SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0281.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: gravitation; elastic shocks; virtual acceleration
Online: 14 July 2020 (03:25:34 CEST)
The ancient theory of Fatio de Duillier and Lesage on pushing gravity has been mainly criticized because of the extreme heating which would be produced in the case of inelastic shocks, supposed to be necessary to produce a gravity field. Here we investigate in an extremely simplified situation the possibility of creating a virtual acceleration with purely elastic repeated shocks and we derive some estimates on the mass and velocity of gravitons based on this model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0010.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: elastic map; clustering; classification; degeneration; diagnostics
Online: 1 February 2022 (12:26:27 CET)
Positron-emission tomography is powerful but costly tool for various medical investigations. In particular, it is used in Parkinson’s disease and essential tremor diagnostics. However, yet there is no standardized figures of the references, for it. We examined the PET efficiency for the analysis of development and degradation of dophaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s disease. The informative indices are determined from the observed PET data. Also, high efficiency of PET for Parkinson’s disease as approved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0304.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: torus; elastic; deformation; symmetric; Gauss curvature
Online: 11 March 2021 (10:16:19 CET)
The Gol'denveizer problem of a torus can be described as follows: a toroidal shell is loaded under axial forces and the outer and inner equators are loaded with opposite balanced forces. Gol'denveizer pointed out that the membrane theory of shells is unable to predict deformation in this problem, as it yields diverging stress near the crowns. Although the problem has been studied by Audoly and Pomeau (2002) with the membrane theory of shells, the problem is still far from resolved within the framework of bending theory of shells. In this paper, the bending theory of shells is applied to formulate the Gol'denveizer problem of a torus. To overcome the computational difficulties of the governing complex-form ordinary differential equation (ODE), the complex-form ODE is converted into a real-form ODE system. Several numerical studies are carried out and verified by finite-element analysis. Investigations reveal that the deformation and stress of an elastic torus are sensitive to the radius ratio, and the Gol'denveizer problem of a torus can only be fully understood based on the bending theory of shells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0368.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: Contact; Rough Surfaces; Elastic-Perfectly Plastic Solid
Online: 15 March 2021 (11:26:47 CET)
In this paper, an incremental eqivalent contact model is developed for elastic-perfectly plastic solids with rough surfaces. The contact of rough surface is modeled by the accumulation of circular contacts with varying radius, which is estimated from the geometrical contact area and the number of contact patches. For three typical rough surfaces with various mechanical properties, the present model gives accurate predictions of the load-area relation, which are verified by direct finite element simulations. An approximately linear load-area relation is observed for elastic-plastic contact up to a large contact fraction of 15%, and the influence of yield stress is addressed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0185.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: paper core; impregnation; elastic properties; experiment; FEM
Online: 12 April 2020 (08:28:02 CEST)
The research hypothesis states that the impregnation of the honeycomb paper core of lightweight sandwich panels with modified starch, sodium silicate and LiquidWood® resin has a significant effect on the elastic properties of it. In the study, a recycled paper was used in three thicknesses, seven types of cell shapes, including two after numerical optimization and three types of impregnating agents. The method of digital image analysis determined the elastic constants of manufactured paper cores, which were subjected to axial compression in two directions. Based on the experimental results, elastic constants of the cores were calculated and compared with the results of numerical calculations. It has been shown that each of the impregnating solutions used improves the stiffness of the paper core. The best results were obtained for LiquidWood® epoxy resin and modified starch. An important parameter of cell geometry affecting their rigidity is the angle of the cell wall φ, as well as the arrangement of the common cell wall in relation to the direction of load. The numerical models developed were positively verified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0299.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: origami; paper spring; elastic; bending; twist; deformation
Online: 26 September 2019 (11:53:23 CEST)
This letter solves an open question of paper spring risen by Yoneda (2019). Universal scaling laws of a paper spring are proposed by using both dimensional analysis and data fitting. It is found that spring force obeys power square law of spring extension, however strong nonlinear to the total twist angle. Without doing any additional works, we have successfully generalize the scaling laws for Poisson ratio 0.3 to the materials with an arbitrary Poisson's ratio with the help of dimensional analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0145.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: elastic; three-dimensional, liquid crystals; graphene sponge
Online: 16 January 2018 (17:03:06 CET)
Three-dimensional graphene (3DG) sponge has attracted increasing attention because it combines the unique properties of cellular materials and the excellent performance of graphene. The preparation of 3DG sponge depends mainly on the self-assembly of graphene oxide sheets. Here, we demonstrate facile fabrication of 3DG sponge with a large-scale and ordered porous structure, exploiting the liquid crystals of large graphene oxide (LGO) and ultralarge graphene oxide (ULGO) sheets. The resulting materials exhibit a low density, high porosity and elasticity. Our work explores a new strategy for organizing the ordered alignment of controlled large GO sheets and exploring the relationship between the microstructures and mechanical properties of 3DG sponge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0023.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: serpentinization; elastic moduli; density; ultramafic rocks; oceanic lithosphere
Online: 2 October 2019 (06:28:08 CEST)
Understanding the physical properties of ultramafic rocks is important for evaluating awide variety of petrologic models of the oceanic lithosphere, particularly upper mantle and lower crust. Hydration of oceanic peridotites results in increasing serpentine content, which affects lithospheric physical properties and the global bio/geochemical cycles of various elements. In understanding tectonic, magmatic and metamorphic history of the oceanic crust, interpreting seismic velocities, rock composition and elastic moduli are of fundamental importance. In this study we show that as serpentine content increases, density decreases linearly with a slope of 7.85. We also correlate increase in serpentine content with a linear decline in shear, bulk and Young’s moduli with slopes of 0.48, 0.77, 0.45 respectively. Our results show that increase in serpentine content of lower crust and forearc mantle could decrease elasticity of lithospehere and result in break-offs. Therefore tectonic processes at peridotite rich slow spreading ridges may be strongly affected by serpentine content, particularly serpentinization may be responsible for discontinuities in thin crust, and formation of weak fault zones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0330.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: elastic properties; laser ultrasonic; mechanical behavior; fiber-network
Online: 18 September 2018 (08:16:18 CEST)
For development and successful application of any material, a clear understanding of their mechanical behavior is one of the most important things, but when it comes to nanofibers networks it become a challenge due to, their high porosity, many scales in their structure, and characteristics non-linear. Therefore, an experimental methodology in conjunction with a theoretical model that can fully consider their characteristics is still needed. In this work we proposed a model that incorporates the propagation of the elastic waves in two-phase media to determine the effective elastic modulus of electrospun membranes of PLA/gelatin given the mechanical properties of nanofibers, shape, distribution and concentration. The model was verified via laser ultrasonic testing. It was found that the values predicted for the effective modulus by the model were higher than the values obtained from experimental results. One explanation is due to the experimental density. As a result, the P-Wave velocity from the model best fit to experimental results and it has the same behavior, decrees as the concentration of gelatin in the solution. These results indicate the model and experimental methodology can assist in the dressing of nanofibers networks and electrospun materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2049.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: carbon nanotube, polymer composite, molecular dynamics simulation, elastic modulus
