REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: dietary substitution; CVD; saturated fatty acids; protein; monounsaturated fatty acids; polyunsaturated fatty acids; dairy fat; refined carbohydrates; whole grains
Online: 18 May 2017 (04:01:53 CEST)
Dietary recommendations to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have focused on reducing intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) for more than 50 years. While the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advise substituting both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids for SFA, evidence supports other nutrient substitutions that will also reduce CVD risk. For example, replacing SFA with whole grains, but not refined carbohydrates, reduces CVD risk. Replacing SFA with protein, especially plant protein may also reduce CVD risk. While dairy fat (milk, cheese) is associated with a slightly lower CVD risk compared to meat, dairy fat results in a significantly greater CVD risk relative to unsaturated fatty acids. As research continues, we will refine our understanding of dietary patterns associated with lower CVD risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0163.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: authenticity; chromatographic fingerprint; fatty acids; classification; linear discriminant analysis
Online: 13 December 2018 (08:43:49 CET)
The fatty-acid profiles of five main commercial pistachio cultivars, including Ahmad-Aghaei, Akbari, Chrok, Kalle-Ghouchi and Ohadi, were determined by gas chromatography: palmitic (C16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1), stearic (C18:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), linolenic (C18:3) arachidic (C20:0) and gondoic (C20:1) acid. Based on the oleic to linoleic acid (O/L) ratio, a quality index was determined for these five cultivars: Ohadi (2.40) < Ahmad-Aghaei (2.60) < Kale-Ghouchi (2.94) < Chrok (3.05) < Akbari (3.66). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the fatty-acid data yielded three significant PCs, which together account for 80.0% of the total variance in the data set. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) model evaluated with cross validation correctly classified almost all samples: the average percent accuracy for the prediction set was 98.0%. The high predictive power for the prediction set shows the ability to indicate the cultivar of an unknown sample based on its fatty-acid chromatographic fingerprint.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0286.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: volatile fatty acids; Alphitobius diaperinus; locomotor activity; repellency
Online: 30 January 2018 (14:46:51 CET)
Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are a group of common metabolites with a potential of universal infochemicals dedicated to transferring of information between higher organisms and bacteria either from microbiome or external environment. VFAs are common substances among various insect orders, there are numerous studies exploring their influence on the behavior of different insect species. In relation to papers published by J. E. McFarlane, we assess the effects of formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, valeric acids on spatial preference of common stored food grain products, and poultry industry pest – lesser mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus). We present novel method of continuous, simultaneous assessment of site preference as well as travelled distance in constant-flow olfactometer. All tested VFAs except valeric had a significant repellent effect with formic acid being effective in the lowest concentration. Additionally, VFAs significantly altered distance travelled by insects. Obtained results indicate a potential role of VFAs in the olfactory guided behavior of A. diaperinus, we speculate that reaction to the presence if VFAs may deviate form specificity of species’ original habitat.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0532.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Phosphatidylinositol; actin remodeling; phagocytosis; dietary fatty acids; Alzheimer’s disease
Online: 22 July 2020 (14:15:35 CEST)
Alzheimer’s disease is one of the neurodegenerative diseases, characterized by the accumulation of abnormal protein deposits, which disrupt the signal transduction in neurons and other glia cells. The pathological protein Tau and amyloid-β contributes to the disrupted microglial signaling pathways, actin cytoskeleton, and cellular receptor expression. The important secondary messenger lipids i.e., phosphatidylinositols are largely affected by protein deposits of amyloid-beta in Alzheimer’s disease. Phosphatidylinositols are the product of different phosphatidylinositol kinases and the state of phosphorylation at D3, D4, and D5 positions of inositol ring. PI 3, 4, 5-P3 involves in phagocytic cup formation and relates actin remodeling whereas PI 4, 5-P2-mediates the process of phagosomes formation and further fusion with early endosome. The necessary activation of actin-binding proteins such as Rac, WAVE complex, and ARP2/3 complex for the actin polymerization in the process of phagocytosis, migration is regulated and maintained by PI 3, 4, 5-P3 and PI 4, 5-P2. Dietary fatty acids depending on their ratio and types of intake influence secondary lipid messenger along with the cellular content of phaphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. The deposited Aβ deposits and extracellular Tau seed disrupt levels of phosphatidylinositol and actin cytoskeletal changes that hamper microglia signaling pathways in AD. We hypothesize that being a lipid species intracellular levels of phosphatidylinositol would be regulated by dietary fatty acids. We keen to understand different types of phosphatidylinositol species levels in signaling events such as phagocytosis and actin remodeling owing to the exposure of various types of dietary fatty acids.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0251.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: endophyte; Trichoderma; fatty acid; antifeedant, myzus persicae; culture media
Online: 21 November 2019 (15:00:33 CET)
Increasing pesticide resistance in plant pathogens is major concern in agriculture production. Research on ecofriendly alternatives of chemical pesticides are more in demand in pesticide industry. In the current study, an ethyl acetate extract from the endophytic fungus Trichoderma sp. EFI 671, isolated from the stem parts of the medicinal plant Laurus sp., was screened for bioactivity against plant pathogens (Fusarium graminearum, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea), insect pests (Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae, Rhopalosiphum padi) and plant parasites (Meloidogyne javanica). The bioactive components have been characterized following a bioassay-guided isolation against M. persicae. The chemical study of this bioactive extract resulted in the isolation of 1-oleoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-palmitoylglycerol (1), eburicol (2), (24R)-stigmast-4-ene-3-one or β-sitostenone (3), ergosterol (4) and ergosterol peroxide (5). The free fatty acids present in compound 1 (oleic, linoleic and palmitic) showed strong dose-dependent aphid antifeedant effects against M. persicae. Liquid (PDB, and SDB) and solid (corn, sorghum, pearl millet and rice) growth media were tested in order to optimize the yield and bioactivity of the fungal extracts. Pearl millet and corn gave the highest extract yields. All the extracts from these solid media had strong effects against M. persicae with sorghum being the most active. Corn increased the content in linolenic, pearl millet the oleic and stearic and sorghum oleic and linolenic acids compared to rice. Their antifeedant effects correlated with linoleic /oleic acids. The phytotoxic effects of these extracts against Lolium perenne and Lactuca sativa varied with culture media, with sorghum being the least toxic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0228.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Trans fatty acids; saturated fatty acids; ultra-processed foods; children; Tunisia
Online: 4 November 2021 (11:26:56 CET)
Excessive intake of fat and fatty acids is associated with major health hazards such as obesity or chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to provide the first data on total fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA) and trans fatty acids (TFA) intakes and their major food sources in Tunisian children. A total of 1200 children, aged 3 to 9 years old (yo), were randomly selected from primary schools and kindergarten under a cross-sectional design. The 24-hour recall method and food frequency questionnaire were used to assess dietary intake. The energy percentages of total fat, SFA and TFA in Tunisian children were respectively 29.6, 11.4 and 0.15. No sex differences were found. The WHO recommendations for total fat, SFA and TFA were adopted by 58 %, 39 % and 89 % of the study population, respectively. The leading food groups of fat and fatty acids were ultra-processed foods, breakfast cereals and dairy products. The meat, fish, eggs and fish alternatives were the fifth main contributors to the total fat and SFA intakes in Tunisian children. The implementation of a relevant strategy for fat reduction, especially from ultra-processed foods, considered as low nutrient energy-dense products, is needed to promote health among children and prevent diet-related chronic diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1022.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: BeWo cells; placental lipid metabolism; fatty acid desaturation; fatty acid elongation; transcriptome; metabolome; lipidome; OMIC integration
Online: 14 June 2023 (09:44:17 CEST)
Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are linked with impaired placental function and early onset of non-communicable cardiometabolic diseases in offspring. Previous studies have highlighted that the dietary non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), palmitate (PA) and oleate (OA), key dietary metabolites associated with maternal obesity and GDM, are potential modulators of placental lipid processing. Using the BeWo cell line model, the current study integrated transcriptomic (mRNA microarray), metabolomic, and lipidomic readouts to characterize the underlying impacts of exogenous PA and OA on placental villous trophoblast cell metabolism. Targeted gas chromatography and thin layer chromatography highlighted that saturated and monounsaturated NEFAs differentially impact BeWo cell lipid profiles. Furthermore, cellular lipid profiles differed when exposed to single and multiple NEFA species. Additional multi-omic analyses suggested that PA exposure is associated with enrichment in β-oxidation pathways, while OA exposure is associated with enrichment in anti-inflammatory and antioxidant pathways. Overall, this study further demonstrated that dietary PA and OA are important regulators of placental lipid metabolism. Encouraging appropriate dietary advise and implementing dietary interventions that maintain appropriate placental function by limiting excessive exposure to saturated NEFAs such as PA, will continue to be crucial in the clinical management of at-risk obese and GDM pregnancies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0237.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: epidemiology; prospective cohort study; n-6 fatty acids; n-3 fatty acids; linoleic acid; arachidonic acid
Online: 9 November 2018 (04:07:36 CET)
Background: The prognostic value of erythrocyte levels of the n-6 fatty acids (FAs) for total mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes remains an open question. Methods: We examined CV outcomes and death in 2500 individuals in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort without prevalent CVD (mean age 66 years, 57% women) as a function of baseline levels of different length n-6 FAs (18 carbon, 20 carbon and 22 carbon) in the erythrocyte membranes. Clinical outcomes were monitored for up to 9.5 years (median follow up, 7.26 years). Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for a variety of demographic characteristics, clinical status and RBC n-6 and long chain n-3 FA content. Results: There were 245 CV events, 119 CHD events, 105 ischemic strokes, 58 CVD deaths, and 350 deaths from all causes. Few associations between either mortality or CVD outcomes were observed for the n-6 FAs, with those that were observed becoming non-significant after adjusting for n-3 FA levels. Conclusions: Higher circulating levels of the marine n-3 FA levels are associated with reduced risk for incident CVD and ischemic stroke and for death from CHD and all-causes, however in the same sample, little evidence exists for association with n-6 FAs. Further work is needed to identify a full profile of FAs associated with cardiovascular risk and mortality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0289.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; Parkinson’s disease; Alzheimer’s disease; clinical trials
Online: 25 July 2019 (11:38:57 CEST)
A nutritional approach could be a promising strategy to prevent or slow the progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease, since there is no effective therapy for these diseases so far. The beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids are now well established by a plethora of studies through their involvement in multiple biochemical functions, including synthesis of antinflammatory mediators, cell membrane fluidity, intracellular signalling and gene expression. This systematic review will consider epidemiological studies and clinical trials that assessed the impact of supplementation or dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Indeed, treatment with omega-3 fatty acids, being safe and well tolerated, represent a valuable and biologically plausible tool in the management of neurodegenerative diseases in their early stages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0090.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Laminaria hyperborean; lipids; fatty acids; GC-MS
Online: 21 October 2016 (08:59:13 CEST)
A thorough analysis and comparison of the fatty acid profiles of stipe and blade from Laminaria hyperborea, a kelp species found in the northern Atlantic, is presented. Lipids were extracted and fractionated into neutral lipids, free fatty acids and polar lipids, then derivatized to fatty acid methyl esters prior to GC-MS analysis. A total of 42 fatty acids were identified and quantified, including the n-3 fatty acids α-linolenic acid, stearidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. An n-6/n-3 ratio of 0.8:1 was found in blade and 3.5:1 in stipe, respectively. The ratios vary between the lipid fractions within stipe and blade, with the lowest ratio in the polar lipid fraction of blade. The fatty acid amounts are higher in blade than in stipe, and the highest amounts of n-3 fatty acids are found within the neutral lipid fractions. The amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids are 3.4 times higher in blade than stipe. This study highlights the compositional differences between the lipid fractions of stipe and blade from L. hyperborea. The amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids, compared to saturated- and monounsaturated fatty acids, as well as the n-6/n-3-ratio, is known to influence human health. In the pharmaceutical, food, and feed industries this can be of importance for production and sale of different health products. Additionally, lipids are today among the unused by products of alginate production, exploiting this material for commercial interest should give both economical and environmental benefits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0006.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: essential fatty acids; ascorbic acid; glutathione; aging; parkinson’s disease; alzheimer’s disease; senescence; nervous system; growth factors; neuroprotection; docosahexaenoic acid; α-linolenic acid.
