REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0256.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; pathological cardiac hypertrophy; sarcomere; cardiac myocyte; cardiac fibroblast; cardiac fibrosis; myocyte-fibroblast interaction; extracellular matrix
Online: 12 July 2021 (12:13:53 CEST)
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited cardiovascular disorder affecting 1 in 500 people in the general population. Although characterized by asymmetric left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte disarray and cardiac fibrosis, HCM is in fact a highly complex disease with heterogenous clinical presentation, onset and complications. While HCM is generally accepted as a disease of the sarcomere, variable penetrance in families with identical genetic mutations challenges the monogenic origin of HCM and instead implies a multifactorial cause. Furthermore, large scale genome sequencing studies revealed that many genes previously reported as causative of HCM in fact have little or no evidence of disease association. These findings thus call for a re-evaluation of the sarcomere-centered view of HCM pathogenesis. Here, we summarize our current understanding of sarcomere-independent mechanisms of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, highlight the role of extracellular signals in cardiac fibrosis, and propose an alternative but integrated model of HCM pathogenesis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0339.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: trpc channel; ca2+ entry; cardiac infarction; cardiac repair
Online: 25 December 2019 (09:23:14 CET)
Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels are ubiquitously expressed in excitable and non-excitable cardiac cells where they sense and respond to a wide variety of physical and chemical stimuli. As other TRP, TRPC may form homo or heterotetrameric ion channel, and they can associate with other membrane receptors and ion channels to regulate intracellular calcium concentration. Dysfunctions of TRPC channels are involved in many types of cardiovascular diseases. Significant increase of the expression of different TRPC isoforms has been observed in different animal model of heart infarcts, and in vitro experimental model of ischemia and reperfusion. TRPC-mediated increase of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration seems required for the activation of signaling pathway that plays minor roles in the healthy heart, but they are more relevant for cardiac responses to ischemia, such as the activation of different factors of transcription and cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and angiogenesis. In this review, we will highlight the current knowledge regarding TRPC implication in different cellular processes related to ischemia and reperfusion, and to heart infarction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0270.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: RhoA; cardiac inflammation; immune cells; cardiocrine signaling; cardiac diseases
Online: 9 June 2021 (21:49:26 CEST)
Chronic inflammation, the activation of immune cells and their cross-talk with cardiomyocytes in the pathogenesis and progression of heart diseases has long been overlooked. However, with the latest research developments, it is increasingly accepted that a vicious cycle exists where cardiomyocytes release cardiocrine signaling molecules that spirals down to immune cell activation and chronic state of low‐level inflammation. For example, cardiocrine molecules released from injured or stressed cardiomyocytes can stimulate macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils and even T-cells, which then subsequently increase cardiac inflammation by co-stimulation and positive feedback-loops. One of the key proteins involved in stress-mediated cardiomyocyte signal transduction is a small GTPase RhoA. Importantly, the regulation of RhoA activation is critical for effective immune cell response and is being considered as one of the potential therapeutic targets in many immune-cell-mediated inflammatory diseases. In this review we provide an update on the role of RhoA at the juncture of immune cell activation, inflammation and cardiac disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Antioxidant molecules; Cardiac health; Mechanism of heart failure; Cardiac activity
Online: 7 March 2023 (02:19:50 CET)
Although renal denervation (RDN) protects against hypertension, hypertrophy, and heart failure (HF), it is not clear whether RDN preserves ejection fraction (EF) during heart failure (HFpEF). To test this hypothesis, we simulated chronic congestive cardiopulmonary heart failure (CHF) by creating aorta-vena cava fistula (AVF) in C57BL/6J wild type (WT) mice. There are four ways to create experimental CHF: (1) myocardial infarction (MI) which is basically ligating coronary by instrumenting and injuring the heart; (2) trans-aortic constriction (TAC), although it mimics systematic hypertension but TAC again constricts aorta on top of the heart and exposes the heart; (3) acquired CHF such as by dietary factors, diabetes/salt diets etc. but it is multifactorial, and finally (4) AVF, which is the only one wherein AVF is created ~1cm below the kidney where the aorta and vena cava share the common middle-wall. By creating fistula, the red blood enters vena cava without an injury to the heart. This model mimics CHF such as during aging where with age the preload keeps increasing than the aging heart can pump out due to the weakened cardiac myocytes. This also involves the right ventricle to lung to left ventricle flow, thus creating congestion. The heart in AVF goes to transition from preserved to reduced EF (i.e., HFpEF to HFrEF). In fact, there are more models of volume overload, such as the pacing-induced and mitral valve regurgitation but these are also injurious models. Our lab is one of the original labs in creating and studying the AVF phenotype. The RDN was created by treating the cleaned bilateral renal artery. After 6 weeks, blood, heart, and renal samples were analyzed for exosome, cardiac regeneration markers and renal cortex proteinases. Cardiac function was analyzed by echocardiogram (ECHO). Fibrosis was analyzed with trichrome staining. The results suggested that there was robust increase in exosomes’ level in AVF blood, suggesting compensatory systemic response during AVF-CHF. During AVF there was no change in cardiac eNOS, Wnt1 and β-catenin, however; during RDN there was robust increase in eNOS, Wnt1 and β-catenin compared to the sham group. As expected in HFpEF there was perivascular fibrosis, hypertrophy and pEF. Interestingly, increased levels of eNOS suggested that despite fibrosis, the NO generation was higher that most likely contributed to pEF during HF. The RDN intervention revealed an increase in renal cortical caspase 8 and a decrease in caspase 9. Since caspase 8 is protective and caspase 9 is apoptotic, we suggest that RDN protects against renal stresses, and apoptosis. Our findings also suggest that RDN is cardioprotective during HFpEF via the preservation of eNOS and accompanied endocardial-endothelial function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0297.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Athlete´s heart; Cardiac biomarkers; Echocardiography; Exercise; Functional cardiac capacity.