Online: 30 May 2023 (05:01:48 CEST)
The use of carbon nanotubes to improve the mechanical properties of polymers is one of the promising directions in materials science. The addition of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) to a polymer results in significant improvement of mechanical, electrical, optical, and structural properties. However, the addition of SWCNTs does not always improve the polymer properties. Also, when a certain content of SWCNTs is exceeded, the mechanical properties of the nanocomposite are getting worse. This article reports the results of computer simulations for predicting the mechanical properties of polymer/single-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposites. The efficiency of reinforcing polymer composites is considered depending on the concentration of carbon nanotubes in the polymer matrix, their size and structure. The elastic moduli of the nanocomposites were predicted using computer simulations for unit cell tension (0.1%). General trends in the mechanical properties of composites with polypropylene, poly (ethyl methacrylate), polystyrene matrices and SWCNTs are shown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0727.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: Spin Crossover SCO; thermal transition; elastic frustration; MC simulations
Online: 21 April 2023 (14:27:50 CEST)
1D spin crossover (SCO) solids which convert between the low-spin (LS) and the high-spin (HS) states are widely studied in the literature due to their diverse thermal and optical characters which allows obtaining many original behaviors, such as large thermal hysteresis, incomplete spin tran-sitions, as multi-step spin transitions with self-organized states. In the present work, we investigate the thermal behaviors of a system of two-elastically coupled 1D mononuclear chains, using the electro-elastic model, by including an elastic frustration in the nearest neighbors (nn) bond length distances of each chain. The chains are made of SCO sites that are coupled elastically through springs with their nn and next-nearest neighbors. The elastic inter-chain coupling includes diagonal springs, while the nn inter-chains distance is fixed to that of the high-spin state. The model is solved using MC simulations, performed on the spin states and the lattice distortions. When we only frustrate the first chain, we found a strong effect on the thermal-dependence of the HS fraction of the second chain, whose, by lowering its transition temperature which is also accompanied with the appearance of a significant residual HS fraction at low temperature. In the second step, we frustrate both chains by imposing different frustration rates and found that, for high frustration values, the thermal dependence of the total HS fraction exhibits three step and even four step spin transitions. The careful examination of the spin state structures in the plateau regions revealed the existence of special antiferro-elastic structure of type LSLS-HSHS-LSLS-HSHS along the first chain, and HSHS-LSLS-HSHS-LSLS along the second, also showing that the two chains seem to be antifer-ro-elastically coupled. This type of organization is interesting, because it anticipates the possible existence of periodic structures made of alternate 1D antiferro-like HS-LS strings coupled in the ferro-like fashion along the interchain direction in the 2D case.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0068.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Similarity; Scaling; Geometric distortion; Anisotropic elastic materials; Structural impact
Online: 3 March 2023 (09:52:19 CET)
Although the similarity laws were widely used in impact fields, the scaling relations of anisotropic elastic structures often were broken when the geometric distortion (not equal scaling in different spatial directions) and the material distortion (different materials used for scaled model and full-size prototype) were considered. To overcome the difficulty of geometric and material distortion, a directional framework of similarity laws, termed as oriented-density-length-velocity (ODLV) system, is proposed for the anisotropic elastic structure under impact loads. Different from previous similarity law systems using scalar dimensional analysis, the directional similarity law framework mainly considers spatial anisotropy for structural geometry and material parameters. Based on the oriented dimensional analysis and the orthotropic Hooke's law, directional dimensionless numbers and directional scaling relations with geometric power properties for the elastic modulus and the Poisson's ratio are presented systematically. By selecting the dominant material parameters controlling similarity, three important scaling techniques with correction of geometric width and thickness are proposed to compensate for the difficulty of distortion. A clamped square plate with different anisotropic and isotropic elastic materials subjected to dynamic pressure pulse is verified numerically and discussed in detail. The results show that the thin square plate prototype must be scaled to be the thinner/thicker rectangular plate, and the components of displacement, stress and strain between scaled model and full-scale prototype behave good consistency in both spatial and temporal fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0537.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: 2D materials; MoS2; molecular potentials; DFT, elastic constants; phonons
Online: 21 December 2020 (15:55:33 CET)
An ability of different molecular potentials to reproduce the properties of 2D molybdenum disulphide polymorphs is examined. Structural and mechanical properties, as well as phonon dispersion of the 2H, 1T and 1T’ single-layer MoS2 (SL MoS2) phases, were obtained using density functional theory (DFT) and molecular statics calculations (MS) with Stillinger-Weber, REBO, SNAP, and ReaxFF interatomic potentials. Quantitative systematic comparison and discussion of the results obtained are reported.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: Tension Controlled; Elastic Fiber; Draw Ratio; Spandex Covered Yarns
Online: 22 July 2020 (06:32:26 CEST)
A new covered yarn system is proposed in this manuscript by controlling the tension of the spandex elastic yarn drawing.. By analyzing the relationship between the draw ratio and yarn tension, it has been verified that the new tension controlled drawing system is feasible and results in yarns with superior quality and process stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0323.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: scattering; heterogeneity; anisotropy; elastic waves; dispersion; attenuation; Mohorovičić discontinuity
Online: 15 July 2020 (09:01:02 CEST)
The geometry of mesoscopic inhomogeneities plays an important role in determining the macroscopic propagation behaviors of elastic waves in a heterogeneous medium. Non-equiaxed inhomogeneities can lead to anisotropic wave velocity and attenuation. Developing an accurate scattering theory to describe the quantitative relation between the microstructure features and wave propagation parameters is of fundamental importance for seismology and ultrasonic nondestructive characterization. This work presents a multiple scattering theory for strongly scattering elastic media with general tri-axial heterogeneities. A closed analytical expression of the shape-dependent singularity of the anisotropic Green’s tensor for the homogeneous reference medium is derived by introducing a proper non-orthogonal ellipsoidal coordinate. Renormalized Dyson’s equation for the coherent wave field is then derived with the help of Feynman’s diagram technique and the first-order-smoothing approximation. The exact dispersion curves and the inverse Q-factors of coherent waves in several representative medium models for the heterogeneous lithosphere are calculated numerically. Numerical results for small-scale heterogeneities with the aspect ratio varying from 1 to 7 show satisfactory agreement with those obtained from real earthquakes. The results for velocity dispersion give rise to a novel explanation to the formation mechanism of different seismic phases. The new model has potential applications in seismology and ultrasonic microstructure characterization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0375.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Liquid phase transformation; Ag flakes; Ag meshes, elastic electrodes
Online: 31 May 2019 (08:20:04 CEST)
Flexible and stretchable conductive materials have received significant attention in several applications such as flexible displays and sensors. In this paper, we report a highly dispersed porous Ag nanoflakes with clean surfaces were fabricated through an explosive growth process. The evolution process from silver nanoflakes to nanomeshes occurred by the novel “dissolution–recrystallization” solvothermal process. The as-obtained Ag meshes have the dual nature of nanoflakes and nanoparticles, which could create an intercross and interpenetration conductive network structures between silver and polymer in the printed elastic conductor, therefore, the silver meshes as conductive fillers used in elastic conductor simultaneously exhibit high conductivity and mechanical durability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0068.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: propagation characteristic; crack modes; elastic waves; rotating shaft; bandwidth
Online: 4 October 2018 (11:22:21 CEST)