Online: 2 October 2017 (08:59:13 CEST)
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and antioxidants are important mediators in the central nervous system (CNS). Lipid derivatives may be used to generate endocannabinoids or prostanoids derived from arachidonic acid, which attenuates excitotoxicity in quadripartite synapses with a focus in astrocytes and microglia; on the other hand, antioxidants, such as glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate, have been shown to signal through transmitter receptors and protect against acute and chronic oxidative stress, modulating the activity of different signaling pathways. Several authors have investigated the role of these nutrients in young and senescent brain, as well as in degenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson's diseases. Through literature review, we aimed to highlight recent data on the role of fatty acids, antioxidants and physical activity in physiology and in molecular mechanisms of brain senescence. Data indicate the complexity and essentiality of endogenous/dietary antioxidants for maintenance of the redox status and control of neuroglial signaling under stress. Recent studies also indicate that omega-3 and -6 fatty acids act in a competitive manner to generate mediators for energy metabolism, feeding behavior, plasticity and memory mechanisms throughout aging. Finding pharmacological or dietary resources that mitigate or prevent neurodegenerative affections continues to be a great challenge and require additional efforts from researchers, clinicians and nutritionists in the field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0283.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: microalgae; attached cultivation; chitosan; polyethylenimine; fatty acids; arachidonic acid
Online: 15 March 2023 (10:45:27 CET)
Green microalgae including those from the genus Lobosphaera are exploited in biotechnology to obtain valuable fatty acids e.g., arachidonic acid (C20:4, ARA) for the production of infant formulae, food and feed additives. In nature, microalgae frequently exist in naturally immobilized state (as biofilms) with limited cell division rate and increased stress resilience. In biotechnology, immobilization of microalgae on artificial cell carriers simplifies biomass harvesting, increases culture robustness and productivity. The choice of suitable cell carrier is central to biotechnology of immobilized culture. Cell carriers based on the natural amine-containing polymer chitosan and synthetic polyethylenimine (PEI) are promising candidates for immobilization of phototrophic microorganisms. This is the first report on the effects of immobilization on PEI and chitosan on the accumulation and composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids, including ARA, in Lobosphaera sp. IPPAS C-2047. The immobilization on PEI increased ARA percentage in the total tatty acids and ARA accumulation by 72% and 81%, compared with the suspended cells cultured respectively in complete or nitrogen-deprived medium 14 days. Immobilization of Lobosphaera sp. on the chitosan-based carrier declined ARA but increased oleic and α-linoleic acid percentages. Mechanisms of the effects of immobilization on fatty acid profiles of the microalgae are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0127.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; liver fibrosis; amino acids; insulin resistance
Online: 7 May 2020 (13:29:39 CEST)
Altered amino acid levels have been found in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, it is not clear whether this alteration is due to altered hepatic metabolism or insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to clarify the association among amino acid levels, fatty liver, and liver fibrosis while eliminating the influence of insulin resistance. NAFLD and liver fibrosis were diagnosed using transient elastography and subjects were divided in three groups: normal, NAFLD, and liver fibrosis. To exclude the influence of insulin resistance, the subjects were matched using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The amino acid serum levels were compared among the groups. Of 731 enrolled subjects, 251 and 33 were diagnosed with NAFLD and liver fibrosis. Although significant differences were observed among the groups in the serum levels of most amino acids, all but those of glutamate and glycine disappeared after matching for HOMA-IR. The multivariate logistic regression revealed that glutamate, glycine, and HOMA-IR were independent risk factors for liver fibrosis. The altered serum levels of most amino acids were associated with insulin resistance, while the increase in glutamate and the decrease in glycine levels were strongly associated not only with insulin resistance, but also with altered liver metabolism in patients with liver fibrosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0247.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: opioid; microbiome-brain axis; DHA; anxiety; polyunsaturated fatty acids; intravenous self-administration; mice
Online: 23 July 2019 (04:09:40 CEST)
Opioids are highly addictive substances with a relapse rate of over 90%. While preclinical models of chronic opioid exposure exist for studying opioid dependence, none recapitulate the relapses observed in human opioid addiction. The mechanisms associated with opioid dependence, the accompanying withdrawal symptoms and the relapses that are often observed months or years after opioid dependence are poorly understood. Therefore, we developed a novel model of chronic opioid exposure whereby the level of administration is self-directed with periods of behavior acquisition, maintenance and then extinction alternating with reinstatement. This profile arguably mirrors that seen in humans, with initial opioid use followed by alternating periods of abstinence and relapse. Recent evidence suggests that dietary interventions that reduce inflammation, including omega-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may reduce substance misuse liability. Using the self-directed intake model, we characterize the observed profile of opioid use and demonstrate that a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fat acids (PUFAs) ameliorates oxycodone-seeking behaviors in the absence of drug availability and reduces anxiety. Guided by the major role gut microbiota have on brain function, neuropathology, and anxiety, we profile the microbiome composition and the effects of chronic opioid exposure and DHA supplementation. We demonstrate that withdrawal of opioids led to a significant depletion in specific microbiota genera whereas DHA supplementation increased microbial richness, phylogenetic diversity, and evenness. Lastly, we examined the activation state of microglia in the striatum and found that DHA supplementation reduced the basal activation state of microglia. These preclinical data suggest that a diet enriched in PUFAs could be used as a treatment to alleviate anxiety induced opioid-seeking behavior and relapse in human opioid addiction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1133.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; magnetic resonance imaging; amino acids; metabolomics; inflammation
Online: 28 April 2023 (07:20:14 CEST)
Background & Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) have been linked to changes in amino acid (ΑΑ) levels. The current observational study sought to investigate the relationship between plasma AA concentrations in a NAFLD population and MRI parameters reflecting inflammation and fibrosis, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, and disease-related anthropometric and biochemical indicators. Approach & Results: Plasma AA levels were quantified with liquid chromatography in 97 NAFLD patients from the MAST4HEALTH study. Medical, anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics were collected and biochemical parameters, as well as inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured. In total, males and subjects with higher MRI-proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) exhibited higher plasma AA levels compared to females and subjects with lower PDFF respectively. Several associations of AAs with disease related markers were revealed, with the more prominent ones being those of aromatic amino acids with log-PDFF (beta: 1.190E-02, p-Value: 0.001) and log-ALT (beta: 7.55E-03, p-Value: 0.001), of branched amino acids with log-insulin (beta: 1.97E-03, p-Value: 1.16E-04) and of ethanolamine (beta: 0.036, p-Value: 3.65E-04) and L-ornithine (beta: 5.4E-04, p-Value: 0.021) with log-total antioxidant status (TAS). Conclusions: Plasma AA levels varied according to sex, BMI, and several MRI clinical factors. Furthermore, significant relationships were demonstrated between AA and several disease indicators, such as MRI parameters, biochemical and oxidative stress indices, showing the potential utility of AAs as diagnostic dis-ease-related indicators activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0451.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: bone marrow oil; unsaturated fatty acid; urea inclusion; low temperature crystallization; GC/MS
Online: 27 August 2018 (11:02:38 CEST)
In this study, four kinds of animal bone marrow powders were extracted with n-hexane using the Soxhlet extraction method. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were enriched by urea inclusion and low temperature crystallization method, then were further evaluated antioxidant and antibacterial activities. These results showed that the oil composition of the n-hexane extracts of four kinds of animal bone marrow primarily consisted of palmitic acid (18.57–31.01%), stearic acid (3.6–20.95%), and oleic acid (40.22–58.69%). The ratios of saturated fatty acids (SFA)/unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) were 1/1.417, 1/1.327, 1/2.140, and 1.285/1 for sheep, bovine, horse, and camel bone marrow oil, respectively. The SFA/UFA ratios determined by the urea inclusion method were 1/1.518, 1/1.390, 1/2.037, and 1.216/1, respectively. The SFA/UFA ratios according to the low temperature crystallization method with acetone were 1/1.920, 1/2.141, 1/2.360, and 1/1.157 for sheep, bovine, horse, and camel bone marrow oil, respectively. These enrichment methods effected the concentrations of UFAs from the camel bone marrow oil. Among the methods, the low temperature crystallization method effectively enriched the UFAs. All four bone marrow oils exhibited strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The horse bone marrow oil showed the strongest antioxidant activity. Both antioxidant and antimicrobial activity improved after enrichment of the UFAs. These results lay a theoretical basis for application bone marrow oil resources in food and medicine.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1574.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs); major depressive disorder (MDD); obesity; metabolic dysregulation; comorbidities
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:54:21 CEST)
The co-occurrence of depression and obesity has become a significant public health concern worldwide. Recent studies have shown that metabolic dysfunction, which is commonly observed in obese individuals and characterized by inflammation, insulin resistance, leptin resistance, and hypertension, is a critical risk factor for depression. This dysfunction may induce structural and functional changes in the brain, ultimately contributing to depression's development. Given that obesity and depression mutually increase each other's risk of development by 50-60%, there is a need for effective interventions that address both conditions. The comorbidity of depression with obesity and metabolic dysregulation is thought to be related to chronic low-grade inflammation, characterized by increased circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and C-reactive protein (CRP). As pharmacotherapy fails in at least 30-40% of cases to adequately treat major depressive disorder, a nutritional approach is emerging as a promising alternative. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are a promising dietary intervention that can reduce inflammatory biomarkers, particularly in patients with high levels of inflammation, including pregnant women with gestational diabetes, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and overweight individuals with major depressive disorder. Further effort directed to implement these strategies in clinical practice could contribute to improved outcomes in patients with depression and comorbid obesity and/or metabolic dysregulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1442.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Macroalgae; Fatty acid; trimethylaminoethyl derivatives; Solid phase Extraction; LC-ESI-MS/MS
Online: 21 September 2023 (05:17:47 CEST)
The extraction method for simultaneously analyzing fatty acids (Myristic acid, cis-Palmitvaccenic acid, Palmitic acid, Palmitic-9,9-d2 acid, Oleic acid, Stearic acid and Stearic-2,2-d2 acid) related to biodiesel fuel in large algae was developed. The introduction of trimethylaminoethyl (TMAE) derivatives into the hydroxyl group (-OH) functional group of the analyte was able to improve ionization and obtain high sensitivity. Liquid Chromatography (LC) was used to investigate the optimal mobile phase composition and flow rate for the separation of five derived fatty acids. In this study, a solid phase extraction (SPE) column was introduced for efficient extraction of fatty acids, and the optimal conditions for SPE were set by comparing the recovery rate according to the solvent for each step (loading, washing, and elution) of SPE from macroalgae.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0926.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Anaerobic hydrolysis and acidification; mesophilic; thermophilic; waste activated sludge; volatile fatty acids
Online: 14 July 2023 (02:59:33 CEST)
The volatile fatty acids (VFAs) productions, as well as particulate organics decomposition, soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) yield, and the VFAs production pathways, of mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic fermentation were investigated. Batch experiments showed that the decomposition rate of volatile suspended solids (VSS), particulate carbohydrate (P-C) and particulate protein (P-P) followed the first-order kinetic model at different temperature. However, the intermediates， accumulated in the process of protein or carbohydrate digestion had a more significant inhibitory effect on the production of VFAs during the mesophilic anaerobic acidification process. Thermophilic fermentation led to more accumulation of VFAs compared to mesophilic fermentation. Then 13C stable isotope labeling experiment demonstrated that, acetic (HAc), propionic (HPr) and butyric (HBu) could be produced from carbohydrate and protein digestion, but valeric (HVa) was only generated from the degradation of protein. Finally, the possible pathway of HVa synthesis was proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0236.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: biorefining; by-products; enzymatic hydrolysis; essential fatty acids; green-extraction; lipids; sustainability
Online: 26 April 2022 (10:37:03 CEST)
The main intention of the present work was to investigate the ability of cellulose-degrading enzymes (C-DE) to release fatty acids (FAs) from complex matrices of cereal by-products during enzymatic hydrolysis (EH). For this purpose, three types of cereal bran (CB), i.e., wheat, rye, and oat were used as a lignocellulose substrate for three commercially available hydrolytic enzymes, i.e., Viscozyme L, Viscoferm, and Celluclast 1.5 L. The yield and composition of FAs after EH was assessed and confronted with the yield obtained after either conventional Soxhlet extraction or alkaline-assisted hydrolysis (A-AH) with 10% KOH in 80% MeOH and subsequent liquid-liquid extraction. The experimental results demonstrated that up to 6.3% and 43.7% higher total FAs yield can be achieved within EH of rye bran using Celluclast 1.5 L than by A-AH and Soxhlet extraction, respectively. However, the application of Viscoferm for EH of wheat bran ensured up to 7.7% and 13.4% higher total FAs yield than A-AH and Soxhlet extraction, respectively. The concentration of essential linolenic acid (C18:3) in lipids extracted after EH of rye bran with Celluclast 1.5 L was up to 24.4% and 57.0% higher than in lipids recovered by A-AH and Soxhlet extraction, respectively. In turn, the highest content of linolenic in wheat bran lipids was observed after EH with Viscoferm and Viscozyme L, ensuring 17.0 and 13.6% higher yield than after A-AH, respectively. SEM analysis confirmed substantial degradation of CB matrix promoted by the ability of C-DE to act specifically on 1,4-β-D-glycosidic bonds in cellulose and on 1,2-α-,1,3-α-, and 1,5-α-L- arabinofuranoside and 1,4-β-D-xylosidic bonds in arabinoxylans, arabinans, and other arabinose-containing hemicelluloses. Structural alteration in cells integrity greatly contributed to the release of bound FAs and their better transfer into the extraction solvent. It has been shown that the proposed process of EH can be used for the efficient release of FAs from the CB matrix more sustainably and with a safer profile, thereby representing the further sustainable production of FAs for certain purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0563.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: diabetes; omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid; lipoprotein subfraction; dyslipidemia; randomized controlled trial
Online: 27 October 2020 (20:37:15 CET)
Objectives To determine the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) from animal and plant sources on glucolipid metabolism and lipoprotein subfractions in type 2 diabetic patients with dyslipidemia. Methods Participants were recruited from the diabetes clinic at the Guanlin Hospital, Yixing City in Jiangsu province, China, from March 2017 through June 2017. Ninety participants were randomly assigned to take 3g/day fish oil (FO, containing EPA and DHA), 3g/day perilla oil (PO, containing ALA), or 3g/day blend oil containing fish oil and linseed oil (BO, containing EPA, DHA and ALA) for 3 months. The levels of serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), C-peptide, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), non-HDL, apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), lipoprotein a (Lp(a)), and free fatty acids were determined at baseline and after the 3 months. In addition, four fatty acids in serum and red blood cells membranes (RBCm) were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The Lipoprint System was used to determine the lipoprotein subfractions. Results All 90 participants completed the final 3-month follow-up at the end of the study. After three months of intervention, blood glucose and HbA1c levels in the PO group were significantly lower than those at the baseline (p < 0.05). On the other hand, in the BO group, the HbA1c, non-HDL, Apo A1 and Lp(a) levels were significantly lower, while the C-peptide levels were significantly higher after intervention compared to the baseline (p < 0.05). In the FO group, the HbA1c and TG levels were significantly lower after the intervention compared to the baseline (p < 0.05). In addition, at the end of the study, there was significant increase in the levels of DPA and DHA in serum and RBCm of the FO group (p < 0.05), while in the BO group, there was significant increase in the levels of EPA, DPA and DHA in RBCm (p < 0.05). Finally, the FO group had the highest levels of large HDL subfractions compared to the BO and PO groups, but had the lowest levels of small HDL subfractions among the three groups. Conclusion For patients with diabetes, plant-derived ω-3 PUFAs are more effective at controlling blood glucose than animal-derived ω-3 PUFAs. However, animal-derived ω-3 PUFAs play a critical role in controlling blood lipids. Particularly, fish oil can effectively increase the beneficial large HDL subfractions and reduce the nonbeneficial small HDL subfractions. Both the animal- and plant-derived ω - 3 PUFAs have practical value in improving glucose and lipids metabolism in T2DM patients with dyslipidemia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0082.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: fatty hydroxamic acids; synthesis; spectroscopy; antioxidant activity; cytotoxic activity; biological targets; ADMET; safety profile
Online: 14 November 2017 (04:42:18 CET)
A fatty hydroxamic acid (FHA) mixture synthesized from olive oil triacylglycerides by hydroxylaminolysis and composed predominantly of oleyl and linoleyl hydroxamic acid (OHA and LHA, respectively) was characterized by means of IR, Raman, MS and 1D and 2D 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The ratio of OHA and LHA (4:1) was confirmed by MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. The radical scavenging and the Fe2+-chelating activity, as well as antioxidant activity in β-carotene-linoleic acid and the Fe3+-reducing power assays of the FHAs yielded positive results. The results of FHA cell toxicity on normal fibroblast (BJ) and a tumour cell line (HeLa) revealed that the normal cell line was sensitive to FHAs within the entire range of applied concentrations (5 × 10−4 mg/mL to 5 × 10−1 mg/mL), while the HeLa tumour cell line was sensitive only at the highest FHA concentration (5 × 10−1 mg/mL). In silico target prediction indicated cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2, the fatty-acid amide hydrolase 1 and hystone deacetylases as the most probable targets of OHA and LHA. According to ADMET predictor analysis, the safety profiles of OHA and LHA are comparable to that of SAHA (vorinostat) the histone deacetylase inhibitor in use as an antineoplastic and immunomodulating agent.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1538.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: cardiovascular disease; omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; polar lipids; cardiovascular risk; thrombosis; platelet-activating factor (PAF); eicosanoids; resolvins; fish oil
Online: 22 September 2023 (08:44:08 CEST)
