Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Plant- and Animal-Derived Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Improve Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Dyslipidemia

Version 1 : Received: 27 October 2020 / Approved: 27 October 2020 / Online: 27 October 2020 (20:37:15 CET)

How to cite: Liu, H.; Wang, F.; Li, Y.; Xia, H.; Pan, D.; Yang, L.; Wang, S.; Sun, G. Plant- and Animal-Derived Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Improve Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Dyslipidemia. Preprints 2020, 2020100563 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0563.v1). Liu, H.; Wang, F.; Li, Y.; Xia, H.; Pan, D.; Yang, L.; Wang, S.; Sun, G. Plant- and Animal-Derived Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Improve Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Dyslipidemia. Preprints 2020, 2020100563 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0563.v1).

Abstract

Objectives To determine the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) from animal and plant sources on glucolipid metabolism and lipoprotein subfractions in type 2 diabetic patients with dyslipidemia. Methods Participants were recruited from the diabetes clinic at the Guanlin Hospital, Yixing City in Jiangsu province, China, from March 2017 through June 2017. Ninety participants were randomly assigned to take 3g/day fish oil (FO, containing EPA and DHA), 3g/day perilla oil (PO, containing ALA), or 3g/day blend oil containing fish oil and linseed oil (BO, containing EPA, DHA and ALA) for 3 months. The levels of serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), C-peptide, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), non-HDL, apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), lipoprotein a (Lp(a)), and free fatty acids were determined at baseline and after the 3 months. In addition, four fatty acids in serum and red blood cells membranes (RBCm) were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The Lipoprint System was used to determine the lipoprotein subfractions. Results All 90 participants completed the final 3-month follow-up at the end of the study. After three months of intervention, blood glucose and HbA1c levels in the PO group were significantly lower than those at the baseline (p < 0.05). On the other hand, in the BO group, the HbA1c, non-HDL, Apo A1 and Lp(a) levels were significantly lower, while the C-peptide levels were significantly higher after intervention compared to the baseline (p < 0.05). In the FO group, the HbA1c and TG levels were significantly lower after the intervention compared to the baseline (p < 0.05). In addition, at the end of the study, there was significant increase in the levels of DPA and DHA in serum and RBCm of the FO group (p < 0.05), while in the BO group, there was significant increase in the levels of EPA, DPA and DHA in RBCm (p < 0.05). Finally, the FO group had the highest levels of large HDL subfractions compared to the BO and PO groups, but had the lowest levels of small HDL subfractions among the three groups. Conclusion For patients with diabetes, plant-derived ω-3 PUFAs are more effective at controlling blood glucose than animal-derived ω-3 PUFAs. However, animal-derived ω-3 PUFAs play a critical role in controlling blood lipids. Particularly, fish oil can effectively increase the beneficial large HDL subfractions and reduce the nonbeneficial small HDL subfractions. Both the animal- and plant-derived ω - 3 PUFAs have practical value in improving glucose and lipids metabolism in T2DM patients with dyslipidemia.

Subject Areas

diabetes; omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid; lipoprotein subfraction; dyslipidemia; randomized controlled trial

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