The vibration propagates in a media such as a shaft in the form of elastic waves. The propagation characteristics of the waves are affected by the geometry of the media, the material properties as well as the cracks. The study to elastic waves propagating in a shaft with transverse cracks can help to detect them. The transverse crack possesses different crack modes due to different external loads. The influence of the crack mode, the location and the depth to the propagation characteristics is investigated in this paper. Firstly, the local flexibility coefficients with three different modes are deduced. And then, the transfer matrix of the elastic wave can be obtained. Finally, the influence of the crack mode, the location and the depth of the transverse crack as well as the rotating speed to the propagation characteristics is then studied, both in a numerical and an experimental way. It’s found that mode III is the most suitable mode in this paper, the location of the crack will make the stopbands fluctuating, the depth mainly affects the bandwidth of the stopbands, and the increase of the rotating speed will shift up the stopbands without changing their bandwidths.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0041.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Ceramics And Composites Keywords: piezoelectricity; unpoled ceramics; elastic moduli; ferroelectricity; electromechanical coupling factor
Online: 18 September 2018 (10:33:44 CEST)
The evaluation of the piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric ceramics generally has a high level of uncertainty, due to incomplete poling, porosity, domain wall clamping and other effects. In addition, the poling process is often difficult and dangerous, due to the risk of breaking or damaging the sample. A method is described for the evaluation of the potential intrinsic piezoelectric response that a ceramic would have after full poling, without poling it. The method relies on the fact that any material undergoes an elastic softening below the ferroelectric transition temperature, whose magnitude can be expressed in terms of the intrinsic piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients of the material. Such a softening is equivalent to an electromechanical coupling, averaged over all the components due to the unpoled state of the sample, and can be deduced from a single temperature scan of an elastic modulus of a ceramic sample, spanning the ferroelectric and paraelectric states. The strengths, limits and possible applications of the method are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0199.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: curved surface slider; elastic response spectrum; friction; optimization; sensitivity
Online: 22 January 2018 (10:33:23 CET)
The design of curved surface sliders (CSS) based on the elastic response spectrum is done by iteration to find the combination of friction coefficient and displacement capacity which satisfies the condition that the maximum horizontal CSS force is equal to the horizontal force of the structure. Although this CSS design is valid it does not necessarily minimize structural acceleration. This paper therefore describes the optimum CSS design for minimum structural acceleration. All valid CSS designs and the optimum CSS design are represented by their associated trajectory in the elastic response spectrum plane which visualizes the optimization problem. The results demonstrate that the optimum CSS design is not obtained at maximum tolerated effective damping ratio. The subsequent sensitivity analysis describes how much the structural acceleration increases if the actual friction coefficient of the real CSS deviates from its optimum design value. The analysis points out that the increase in structural acceleration is approximately one order of magnitude smaller than the deviation in friction. The sensitivity data may be used by structural engineer to determine tolerable deviations in friction coefficient which still results in acceptable structural accelerations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0127.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: inite element method; Stenosis; Bifurcation; Wall shear stress; Elastic walls
Online: 7 March 2023 (07:32:27 CET)
The buildup of plaque in the arteries characterizes atherosclerosis, which causes the walls of the arteries to thicken, the lumen to narrow, and the wall to thin in certain areas. These changes can lead to alterations in blood flow, potentially resulting in aneurysms and heart attacks if left untreated. This paper presents a phenomenological model to explain the mechanics of plaque rupture in stenosed bifurcated elastic arteries. The model considers the interaction between the plaque and artery wall, blood flow, mechanical properties of the artery wall and plaque, and hemodynamic forces in the system. Using the Navier-Stokes equations to describe blood flow and elastic properties of artery walls, our study shows that blood flow can become turbulent, leading to backflow, vortices, and possible stagnation. Certain regions can become highly vulnerable and result in elevated heat transfer between blood and arterial walls, which can lead to the rupture of the plaque cap. The study focuses on blood flow features such as velocity profiles and wall displacement on fluid-structure interaction, which are consistent with the literature. Finally, we calculate the wall shear stress (WSS) for minimum and maximum times while considering elastic walls. Our findings may provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of plaque rupture and inform the development of improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0037.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: SAW devices; Tungsten trioxide; FEM/BEM; Harmonic admittance; elastic properties
Online: 2 February 2022 (14:53:27 CET)
This study aimed to discuss the combined theoretical and experimental results of elastic properties of the tungsten trioxide films supported on Quartz (YX)/45°/10° resonator, as surface acoustic wave (SAW) device. The SAW system with different thicknesses of WO3 thin films were imaged and structurally characterized by X-Ray diffraction, atomic force and transmission electron microscopy. The deposited WO3 films (100 nm, 200 nm and 300 nm) were crystallized in a single monoclinic phase. The acoustoelectric properties of the SAW system were obtained by combining theoretical simulations with experimental measurements. The modeling of the SAW devices has been performed by the finite element and boundary element methods (FEM/BEM). The theoretical and experimental electrical admittances responses obtained at room temperature gave access to elastic constants. The gravimetric effect of the deposited layers is observed by a resonance frequencies shift to lower values with thicknesses film. Moreover, the acoustic losses are affected by the dielectric losses of the WO3 films, while the resonant frequency decreases almost linearly. SAW devices revealed strong displacement fields with low acoustic losses as a function of WO3 thicknesses. For all the deposited layers, the Young's modulus and the Poisson coefficient obtained are respectively of 8 GPa and 0.5.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0311.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: curvature; brittle cracking; elastic rod; diameter-to-length ratio; spaghetti
Online: 11 March 2021 (11:00:55 CET)
Why are pieces of spaghetti generally broken into three to ten segments instead of two as one thinks? How can one obtain the desired number of fracture segments? For these problems, in this paper a strand of spaghetti is considered an elastic rod, and the finite-element software ABAQUS is used to simulate the detailed fracture dynamics of the elastic rod. By changing the size (length and diameter) of the rod, the relevant data on the fracture limit curvature and the number of fractured segments of the elastic rod are obtained. The ABAQUS simulation results confirm the scientific judgment of B. Audoly and S. Neukirch (Fragmentation of rods by cascading cracks: Why spaghetti does not break in half. Phys Rev Lett 95: 095505). Using dimensional analysis to fit the finite-element data, two relations of the elastic rod fracture dynamics are obtained: (1) the relationship between the fracture limit curvature and the diameter, and (2) the relationship between the number of fracture segments and the diameter-length ratio. Results reveal that when the length is constant, the larger the diameter (the smaller the diameter-length ratio D/L), the smaller the limit curvature; and the larger the diameter-length ratio D/L, the fewer the number of fractured segments. The relevant formulations can be used to obtain the desired number of broken segments of spaghetti by changing the diameter-to-length ratio.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0229.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: extensometer; tensile strain; shear strain; calibration; elastic deformation; combined loads
Online: 19 November 2019 (10:10:14 CET)
The paper presents an extensometer designed to measure two mechanical strains at the same time—one from tensile load and the other from torsion load. Strain transducers provide different electric signals, which, after calibration, lead to the simultaneous measurement of linear (ε) and angular (γ) strains. Each of these two signals depends on the measured process and is not influenced by the other strain process. This extensometer is designed to be easily mounted on the sample with only two mounting points and can be used to measure the combined cyclical fatigue of tensile and torsional loadings. This extensometer has two bars—one rigid, reported at the resulting stress points, and one elastic and deformable. The elastic deformable bar has two beams with different orientations. When the sample is deformed, both beams are loaded by two bending moments (perpendicular to each other and both perpendicular on the longitudinal axis of the bars).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0317.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: scattering; elastic waves; porous materials; dispersion; attenuation; Mohorovičić discontinuity; seismology