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the leading cause of death across the globe, hence, establishing strategies to counteract CVD are imperative to reduce mortality and the burden on health systems. Dietary modification is an effective primary prevention strategy against CVD. Research regarding dietary supplementation has become increasingly popular. This review focuses on the current in vivo, in vitro, and epidemiological studies associated with that of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and polar lipids (PLs) and how they play a role against CVD. Furthermore, this review focuses on the results of several major clinical trials examining n-3 PUFA regarding both primary and secondary prevention of CVD. Notably, we place a lens on the REDUCE-IT and STRENGTH trials. Finally, supplementation of PLs has recently been suggested as a potential alternative avenue for the reduction of CVD incidence versus neutral forms of n-3 PUFA. However, the clinical evidence for this argument is currently rather limited. Therefore, we draw on the current literature to suggest future clinical trials for PL supplementation. We conclude that despite conflicting evidence, future human trials must be completed to confirm whether PL supplementation may be more effective than n-3 PUFA supplementation to reduce cardiovascular risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0261.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: sebaleic acid; sapienic acid; positional fatty acid isomer; trans geometrical isomer; extracellular vesicle lipidome; desaturase enzyme; elongase enzyme; lipidomics
Online: 22 January 2020 (16:10:25 CET)
A new pathway leading to the n-10 fatty acid series has been recently evidenced, starting from sapienic acid - a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) resulting from the transformation of palmitic acid by delta-6 desaturase. Sapienic acid attracts attention as novel marker of cancer cell plasticity. Here, we analyzed fatty acids including the n-10 fatty acid contents, and compared for the first time cell membranes and the corresponding extracellular vesicles (EV) of two human prostatic adenocarcinoma cell lines of different aggressiveness (PC3 and LNCaP). The n-10 components were 9-13% of the total fatty acids in both cancer cell lines and EVs, with total MUFA levels significantly higher in EVs of the most aggressive cell type (PC3). High sapienic/palmitoleic ratios indicated the preference for delta-6 vs. delta-9 desaturase enzymatic activity in these cell lines. The expressions analysis of enzymes involved in desaturation and elongation by qRT-PCR showed a higher desaturase activity in PC3 and a higher elongase activity toward polyunsaturated fatty acids than toward saturated fatty acids, compared to LNCaP cells. Our results improve the present knowledge in cancer fatty acid metabolism and lipid phenotypes, highlighting EV lipidomics to monitor positional fatty acid isomer profiles and MUFA levels in cancer.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0051.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: carnitine palmitoyltransferase deficiency; CPT1A; fatty acid oxidation disorders; transaminitis; Ashkenazi Jewish; neonatal screening
Online: 10 April 2017 (06:23:32 CEST)
An 18 month-old male was evaluated after presenting with disproportionate transaminitis in the setting of acute gastroenteritis. He had marked hepatomegaly on physical exam that was later confirmed with an abdominal ultrasound. Given this clinical picture, suspicion for a fatty acid oxidation disorder was raised. Further investigation revealed that his initial newborn screen was positive for carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) deficiency - a rare autosomal recessive disorder of long-chain fatty acid oxidation. Confirmatory biochemical testing in the newborn period showed carnitine levels to be unexpectedly low with a normal acylcarnitine profile. Thus, it was considered to be a false-positive newborn screen and metabolic follow up was not recommended. Repeat biochemical testing during this hospitalization revealed a normal acylcarnitine profile. The only abnormalities noted were a low proportion of acylcarnitine species from plasma, an elevated free-to-total carnitine ratio, and mild hypoketotic medium chain decarboxylic aciduria on urine organic acids. Gene sequencing of CPT1A revealed a novel homozygous splice site variant that confirmed his diagnosis. CPT1A deficiency has a population founder effect in the Inuit and other Arctic groups, but has not been previously reported in persons of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0167.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: vegetable oils; emulsifiers; triglycerides; FAME; epoxidized fatty acids; glycerol; polyglycerol; PGPR; renewable raw materials
Online: 25 December 2017 (07:32:07 CET)
Oligo- and polyesters of polyglycerol and polyricinoleic acid are widely used as emulsifiers in various industries. Based on the condensation of glycerol and its oligomers with epoxidized derivatives of vegetable oils, new promising emulsifiers for oil-water systems were obtained. Complex structural and functional spectral analysis of synthesized substances showed that the main reactions leading to the formation of the desired products were the opening of epoxide cycles, the transesterification of esters and the condensation of fatty acid derivatives. The new combination of renewable raw materials is of undoubted interest for deeper vegetable oils chemical processing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0431.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depressive disorder; omega-3 fatty acids; lipid profile; fluidity of membrane; children and adolescents
Online: 20 August 2020 (05:48:48 CEST)
Depressive disorder (DD) is a psychiatric disorder whose molecular basis is not fully understood. It is assumed that reduced consumption of fish and omega-3 fatty acids (FA) is associated with DD. Other lipids like total cholesterol (TCH), LDL- and HDL-cholesterols (LDL-CH, HDL-CH) also play a role in depression. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between depressive disorder symptoms and lipid profile, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol subfractions, Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activities and erythrocyte membrane fluidity in 58 depressive children and adolescents, as well as the effect of omega-3 FA on the monitored parameters. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), lipid profile by standard biochemical procedures, LDL- and HDL-subfractions by the Lipoprint system. Basic biochemical parameters including lipid profile were compared with levels in 20 healthy children and were in the physiological range. We are the first to report that omega-3 FAs increase after 12 weeks of supplementation large HDL subfractions (anti-atherogenic) and decrease small HDL subfractions (pro-atherogenic) in depressed children. We found a negative correlation between CDI score and HDL-CH and large HDL subfraction, but not LDL-CH subfractions. CDI score was not associated with erythrocyte membrane fluidity. Our results suggest that HDL-CH and its subfractions, but not LDL-CH may play a role in the pathophysiology of depressive disorder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2033.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: longissimus dorsi; saturated fatty acids; monounsaturated fatty acids; polyunsaturated fatty acid; GWAS
Online: 28 July 2023 (14:07:13 CEST)
Ningxiang pigs exhibit a diverse array of fatty acids, making them an intriguing model for exploring the genetic underpinnings of Fatty acid metabolism. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study using a dataset comprising 50,697 SNPs and samples from over 600 Ningxiang pigs. Our investigation yielded novel candidate genes linked to five saturated fatty acids (SFAs), four monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and five polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Re-markably, 37, 21, and 16 SNPs showed significant associations with SFAs, MUFAs, and PUFAs, respectively. Notably, ALGA0047587, H3GA0046208, DRGA0016063, and ALGA0031262 demonstrated substantial phenotypic variance (≥ 30%) in Arachidic acid (C20:0), Elaidic Acid (C18:1n-9(t)), and Arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6), respectively. Several significant SNPs were posi-tioned proximally to previously reported genes. In total, we identified 11, 6, and 5 candidate genes associated with SFAs, MUFAs, and PUFAs, respectively. These findings hold great promise for advancing breeding strategies aimed at optimizing meat quality and enhancing lipid metabolism within the intramuscular fat (IMF) of Ningxiang pigs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0132.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: marula; seed (kernel) cake; fatty acids; fatty acid totals; fatty acid ratios; atherogenicity and desaturase indices
Online: 12 November 2019 (16:25:03 CET)
Marula seed cake (MSC) is a nutritionally-rich natural feed resource that can enhance the healthiness of animal-derived foods (ADFs) for human consumption. This study compared the health-related fatty acid (FA) profiles of MSC products from South Africa and Eswatini. Composite samples monthly collected from both countries were analysed for FAs. MSC products from both countries were found to be dominated by oleic acid (>70%), followed by palmitic, linoleic and stearic acids. Consequently, both products had their FA totals dominated by ƩMUFA followed by ƩSFA, ƩPUFA, Ʃn-6 PUFA and Ʃn-3 PUFA. Both oleic and stearic acids were higher (P < 0.01) whilst linoleic (P < 0.001), α-linolenic (P < 0.05), margaric (P < 0.05), palmitoleic (P < 0.05) and eicosatrienoic (P < 0.05) acids were lower in South African in comparison to Eswatini MSC. Consequently, South African MSC had higher ƩMUFA (P < 0.01) but lower ƩPUFA (P < 0.001), Ʃn-6 PUFA (P < 0.001) and Ʃn-3 PUFA (P < 0.05). Also, Eswatini MSC had higher n-6 : n-3 PUFA, PUFA : SFA (P = 0.001) and PUFA : MUFA (P < 0.05) ratios. Further, MSC products from both countries had similarly (P > 0.05) low atherogenicity and high desaturase indices. In conclusion, both country products are rich particularly in oleic acid and their incorporation into farm animal diets would increase content of the MUFA in ADFs and, consequently, improve health benefits to human consumers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0206.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: fatty acid desaturases; highly unsaturated fatty acids; unusual unsaturated fatty acids; sciadonic acid; sapienic acid; mead acid
Online: 14 October 2022 (09:37:18 CEST)
The human chromosome 11q13 (HSA 11q13) genomic locus is a major cancer hotspot and has been established as the most frequently altered by amplification in a variety of human cancers. The fatty acid desaturase genes (FADS1, FADS2 and FADS3) localize to the 11q12- 13.1 region. FADS2 activity is promiscuous, catalyzing biosynthesis of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, including unsaturated branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) by Δ6, Δ8, and Δ4 desaturation toward at least 16 substrates. Our main aim here is to review known and putative consequences of FADS2 dysregulation due to effects on the 11q13 locus in various cancer types. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar databases for articles that showed 11q13 amplification and studies reporting FADS2 function in various cancer types. FADS2 silencing causes synthesis of sciadonic acid (ScA, 5Z,11Z,14Z-20:3) in MCF7 cells and breast cancer in vivo. 5Z,11Z,14Z-20:3 is structurally identical to the eicosanoid precursor arachidonic acid (5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z–20:4) except it lacks the internal Δ8 double bond required for prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis, among other eicosanoids. Melanoma, prostate, liver and lung cancer cells insensitive to SCD inhibition show increased FADS2 activity leading to sapienic acid (16:1n10) biosynthesis from 16:0. Elevated serum mead acid (20:3n-9) levels were found in more than a third of hepatocellular carcinoma patients, indicative of an unsatisfied demand for arachidonic acid, likely as a substrate for eicosanoids. A highly expressed circular RNA (hsa_circ_022382) within an exonic region of FADS2 is associated with shorter overall survival in colorectal cancer patients. Similarly, in lung cancer tissues circFADS2 RNA is highly expressed. Palmitic acid (16:0) is a common substrate for SCD and FADS2. FADS2 circular RNAs are at high levels in colorectal and lung cancer tissues. The evidence thusfar supports an effort for future research on the role of FADS2 as a tumor suppressor in a range of neoplastic disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0543.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; lean nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; visceral fat; non-obese; fatty liver; insulin resistance
Online: 23 July 2020 (09:38:15 CEST)
Asians are known to more likely than Westerners develop fatty liver and lifestyle-related diseases despite their weight. However, the relationship between fat accumulation and lifestyle-related diseases in non-obese Asians is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze visceral fat and hepatic fat in participants with a normal body mass index (BMI) and examine their characteristics during a medical checkup. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 663 of 1,142 patients who underwent abdominal ultrasonography and who had an alcohol intake (converted to ethanol) of <30 g/day for males and <20 g/day for females and a BMI of <25 kg/m2 during a health checkup. Participants were classified into four groups: group A, visceral fat accumulation (VFA) (−) and fatty liver (FL) (−) (n = 549); group B, VFA (+) and FL(−) (n = 32); group C, VFA (−) and FL (+) (n = 58); and group D, VFA (+) and FL (+) (n = 24). The frequencies of lifestyle-related disease complications, liver function tests, and liver fibrosis were evaluated among the four groups. Compared with group A (control), groups B, C, and D had higher number of males; BMI; abdominal circumference, ALT, AST, γ-GTP, triglyceride, uric acid, fasting blood sugar levels; and incidence of hyperlipidemia. Groups C and D had higher ALT, HbA1c, cholinesterase, and triglyceride levels; FIB4 index; and number of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) than groups A and B; however, there was no difference between groups A and B. FL is a risk factor of DM and liver fibrosis in non-obese Japanese individuals; however, VFA only is not a risk factor of DM and liver fibrosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0139.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: bacteria; barium monocarboxylates; chemical deposition techniques; free fatty acids (FFAs); Langmuir film technology; matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS); metabolic fingerprinting; rhizobia
Online: 13 January 2020 (13:25:49 CET)
Fatty acids (FAs) represent an important class of metabolites, impacting on membrane building blocks and cellular regulatory networks. In nature, prokaryotes are characterized with the most impressing FA structural diversity and the highest relative contents of free fatty acids (FFAs). Thereby, nitrogen-fixing bacteria (order Rhizobiales), often found in symbiosis with legumes, attract a special interest. Indeed, FAs impact on the structure of rhizobial nodulation factors, required for successful infection of plant root. Although the FA patterns can be addressed by GC- and LC-MS, these methods are time-consuming and suffer from compromised sensitivity, low stability of derivatives and artifacts. In contrast, MALDI-TOF-MS represents an excellent platform for high-efficient metabolite fingerprinting, also applicable to FFAs. Therefore, here we propose a simple and straightforward protocol for high-throughput relative quantification of FFAs in rhizobia by the combination of Langmuir technology and MALDI-TOF-MS, which is featured with high sensitivity, accuracy and precision of quantification. Here we propose a step by step procedure comprising rhizobia culturing, pre-cleaning, extraction, sample preparation, mass spectrometric analysis, data processing and post-processing. To demonstrate the analytical potential of the protocol we illustrate it by a case study – comparison the FFA metabolomes of two rhizobia species - Rhizobium leguminosarum and Sinorhizobium meliloti.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0240.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; NAFLD; omega-3 fatty acid; EPA; DHA; PUFA;
Online: 13 July 2018 (14:47:22 CEST)
Background & Aims: This RCT aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of MF4637, a medical food comprising highly concentrated, highly purified, long chain (LC) omega-3 fatty acids, (460 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 380 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) in correcting the omega-3 fatty acid nutritional deficiency present in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The potential for MF4637 to reduce liver fat was evaluated in a subset of patients. Methods: 176 subjects with NAFLD were randomised to receive 3 g/d of LC-omega-3 fatty acids (n=87) or placebo (olive oil; n=89) for 24 weeks, in addition to following standard-of-care dietary guidelines for these patients. Thus, interventions were given on top of the dietary advice. The omega-3 index, omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratio (primary outcome) and quantitative measurements of red blood cell (RBC) EPA and DHA (secondary outcome) were determined at baseline and study completion. Magnetic resonance imaging-proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) assessment of change in liver fat fraction was conducted in a subset of patients. Results: Of the 176 randomised subjects, 167 were analysed for the primary and secondary outcomes (n=81 in the MF4637 group; n=86 in the placebo group). Supplementation with MF4637 for 24 weeks significantly increased the omega-3 index and absolute values of RBC EPA and DHA, and decreased the omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratio in NAFLD patients compared to placebo (p<0.0001). There was a statistically significant reduction in liver fat content within both groups with no difference between them. An inverse relationship between change in absolute RBC EPA+DHA and change in liver fat, AST and ALT levels was seen suggesting that a greater increase in omega-3 content was associated with a reduction for both liver fat content and improvement in liver enzyme levels. Additionally, a significant liver fat-lowering effect of MF4637 compared to placebo was demonstrated in a subset of patients with baseline fatty liver index (FLI) score ≥ 40. There were no serious adverse events related to study interventions. Conclusions: The study results demonstrate that the medical food MF4637, was able to correct the nutritional deficiency of omega-3 in NAFLD patients above and beyond that obtained with nutritional counselling. This demonstrates that MF4637 is beneficial in raising the low omega-3 index observed in these patients. A reduction in hepatic steatosis was demonstrated with both intervention groups although no distinction between groups was seen. Further analyses demonstrate the potential to identify omega-3 sensitive patients using an easily available clinical tool for steatosis prediction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0119.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: preterm infant; enteral nutrition; lipids; omega-3 fatty acids; omega-6 fatty acids; Docosahexaenoic acid; Arachidonic acid; long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Online: 7 June 2018 (11:34:53 CEST)
Human milk fat is a concentrated source of energy and provides essential and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. According to previous experiments, human milk fat is partially lost during continuous enteral nutrition. However, these experiments were done over relatively short infusion times, and a complete profile of the lost fatty acids was never measured. Whether this lost happens considering longer infusion times or if some fatty acids are lost more than others remain unknown. Pooled breast milk was infused through a feeding tube by a peristaltic pump over a period of 30 minutes and 4, 12 and 24 hours at 2 ml/hour. Adsorbed fat was extracted from the tubes, and the fatty acid composition was analyzed by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total fat loss (average fatty acid loss) after 24 hours was 0.6 ± 0.1%. Short-medium chain (0.7%, p=0.15), long chain (0.6%, p=0.56) saturated (0.7%, p=0.4), monounsaturated (0.5%, p=0.15), polyunsaturated fatty (0.7%, p=0.15), linoleic (0.7%, p=0.25), and docosahexaenoic acids (0.6%, p=0.56) were not selectively adsorbed to the tube. However, very long chain fatty (0.9%, p=0.04), alpha-linolenic (1.6%, p=0.02) and arachidonic acids (1%, p=0.02) were selectively adsorbed and therefore lost in a greater proportion than other fatty acids. In all cases, the magnitude of the loss was clinically low.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0225.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: lymphangiogenesis; free fatty acids; vegfc
Online: 8 April 2021 (10:11:23 CEST)
In cancer, the lymphatic system is hijacked by tumor cells to escape from primary tumor and to metastasize to the sentinel lymph nodes. Tumor lymphangiogenesis is stimulated by the vascular endothelial growth factors-C (VEGFC) after binding to its receptor VEGFR-3. However, how VEGFC cooperates with other molecules to promote lymphatic neovessels growth is not fully determined. Here, we found that tumor lymphangiogenesis developed in tumoral lesions and in their surrounding adipose tissue (AT). Interestingly, lymphatic vessel density correlated with an increase of circulating free fatty acids (FFA) in the lymph from tumor-bearing mice. We found that adipocyte-released FFA are uploaded by lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) to stimulate their sprouting. Lipidomic analysis identified the monounsaturated oleic acid (OA) as the major circulating FFA in the lymph in tumoral context. OA transporters FATP-3, -6 and CD36 were only upregulated on LEC in the presence of VEGFC showing a collaborative effect of these molecules. OA released from adipocytes is taken up by LECs to stimulate the fatty acid β-oxidation, leading to increase adipose tissue lymphangiogenesis. Our results provide new insights on the dialogue between tumors and adipocytes via the lymphatic system and identify a key role for adipocyte-derived FFA in the promotion of lymphangiogenesis, revealing novel therapeutic opportunities for inhibitors of lymphangiogenesis in cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0330.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: fatty acyl desaturase; Δ6 - desaturase; long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid; LC-PUFA; ω3; ω6; EPA; DHA; AA; essential fatty acid; health; fish; transgene
