. Preprints 2021, 2021080406 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202108.0406.v1).

Abstract

Superantigens are unconventional antigens which recognise immune receptors outside the usual binding sites e.g. complementary determining regions (CDRs), to elicit a response within the target cell. T-cell superantigens crosslink T-cell receptors and MHC Class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells, leading to lymphocyte recruitment, induction of cytokine storms and T-cell anergy or apoptosis among many other effects. B-cell superantigens, on the other hand, bind immunoglobulin receptors on B-cells affecting opsonisation, IgG-mediated phagocytosis, and drive B-cells into apoptosis. Here, through a review of the structural basis for recognition of immune receptors by superantigens, we show that their binding interfaces share specific physicochemical characteristics when compared with other protein-protein interaction complexes. Given that antibody-binding superantigens have been exploited extensively in industrial antibody purification, these observations could facilitate further protein engineering to optimize the use of superantigens in this and other areas of biotechnology.

Keywords

superantigen; T-cell; B-cell; cytokine storm; interface; antibody purification

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