Online: 28 July 2019 (15:18:25 CEST)
Scattering of elastic waves in heterogeneous media has become one of the most important problems in the field of wave propagation due to its broad applications in seismology, natural resource exploration, ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation and biomedical ultrasound. Nevertheless, it is one of the most challenging problems because of the complicated medium inhomogeneity and the complexity of the elastodynamic equations. A widely accepted model for the propagation and scattering of elastic waves, which properly incorporates the multiple scattering phenomenon and the statistical information of the inhomogeneities is still missing. In this work, the author developed a multiple scattering model for heterogeneous elastic continua with strong property fluctuation and obtained the exact solution to the dispersion equation under the first-order smoothing approximation. The model establishes an accurate quantitative relation between the microstructural properties and the coherent wave propagation parameters and can be used for characterization or inversion of microstructures. Starting from the elastodynamic differential equations, a system of integral equation for the Green functions of the heterogeneous medium was developed by using Green’s functions of a homogeneous reference medium. After properly eliminating the singularity of the Green tensor and introducing a new set of renormalized field variables, the original integral equation is reformulated into a system of renormalized integral equations. Dyson’s equation and its first-order smoothing approximation, describing the ensemble averaged response of the heterogeneous system, are then derived with the aid of Feynman’s diagram technique. The dispersion equations for the longitudinal and transverse coherent waves are then obtained by applying Fourier transform to the Dyson equation. The exact solution to the dispersion equations are obtained numerically. To validate the new model, the results for weak-property-fluctuation materials are compared to the predictions given by an improved weak-fluctuation multiple scattering theory. It is shown that the new model is capable of giving a more robust and accurate prediction of the dispersion behavior of weak-property-fluctuation materials. Numerical results further show that the new model is still able to provide accurate results for strong-property-fluctuation materials while the weak-fluctuation model is completely failed. As applications of the new model, dispersion and attenuation curves for coherent waves in the Earth’s lithosphere, the porous and two-phase alloys, and human cortical bone are calculated. Detailed analysis shows the model can capture the major dispersion and attenuation characteristics, such as the longitudinal and transverse wave Q-factors and their ratios, existence of two propagation modes, anomalous negative dispersion, nonlinear attenuation-frequency relation, and even the disappearance of coherent waves. Additionally, it helps gain new insights into a series of longstanding problems, such as the dominant mechanism of seismic attenuation and the existence of the Mohorovičić discontinuity. This work provides a general and accurate theoretical framework for quantitative characterization of microstructures in a broad spectrum of heterogeneous materials and it is anticipated to have vital applications in seismology, ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation and biomedical ultrasound.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0393.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: carbon nanotubes; vibration analysis; anisotropic elastic model; shell theories; natural frequencies
Online: 22 March 2023 (09:06:48 CET)
In the present paper, the comparison is conducted between three classical shell theories as applied to the linear vibrations of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs); specifically, the evaluation of the natural frequencies is conducted via Donnell, Sanders and Flügge shell theories. The actual discrete SWCNT is modelled by means of a continuous homogeneous cylindrical shell considering equivalent thickness and surface density. In order to take into account the intrinsic chirality of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), a molecular based anisotropic elastic shell model is considered. Simply supported boundary conditions are imposed and complex method is applied to solve the equations of motion and to obtain the natural frequencies. Comparisons with the results of molecular dynamics simulations available in literature are performed to check the accuracy of the three different shell theories, where Flügge shell theory is found to be the most accurate. Then, a parametric analysis evaluating the effect of diameter, aspect ratio and number of waves along the longitudinal and circumferential directions on the natural frequencies of SWCNTs is performed in the framework of the three different shell theories. Assuming the results of Flügge shell theory as references, it is obtained that Donnell shell theory is not accurate for relatively low longitudinal and circumferential wavenumbers, for relatively low diameters and for relatively high aspect ratios. On the other hand, it is obtained that Sanders shell theory is very accurate for all the considered geometries and wavenumbers, and therefore it can be correctly adopted instead of the more complex Flügge shell theory for the vibration modelling of SWCNTs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0115.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: rehabilitation robotics; force feedback; remote rehabilitation; series elastic actuator; tele-assessment
Online: 28 September 2016 (14:04:51 CEST)
The use of haptic devices in rehabilitation of impaired limbs has become rather popular, given the proven effectiveness in promoting recovery. In a standard framework, such devices are used in rehabilitation centers, where patients interact with virtual tasks, presented on a screen. To track their sessions, kinematic/dynamic parameters or performance scores are recorded. However, as Internet access is now available at almost every home, and in order to reduce the hospitalization time of the patient, the idea of doing rehabilitation at home is gaining wide consent. Medical care programs can be synchronized with the home rehabilitation device; patient data can be sent to the central server that could redirect to the therapist laptop (tele-healthcare). The controversial issue is that the recorded data do not actually represent the clinical conditions of the patients according to the medical assessment scales, forcing them to frequently undergo clinical tests at the hospital. To respond to this demand, we propose the use of a bilateral master/slave haptic system that could allow the clinician, who interacts with the master, to assess remotely and in real time the clinical conditions of the patient that uses the home rehabilitation device as the slave. In this paper, we describe a proof of concept to highlight the main issues of such an application, limited to one degree of freedom, and to the measure of the stiffness and range of motion of the hand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0567.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Wide band gap semiconductor; Elastic modulus; Optic-electronic properties; Ab–initio calculations
Online: 26 August 2020 (08:57:57 CEST)
The electronic structure and some of its derived properties of Li2CaGeO4 compound have been investigated. The calculations have been performed using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbitals method and ultra-soft pseudo-potentials . The optimized lattice parameters are found to be ingood accord with experiment. Features such as bulk modulus and its pressure derivative, electronic band structure and density of states are reported. The elastic anisotropy of the crystal is discussed and visualized. Moreover, the optical properties reveal that Li2CaGeO4 compound are suitable candidates for optoelectronic devices in the visible and ultraviolet (UV) regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0194.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: objectivity of a mathematical description; elastic phenomena description; fractional order partial derivative
Online: 7 August 2020 (11:43:01 CEST)
In this paper it is shown that mathematical description of strain, constitutive law and dynamics obtained by direct replacement of integer order derivatives with Caputo or Riemann-Liouville fractional order partial derivatives, having integral representation on finite interval, in case of a guitar string, is nonobjective. The basic idea is that different observers, using this type of descriptions, obtain different results which cannot be reconciled, i.e. transformed into each other using only formulas that link the coordinates of the same point in two fixed orthogonal reference frames and formulas that link the numbers representing the same moment of time in two different choices of the origin of time measuring. This is not an academic curiosity! It is rather a problem: which one of the obtained results is correct?