Online: 28 January 2020 (04:39:09 CET)
Fatty acid desaturase 2 (Fads2) is the key enzyme of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis. Endogenous production of these biomolecules in vertebrates, if present, is insufficient to meet demand. Hence, LC-PUFA are considered as conditionally-essential. At present however, LC-PUFA are globally-limited nutrients due to anthropogenic factors. Attention of research is given therefore to find ways to maximize endogenous LC-PUFA production especially in production species, whereby deeper knowledge on molecular mechanisms of enzymatic steps involved is being generated. This review first briefly informs about the milestones in the history of LC-PUFA essentiality exploration before it focuses on the main aim – to highlight the fascinating Fads2 potential to play roles fundamental to adaptation to novel environmental conditions. Investigations are summarized, which elucidate the evolutionary history of fish Fads2 providing an explanation for the remarkable plasticity of this enzyme in fish. Further, structural implications of Fads2 substrate specificity are discussed and some relevant studies performed on organisms other than fish are mentioned in cases when such studies have so far not been conducted on fish models. The importance of Fads2 in the context of growing aquaculture demand and dwindling LC-PUFA supply is depicted and a few remedies in the form of genetic engineering to improve endogenous production of these biomolecules are outlined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0875.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: quinoa, stress, fatty acids, hippocampus, memory
Online: 14 November 2023 (10:27:27 CET)
Brain physiology and morphology are vulnerable to chronic stress, affecting cognitive performance and behavior. However, functional compounds found in food may alleviate these alterations. White quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Wild) seeds have high content of n-3 fatty acids, including alpha-linolenic acid. This work aimed to evaluate the possible neuroprotective role of a quinoa-based functional food (QFF) in rats. Prepubertal male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with rat chow or QFF (50% rat chow + 50% dehydrated quinoa seeds) and exposed or not to restraint stress protocol (2 hours/day; 15 days). Four experimental groups were used: Non-stressed (rat chow), Non-stressed + QFF, Stressed (rat chow) and Stressed + QFF. Weight gain, locomotor activity (open field), anxiety (elevated plus maze, light-dark box), spatial memory (Y-maze), and dendritic length in the hippocampus were measured in all animals. QFF intake did not affect anxiety-like behaviors, while the memory of stressed rats fed with QFF improved compared to those fed with rat chow. In addition, QFF intake countered the stress-induced dendritic atrophy in pyramidal neurons located in CA3 area of the hippocampus. The results suggest that a quinoa-supplemented diet could have a protective role on the memory of chronically stressed rats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2024.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: hemp; dairy goats; fatty acid profile
Online: 30 May 2023 (02:43:38 CEST)
Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is an annual plant belonging to the family of Cannabaceae with several varieties characterised by different fatty acid profiles, content in flavonoids, polyphenols and cannabinoid compounds. Hemp is mostly used in livestock nutrition as oil or as protein cake, not as inflorescences. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary hemp inflorescences on milk yield and composition in grazing goats. Twenty goats (Camosciata delle Alpi), after kidding, were equally divided into two groups (G: Grazing and GH: grazing and hemp), homogeneous for milk yield in the previous lactation, parity and live weight. For three months, all goats were fed on a permanent pasture and received 700/head/day of concentrate (barley, oats and faba bean); diet of group GH was supplemented with 20 g/head/day of hemp inflorescences. Pasture DM intake was estimated according to previous research performed in the same area. In addition, goats’ body weight did not change along the trial meaning that their energy requirements were guaranteed. Individual milk yield was daily registered and samples collected every 20 days for chemical com-position (Milkoscan) and fatty acid profile (Gas Chromatography). The data were analysed by ANOVA (GLM procedure of SAS, 2000), for repeated measure. No significant differences were found for milk yield and chemical composition. Lauric acid (C12:0) was significantly higher in milk of group GH (4.83% vs 4.32%; P<0.01) as well as total conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) (0.435% vs 0.417%; P<0.01).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0284.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: amino acids; protein kinetics; fatty acids
Online: 20 February 2020 (05:27:15 CET)
Wild game consumption has been associated with health benefits, but the influence on protein metabolism remains unknown. We compared the feeding-induced response to 2 oz of free-range reindeer (FR) versus commercial beef (CB) using stable isotope methodology. Seven male and female participants (age: 38±12 years; body mass index: 24±3 kg/m2) completed two studies using a randomized, crossover design in which they ingested 2 oz of FR or CB. L-[ring 2H5]phenylalanine & L-[ring 2H2]tyrosine were delivered via primed, continuous intravenous infusion. Blood samples were collected during the basal period and following consumption of FR or CB. Feeding-induced changes in whole body protein synthesis (PS), protein breakdown (PB), and net protein balance (NB) were determined via analysis of plasma samples for phenyalanine and tyrosine enrichment by gas chromatography mass spectrometry; plasma essential amino acid concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Plasma post-prandial essential amino acid (EAA) concentrations were higher with the ingestion of FR compared to CB (P=0.02). The acute feeding-induced response in PS was not different in either trial, but PB was reduced with the ingestion of FR compared to CB (P<0.0001). The difference in PB contributed to a superior level of NB (P<0.0001). When protein kinetics were normalized relative to the amino acids ingested, PB/EAAs and total amino acids ingested were reduced (P<0.01 and 0.001, respectively) in FR compared to CB; contributing to greater NB/total amino acid ingested (P<0.0001) between FR and CB. We conclude that the nutrient profiles of FR may have a more favorable benefit on protein metabolism compared to CB. These data support the potential health benefits of wild game in the preservation of whole-body protein.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0147.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: metabolic syndrome; colorectal cancer; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; liver surgery; hepatic resection; fatty liver; nutrition; protein
Online: 5 August 2021 (14:55:25 CEST)
Over the recent years, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common liver disorder in the developed world, accounting for 20% to 46% of liver abnormalities. Steatosis is the hallmark of NAFLD and is recognized as an important risk factor for complication and death after general surgery, and even more so after liver resection. Similarly, liver steatosis also impacts the safety of live liver donation and transplantation. We aim to review surgical outcomes after liver resection for colorectal-metastases in patients with steatosis, and discuss the most common pre-operative strategies to reduce steatosis. Finally, as illustration, we report the favourable effect of a low-caloric, hyper-protein diet during a two-stage liver resection for colorectal metastases in a patient with severe steatosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1505.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: fatty acids; fatty acid methyl esters; transesterification; epoxidation; catalyst; viscosity; oxidation stability; acidity; biorefinery; sustainability; circular economy
Online: 22 August 2023 (08:11:22 CEST)
The use of biolubricants as an alternative for petroleum-based products has played an important role in the last decade. Thus, due to the encouragement of global policies, which mainly support green chemistry and circular economy, there has been an increasing interest in bio-based products, including biolubricants, from scientific and industrial points of view. Due to the different applications of biolubricants for a wide range of practical uses, the raw materials, production, and characteristics might vary, making this field a continuously changing subject of study by researchers. The aim of this research work was to focus on biolubricant production from vegetable oil crops in a bio-refinery perspective, paying attention to the main raw materials used, the corresponding production methods (with special focus on double transesterification), the role of catalysts and techno-economic studies. Thus, the main factors affecting quality parameters such as viscosity or oxidative stability have been covered, including catalyst addition, reaction temperature or the use of raw materials, reagents or additives were also analyzed. The latest research trends were included, updating previous studies about this matter, considering current conclusions and future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1892.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: morphophysiological; fatty acids; life cycle; hormonal regulators
Online: 29 November 2023 (13:09:00 CET)
By virtue of the knowledge of the beneficial effect of the warm and dry storage, for the growth of the chincuya seed embryo, defined as morphological dormancy. The effect of the same type of storage was studied for the seed viability and germination by soaking gibberellic acid. Also, fatty acids and their kinetics were identified during the warm and dry storage. The following treatments were evaluated: storage time (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months), seed soaking in gibberellic acid at 350 mg L-1, and for the control, imbibition in distilled water, both for 72 h. The seed viability was evaluated through the stain test with tetrazolium chloride. The embedded seeds were germinated on absorbent paper towels and incubated at different temperatures of 30 ° C during the day and 25 ° C at night and 12 hours of photoperiod. The lipid profile was developed by gas chromatography. Seeds were held at constant temperature of 25 ± 3 ° C, in darkness, during the storage time. Results demon-strated that the high initial viability was maintained until the ninth month, when it decreases and is statisti-cally different from the other treatments. The smaller germination percentage (26.1 %) was observed in the freshly harvested seeds and, the higher one corresponded to the six months (65.6 %), with these differences being statistically significant. Regarding the identified fatty acids and their average content, it was found that 33.41 % corresponded to palmitic acid, 7.72 % to stearic acid; the arachidic acid with 1.30 %, making a total of saturated fatty acids of 42.44 %. The detected unsaturated fatty acids were: palmitoleic acid 1.52 %, oleic acid 43.37 % and linoleic acid 7.24 %, in total, 52.15 %. No significative changes were observed in the fatty acids content that are the largest part of the total seed reserves; although the higher concentrations matched with the longest germination (three months), with an average of 92.84 % total fatty acids. Specified regressions indi-cated with statistical robustness that palmitoleic and palmitic acids increased while the oleic acid decreased during the dry storage. The arachidic acid showed a slightly downward trend. Also, the concentrations of fat-ty acids were significatively different between unstored and unincubated seeds (intact) and unstored and in-cubated, but without germinating seeds (dormant), in the latter, the total fatty acids content was significantly lower. Given that the application of gibberellic acid and warm dry storage favored germination, as well as the change in fatty acid content during warm dry storage, added to the results already reported on morphological changes and embryonic growth as an effect of the same type of storage, it is established that Annona purpurea seeds present morphophysiological dormancy, also this is the first identification report of arachidic and pal-mitoleic acids in chincuya seeds and the higher germination percentage reported (65.6 %).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0117.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: cows feeding; milk; yogurt; fatty acids; quality
Online: 2 June 2023 (03:36:00 CEST)
The study's objective was to investigate changes in the fatty acid composition of cow milk in general and in 80 Romanian Spotted cows' husbandry and feeding systems in particular (grazing – GC group vs. stabulation – SC group). The ultimate objective was to determine if the changes that happened in the milk also transferred to the finished product. Also, the influence of the raw milk quality produced by both systems was evaluated when yogurt was made from it. The milk was gathered in May, July, and September and used for both the yogurt-making process and the study, which lasted from May to October. As comparison to milk from SC, milk from grazed caws had larger percentages of fat and dry matter throughout the summer (GC) season. Moreover, pasture-based rations (MGC) contained more PUFA than MCS did. Data research revealed that not only do factors like milk origin and initial quality have a substantial impact on yogurt quality parameters, but also technologies like milk fermentation have a considerable impact on the fatty acid profile of yogurt. As comparison to cows kept permanently in stables, grazed cows (MGC) had fat with a lower concentration of saturated fatty acids and a higher proportion of rumenic, vaccenic, and oleic acids (MSC). When fresh milk is processed into yogurt and other dairy products, the fatty acid profiles alter, with saturated fatty acids predominating over unsaturated ones. The findings show that pasture-fed cows have a positive impact on milk quality, particularly in terms of fatty acid profile, as well as on yogurt's ultimate nutritional and dietary quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0120.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: magnesium; absorption; rumen; butyrate; volatile fatty acids
Online: 8 March 2022 (08:59:14 CET)
The aim of the present study was to measure the apparent absorption of magnesium (Mg) originating from Mg-butyrate. Six mid-lactation Holstein Friesian dairy cows were used with dietary treatments arranged in a cross-over design. Two different diets were fed during the experiment, consisting of a low Mg diet without Mg-butyrate (L-Mg, 3.1g Mg/kg dry matter) or a high Mg diet with Mg-butyrate (H-Mg, 3.9 g Mg/kg dry matter). Cows offered the L-Mg diet ingested 54.7 g Mg/day while the cows fed the H-Mg diets ingested 66.3 g Mg/day (P < 0.001). The fecal excretion of Mg, however, was similar between the two experimental diets (P = 0.174). Consequently, apparent Mg absorption was found to be 7.9 percentage units greater (P = 0.038) when the cows were fed the diet supplemented with Mg-butyrate. The greater Mg absorption after feeding the H-Mg diet was, however, not reflected by a greater urinary Mg concentration (P = 0.228). These results indicate that the availability of Mg from the Mg-butyrate supplemented diet is high (34.1% of intake). The fractional Mg absorption from Mg-butyrate was calculated to be 71.6%. In conclusion, Mg-butyrate is an attractive alternative to supplement dairy rations with Mg.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0184.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Acrosome reaction; Polyunsaturated fatty acid; Sperm; Pigs
Online: 15 May 2019 (10:35:25 CEST)
This study investigated the relationship of acrosome reactions and fatty acid composition on fertility in boar sperm. The acrosome reaction of sperm was induced via methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD), and acrosome reaction, plasma membrane integrity, and fertility were analyzed. The fatty acid composition of the excess acrosome reacted sperm was determined via gas chromatography. The results showed that the acrosome reaction in sperm was induced over 85% of the time by 60 mM MBCD treatment, and the plasma membrane integrity was significantly decreased and was dependent on the MBCD level. The acrosome reacted sperm resulted in significantly higher saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and lower unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) than the non-acrosome reaction group. Moreover, the acrosome reacted sperm from 60 mM MBCD significantly decreased in vitro fertility and blastocyst formation relative to non-acrosome reacted sperm, and the acrosome reaction was positively correlated with SFAs and negatively correlated with PUFAs. Of these fatty acids, C22:5n-6 (docosapentaenoic acid [DPA]) and C22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) were directly negatively correlated with the acrosome reaction (r = -0.982 and -0.947, respectively). In conclusion, the excessive acrosome reactions may occur by reducing the PUFAs, which may then dramatically decrease sperm fertility in pigs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0144.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: alcoholic fatty liver disease; PARP; PJ34; triglyceride
Online: 24 April 2017 (05:30:53 CEST)
The specific role of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) in hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD) were unclear. Poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) is a NAD-consuming enzyme and its specific role in the pathogenesis of AFLD is still elusive. In current investigation, we found that chronic alcohol exposure enhanced hepatic PARP expression and activity and lowered hepatic NAD+ level. PARP activity inhibitor PJ34 decreased the intracellular TG content in hepatocyte. Moreover, PJ34 suppressed the gene expression of DGAT1 and DGAT2 and elevated the intracellular NAD+ level in hepatocyte. These mechanistic observation was validated in alcohol-fed mice injected with PJ34 intraperitoneally. PJ34 injection attenuated hepatic TG accumulation in alcohol-fed mice. Further, the gene expression of hepatic SERBP-1c, DGAT1 and DGAT2 were lowered by PJ34 injection, while the hepatic NAD+ level was augmented by PJ34 injection in alcohol-fed mice. At last, the nicotinamide riboside supplementation alleviated hepatic TG accumulation in alcohol-fed mice. These data indicate that applying PARP specific inhibitor PJ34 by intraperitoneal injection attenuated hepatic NAD+ depletion and TG accumulation in alcohol-fed mice, which might be a potential candidate for AFLD therapy.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0015.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Blackberry juice; Thermoultrasound; Antioxidant Compounds; Fatty Acids
Online: 7 October 2016 (10:12:21 CEST)
Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus spp) is a fruit that has a significant antioxidant activity, due to its content in anthocyanins and antioxidant compounds. Emerging technologies are required as the thermoultrasound technique that ensures microbial reduction and release of compounds with antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the antioxidant content and fatty acid profile of blackberry juice when it is subjected to conservation treatment (pasteurization and thermoultrasound). The blackberry juice and the extracted oil of blackberry juice with n-hexane (control, pasteurized and thermoultrasonicated) were evaluated in antioxidant activity, fatty acid profile and antioxidant content. The thermoultrasound juice had the highest (p < 0.05) amount of total phenols (1011 mg GAE/L), anthocyanins (118 mg Cy-3-GlE/L); antioxidant activity by ABTS (44 mg VCEAC/L) and DPPH (2665 µmol TE/L) compared to the control and pasteurized samples, as well as, as well as, oil extract of obtained of the thermoultrasound juice presented high antioxidant activity (177.54 mg VCEAC/L to ABTS and 1802.60 µmol TE/L to DPPH). The fatty acid composition of the oil extract showed the presence of myristic, linolenic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acid, the fatty acid profile was similar in the different samples with the exception of stearic acid where this was higher in control sample. The thermoultrasound treatment can be an alternative to pasteurization treatments because keeps and releases antioxidant bioavailable compounds, preserving their fatty acids.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1654.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Cytokeratin 18; Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease; Fatty liver index; Framingham risk score; Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation 2
Online: 23 June 2023 (10:36:14 CEST)
Background and aim: To explore the discriminant accuracy of Cytokeratin 18 (CK18, including M65 and M30 forms) for an elevated fatty liver index (FLI) as a validated proxy of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the general population. Methods: Both serum CK18 forms were measured using a commercial immunoassay in randomly selected samples from 312 participants of the PREVEND general population cohort. FLI ≥60 was used to indicate NAFLD. Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and the SCORE2 were used to estimate the 10-year risk of CVD. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, linear/logistic regression models and Spearman's correlations were used. Results: Intricate associations were found between CK18, FLI and CVD risk scores. While M30 was the only independent predictor of FLI≥60, M65 discriminated best NAFLD individuals at very-high 10-years CVD risk according to SCORE2 (AUC:0.71; p=0.001). Values above the predefined manufacturer cut-off (400 U/l), were associated with an independent 5-fold increased risk (adjusted odds ratio: 5.44, p=0.01), with negative predictive value of 93%. Conclusions: Confirming that NAFLD is associated with an increased CVD risk, our results point to CK18 M65 as a candidate biomarker to identify NAFLD individuals at low CVD risk in European general population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0023.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Trans Fatty Acids; edible oils; cardiovascular health; fried foods; nutritional labeling; public health; fatty acid profile; Recommended limits.
