Durán, A.M.; Beeson, W.L.; Firek, A.; Cordero-MacIntyre, Z.; De León, M. Dietary Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty-Acid Supplementation Upregulates Protective Cellular Pathways in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Exhibiting Improvement in Painful Diabetic Neuropathy. Nutrients2022, 14, 761.
Durán, A.M.; Beeson, W.L.; Firek, A.; Cordero-MacIntyre, Z.; De León, M. Dietary Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty-Acid Supplementation Upregulates Protective Cellular Pathways in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Exhibiting Improvement in Painful Diabetic Neuropathy. Nutrients 2022, 14, 761.
Background: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are increasingly reported to improve chronic neuroinflammatory diseases in peripheral and central nervous systems. Specifically, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) protects nerve cells from noxious stimuli in vitro and in vivo. Recent reports link PUFA supplementation to improving painful diabetic neuropathy (pDN) symptoms. However, the molecular mechanism behind omega-3 PUFAs ameliorating pDN symptoms is lacking. Therefore, we sought to determine the distinct cellular pathways that omega-3 PUFAs dietary supplementation promotes in reducing painful neuropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) patients. Methods: Forty volunteers diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in the "En Balance-PLUS" diabetes education study. The volunteers participated in weekly lifestyle/nutrition education and daily supplementation with 1,000 mg DHA and 200 mg eicosapentaenoic acid. The Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire validated clinical determination of baseline and post-intervention pain complaints. Laboratory and untargeted metabolomics analyses were conducted using blood plasma collected at baseline and after three months of participation in the dietary regimen. The metabolomics data was analyzed using random forest, hierarchical cluster, ingenuity pathway analysis, and metabolic pathway mapping. Results: We found that metabolites involved in oxidative stress and glutathione production shifted significantly to a more anti-inflammatory state post supplementation. Example of these metabolites include cystathionine (+90%), S-methylmethionine (+9%), glycine cysteine-glutathione disulfide (+157%) cysteinylglycine (+19%), glutamate (-11%), glycine (+11%) and arginine (+13.4%). In addition, the levels of phospholipids associated with improved membrane fluidity such as linoleoyl-docosahexaenoyl-glycerol (18:2/22:6) (+253 %) were significantly increased. Ingenuity pathway analysis suggested several key bio functions associated with omega-3 PUFA supplementation such as formation of reactive oxygen species (p = 4.38 × 10-4, z-score = -1.96), peroxidation of lipids (p = 2.24 × 10-5, z-score = -1.944), Ca2+ transport (p = 1.55 × 10-4, z-score = -1.969), excitation of neurons (p = 1.07 ×10-4, z-score = -1.091), and concentration of glutathione (p = 3.06 × 10-4, z-score = 1.974). Conclusion: The reduction of pro-inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways following omega-3 PUFAS supplementation is consistent with using omega-3 PUFAs as a complementary dietary strategy as part of the overall treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy.
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