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: total hip arthroplasty; intra-operative femur fracture risk; bone elastic-plastic behavior
Online: 23 July 2020 (09:41:30 CEST)
Total Hip Arthroplasty is one of the most successful surgery. However, due to the worldwide growing population life expectancy and the related incidence of age-dependent bone diseases, a growing number of cases of intra-operative fractures lead to revision surgery with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Surgeons choose the type of the implant, either cemented or cementless prosthesis, on the basis of the age, the quality of the bone and the general medical conditions of the patients. Generally, no quantitative measures are available to assess the intra-operative fracture risk. Consequently, the decision-making process is mainly based on medical operators’ expertise and qualitative information obtained by imaging. Motivated by this scenario, we here propose a mechanical-supported strategy to assist surgeons in their decisions, by giving intelligible maps of the risk fracture which take into account the interplay between actual strength distribution inside the bone tissue and its response to the forces exerted by the implant. To this end, we produce charts and patient-specific synthetic “traffic-light” indicators of fracture risk, by making use of ad hoc analytical solutions to predict the stress levels in the bone by means of CT-based mechanical and geometrical parameters of the patient. We felt that, if implemented in a friendly software or proposed as an app, the strategy could constitute a practical tool to help the medical decision-making process, in particular with respect to the choice of adopting cemented or cementless implant
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0139.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Silicon clathrates; Electronic structure; Elastic constants; High pressure; Density Functional Theory; Castep
Online: 8 November 2018 (14:08:28 CET)
By means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we have investigated the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the structural, electronic and elastic properties of the barium-doped silicon clathrate Ba8Si46 in the type-VIII structure (α phase). Physical properties are calculated under different conditions of pressure (0 GPa to 45 GPa) using the GGA-PBE functional, those calculations have been performed using the Cambridge serial total energy package CASTEP code within the Materials Studio package. Electronic properties have shown that the type-VIII Ba8Si46 has metal-like properties with a fundamental bandgap of 1 eV. Under pressure the fundamental bandgap increases slightly and the positions of the valence band maximum VBM and the conduction band minimum CBM remain unchanged. We found that the compound is mechanically stable under the pressure range, but this needs to be confirmed experimentally through synthesis, a comparison with the type-I and the guest-free counterparts has exhibited promising features for the type-VIII Ba8Si46.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0521.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: dynamical properties; dynamic elastic modulus; concrete; mortar; mixture parameters; acoustic test; composite theory
Online: 18 April 2023 (11:09:47 CEST)
This article introduces simulations of theoretical material with controlled properties for the evaluation of the effect of key parameters, as volumetric fractions, elastic properties of each phase and transition zone on the effective dynamic elastic modulus (Ed). The accuracy level of classical homogenization models was checked regarding the prediction of Ed. Numerical simulations were performed with finite element method (FEM) for evaluations of the natural frequencies and their correlation with Ed, through frequency equations. An acoustic test validated the numerical results and obtained the elastic modulus of concretes and mortars at 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 water-cement ratios (w/c). Hirsch calibrated according to the numerical simulation (x = 0.27) exhibited a realistic behavior for concretes of w/c = 0.3 and 0.5, with 5% error. Nevertheless, for w/c = 0.7, Ed approached Reuss model, similarly to theoretical triphasic materials. Hashin-Shtrikman bounds is not perfectly applied to theoretical biphasic materials under dynamic situations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0117.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Bifurcation; Elastic walls; Finite element method; Stenosis; Wall shear stress; Mag-netic field
Online: 7 March 2023 (02:03:46 CET)
To investigate the impact of a magnetic field on plaque development in a stenotic bifurcated artery, a finite element method is utilized. The blood flow is modelled as a stable, incompressible, Newtonian, biomagnetic, and laminar fluid. Furthermore, the arterial wall is assumed to be linear elastic. The Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) method is employed to describe the hemodynamic flow in a bifurcated artery under the influence of an asymmetric magnetic field, taking into account two-way fluid-structure interaction coupling. A stable $P_2P_1$ finite element pair discretizes a nonlinear system of partial differential equations that requires a solution. The Newton-Raphson method is utilized to find a solution to the resulting nonlinear algebraic equation system. Numerical modelling is used to simulate the presence of magnetic fields, and the resulting displacement, velocity magnitude, pressure, and wall shear stresses are shown for a range of Reynolds numbers ($Re = 500$, $1000$, $1500$, and $2000$). The results of the numerical analysis demonstrate that the presence of a magnetic field has a significant effect not only on the magnitude of displacement but also on the velocity of the flow. The application of a magnetic field reduces flow separation, extends the recirculation area near the stenosis, and increases wall shear stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0200.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Augmentation,; exoskeleton; lifting strategy; lumbar support; SEA; series elastic actuator; spiral spring; machine design
Online: 14 June 2022 (08:50:27 CEST)
Lumbar support exoskeletons with active and passive actuators are currently the cutting-edge technology for preventing back injuries in workers while lifting heavy objects. However, many challenges still exist in both types of exoskeletons, including rigid actuators, risks of human-robot interaction, high battery consumption, bulky design, and limited assistance. In this paper, the design of a compact, lightweight energy storage device combined with rotary series elastic (ES-RSEA) is proposed for use in a lumbar support exoskeleton to increase the level of assistance and exploit the human bioenergy during the two stages of the lifting task. ES takes the responsibility to store and release passive mechanical energy while RSEA provides excellent compliance and prevents injury from the human body's undesired movement. The experimental tests on the spiral spring showed excellent linear characteristics (above 99%) with an actual spring stiffness of 9.96 Nm/rad. The results demonstrate that ES-RSEA can provide maximum torque assistance in the ascent phase with 66.6 Nm while generating nearly 21 Nm of spring torque during descent without turning on the DC motor. Ultimately, the proposed design can maximize the energy storage of human energy, exploit the biomechanics of lifting tasks, and reduce the burden on human effort to perform lifting tasks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0655.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Concrete; Mesoscale; Reduced order multiscale simulation; Microcracking; Micromechanics; Linear elastic fracture mechanics; Anisotropic damage
Online: 28 June 2021 (13:53:36 CEST)