Online: 1 June 2023 (04:14:19 CEST)
Trans fatty acids (TFA) are a concern for public health due to their negative impact on cardiovascular health. This study aimed to assess the levels of TFA and other fatty acids in popular edible oils and fried foods commonly consumed in Tanzania. A total of 57 samples from 38 brands of edible oils and 20 samples of fried street foods and fast foods were collected in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Capillary gas chromatography was used to determine TFA levels, while nutritional labeling and other fatty acid classes were also evaluated. Among the analyzed edible oils, 21% exceeded the recommended TFA levels, primarily found in popular brands of margarine, industrially refined sunflower oils, animal butter, and peanut butter. Only two food items surpassed the 2% TFA limit, but a majority of the foods had high levels of saturated fatty acids and a fatty acid profile similar to palm oil. Additionally, only 22% of the edible oils provided TFA content information. These findings indicate the persistence of TFA levels beyond recommended limits and inadequate TFA nutritional labeling in Tanzanian food products. Urgent interventions are necessary to reduce TFA levels and improve nutritional labeling practices to safeguard public health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1541.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Inflammatory bowel diseases; Short-chain fatty acids; Gut microbiota; Butyrate; Enteric nervous system; Free fatty acid receptor 3; GPR41.
Online: 23 May 2023 (03:24:08 CEST)
The enteric nervous system is affected by inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Gut microbiota ferment dietary fibers and produce short-chain fatty acids, such as Butyrate, which bind to G protein-coupled receptors, such as GPR41, and contribute to maintaining intestinal health. This work aimed to study the GPR41 in myenteric neurons and analyze the effect of Butyrate in mice submitted to experimental ulcerative colitis. The 2, 4, 6 trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) was injected intrarectally in C57BL/6 mice (Colitis). Sham group received ethanol (vehicle). One group was treated with 100mg/kg of Sodium Butyrate (Butyrate), and the other groups received saline. Animals were euthanized 7 days after colitis induction. Analyzes demonstrated colocalization of GPR41 with neurons immunoreactive (-ir) to nNOS and ChAT-ir, and absence of colocalization of the GPR41 with GFAP-ir glia. Quantitative results demonstrated losses of nNOS-ir, ChAT-ir, and GPR41-ir neurons in Colitis group, and Butyrate treatment attenuated neuronal loss. The number of GFAP-ir glia increased in Colitis group, whereas Butyrate reduced the number of these cells. In addition, morphological alterations observed in Colitis group were attenuated in Butyrate group. The presence of GPR41 in myenteric neurons was identified and the treatment with Butyrate attenuated the damage caused by experimental ulcerative colitis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0748.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: selenium; carnosic acid; ovine spleen; fatty acids; tocopherols
Online: 13 November 2023 (09:52:53 CET)
The purpose of these studies was to investigate effect of selenate (Se6), selenized yeast (SeYe) and carnosic acid (CA) supplementation to the diet containing fish oil (F-O) and rapeseed oil (R-O) on contents of fatty acids (FA), malondialdehyde (MDA), tocopherols (Ts) and total cholesterol (TCh) in lambs’ spleens. 24 male lambs (4 groups per 6 animals) have been fed: the control diet - the basal diet (BD) enriched in F-O and R-O; the CA diet - BD enriched in F-O, R-O and CA; the SeYeCA diet - BD enriched in F-O, R-O, CA and SeYe; the Se6CA diet - BD enriched in F-O, R-O, CA and Se6. Dietary modifications affected profiles of FA in spleens. The SeYeCA and Se6CA diets increased the docosapentaenoic acid preference in Δ4-desaturase, hence the higher content of docosahexaenoic acid was found in spleens of SeYe- or Se6-treated lambs than in spleens of animals receiving the CA and control diets. Experimental diets reduced the level of atherogenic FA in the spleen in comparison with the control diet. The experimental diets supplemented with SeYe or Se6 increased levels of TCh and Ts in spleens in comparison with the CA and control CA diets. The present studies documented that Se6, SeYe and CA influenced the metabolism of FA, Ts and cholesterol in spleens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1111.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: thraustochytrids; molasses; extracellular enzymes; Aurantiochytrium; lipid; fatty acids
Online: 18 September 2023 (04:48:55 CEST)
The production of oil by thraustochytrids is still costly because of its necessary and expensive culture medium. We evaluated the growth, lipid production, and fatty acid composition in an inexpensive, molasses-based (M) medium. Newly isolated thraustochytrid strains were identified as members of genus Aurantiochytrium based on 18S rRNA gene sequences. Isolated strains were repeatedly cultured in M medium for acclimatization to the medium. Acclimatized and non-acclimatized strains were cultured in basal GY medium and M medium. The lipid in the cultured cells were extracted by the Folch method, and the fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The growth and lipid production in the non-acclimatized strains were significantly inhibited by culturing in M medium, whereas the growth and lipid production were improved by acclimatization treatment in the same medium. The fatty acid composition in the cultured cells were affected by the M medium compared to the basal GY medium. The production of some enzymes such as leucine and valine aryl-amidase was suppressed in the M medium, and the activities recovered by acclimatization treatment. The growth of some strains in the molasses medium was thus recovered by the acclimatization process, and the profiles of extracellular enzymes were also affected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1699.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: microbiome; spaceflight; lymphatic; short chain fatty acid; trascriptome
Online: 25 July 2023 (10:46:09 CEST)
The microbiome is critical to the function of higher organisms and the gastrointestinal microbiome in chief among them. We do not know what impact the spaceflight GI microbiome has on organismal health in the absence of other confounding factors. We used a fecal transplant model to address this question and we found that we can recapitulate some of the functional aspects of the spaceflight microbiome on the ground but the impact on organismal health was ambiguous showing neither a defined improvement nor a impairment to lymph transport, growth, or immune populations. Histidine treatment was able to alter some of the functional aspects of the microbiome. Overall it we can conclude that the spaceflight microbiome is not pathological but has distinct impacts on organismal health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1838.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Multifidus; Grip strength; elderly; muscle atrophy; fatty infiltration
Online: 27 June 2023 (02:38:48 CEST)
Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration of skeletal muscle. The multifidus muscle stabilizes the lumbar spine and undergoes adipose accumulation with age, leading to functional decline in the elderly. Therefore, quantitative assessment of the multifidus muscle can be beneficial for the elderly when formulating treatment strategies and reducing future complications. Fifty-seven patients (mean age, 73.89 ± 6.09; 23 male patients) who underwent lumbar Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were prospectively recruited. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the multifidus from the L2-S1 level and the CSA of the L4-5 level psoas muscle were measured. The functional CSA (fCSA) of the multifidus muscle was measured by excluding the fat infiltration area from the multifidus CSA. The CSA to fCSA ratio was obtained by multiplying 100 by the value obtained by dividing CSA by the fCSA. Pfrrmann classification was used to evaluate the degree of disc degeneration. The functional disability measurements were the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), grip strength, and functional reach test (FRT). Pearson's correlation analysis was used to examine the relationship between the functional disability measurements and the multifidus muscle. The CSA to fCSA ratio value was relatively constant at each spine level and showed a significant correlation with the SPPB, grip strength, FRT, and psoas index (p<0.05). However, degree of disc and multifidus muscle degeneration were not statistically significant. So, age-related changes play a significant role in developing back muscle fatty infiltration than disc dgeneration. Moreover, Grip strength showed a stronger relationship with the quality of the multifidus muscle than other functional disability measurements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1570.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: metabolic syndrome; endothelial dysfunction; omega-3 fatty acid
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:45:24 CEST)
Aim: Evaluation of role of supplementation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on endothelial function in patients with metabolic syndrome. Methods: Total of 80 patients with metabolic syndrome were enrolled to two groups. We evaluated endothelial function in subjects before and after three-month treatment with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in dose 2.4g daily (800mg 3 times a day) vs placebo. Using the Endo-PAT2000 device (Itamar Medical Ltd. Caesarea, Israel), reactive hyperemia index – a parameter of endothelial function and augmentation index– a parameter of arterial stiffness were measured. Plasmatic level of glutation peroxidase, homocysteine, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein (a) were also evaluated. Results: The average values of reactive hyperemia index before the treatment with n-3PUFA was 1.62 ± 0.42 , whereas 1.96 ± 0.62 at the end of the study (p<0.005). Augmentation index changed from 14.66 ± 19.55 to 9.21 ± 15.64 after the treatment (p=0.003). We also observed statistically significant decrease of apolipopotein B (0.94 ± 0.36 vs 1.13 ± 0.35, p = 0.001) and homocysteine (19.31 ± 5.29 vs. 13.78 ± 3.05, p = 0.001) and increase of the glutathion perxidase plasma levels (41.65 ± 8.90 vs. 45.20 ± 8.01), p=0.001. Conclusion: We have observed significant improvement of the endothelial function in subjects with metabolic syndrome treated with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in dose 2.4g daily.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0241.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: prebiotic; oligosaccharides; gut microbiota; fatty liver; metabolism; mitochondria
Online: 11 September 2020 (04:17:52 CEST)
Understanding the importance of gut microbiota (GM) in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has raised the hope for therapeutic microbes. We have shown that high hepatic fat associated with low abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in humans and further, administration of F. prausnitzii prevented NAFLD in mice. Here, we aimed to target F. prausnitzii by prebiotic xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) to treat NAFLD. First, the effect of XOS on F. prausnitzii growth was assessed in vitro. Then, XOS was supplemented or not with high (HFD) or low (LFD) fat-diet for 12-weeks in Wistar rats (n=10/group). XOS increased F. prausnitzii growth having only minor impact on the GM composition. When supplemented with HFD, XOS prevented hepatic steatosis. The underlying mechanisms involved enhanced hepatic β-oxidation and mitochondrial respiration. 1H-NMR analysis of caecal metabolites showed that compared to HFD, LFD group had healthier caecal short-chain fatty acid profile and the combination of HFD and XOS was associated with reduced caecal isovalerate and tyrosine, metabolites previously linked to NAFLD. Caecal branched-chain fatty acids associated positively and butyrate negatively with hepatic triglycerides. In conclusion, our study identifies F. prausnitzii as a possible target to treat NAFLD with XOS. The underlying preventive mechanisms involved improved hepatic oxidative metabolism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0068.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: prebiotics; polyols; short chain fatty acids, Headspace Analysis
Online: 9 January 2020 (04:44:49 CET)
This pilot study of Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668 grown in media with and without polyols (erythritol) measured the resultant metabolites, including the short chain fatty acids by using head space analysis. Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHI2 or BHI10) supplemented with 2% or 10% sucrose containing no polyols or either erythritol or xylitol and Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 35668) was grown aerobically. After 48 hours of growth the supernatant were harvested and centrifuged to pellet bacteria. Supernatants were removed from bacterial pellets then submitted for Short Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA) analysis with an Agilent Technologies (Santa Clara, CA 95051) system configured from three components, a 5973 mass selective detector, a 6890N gas chromatographer, and a 7697A headspace sampler. Streptococcus mutans growing in Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHI2 or BHI10) supplemented with 2% or 10% sucrose but containing no polyols produced the following short chain fatty acids: methyl isovalerate, acetic acid, propionic acid, butanoic acid, pentanoic acid, ethyl butaric acid, 4-methylvaleric acid, hexanoic acid. When the Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHI2 or BHI10) supplemented with 2% or 10% sucrose containing erythritol was used as media for this Streptococcus mutans strain, the following were produced: ethanol, acetoin, and acetic acid. Our results would suggest that constituents of the media may affect the bacterial metabolite production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0205.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: freshwater zooplankton; Moina; salinity tolerance; NaCl; fatty acid
Online: 21 June 2019 (08:12:15 CEST)
Salinity is a known factor which shapes population dynamics and community structure through direct and indirect effects towards aquatic ecosystems. The responses of Moina macrocopa (Cladocera) collected from Setiu Wetland lagoon (Terengganu) were evaluated through manipulative laboratory experiments to understand the ability of M. macrocopa to tolerate under high salinity stress. Specifically, the fatty acid composition, growth, survival and reproduction of this cladocerans species were examined. Sodium chloride (NaCl) were used in the treatments water with the concentration 0, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 15psu. Fatty acid levels were determined using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS). Results clearly indicate that normal conditions give the highest content of fatty acid, especially the polyunsaturated fatty acid content like EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid), ALA (alpha-linoleic acid), ARA (arachidonic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid). Furthermore, M. macrocopa survival also was best at 0psu, with percentage reached 98%, whereas the opposite occurred at 15psu, with approximately 9% of viable animals survived. On other aspects, M. macrocopa also showed the highest reproduction rate at 0psu (e.g. average initial age of reproduction, 4.33±0.58 days) compared with other salinities level. Interestingly, the difference in terms of growth at different salinities was unapparent, an unexpected outcome when adverse effects such as osmoregulation pressure on the organism are considered. Based on the results, we conclude that M. macrocopa can only tolerate salinity below 8psu and, is unable to withstand stressful environmental condition engendered with salinities above 8psu.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0505.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: renewable energy, microwave, free fatty acid, crude oil
Online: 26 September 2018 (10:31:20 CEST)
A novel method proposed in the production of Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel has been investigated experimentally. In this study, we report the results of biodiesel processing with electromagnetic induction technology. The method used is to compare the results of Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel processing between conventional, microwave and electromagnetic induction. The degumming, transesterification, and esterification process of the 3 methods are measured by stopwatch to obtain time comparison data. Characteristics of viscosity, density, and Fatty Acid Metil Ester (FAME) were obtained from testing of a Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry (GCMS) at the Polytechnic Chemistry Laboratory of the State of Malang. The results show that the biodiesel produced by this method satisfies the biodiesel standards and their characteristics are better than the biodiesel produced by conventional and microwave methods. The electromagnetic induction method also offers a fast and easy route to produce biodiesel with the advantage of increasing the reaction rate and improving the separation process compared to other methods. This advanced technology has the potential to significantly increase biodiesel production with considerable potential to reduce production time and costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0142.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: gluten-free foods, fatty acids, GC-MS, celiac
Online: 8 June 2018 (16:20:20 CEST)
The aim of this study (first analytical approach) was to obtain data on the fatty acid composition of gluten-free foods (bakery products) for celiac people. The study included 35 different products (snacks, biscuits, bakery products, pasta, flours, etc.) from several manufacturers. After extraction and esterification, the fatty acid content was determined by GC-MS. The monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) are the major constitutes (57%) of the fatty acids pool followed by saturated fatty acids (SFAs) (30%) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (13%). Only fifteen, of the thirty-five gluten free samples analyzed, provide adequate energy intake, while in eleven samples, saturated fatty acids take more energy than that recommended by EFSA. It has emerged that local producers generally use the finest raw materials (olive oil, etc.) compared to the industries which, as has been pointed out, in many cases use palm and palm kernel oils although gluten free commercial products are high added value foods, expensive and intended for a particularly sensitive public.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1782.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Omani goats; Meat quality; Fatty acids; Spirulina; Jabbali; Sahrawi
Online: 26 July 2023 (11:21:47 CEST)
Current low meat production in Omani goats under traditional feeding regimes justifies a study of the effects of Spirulina Platensis (SP) supplementation on goats’ performance. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of incorporating SP into diets on carcass characteristics, fatty acid profile and meat quality traits of two Omani goat breeds. Thirty-six eleven-month-old bucks from the Jabbali and Sahrawi goat breeds (n= 18/breed) were divided into three groups (control, Treatment 1, and treatment 2). All animals received a conventional concentrate feed ration (con-trol (CON) consisting of pellets creep fed. Animals were fed SP daily with Treatment 1 (T1) fed at 2g/head and Treatment 2 (T2) fed at 4g/head. Sahrawi bucks showed a highly significant response to SP feeding compared to Jabbali bucks. Average daily gain and carcass traits (body length, leg length and the rack weight) of Sahrawi bucks were significantly higher in the T1 group than in the CON group. The weights of omental and kidney fat increased in T1 group of Sahrawi goats, while it increased in T2 group of Jabbali goats compared to CON group. Ultimate pH increased in T1 group and meat color (lightness) increased in T2 group in both LD and SM muscles of Sahrawi goats. Most of PUFA n-6 and n-6/n-3 ratio increased in T1 group, while most of MUFA2 and PUFA n-3 fatty acids increased in T2 group of Sahrawi goats. In addition, a significant decrease in pentadecanoic and margaric acids of Sahrawi goats was observed by adding SP to the diet com-pared to the control group. The study concluded that incorporating SP (2g and 4g/head) into the diet of Omani goats, especially Sahrawi goats, can increase growth performance, improve fatty acid composition and meat quality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1451.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Non-alcoholic fatty liver; Extracellular vesicles; Biomarkers; Surface proteins
Online: 21 July 2023 (10:05:15 CEST)
