Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variants to Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Version 1 : Received: 7 March 2022 / Approved: 10 March 2022 / Online: 10 March 2022 (14:30:25 CET)

How to cite: Tao, K.; Tzou, P.L.; Pond, S.L.K.; Ioannidis, J.P.; Shafer, R.W. Susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variants to Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Preprints 2022, 2022030155 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202203.0155.v1). Tao, K.; Tzou, P.L.; Pond, S.L.K.; Ioannidis, J.P.; Shafer, R.W. Susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variants to Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Preprints 2022, 2022030155 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202203.0155.v1).

Abstract

SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variants contain many mutations in its spike receptor binding domain, the target of all authorized monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Determining the extent to which Omicron variants reduced mAb susceptibility is critical to preventing and treating COVID-19. We systematically reviewed PubMed and three preprint servers, last updated February 22, 2022, of the in vitro activity of authorized mAbs against the Omicron variants. Thirty-three studies were eligible including 33 containing Omicron BA.1 susceptibility data and five that also contained Omicron BA.2 susceptibility data. The first two authorized mAb combinations, bamlanivimab/etesevimab and casirivimab/imdevimab, were inactive against the Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 variants. In 24 studies, sotrovimab (third authorized mAb) displayed a median 4.1-fold (IQR: 2.4-7.6) reduced activity against Omicron BA.1 and, in four studies, a median 26-fold (IQR:16-35) reduced activity against Omicron BA.2. In 18 studies, cilgavimab and tixagevimab independently displayed median reductions in activity of >300-fold against Omicron BA.1, while in ten studies, the cilgavimab/tixagevimab combination (fourth authorized mAb preparation) displayed a median 63-fold (IQR: 26-145) reduced activity against Omicron BA.1. In two studies, cilgavimab was approximately 100-fold more susceptible to BA.2 than to BA.1. In two studies, bebtelovimab, the most recently authorized mAb, was fully active against both the Omicron variants. Disparate results between assays were common as evidenced by a median 42-fold range (IQR: 25-625) in IC50 between assays for the eight authorized individual mAbs and three authorized mAb combinations. Highly disparate results between published assays indicates a need for improved mAb susceptibility test standardization or inter-assay calibration.

Keywords

SARS-CoV-2; Omicron variant; Monoclonal antibody; Neutralization; Spike protein

Subject

LIFE SCIENCES, Virology

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