Damage in concrete structures initiates as the growth of diffuse microcracks that is followed by damage localisation and eventually leads to structural failure. Weak changes such as diffuse microcracking processes are failure precursors. Identification and characterisation of these failure precursors at an early stage of concrete degradation and application of suitable precautionary measures will considerably reduce the costs of repair and maintenance. To this end, a reduced order multiscale model for simulating microcracking-induced damage in concrete at the mesoscale levelis proposed. The model simulates the propagation of microcracks in concrete using a two-scale computational methodology. First, a realistic concrete specimen that explicitly resolves the coarse aggregates in a mortar matrix was generated at the mesoscale. Microcrack growth in the mortar matrix is modelled using a synthesis of continuum micromechanics and fracture mechanics. Model order reduction of the two-scale model is achieved using clustering technique. Model predictions are calibrated and validated using uniaxial compression tests performed in the laboratory.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0055.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: plasma membrane; spontaneous curvature; Helfrich energy; area difference elastic model; protein crowding; Deviatoric curvature
Online: 4 September 2018 (05:13:10 CEST)
In order to alter and adjust the shape of the membrane, cells harness various mechanisms of curvature generation. Many of these curvature generation mechanisms rely on the interactions between peripheral membrane proteins, integral membrane proteins, and lipids in the bilayer membrane. One of the challenges in modeling these processes is identifying the suitable constitutive relationships that describe the membrane free energy that includes protein distribution and curvature generation capability. Here, we review some of the commonly used continuum elastic membrane models that have been developed for this purpose and discuss their applications. Finally, we address some fundamental challenges that future theoretical methods need to overcome in order to push the boundaries of current model applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0472.v4
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: geometrical optics; speed of light; reflection of light; elastic collision ball-wall; modified Michelson interferometer
Online: 22 February 2023 (02:52:27 CET)
The Sun is a frame at relative rest in which sunlight travels at the emitted speed c. Earth travels at the revolving speed v in this frame. The reflection of light as a mechanical phenomenon applies to the modified Michelson interferometer employed by Miller in his experiments with light from the Sun. Unlike the Tomaschek experiments, which use light from stars that may travel in the Universe at velocities different from that of the Sun, the fringe shifts in the Miller experiments are predictable. Based on Michelson's derivation, Miller expected in his experiments at Mount Wilson a 1.12 fringe shift and observed a fringe shift of 0.08 in 1921 and 0.088 in 1925. The reflection of light as a mechanical phenomenon predicts zero fringe shift for Miller's experiment agreeing only with his observations at the Cleveland laboratory in 1924.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0165.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: elastic curve; simply supported beams of variable cross section; initial guess for slope and deflection
Online: 12 August 2021 (18:45:35 CEST)
In this paper a new approximate procedure is developed for calculating the inclination angle of the end points of statically determinate beams. The method is based on the topology comparison of simple (hinge-roller combination) supported beam and a resemblant cantilever beam. Assuming that the support reactions of the beam are active forces, the virtual displacements at the points of the reaction forces are calculated. Based on these values the inclination angle is calculated. Several examples are considered and the suggested in this paper, while the procedure is applied for various types of structures and loadings. The results, obtained by the suggested numerical procedure, are compared with analytical ones, and they are in good agreement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0694.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: relativistic Quaternion Quantum Mechanics; Cauchy-elastic solid; Schrödinger and Poisson equations; quaternions; Klein-Gordon equatio
Online: 27 November 2020 (14:23:18 CET)
We show that the quaternion quantum mechanics has well-founded mathematical roots and can be derived from the model of elastic continuum by French mathematician Augustin Cauchy, i.e., it can be regarded as representing physical reality of elastic continuum. Starting from the Cauchy theory (classical balance equations for isotropic Cauchy-elastic material) and using the Hamilton quaternion algebra we present a rigorous derivation of the quaternion form of the non- and relativistic wave equations. The family of the wave equations and the Poisson equation are a straightforward consequence of the quaternion representation of the Cauchy model of the elastic continuum. This is the most general kind of quantum mechanics possessing the same kind of calculus of assertions as conventional quantum mechanics. The problem of the Schrödinger equation, where imaginary ‘i’ should emerge, is solved. This interpretation is a serious attempt to describe the ontology of quantum mechanics, and demonstrates that, besides Bohmian mechanics, the complete ontological interpretations of quantum theory exists. The model can be generalized and falsified. To ensure this theory to be true, we specified problems allowing exposing its falsity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0070.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: material charecterisation; inverse finite element material modelling; elastic plastic material model; Drucker-Prager material model
Online: 4 July 2019 (10:50:03 CEST)
This paper describes a new approach that can be used to determine the mechanical properties of unknown materials and complex material systems. The approach uses inverse finite element modelling (FEM) accompanied with a designed algorithm to obtain the modulus of elasticity, yield stress and strain hardening material constants of an isotropic hardening material model, as well as the material constants of the Drucker-Prager material model (modulus of elasticity, cap yield stress and angle of friction). The algorithm automatically feeds the input material properties data to finite element software and automatically runs simulations to establish a convergence between the numerical loading-unloading curve and the target data obtained from continuous indentation tests using common indenter geometries. A further module was developed to optimise convergence using an inverse FEM analysis interfaced with a non-linear MATLAB algorithm. A sensitivity analysis determined that the dual Spherical and Berkovich (S&B) approach delivered better results than other dual indentation methods such as Berkovich and Vickers (B&V) and Vickers and Spherical (V&S). It was found that better convergence values can be achieved despite a large variation in the starting parameter values and / or material constitutive model and such behaviour reflects the uniqueness of the dual S&B indentation in predicting complex material systems. The study has shown that a robust optimization method based on a non-linear least-squares curve fitting function (LSQNONLIN) within MATLAB and ABAQUS can be used to accurately predict a unique set of elastic plastic material properties and Drucker-Prager material properties. This is of benefit to the scientific investigation of properties of new materials or obtaining the material properties at different location of a part which might be not be similar due to manufacturing processes (e.g. different heating and cooling rates at different locations).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0861.v1