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a liver disorder that has become a global health concern due to its increasing prevalence. Currently, there is a need for reliable biomarkers to aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of NAFLD. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are promising candidates in biomarker discovery, as they carry proteins that reflect the pathophysiological state of the liver. In this review, we developed a list of EV proteins that could be used as diagnostic biomarkers for NAFLD. We employed a multi-step strategy that involved reviewing and comparing various sources of information. Firstly, we reviewed papers that have studied EVs proteins as biomarkers in NAFLD, as well as papers that have studied circulating proteins as biomarkers in NAFLD. To further identify potential candidates, we utilized the EV database Vesiclepedia.org to qualify each protein. Finally, we consulted the Human Protein Atlas to search for candidates' localization, focusing on membrane proteins. By integrating these sources of information, we developed a comprehensive list of potential EVs membrane protein biomarkers that could aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of NAFLD. In conclusion, our multi-step strategy for identifying EV-based protein biomarkers for NAFLD provides a comprehensive approach that can also be applied for other diseases. The protein candidates identified through this approach could have significant implications for the development of non-invasive diagnostic tests for NAFLD and improve the management and treatment of this prevalent liver disorder.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0019.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Fermentation; vitamins; minerals; bioactive compounds; prebiotics; conjugated fatty acids
Online: 3 July 2023 (08:27:55 CEST)
Microorganisms present in fermented foods and beverages play a vital role in enhancing both nutritive and non-nutritive components. During the fermentation, microorganisms can either naturally occur in the food through spontaneous fermentation or be intentionally added as starter cultures with a variety of species and strains. In this review, the focus is placed on micronutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, and three major macromolecules – prebiotics, bioactive peptides, and functional fatty acids. During fermentation, non-digestible carbohydrates like fructooligosaccharides and galactooligosaccharides are synthesized, imparting prebiotic properties that support gut health. Enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins by microorganisms yields bioactive peptides with diverse health benefits. Furthermore, fermentation facilitates the formation of fatty acids, including short-chain fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid, potentially exerting physiological effects. By harnessing the power of microbial fermentation, nutrient-rich and bioactive compounds can be enhanced, offering a promising approach to address global malnutrition concerns.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1245.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: diabetic kidney disease; metabolic-associated fatty liver disease; biomarker
Online: 16 June 2023 (13:36:04 CEST)
Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) and diabetic kidney disease (DKD) share various pathophysiological factors, and epidemiological evidence suggests that these two diseases are associated. Albuminuria and the estimated glomerular filtration rate, which are conventional biomarkers of DKD, are reportedly associated with the risk or severity of MAFLD. Recently, novel DKD biomarkers reflecting renal tubular injury have been introduced to complement conventional DKD markers. In this article, we looked at previous studies that showed an association between MAFLD and DKD and also reviewed the significance of DKD biomarkers as predictive risk factors for MAFLD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1108.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; Fibrosis; Cirrhosis; Strategies
Online: 15 June 2023 (10:52:41 CEST)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become globally prevalent and is the leading cause of chronic liver disease. Although NAFLD is reversible in the early stage without medical intervention, the condition could be sequentially worsened to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and, in the end, cirrhosis and hepatic cancer. The progression of NAFLD is related to various factors such as genetics, pre-disposed metabolic disorders, and immunologic factors. Because of the complexity of the disease, the treatment options are very limited, and, unfortunately, there is yet no clinically available drug. Thankfully, to date, there have been accumulating research efforts and, as a result, different classes of potent drug candidates have been discovered. Besides, there have also been various attempts to explore pharmaceutical strategies to make the drug candidates to be better drugs. In this review, we provided a brief overview of the drug candidates that have undergone clinical trials. In the latter part, the strategies for developing better drugs are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: NRF2; NAFLD; HMOX1; CRISPR, Oxidative Stress; Fatty Liver Disease
Online: 6 June 2023 (08:59:42 CEST)
With the rising prevalence of obesity, Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) now affects 20-25% of the global population. NAFLD, a progressive condition associated with oxidative stress, can result in cirrhosis and liver cancer in 10% and 3% of patients suffering NAFLD, re-spectively. Therapeutic options are currently limited, emphasizing the need for novel treatments. In this study, we examined the potential of activating the transcription factor NRF2, a crucial player in combating oxidative stress, as an innovative approach to treating NAFLD. Utilizing a CRISPR-engineered human cell line, we were able to monitor the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), an NRF2 target, using a Nanoluc luciferase tag. Our model was validated using a known NRF2 activator, after which we screened 1200 FDA-approved drugs, unearthing six compounds (Disulfiram, Thiostrepton, Auranofin, Thimerosal, Halofantrine, and Vorinostat) that enhanced NRF2 activity and antioxidant response. These compounds demonstrated protec-tive effects against oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in vitro. Our study underscores the utility of CRISPR tagging with Nanoluc luciferase in identifying potential NRF2 activators, pav-ing the way for potential NAFLD therapeutics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0212.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: pregnancy; specialized pro-resolving molecules; polyunsaturated fatty acids; birth
Online: 11 April 2023 (08:29:47 CEST)
The use of selective pro resolving mediators including the monohydroxylates are promising substances for the management of different acute and chronic diseases.In the field of obstetrics many clinical entities like uterine contractions or the occurrence of pre-eclampsia are still serious complications during pregnancy.The use of enriched marine oil nutritional’s may contribute to an attenuation of these diseases as the containing selective pro resolving mediators exhibit pro resolutive actions that can positively modulate inflammatory diseases and those leading to serious obstetrical complications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0468.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: esculetin; cancer; oxidative stress; inflammation; arthritis; diabetes; fatty liver
Online: 29 August 2022 (05:25:05 CEST)
Esculetin is a coumarin compound, which belongs to the class of benzopyrone enriched in various plants such as Sonchus grandifolius, Aesculus turbinata, and many others. Glycosides and caffeic acid conjugates are the common forms of esculetin present in medicinal plants. Esculetin acts as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-hepatic, and anti-cancer agent by inhibiting the production of free radicals, inflammatory mediators, and genes that cause liver diseases and cancer. It also aids in the regulation of blood sugar. Scientists developing pharmaceutical formulations require some rationale and preliminary studies for drug design, but a small number of clinical studies on humans containing esculetin limit its potential for use as a safe alternative drug. Therefore, in this review article, the published studies have been reviewed to identify the pathogenesis of cancer, oxidative stress, inflammation, arthritis, diabetes and fatty liver along with the discussion on potential therapeutic strategies of esculetin. Advancements in our understanding of these diseases will aid in the development of new and innovative medications for treating many ailments. In conclusion, esculetin has immense potential to be used as a safe drug against many diseases but requires further testing and confirmation through clinical trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0079.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: fatty acid oxidation; glycolysis; ERK5; metabolic flexibility; metabolic plasticity
Online: 8 April 2022 (11:04:49 CEST)
Cells have metabolic flexibility that allows them to adapt to changes in substrate availability. Two highly relevant metabolites are glucose and fatty acids (FA), and hence, glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) are key metabolic pathways leading to energy production. Both pathways affect each other, and in the absence of one substrate, metabolic flexibility allows cells to maintain sufficient energy production. Here we show that glucose starvation or sustained pyruvate dehy-drogenase (PDH) activation by dichloroacetate (DCA) induce a large genetic remodeling to pro-pel FAO. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a key effector of this multistep metabolic remodeling. First, there is an increase in the lipid transport by expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins (LRP), e.g. CD36, LRP1 and others. Second, an increase of the expression of members of the acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain (ACSL) family acti-vates FA. Finally, the expression of the enzymes that catalyze the initial step in each cycle of FAO, i.e. the acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs), is induced. All of these pathways lead to enhanced cellular FAO. In summary, we show here that different families of enzymes, which are essential to perform FAO, are regulated by the signaling pathway, i.e. MEK5/ERK5, which transduces changes from the environment to genetic adaptations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0149.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: immune response; fatty acid; lipid metabolism; RNA-Seq; transcriptome
Online: 10 February 2022 (10:57:03 CET)
The objective of this study was to identify key transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism and immune response related to the differentially expressed genes (DEG) from the liver samples of 35 pig model for metabolic diseases fed diets containing either 1.5 or 3.0% soybean oil (SOY1.5 or SOY3.0). A total of 281 DEG between SOY1.5 and SOY3.0 diets (log2fold-change ≥ 1 or ≤ −1; FDR-corrected p-value < 0.1) were identified, in which 129 were down-regulated and 152 were up-regulated in SOY1.5 group. The functional annotation analysis detected transcription factors linked to lipid homeostasis and immune response, such as RXRA, EGFR, and SREBP2 precursor. These findings demonstrated that key transcription factors related to lipid metabolism could be modulated by dietary inclusion of soybean oil. It could contribute to nutrigenomics research field that aims to elucidate dietary interventions in animal and human health, as well as to drive the food technology and science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0577.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Melanoma patients; Small Extracellular Vesicles; Proteomics; Fatty acids; Biomarkers
Online: 24 May 2021 (15:07:09 CEST)
The early detection of cutaneous melanoma, a potentially lethal cancer with rising incidence, is key to increase survival and therapeutic adjustment. Especially in stages II-IV biomarkers are urgently needed for adjuvant therapy purposes after resection and for treatment of metastatic patients. We here investigated if fatty acid (FA) and protein composition of small extracellular vesicles (sEV) deriving from plasma of 0-I, II, and III-IV stage melanoma patients (n=38) could reflect disease stage and thus function as biomarker. The subpopulation of sEV expressing CD81 (CD81sEV) was isolated by an ad hoc immune affinity technique from microvesicle-depleted plasma. Biological macromolecules were investigated by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in CD81sEV. A higher content of FA and a decrease in Saturation Index (C18:0/C18:1), already detectable in early stages, distinguished patients’ from healthy donor CD81sEV. Proteomics (identifier PXD024434) detected an exclusive and significant increase of CD14, PON1, PON3 and APOA5 in stage II and a significant decrease of Rap1b in stage III-IV CD81sEV. The FA and proteomic stage dependent CD81sEV signature strengthens the potential of circulating sEV studies in providing discriminatory information for early diagnosis, prediction of metastatic behavior and follow up of melanoma patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0161.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: chicken eggs; quail eggs; fatty acids; iron; zinc; cholesterol
Online: 4 March 2021 (14:02:38 CET)
All over the world birds’ eggs are an important and valuable component of the human diet. The study aimed to compare the content of lipid components and their nutritional value as well as iron and zinc levels in chicken and quail eggs commonly available on the market. In egg lipids, unsaturated acids were dominated, especially oleic acid, the content of which was about 40% of total fatty acids (TFA). Linoleic acid was the major polyunsaturated fatty acid. Compared to other products of animal origin, eggs were characterized by favourable values of lipid quality indices, especially index of atherogenicity, thrombogenicity and hypocholesterolemic to hypercholesterolemic ratio. In the present study, no differences in the content of tested nutrients between eggs from different production methods (organic, free-range, barn, cages), as well as inter-breed differences were noticed. Cluster analysis showed that eggs enriched in n3 PUFA (according to producers’ declaration) differ from other groups of chicken eggs. However, only in eggs from one producer, the amount of EPA and DHA exceed 80 mg per 100 g, entitling to use the nutrition claim on the package. Quail eggs differed from chicken eggs in FA profile; they also had much higher iron and cholesterol levels.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0516.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: MAFLD; NAFLD; fatty liver; metabolic syndrome; obesity; children; nomenclature
Online: 25 January 2021 (15:36:49 CET)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the world, which predispose to more serious hepatic conditions. It ranges from simple liver steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which may progress to cirrhosis and even end-stage liver disease. Since obesity became one of the most important health concerns wordwide, a considerable increase in the prevalance of NAFLD and other metabolic implications has been observed, both in adults, and children. Due to the coexistence of visceral obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, NAFLD is considered to be the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome (MetS). These relationship between NAFLD and MetS led to set up in adults new term combining both of these conditions, called metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). Based of these findings, we propose set of criteria, which may be useful to diagnose MAFLD in children and adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0563.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: mitochondrial metabolism; aging; monoacylglyceride; polyunsaturated fatty acids; oxidative stress
Online: 24 October 2018 (09:40:31 CEST)
During the last decade, essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) derived from marine sources have been investigated as nonpharmacological dietary supplements to improve different pathological conditions, as well as aging. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary n-3 PUFA monoacylglycerides (MAG, both EPA and DHA) on the mitochondrial metabolism and oxidative stress of a short-lifespan model, Drosophila melanogaster, sampled at five different ages. Our results showed that diets supplemented with MAG-EPA and MAG-DHA increased median lifespan by 14.6% and decreased mitochondrial proton leak resulting in an increase of mitochondrial coupling. The flies fed on MAG-EPA also had higher electron transport system capacity and mitochondrial oxidative capacities. Moreover, both n-3 PUFAs delayed the occurrence of lipid peroxidation, but only flies fed the MAG-EPA diet showed maintenance of superoxide dismutase activity during aging. Our study therefore highlights the potential of n-3 PUFA monoacylglycerides as nutraceutical compounds to delay the onset of senescence by acting directly or indirectly on the mitochondrial metabolism, and suggests that Drosophila could be a relevant model for the study of the fundamental mechanisms linking the effects of n-3 PUFAs to aging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0026.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: AMPK; liver; lipid metabolism; fatty acid oxidation; indirect calorimetry
Online: 1 August 2018 (16:06:39 CEST)
The energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key player in the control of energy metabolism. AMPK regulates hepatic lipid metabolism through the phosphorylation of its well-recognized downstream target acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC). Although AMPK activation is proposed to lower hepatic triglyceride (TG) content via the inhibition of ACC to cause inhibition of de novo lipogenesis and stimulation of fatty acid oxidation (FAO), its contribution to the inhibition of FAO in vivo has been recently questioned. We generated a mouse model of AMPK activation specifically in the liver achieved by expression of a constitutively active AMPK using adenoviral delivery. Indirect calorimetry studies revealed that liver-specific AMPK activation is sufficient to induce a reduction in the respiratory exchange ratio and an increase in FAO rates in vivo. This led to a more rapid metabolic switch from carbohydrate to lipid oxidation during the transition from fed to fasting. Finally, mice with chronic AMPK activation in the liver display high fat oxidation capacity evidenced by increased [C14]-palmitate oxidation and ketone body production leading to reduced hepatic TG content and body adiposity. Our findings suggest a role for hepatic AMPK in the remodeling of lipid metabolism between the liver and adipose tissue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0210.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: fructose; intestinal microbiota; short-chain fatty acids; metabolic profiling
Online: 23 January 2018 (05:31:27 CET)
Increased sugar intake is implicated in Type-2 diabetes and fatty liver disease. Mechanisms by which glucose and fructose components promote these conditions are unclear. We hypothesize that alterations in intestinal metabolite and microbiota profiles specific to each monosaccharide are involved. Two groups of six adult C57BL/6 mice were fed for 10-weeks with a diet where either glucose or fructose was the sole carbohydrate component (G and F, respectively). A third group was fed with normal chow (N). Fecal metabolites were profiled every 2-weeks by 1H NMR and microbial composition was analysed by real-time PCR (qPCR). Glucose tolerance was also periodically assessed. N, G and F mice had similar weight gains and glucose tolerance. Multivariate analysis of NMR profiles indicated that F mice were separated from both N and G, with decreased butyrate and glutamate and increased fructose, succinate, taurine, tyrosine and xylose. Compared to N and G, F mice showed a shift in microbe populations from gram-positive Lactobacillus spp. to gram-negative Enterobacteria species. Substitution of normal chow carbohydrate mixture by either pure glucose or fructose for 10 weeks did not alter adiposity or glucose tolerance. However, F G and N mice generated distinctive fecal metabolite signatures with incomplete fructose absorption as a dominant feature of F mice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1324.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: feature selection; milk mid-infrared spectra; fatty acids concentration; regression
Online: 20 October 2023 (10:15:41 CEST)