Subject: Engineering, Metallurgy And Metallurgical Engineering Keywords: Elastic Properties; Low alloy Steel; Heat Treatment; Structural Stability; Martensitic Phase; Phase Transformation; Impulse Excitation Technique
Online: 11 May 2023 (13:39:52 CEST)
Elastic properties of materials and their changes with temperature are important for their applications in engineering. A study on the influence of phase composition of AISI 4130 alloy on Young's modulus (Ed), shear modulus (Gd), and damping (Q-1) was carried out by Impulse Excitation Technique (IET). The material characterization was carried out using confocal microscopy, XRD, MET, HV, and dilatometry. A stable structure, composed of ferrite (BCC) and pearlite (α-Fe+Fe3C), was obtained by annealing. Metastable structure of martensite (BCT) was obtained by quenching. The Ed, Gd, and Q-1 were measured, varying the temperature from RT to 900 °C. The values of Ed and Gd, at RT, were determined as 201.5 and 79.2 GPa (annealed), and 190.13 and 76.5 GPa (quenched), respectively. In the annealed steel, the values Ed and Gd decrease linearly on heating up to 650 °C, with the thermal expansion. In the quenched steel, weak changes in the dilatometric curve, Ed, Gd, and Q-1, in the range of 350-450 °C, indicated decompositions of the martensitic phase. Sharp decrease in the moduli and high peak of Q-1, was observed for both samples around 650-900 °C, revealing low lattice elastic stability of the phases during transformations α(BCC)+Fe3C↔γ(FCC).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0231.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Force sensor; series elastic actuator; SEA; torsion spring; lumbar support; wearable robot exoskeleton; lifting task; FEM
Online: 14 February 2023 (03:35:57 CET)
The design of torsional springs for Series Elastic Actuators (SEAs) is challenging, especially when it comes to balancing good stiffness characteristics and efficient torque robustness. This study focuses on the design of a lightweight, low-cost, and compact torsional spring for use in rotary series elastic actuator (ES-RSEA) of lumbar support exoskeleton. The exoskeleton is used as an assistive device to prevent lower back injuries. The torsion spring was designed following design for manufacturability (DFM) principles, focusing on minimal space and weight. The design process consisted of determining the potential topology and optimizing the selected topology parameters through finite element method (FEM) to reduce equivalent stress. The prototype was made using a waterjet cutting process with low-cost material (AISI-4140-alloy) and tested using a custom-made test rig. The results showed that the torsion spring had a linear torque-displacement relationship with 99% linearity, and the deviation between FEM simulation and experimental measurements was less than 2%. The torsion spring has a maximum torque capacity of 45.7 Nm and a stiffness of 440 Nm/rad. The proposed torsion spring is a promising option for lumbar support exoskeletons and similar applications requiring high stiffness, low weight-to-torque ratio, and cost-effectiveness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0329.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: protein dynamics; coarse-grained simulation; Monte-Carlo dynamics; structural flexibility; large-scale dynamics; elastic network model;
Online: 15 October 2018 (17:10:57 CEST)
Fluctuations of protein three-dimensional structures and large-scale conformational transitions are crucial for the biological function of proteins and their complexes. Experimental studies of such phenomena remain very challenging and therefore molecular modeling can be a good alternative or a valuable supporting tool for the investigation of large molecular systems and long-time events. In this mini-review, we present two alternative approaches to the coarse-grained (CG) modeling of dynamic properties of protein systems. We discuss two CG representations of polypeptide chains used for Monte Carlo dynamics simulations of protein local dynamics and conformational transitions and, on other hand, highly simplified structure-based Elastic Network Models of protein flexibility. In contrast to classical Molecular Dynamics the modeling strategies discussed here allow quite accurate modeling of much larger systems and longer time dynamic phenomena. We briefly describe the main features of these models and outline some of their applications, including modeling of near-native structure fluctuations, sampling of large regions of the protein conformational space, or possible support for the structure prediction of large proteins and their complexes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0011.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: forced fold; elastic; inelastic; saucer-shaped sill; wireline data; seismic cube; velocity pull up; Tarim flood basalt
Online: 1 December 2020 (10:12:23 CET)
Disparities between fold amplitude (A) and intrusion thickness (Hsill) are critical in identifying elastic or inelastic deformation in a forced fold. However, accurate measurement of these two parameters is challenging because of the limit in separability and detectability for the seismic data. In the TZ-47 exploring area from the Tarim Basin, Northwest China, we combined wireline data and 3-D seismic data, to accurately constrain the fold amplitude and total thickness of sills that inducing the roof uplift. The measurement results show that the forced fold amplitude is 155 m and the total sill thickness is 148.4 m. When using a magma density of 2.7 g/cm3, and solid rock density of 3 g/cm3, the molten magma thickness at the time of intrusion would be 153.8 m, which is almost no difference from the forced fold amplitude. Therefore, the TZ-47 fold is a pure elastic forced fold induced by emplacement of multiple sills. Measurement solely based on seismic data may not be able to detect some thin interlayers and may result in large errors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0030.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Sentinel-2; UAV; machine learning; forest canopy; canopy gaps; canopy openings percentage; satellite indices; Elastic Net; beech-fir forests
Online: 2 November 2020 (11:23:12 CET)
The presented study demonstrates the bi-sensor approach suitable for rapid and precise up-to-date mapping of forest canopy gaps for the larger spatial extent. The approach makes use of UAV RGB images on smaller areas for highly precise forest canopy mask creation. Sentinel-2 was used as a scaling platform for transferring information from UAV to a wider spatial extent. The various approaches of the improvement of the predictive performance were examined: (I) the highest R2 of the single satellite index was up to 0.57, (II) the highest R2 using multiple features obtained from the single date, S-2 image was 0.624 and, (III) the highest R2 on the multi-temporal set of S-2 images, was 0.697. Satellite indices such as ARVI, IPVI, NDI45, PSSRa, MCARI, CI, RI, and NDTI were the dominant predictors in most of the ML algorithms. The more complex ML algorithms such as SVM, Random Forest, GBM, XGBoost, and Catboost that provided the best performance on the training set exhibited weaker generalization capabilities. Therefore, a simpler and more robust Elastic Net algorithm was chosen for the final map creation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0032.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: geometrical optics; reflection of light; speed of light; interference of light; Michelson interferometer; Michelson–Morley experiment; elastic collision ball wall
Online: 2 September 2020 (07:43:45 CEST)
Derivation of light paths in the Michelson interferometer is based on the hypothesis that the speed of light does not change after reflection by a mirror in motion. The Michelson-Morley experiment predicts a fringe shift of 0.40. The same fringe shift is predicted for a particular Michelson interferometer in which the beam splitter of the interferometer makes an angle of 45° with the direction of light from the source. Light behaves like a wave and also as a particle. Thus, it is reasonable to consider the reflection of light as a mechanical phenomenon. With this hypothesis, the speed of light changes after reflection, and the predicted fringe shift for the particular Michelson interferometer is zero which is in accordance with the result of the Michelson-Morley experiment. Apparently, light travels in any inertial frame as if this particular interferometer belongs to a fixed frame. The velocity of light is considered independent of the velocity of its source, which is in accordance with astronomers’ observations of the binary stars, and the experiment performed at CERN, Geneva, in 1964.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0457.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Covid-19; desmosine; dp-ucMGP; elastic fibers; factor II; matrix Gla protein; PIVKA-II; protein S; vitamin K; vitamin K antagonist
Online: 29 May 2020 (04:16:20 CEST)
Background: A significant proportion of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients develops respiratory failure. Thromboembolism is also prevalent in coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Vitamin K plays a role in coagulation and possibly also in lung diseases. We therefore hypothesized that vitamin K is implicated in Covid-19 pathogenesis. Methods: 134 Covid-19 patients and 184 controls were included. Inactive vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla protein (i.e.dp-ucMGP) and prothrombin (i.e. PIVKA-II) were measured, which are inversely related to respectively extrahepatic and hepatic vitamin K status. Desmosine was measured to quantify elastic fiber degradation. Lung involvement and arterial calcifications severity were assessed by computed tomography. Results Dp-ucMGP was elevated in Covid-19 patients compared to controls (P=0.001). Higher dp-ucMGP was found in Covid-19 patients with poor compared to better outcomes (P=0.002). PIVKA-II was normal in 81.8%, mildly elevated in 14.0% and moderately elevated in 4.1% of Covid-19 patients not using vitamin K antagonists. Dp-ucMGP in Covid-19 patients was correlated with desmosine (P<0.001), thoracic aortic calcification (P<0.001) but not with pneumonia severity. Conclusions: Extrahepatic vitamin K status was severely reduced in Covid-19 patients, as reflected by elevated inactive MGP, and related to poor outcome. Procoagulant prothrombin activity remained preserved in the majority of Covid-19 patients, which is compatible with the increased thrombogenicity that is frequently observed in severe Covid-19. Impaired MGP activation was linked to accelerated elastic fiber degradation and premorbid vascular calcifications. A trial should assess whether increasing MGP and protein S activity by vitamin K administration improves Covid-19 outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0457.v3
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Timoshenko beam; moment shear force curvature relationship; closed-form solutions; non-uniform heating; stability; second-order element stiffness matrix; elastic Winkler foundation
Online: 15 July 2021 (10:30:53 CEST)
This paper presents an exact solution to the Timoshenko beam theory (TBT) for first-order analysis, second-order analysis, and stability. The TBT covers cases associated with small deflections based on shear deformation considerations, whereas the Euler–Bernoulli beam theory (EBBT) neglects shear deformations. Thus, the Euler–Bernoulli beam is a special case of the Timoshenko beam. The moment-curvature relationship is one of the governing equations of the EBBT, and closed-form expressions of efforts and deformations are available in the literature. However, neither an equivalent to the moment-curvature relationship of EBBT nor closed-form expressions of efforts and deformations can be found in the TBT. In this paper, a moment-shear force-curvature relationship, the equivalent in TBT of the moment-curvature relationship of EBBT, was presented. Based on this relationship, first-order and second-order analyses were conducted, and closed-form expressions of efforts and deformations were derived for various load cases. Furthermore, beam stability was analyzed and buckling loads were calculated. Finally, first-order and second-order element stiffness matrices were determined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0377.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Three-dimensional Stress Singularity; Fracture Mechanics Criterion; Sufficient Condition for Fracture; Easy Cleavage System; Orthorhombic Single Crystal; Elastic Constants of Mono-crystalline YBCO
Online: 22 February 2023 (07:00:10 CET)
The effect of elastic constants, cij, on the nature (easy or difficult) of a cleavage system in YBa2Cu3O7−δ is investigated, by employing a novel three-dimensional eigenfunction expansion technique, based in part on separation of the thickness-variable and partly a modified Frobenius type series expansion technique in conjunction with the Eshelby-Stroh formalism. Out of the available three complete sets of elastic constants, the first constitutes an estimate, while the second assumes tetragonal symmetry. This leaves only the experimental measurements by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, despite reported values of c12 and to a lesser extent, c66, being excessively high. The present investigation considers six through-thickness crack systems weakening orthorhombic YBCO mon-crystalline plates. More important, the present approach predicts whether a crack would propagate in its original plane/direction or deflect to a different one. This fracture mechanics criterion is then employed for accurate determination of the full set of elastic constants of mono-crystalline YBCO. Finally, generally unavailable results, pertaining to the through-thickness variations of stress intensity factors and energy release rates for a crack corresponding to symmetric and skew-symmetric hyperbolic cosine loads that also satisfy the boundary conditions on the bounding surfaces of an orthorhombic monocrystalline plate bridge a longstanding gap in the field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0561.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: finite element method; mesh strategy; linear elastic fracture mechanics; mesh refinement; fracture mechanics; numerical crack; h-AES method; interelement method; edge separation; crack propagation
Online: 30 November 2021 (11:43:56 CET)
H-adaptivity is an effective tool to introduce local mesh refinement in FEM-based numerical simulation of crack propagation. The implementation of h-adaptivity could benefit the numerical simulation of fatigue or accidental load scenarios involving large structures such as ship hulls. In engineering applications, the element deletion method is frequently used to represent cracks. However, the element deletion method has some drawbacks such as strong mesh dependency and loss of mass or energy. In order to mitigate this problem, the element splitting method could be applied. In this study, a numerical method called ‘h-adaptive element splitting’ (h-AES) is introduced. The h-AES method is applied in FEM programs by combining h-adaptivity with the element splitting method. Two examples using the h-AES method to simulate cracks in large structures under linear-elastic fracture mechanics scenario are presented. The numerical results are verified against analytical solutions. Based on the examples, the h-AES method is proven to be able to introduce mesh refinement in large-scale numerical models that consist of structured coarse meshes. By employing the mesh refinement introduced in this paper, very small cracks are well represented in large structures.