Milk MIR spectra have been shown to provide valuable information on a wide range of traits to be used in dairy cattle breeding programs. Selecting the most informative variables from complex data can improve prediction accuracy and model robustness and, consequently, the interpretability of MIR spectra. Thus, we aimed to investigate the prediction performance of feature selection methods based on MIR spectra data, using the milk fatty acid (FA) profile as an example to illustrate the evaluated procedure. Data of MIR spectra, milk test-day records, and reference FA concentrations of 155 first-parity Holstein cows were used in the analyses. Four models comprising different explanatory variables and five feature selection methods were evaluated. The results indicated that the Competitive Adaptive Reweighted Sampling (CARS) method can effectively select the most informative variables from the MIR spectra, resulting in higher prediction accuracies than other variable selection approaches. The model including selected MIR spectra and cow information variables [days in milk at the test day, age at the test day, pregnancy stage (in days), number of days open, number of inseminations, and somatic cell count] yielded the best FA profile predictions based on Partial Least Square regression. In particular, ten FAs (C8:0, C10:0, C14:1, C17:0 isomers, C18:1, C18:1 isomer, medium-chain FA, unsaturation FA, monounsaturated FA, and polyunsaturated FA) presented accuracies based on the determination coefficient (R2cv) ranging from 0.66 to 0.85 in internal validation and from 0.65 to 0.84 in external validation. By running CARS 1,000 times in internal validations, we obtained the frequency of selected milk MIR wavenumber for 35 FAs. The most related wavenumbers to FAs were found within 1,003 to 1,145 cm-1, while other discrete areas were between 1,651 to 1,797 and 2,834 to 2,954 cm-1. These biomarkers may give insights into the relationship between MIR spectra and FA phenotypes. In conclusion, using CARS and cow information improved predictions of FAs based on MIR spectra in Chinese Holstein dairy cows. Additional validation studies should be conducted as larger datasets become available.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0727.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, lipophagy, chaperone-mediated autophagy, perilipins
Online: 11 October 2023 (12:53:31 CEST)
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined as the accumulation of lipids in the form of lipid droplets in more than 5% of hepatocytes. It is regarded as a range of diverse pathologies, including simple steatosis and steatohepatitis. The structural characteristics of lipid droplets have been implicated in the etiology of the disease, along with their protein composition, mainly perilipins. These proteins have garnered increasing attention as a pivotal regulator, since their levels and distinct expression appear to be associated with the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Perilipins are target proteins of chaperone-mediated autophagy, and their degradation is a prerequisite for lipolysis and lipophagy to access the lipid core. Both lipophagy and chaperone-mediated autophagy have significant implications in the development of the disease, as evidenced by their upregulation during the initial phases of simple steatosis, and their subsequent downregulation once steatosis is established. On the contrary, during steatohepatitis, the process of chaperone-mediated autophagy is enhanced, although lipophagy remains suppressed. Evidently, the reduced levels of autophagic pathways observed in simple steatosis serve as a defensive mechanism against lipotoxicity. Conversely, in steatohepatitis chaperone mediated autophagy fails to compensate for the continuous generation of small lipid droplets and thus cannot protect hepatocytes from lipotoxicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1314.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Extracellular vesicles; Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; Hepatocellular carcinoma; microRNAs; Biomarker
Online: 18 August 2023 (10:56:55 CEST)
Extracellular vesicle-derived microRNAs (EV-miRNAs) are promising circulating biomarkers for chronic liver disease. In this study, we explored the potential significance of plasma EV-miRNAs in non-hepatitis B-, non-hepatitis C-related HCC (NBNC-HCC). We compared plasma EV-miRNA profiles between NBNC-HCC and control groups including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and healthy controls using NanoString method. The differentially expressed EV-miRNAs were validated in another set of plasma samples by qRT-PCR. A total of 66 significantly differentially expressed EV-miRNAs between the HCC and control groups were identified in the discovery set. In the validation cohort including plasma samples of 70 NBNC-HCC, 70 NAFLD and 35 healthy controls, 5 plasma EV-miRNAs were significantly elevated in HCC, which included miR-19-3p, miR-16-5p, miR-223-3p, miR-30d-5p, and miR-451a. These miRNAs were found to participate in several cancer-related signaling pathways based on bioinformatic analysis. Among them, EV-miR-19-3p exhibited the best diagnostic performance and displayed a high sensitivity for detecting AFP-negative HCC and early-stage HCC. In multivariate analysis, high EV-miR-19-3p level was demonstrated as an independently unfavorable predictor of overall survival in patients with NBNC-HCC. In conclusion, our data have indicated for the first time that EV-miR-19-3p could serve as a novel circulating biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of NBNC-HCC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0602.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: dairy goats; intake; milk fatty acids; milk yield; rumen fermentation
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:28:41 CEST)
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of incorporating linseed oil and fish oil in the diet on intake, ruminal fermentation milk yield and milk fatty acid profile in dairy goats. Four crossbred Saanen lactating goats in mid-lactation and milking 1.30±0.28 g/day were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The basal diet consisted of concentrate and Para grass (C:F 40:60). Treatments included the basal diet without oil supplement (Ctrl) or with 2.5% linseed oil (LO2.5), 2.5% linseed oil and fish oil (3:2, w/w, LFO2.5), and 4.16% linseed oil and fish oil (3:2, w/w, LFO4.16). Diets had no effect on intake, milk yield, milk composition and ruminal fermentation patterns (P > 0.05). The lower (P < 0.05) proportions of C10:0-C14:0 in milk fat were observed with LFO4.16 compared with Ctrl. Compared with the Ctrl and linseed oil added alone, feeding LFO4.16 resulted in a 589% and 303% increase in C18:1 t11, respectively. Milk c9,t11 CLA was markedly increased with the LFO4.16 diet, accounting for 4.53 and 2.94 times greater concentrations than those in Ctrl and LO2.5 diets, respectively (P < 0.01). Goats fed LFO2.5 and LFO4.16 had greater levels of C22:6n-3 (0.63% and 0.87%; P < 0.001) compared with those fed Ctrl and LO2.5 diets (0.06% and 0.08%). Overall, the combined data suggested that including 4.16% linseed oil and fish oil in the diet of dairy goats is effective for improving the concentrations of healthy fatty acids in milk, without affecting milk production.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Fatty liver disease; NAFLD; coronavirus disease 2019; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 4 April 2023 (09:31:42 CEST)
The global population is currently experiencing the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, which has caused the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. By our profound comprehension of COVID-19, encompassing the involvement sequence of the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal system, and cardiovascular apparatus, the multiorgan symptoms of this infectious disease have been discerned. Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a pervasive public health concern, intricately linked with metabolic dysregulation and estimated to afflict one-fourth of the global adult population. The burgeoning focus on the association between COVID-19 and metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is justified by the potential role of the latter as a risk factor for both SARS-CoV-2 infection and the subsequent emergence of severe COVID-19 symptoms. Investigations have suggested that changes in both innate and adaptive immune responses among metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) patients may play a role in determining the severity of COVID-19. The remarkable similarities observed in the cytokine pathways implicated in both diseases imply the existence of shared mechanisms governing the chronic inflammatory responses characterizing these conditions. The effect of metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) on the severity of COVID-19 illness remains uncertain, as indicated by conflicting results in cohort investigations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0448.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: dorsal root ganglia; fatty acids; gliopathy; nerve injury; spinal cord
Online: 27 February 2023 (06:35:32 CET)
Preclinical studies have identified glial cells as pivotal players in the genesis and maintenance of neuropathic pain after nerve injury associated with diabetes, chemotherapy, major surgeries, and virus infections. Satellite glial cells (SGCs) in the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) express similar molecular markers and are protective under physiological conditions. They also serve similar functions in the genesis and maintenance of neuropathic pain, downregulating some of their homeostatic functions and driving pro-inflammatory neuro-glial interactions in the PNS and CNS, i.e. “gliopathy”. However, the role of SGCs in neuropathic pain is not simply as “peripheral astrocytes”. We delineate how these peripheral and central glia participate in neuropathic pain by producing different mediators, engaging different parts of neurons, and becoming active at different stages following nerve injury. Finally, we highlight the recent findings that SGCs are enriched with proteins related to fatty acid metabolism and signaling such as Apo-E, FABP7, and LPAR1. Targeting SGCs and astrocytes may lead to novel therapeutics for the treatment of neuropathic pain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0270.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; dynapenia
Online: 15 November 2022 (03:23:47 CET)
Background: Dynapenia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are common, especially in the middle and advanced-age diabetic male population. We aimed to examine the clinical features, NAFLD severity, and parameters associated with the presence of dynapenia in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) cases. Material and Methods: One hundred thirty-five male patients diagnosed with T2DM between 45 and 65 years of age were included. Patients were staged by ultrasonography according to NAFLD status. Results: There were significant differences in muscle strength, upper arm circumference, calf circumference, and up-and-go test scores between the NAFLD groups (p<0.001 for all). The frequency of dynapenia was lower, and arm and calf circumferences were higher in patients without NAFLD. The muscle strength, upper arm circumference, calf circumference, and up-and-go test scores were significantly lower in the dynapenic group compared to the non-dynapenic group (p<0.005 for all). The prevalence of dynapenia increased along with the increase in NAFLD stages (p<0.001). Conclusions: We detected a significant association between NAFLD and dynapenia in middle-aged men with T2DM. As muscle strength decreases, the amount of fat in the liver increases, and as the fat in the liver increases, muscle strength decreases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0395.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: asymptotically observer; homogeneous reaction systems; anaerobic digestion; volatile fatty acids
Online: 23 August 2022 (05:18:34 CEST)
This work presents a methodology that seeks to be a new standard in modeling identification in anaerobic digestion reactors. Because it is not possible to measure all variables with reliable and cost-efficient real-time methods, a specific structure composed of an asymptotic observer for the concentration of state variables; acidogenic and methanogenic bacterias, unlock the use of new types of raw sludges for industrial control and monitoring purposes. New yield parameters were included in the reduced anaerobic digestion model (ADM2) used as the core, precisely two terms in total alkalinity, to bring about the modeling of additional organic materials at inlet containing proteins or amino acids. The fermentation of these substances introduces ammonium, providing variations in the amount of alkalinity available inside the reaction. The new model is used to solve an optimization problem that calculates the parameters that best fit the dynamics of state variables with the same information taken on the experimental data. The adjustment process started with the genetic algorithm; however, to improve the performance, a novel method is proposed called step-ahead. Together, including the design of an asymptotic observer, numerical simulations demonstrate the strengths of the structure, which constitutes a significant step in paving the way further to implement feasible, cost-effective control and monitoring systems in the industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0073.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: extravillous trophoblast; placenta; saturated fatty acid; in-utero environment; MRP1
Online: 3 August 2022 (04:21:58 CEST)
Normal function of placental extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs), which are responsible for uteroplacental vascular remodeling, is critical for adequate delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus and normal fetal programming. Proliferation and invasion of spiral arteries by EVTs depends upon adequate levels of folate. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), which is an efflux transporter, is known to remove folate from these cells. We hypothesized that palmitic acid increases MRP1-mediated folate removal from EVTs, thereby interfering with EVTs’ role in early placental vascular remodeling. HTR-8/SVneo and Swan-71 cells, first trimester human EVTs, were grown in the absence or presence of 0.5 mM and 0.7 mM palmitic acid, respectively, for 72 h. Palmitic acid increased ABCC1 gene expression and MRP1 protein expression in both cell lines. The rate of folate efflux from the cells into the media increased with a decrease in migration and invasion functions in the cultured cells. Treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) prevented the palmitic acid mediated upregulation of MRP1 and restored invasion and migration in the EVTs. Finally, in an ABCC1 knockout subline of Swan-71 cells, there was a significant increase in invasion and migration functions. The novel finding in this study that palmitic acid increases MRP1-mediated folate efflux provides a missing link that helps to explain how maternal consumption of saturated fatty acids compromises the in-utero environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0252.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: chemokine; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; inflammation; immune cells
Online: 19 May 2022 (07:51:15 CEST)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the world. Sustained hepatic inflammation is a key driver of the transition from simple fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the more aggressive form of NAFLD. Hepatic inflammation is orchestrated by chemokines, a family of chemoattractant cytokines, which are produced by hepatocytes, Kupffer cells (liver resident macrophages), hepatic stellate cells, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells. Over the last three decades, accumulating evidence from both clinical and experimental investigations demonstrated that chemokines and their receptors are increased in the livers of NAFLD patients and that CC chemokine ligand (CCL) 2 and CCL5, in particular, play a pivotal role in inducing insulin resistance, steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in the liver disease. Cenicriviroc (CVC), a dual antagonist of these chemokine’s receptor, CCR2 and CCR5, has been tested in clinical trials in patients with NASH-associated liver fibrosis. Additionally, recent studies revealed that other chemokines, such as CCL3, CCL25, CX3C chemokine ligand 1 (CX3CL1), CXC chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1), and CXCL16 can also contribute to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Here, we review recent updates on the roles of chemokines in the development of NAFLD and their blockade as potential therapeutic approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0445.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: omega-3; polyunsaturated fatty acids; painful diabetic neuropathy; metabolism; metabolomics
Online: 28 December 2021 (10:58:38 CET)
Background: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are increasingly reported to improve chronic neuroinflammatory diseases in peripheral and central nervous systems. Specifically, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) protects nerve cells from noxious stimuli in vitro and in vivo. Recent reports link PUFA supplementation to improving painful diabetic neuropathy (pDN) symptoms. However, the molecular mechanism behind omega-3 PUFAs ameliorating pDN symptoms is lacking. Therefore, we sought to determine the distinct cellular pathways that omega-3 PUFAs dietary supplementation promotes in reducing painful neuropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) patients. Methods: Forty volunteers diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in the "En Balance-PLUS" diabetes education study. The volunteers participated in weekly lifestyle/nutrition education and daily supplementation with 1,000 mg DHA and 200 mg eicosapentaenoic acid. The Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire validated clinical determination of baseline and post-intervention pain complaints. Laboratory and untargeted metabolomics analyses were conducted using blood plasma collected at baseline and after three months of participation in the dietary regimen. The metabolomics data was analyzed using random forest, hierarchical cluster, ingenuity pathway analysis, and metabolic pathway mapping. Results: We found that metabolites involved in oxidative stress and glutathione production shifted significantly to a more anti-inflammatory state post supplementation. Example of these metabolites include cystathionine (+90%), S-methylmethionine (+9%), glycine cysteine-glutathione disulfide (+157%) cysteinylglycine (+19%), glutamate (-11%), glycine (+11%) and arginine (+13.4%). In addition, the levels of phospholipids associated with improved membrane fluidity such as linoleoyl-docosahexaenoyl-glycerol (18:2/22:6) (+253 %) were significantly increased. Ingenuity pathway analysis suggested several key bio functions associated with omega-3 PUFA supplementation such as formation of reactive oxygen species (p = 4.38 × 10-4, z-score = -1.96), peroxidation of lipids (p = 2.24 × 10-5, z-score = -1.944), Ca2+ transport (p = 1.55 × 10-4, z-score = -1.969), excitation of neurons (p = 1.07 ×10-4, z-score = -1.091), and concentration of glutathione (p = 3.06 × 10-4, z-score = 1.974). Conclusion: The reduction of pro-inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways following omega-3 PUFAS supplementation is consistent with using omega-3 PUFAs as a complementary dietary strategy as part of the overall treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0125.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: cows; milk fat; ruminal fluid; milk fatty acids; energy balance
Online: 8 December 2021 (14:08:31 CET)
The trials were performed on 20 multiparous cows of Holstein breed (39.7 ± 0.75 kg of milk) at the end of the first phase of lactation this different milk fat (4.1-2.8%). The aim of the research was to study the characteristics of nutrition, metabolism and biosynthesis of milk components in highly productive dairy cows with normal and low milk fat levels and the timing of their productive use. Study the characteristics of fermentation of scar formation substrates and their use in energy metabolism and biosynthesis of the milk components. Found that low fat milk is not associated with a lack of formation of acetate in the rumen (6.1 vs. 6.6 mmol/dl in the contents of the rumen, р>0.05) and the non change in the hormonal profile, but depends on the reduction of fatty acids synthesis de novo in mammary gland, regulated by conjugated higher fatty acids. The result is a reduction in the need of cows in the exchange energy (reduction of heat transfer by 6.2 MJ), a shorter service period (109.5 vs.139 days) and the prolongation of their productive use (the number of lactations correlated back with the level of fat in milk (r=-0.68, p<0.05, n=1300).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0674.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: chitosan; microbial synthesis; milk composition; volatile fatty acids; purine derivatives
Online: 26 November 2020 (14:15:52 CET)
The study compared the influence of chitosan sources on rumen fermentation, methane emission and milk production in lactating dairy cows fed a glycerin-based diet. Six, lactating Holstein-Frisian crossbreeds (410 ± 5.0 kg BW, 120 ± 21 day-in-milk), were arranged in a 3 x 3 replicated Latin square design. In addition to control, a 2% chitosan extract supplement and a 2% commercial chitosan supplement of dry matter intake were the treatments. The results denoted that no significant differences on daily dry matter, nutrients or estimated energy intake were noted when cows received different sources of chitosan. Nutrient digestibility was not influenced differently by extraction based or commercial chitosan supplements. The pH, temperature, ammonia nitrogen, blood urea and microbial count were similar among treatments. The different sources of chitosan supplements did not change the totals of volatile fatty acids, acetate and butyrate; in contrast, different chitosan sources influenced (P<0.05) propionate content. The ruminal acetate to propionate ratio was markedly (P<0.05) reduced with chitosan supplement, but no change appeared between sources of chitosan. At 4 hours after feeding, the methane estimation signiﬁcantly decreased with the addition of chitosan supplementation (P<0.05) compared to the control group. The purine derivatives and microbial protein synthesis were not altered by the treatments. No significant differences existed on milk yield, milk composition or milk urea nitrogen when cows received different sources of chitosan (P>0.05). In sum, supplementing extracted chitosan showed more potential than did commercial chitosan for enhancing economic efficiency and recycling shrimp residues, therefore, reducing environmental waste.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0031.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: primary fatty acid amides; microfluidics; laser induced fluorescence, bioactive lipids
Online: 2 October 2020 (09:16:13 CEST)
The inherent trace quantity of primary fatty acid amides found in biological systems presents challenges for analytical analysis and quantitation, requiring a highly sensitive detection system. The use of microfluidics provides a green sample preparation and analysis technique through small-volume fluidic flow through micron-sized channels embedded in a PDMS device. Microfluidics provides the potential of having a micro total analysis system where chromatographic separation, fluorescent tagging reactions, and detection are accomplished with no added sample handling. This study describes the development and optimization of a microfluidic-laser indued fluorescence (LIF) analysis and detection system that can be used for the detection of ultra-trace levels of fluorescently tagged primary fatty acid amines. A PDMS microfluidic device was designed and fabricated to incorporate droplet-based flow. Droplet microfluidics have enabled on-chip fluorescent tagging reactions to be performed quickly and efficiently, with no additional sample handling. An optimized LIF optical detection system provided fluorescently tagged primary fatty acid amine detection sub-fmol (436 amol) LODs. The use of this LIF detection provides unparalleled sensitivity, with detection limits several orders of magnitude lower than currently employed LC-MS techniques and might be easily adapted for use as a complementary quantification platform for parallel MS-based -omics studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0484.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: lipoprotein lipase; neuronal metabolism; fatty liver; brain-liver-axis; FLIM
Online: 20 September 2020 (15:32:43 CEST)
The autonomic regulation of hepatic metabolism offers a novel target for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the molecular characteristics of neurons that regulate the brain-liver axis remain unclear. Since mice lacking neuronal lipoprotein lipase (LPL) develop perturbations in neuronal lipid-sensing and systemic energy balance, we reasoned that LPL might be a component of pre-autonomic neurons involved in the regulation of hepatic metabolism. Here we show that despite obesity, mice with reduced neuronal LPL (NEXCreLPLflox [LPL KD]) show improved glucose tolerance and reduced hepatic lipid accumulation with aging compared to WT controls (LPLflox). To determine the effect of LPL deficiency on neuronal physiology, liver-related neurons were identified in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus using the transsynaptic retrograde tracer PRV-152. Patch-clamp studies revealed reduced inhibitory post-synaptic currents in liver-related neurons of LPL KD mice. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) was used to visualize metabolic changes in LPL-depleted neurons. Quantification of the free vs. bound Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NADH) and Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD) revealed increased glucose utilization and TCA cycle flux in LPL-depleted neurons compared to controls. Global metabolomics from hypothalamic cell lines either deficient in, or over-expressing, LPL recapitulated these findings. Our data suggest that LPL is a novel feature of liver–related preautonomic neurons in the PVN. Moreover, LPL loss is sufficient to cause changes in neuronal substrate utilization and function, which may precede changes in hepatic metabolism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0174.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: diet; plant sterols; stanols; omega-3 fatty acids; familial hypercholesterolemia
Online: 7 August 2020 (06:13:47 CEST)
Background: Although a cholesterol-lowering diet and the addition of plant sterols and stanols are suggested for the lipid management of children and adults with familial hypercholesterolemia, there is limited evidence evaluating such interventions in this population. Objectives: To investigate the impact of cholesterol-lowering diet and other dietary interventions on the incidence or mortality of cardiovascular disease and lipid profile of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. Search methods: Relevant trials were identified by searching US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health Metabolism Trials Register and clinicaltrials.gov.gr using the following terms: diet, dietary, plant sterols, stanols, omega-3 fatty acids, fiber and familial hypercholesterolemia. Selection criteria: Randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of cholesterol-lowering diet or other dietary interventions in children and adults with familial hypercholesterolemia were included. Data collection and analysis: Two authors independently assessed the trial eligibility and bias risk and one extracted the data, with independent verification of data extraction by a colleague. Results: A total of 17 trials were finally included, with a total of 376 participants across 8 comparison groups. The included trials had either a low or unclear bias risk for most of the parameters used for risk assessment. Cardiovascular incidence or mortality were not evaluated in any of the included trials. Among the planned comparisons regarding patients’ lipidemic profile, a significant difference was noticed for the following comparisons and outcomes: omega-3 fatty acids reduced triglycerides (mean difference [MD]: -0.27 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.47 to -0.07, p<0.01) when compared with placebo. A non-significant trend towards a reduction in subjects’ total cholesterol (MD: -0.34, 95% CI: -0.68 to 0, mmol/L, p=0.05) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD: -0.31, 95% CI: -0.61 to 0, mmol/L, p=0.05) was noticed. In comparison with cholesterol-lowering diet, the additional consumption of plant stanols decreased total cholesterol (MD: -0.62 mmol/l, 95% CI: -1.13 to -0.11, p=0.02) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD: -0.58 mmol/l, 95% CI: -1.08 to -0.09, p=0.02). The same was by plant sterols (MD: -0.46 mmol/l, 95% CI: -0.76 to -0.17, p<0.01 for cholesterol, and MD: -0.45 mmol/l, 95% CI: -0.74 to -0.16, p<0.01 for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol). No heterogeneity was noticed among the studies included in these analyses. Conclusions: Available trials confirm that the addition of plant sterols or stanols has a cholesterol-lowering effect on such individuals. On the other hand, supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids effectively reduces triglycerides and might have a role in lowering the cholesterol of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. Additional studies are needed to investigate the effectiveness of a cholesterol-lowering diet or the addition of soya protein and dietary fibers to a cholesterol-lowering diet in familial hypercholesterolemia.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: essential fatty acid semi carbazide; ID50; IL-4; IL-12
Online: 18 February 2020 (11:15:32 CET)
Bacterial infections are world-wide problem and resistant bacteria is increasing globally that lead to treatments failure. Thus, it is important to find new techniques that are effective for the treatment antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. Green medicine used for the medication of different bacterial infection. Therefore , the study aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of essential fatty acid semi carbazide (EFASC) compounds extracted from flaxseed to eradicate resistance pathogens . Crud extracts of Linum usitatissimum was extracted by hexane for extraction of EFASC. The results of LD50 appear that a live suspension of E.coli was 0.49×107 ,while HK E.coli was 108 , 125 mg /ml were the optimum dose in stimulate immune response of EFASC which gave maximum dose of total WBC , Neutrophil and Monocyte count. The immunomodulatory activity appear that E.coli + EFASC released moderate levels of IL-4 . HK E.coli release higher IL-4 lead to increase the hypersensitivity and hyper responses of immune system. HK + EFASC immunogen revealed moderate increased in IL-12 mean level 0.99 pg /ml, HK bacteria recorded 1.49 pg/ml, while the mean of EFASC revealed no significant different compare with control. An effective protection was observed in immunized groups with HK E.coli and EFASC challenged with 100 of LD50 of a live E.coli.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0250.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: fatty infiltration; main pancreatic duct dilatation; pancreatic invasive ductal adenocaricinoma
Online: 19 December 2019 (07:19:10 CET)
Background: Pancreatic invasive ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer mortality in Japan. The early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, which will increase the number of patients with resectable tumors, is urgently needed. The purpose of the present study was to examine the earliest signs of pancreatic abnormalities on CT in order to facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of PDAC. Methods: Forty-one patients with pancreatic cancer and their 154 CTs were selected for the present study. We used the images that were acquired prior to the diagnosis and examined the pancreas in these images to observe serial changes in the morphology of the pancreas after selecting CT images in which PDAC was suspected. We also confirmed whether the main pancreatic duct was observed around that area of the pancreas. Four thousand two hundred seventy-seven patients without pancreato-biliary disease with 4630 CTs were selected for the control group. Results: Two pancreas shapes were detected: localized constriction of the pancreatic parenchyma referred to as the K-shaped sign, and localized fatty changes. Twenty-four (58.5%) of 41 patients showed the K-shaped sign. The main pancreatic duct without dilatation was noted around the K-shaped sign in 9 of the 24 patients. Eight of 41 patients (19.5%) showed localized fatty changes. Nine of 41 patients (21.9%) showed no abnormality. In the control group, only seven of 4277 patients (0.16%) showed the K-shaped sign. Conclusions: The K-shaped sign including localized fatty changes is the earliest CT sign that presents with pancreatic abnormalities. The K-shaped sign does not indicate PDAC itself but may predict its future development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0221.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase; cannabinoid; carboxamide inhibitors; 3D-QSAR; CoMSIA.
Online: 8 November 2018 (14:52:23 CET)
Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) is one of the enzymes responsible of endocannabinoids metabolism. The inhibition of FAAH is a useful and indirect strategy to raise endogenous cannabinoid concentrations, which would be useful for the treatment of various pathological processes in which cannabinoid concentrations are lowered. In the present work, we present an extensive 3D-QSAR/CoMSIA study on a series of 90 irreversible inhibitors of FAAH of pyrimidinyl-piperazine-carboxamide structure. The final model obtained was extensively validated (q2 = 0.734; r2test = 0.966; r2m = 0.723), and based on the information derived from the contour maps we reported a series of 10 new compounds designed as powerful FAAH inhibitors (pIC50 of the best-proposed compounds = 12.196; 12.416).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1773.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Adenosine monophosphate; Adenosine triphosphate; Unsaturated fatty acid; Hanwoo steers; Lupin flake
Online: 29 November 2023 (07:25:00 CET)
This study aimed to investigate the effects of lupin flake supplementation on the growth, plasma parameters, carcass characteristics, and meat composition of late-fattening Hanwoo steers. The steers (n = 40) were randomly divided into the four groups with 10 steers each: LP0 (Lupin flake 0%), LP3 (lupin flake 3%), LP6 (Lupin flake 6%), and LP9 (lupin flake 9%). The total digestible nutriant intake increased as the concentration of lupin increased (linear and quadratic effects; P < 0.05). The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance content in the strip loins decreased as lupin flake supplementation levels increased (linear and quadratic effects; P < 0.05), while carnosine levels increased linearly (P < 0.05). As the lupin flake supplementation level increased, anserine and creatinine contents increased linearly and quadratically (P < 0.05). Similarly, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) contents increased with increasing lupin flake supplementation levels in linear and quadratic effects (P < 0.001). Palmitoleic acid content increased significantly with increasing lupin flake supplementation level (linear and quadratic effects; P < 0.05). The content of oleic acid in the strip loin was not significant, but the unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) (P < 0.05) and n-6/n-3 ratio (P < 0.05) increased. The results of this study indicated that although lupin flake supplementation did not markedly affect the growth, carcass characteristics, or meat composition of late-fattening Hanwoo steers, it exerted a positive effect on the flavor, taste profiles (anserine, creatinine, ATP, and AMP), hypotonicity(TBARS), and healthy meat production (UFA and n-6/n-3 ratio) related to beef.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1138.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: melittin; N-terminal fatty acid conjugation; antimicrobial activity; hemolysis; proteolytic stability
Online: 17 November 2023 (07:51:08 CET)
Melittin, a natural antimicrobial peptide, displays a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which has caused increasing attention as a potential antibiotic alternative. However, melittin has not been used widely at present due to its high hemolysis and low proteolytic stability. In this study, N-terminal fatty acid was conjugated to melittin to develop new melittin-derived lipopep-tides (MDLs) for improving the limitation of melittin. Our results showed that, the antimicrobial activity of MDLs was increased by 2 to 16 times compared with native melittin, and the stability of these MDLs against trypsin and pepsin degradation was increased by 50 to 80%. Besides, the hemolytic of the MDLs decreased when the length of the carbon chain of fatty acids exceeded 10. Among them, the newly designed analog Mel-C8 showed optimal antimicrobial activity and protease stability. The antimicrobial mechanism studied revealed that the MDLs showed a rapid bactericidal effect by interacting with LPS or LTA and penetrating the bacterial cell membrane. In conclusion, we designed and synthesized a new class of MDLs with potent antimicrobial activity, high proteolytic stability, and low hemolysis through N-terminal fatty acid conjugation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0376.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Fructooligosaccharides (FOS); Hyperlipidic Diet; Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); prebiotics.
Online: 6 November 2023 (17:41:15 CET)
Carbohydrates such as fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are associated with improved gastrointestinal health and prevention of excess body fat. We evaluated the long-term effects of high amounts of FOS on metabolic parameters, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Sixty C57BL/6 mice received diets for four months: control (C), normolipid rich in fiber (F), normolipid supplemented with FOS (FOS), high fat (HL), high fat with high fiber (HLF) and high fat with FOS (HLFOS). We analyzed: animal weight; body composition; food intake; fasting blood glucose; serum and liver lipid profile; liver and intestinal histologies; malondialdehyde (MDA), hepatic retinol and α-tocopherol; SCFA in the feces. Supplementation with FOS in a high-fat diet promoted less body weight gain and reduced liver and retroperitoneal adipose tissue weights compared to HL and HF. FOS prevented NASH and decreased alanine aminotransferase and serum cholesterol levels in experimental animal models of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS). There was found statistical differences in the dosages of the three main SCFAs in feces (acetic, isobutyric and isovaleric acids). Long-term supplementation with high doses of FOS was effective in reducing weight, adiposity, NAFLD and serum cholesterol in C57BL mice with obesity and MS induced by a high-fat diet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1989.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Bacillus subtilis; energy utilisation; ileum digestibility; volatile fatty acids
Online: 31 October 2023 (07:44:23 CET)
Probiotics are suggested to improve pig health, nutrient utilisation, performance, and may reduce nitrogen (N) pollution. However, the effectivity of a single-strain might be different from a multi-strain. The study was conducted to investigate the effect of a novel Bacillus multi-strain on nutrient digestibility, energy utilisation, and N retention in weaned piglets. The experiment consisted of a control diet (CD) and a supplemented diet (SD). The probiotic used for SD consisted of B. amyloliquefaciens - 516 and B. subtilis - 541. A total of 8 boars/ treatment were weaned (day 0; 8.5 kg bodyweight). Until day 10, piglets were fed ad libitum and were housed in pairs; from day 11, piglets were fed semi ad libitum and were housed individually. From day 14, faecal and urine were collected twice daily. Piglets were humanely euthanised at day 19 (15.0 kg bodyweight) after which the jejunum, ileum, and colon content were collected. In faeces the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of, amongst others, DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), and subsequently net energy (NE) were calculated using titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker. In jejunum and ileum, the apparent digestibility of CP was estimated and in ileum the apparent AA digestibility. In urine, N content was measured to determine N retention. The volatile fatty acid (VFA), branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA), and lactic acid content were analysed in colon and faeces. Apparent CP digestibility in jejunum and ileum were not affected by treatment (P>0.05) and no effect was observed on apparent ileal digestibility of AA (P>0.05). Supplementation with the multi-strain probiotic improved ATTD of DM (P=0.01; +1.3%) and OM (P=0.02; +1.2%) and tended to improved ATTD of CP (P=0.10; +2.2%) and NSP (P=0.07; +1.9%). The multi-strain probiotic also improved the NE value (P=0.02; +0.2 MJ/kg DM) and improved N retention (P=0.05; +1.6%). Supplementation did not influence VFA, BCFA, and lactic acid content in the faeces (P>0.05). However, in colon, supplementation did influence lactic acid content (lower; P=0.01) and tended to influence valeric acid content (higher; P=0.09). In conclusion, results from the current study suggests that the multi-strain probiotic has the potential to contribute to improve nutrient efficiency in weaned piglets. More research needs to be done to identify the impact of the improved nutrient utilization on gut health in post-weaned pigs as well as environmental pollution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0508.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: C15:0; pentadecanoic acid; rapamycin; metformin; acarbose; longevity; essential fatty acid
Online: 9 October 2023 (10:53:44 CEST)
Pentadecanoic acid (C15:0) is an essential odd-chain saturated fatty acid with broad activities relevant to protecting cardiometabolic, immune, and liver health. C15:0 activates AMPK and inhibits mTOR, both of which are core components of the human longevity pathway. To assess the potential for C15:0 to enhance processes associated with longevity and healthspan, we used human cell-based molecular phenotyping assays to compare C15:0 with three longevity-enhancing candidates: acarbose, metformin, and rapamycin. C15:0 (n=36 activities in 10 of 12 cell systems) and rapamycin (n=32 activities in 12 of 12 systems) had the most clinically relevant, dose-dependent activities. At their optimal doses, C15:0 (17 µM) and rapamycin (9 µM) shared 24 activities across 10 cell systems, including anti-inflammatory (e.g., lowered MCP-1, TNFɑ, IL-10, IL-17A/F), antifibrotic, and anticancer activities, which are further supported by previously published in vitro and in vivo studies. Paired with prior demonstrated abilities for C15:0 to target longevity pathways, hallmarks of aging, aging rate biomarkers, and core components of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, our results support C15:0 as an essential nutrient with activities equivalent to, or surpassing, leading longevity-enhancing candidate compounds.