Online: 13 August 2021 (09:23:48 CEST)
This single-blind and cross-sectional study evaluated the role of Rho-kinase (ROCK) as a biomarker of the cardiovascular remodelling process assessed by echocardiography in competitive long-distance runners (LDR) during the training period before a marathon race. Thirty-six healthy male LDR (37.0±5.3 years; 174.0±7.0 height; BMI: 23.8±2.8; VO2-peak: 56.5±7.3 mL·kg-1·min-1) were separated into two groups according to previous training level: high-training (HT, n=16) ≥100 km·week-1 and low-training (LT, n=20) ≥70 and <100 km·week-1. Also, twenty-one healthy nonactive subjects were included as a control group (CTR). A transthoracic echocardiography was performed and ROCK activity levels in circulating leukocytes were measured at rest (48-hr without exercising) the week before the race. HT group showed higher left ventricular mass index (LVMi) and left atrial volume index (LAVi) than other groups (p<0.05, for both), also higher levels of ROCK activity were found in LDR (HT=6.17±1.41 vs CTR=1.64±0.66 (p<0.01); vs LT=2.74±0.84; (p<0.05)). In LDR a direct correlation between ROCK activity levels and LVMi (r=0.83; p<0.001), and LAVi (r=0.70; p<0.001) were found. In conclusion, in male competitive long-distance runners, the load of exercise implicated in marathon training is associated with ROCK activity levels and the left cardiac remodelling process assessed by echocardiography.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0015.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: cardiac transmural heterogeneity; electromechanical coupling; mechano-calcium-electric feedback; cardiac modeling; cardiomyocyte
Online: 2 November 2016 (06:58:53 CET)
Myocardial heterogeneity is an attribute of the normal heart. We have developed integrative models of cardiomyocytes from the subendocardial (ENDO) and subepicardial (EPI) ventricular regions that take into account experimental data on specific features of intracellular electromechanical coupling in the guinea pig heart. The models adequately simulate experimental data on the action potential and contraction of the ENDO and EPI cells. The modeling results predict that heterogeneity in the parameters of calcium handling and myofilament mechanics in isolated ENDO and EPI cardiomyocytes via cooperative mechanisms of mechano-calcium-electric feedback are essential to produce the differences in Ca2+ transients and contraction profiles and may further enhance transmural differences in the electrical properties between the cells. Simulation results predict that ENDO cells have greater sensitivity to changes in afterload than EPI cells. These data are important for understanding the behavior of cardiomyocytes in the intact heart.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: cardiac fibroblasts; WNT3a; WNT5a; beta-catenin; TGF-beta signalling; IL-11; cardiac fibrosis
Online: 29 July 2021 (13:15:00 CEST)
Cardiac fibrosis is a pathological process associated with development of heart failure. TGF-β and WNT signaling have been implicated in pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis, however little is known about molecular cross-talk between these two pathways. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exogenous canonical WNT3a and non-canonical WNT5a in TGF-β-activated human cardiac fibroblasts. We found that WNT3a and TGF-β induced -catenin-dependent response, whereas WNT5a prompted AP-1 activity. TGF-β triggered profibrotic signature in cardiac fibroblasts, and co-stimulation with WNT3a or co-activation of the β-catenin pathway with GSK3β inhibitor CHIR99021 enhanced collagen I and fibronectin production and development of active contractile stress fibers. In the absence of TGF-β, neither WNT3a nor CHIR99021 exerted profibrotic response. On a molecular level, in TGF-β-activated fibroblasts WNT3a enhanced phosphorylation of TAK1 and production and secretion of IL-11 but showed no effect on Smad pathway. Neutralization of IL-11 activity with the blocking anti-IL-11 antibody effectively reduced profibrotic response of cardiac fibroblasts activated with TGF-β and WNT3a. In contrast to canonical WNT3a, co-activation with non-canonical WNT5a suppressed TGF-β-induced production of collagen I. In conclusion, WNT/β-catenin signaling promotes TGF-β-mediated fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition by enhancing IL-11 production. Thus, the uncovered mechanism broadens our knowledge on molecular basis of cardiac fibrogenesis and defines novel therapeutic targets for fibrotic heart diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0295.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: coronary; atherosclerosis; cardiac CT; geometry
Online: 17 August 2022 (03:24:46 CEST)
Coronary artery disease (CAD) represents a modern pandemic associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The multi-faceted pathogenesis of this entity has long been investigated, highlighting the contribution of systemic factors such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Nevertheless, recent research has drawn light to the importance of geometrical features of coronary vasculature on the complexity and vulnerability of coronary atherosclerosis. Various parameters have been investigated so far, including vessel-length, cross-sectional area, curvature, and tortuosity, using primarily invasive angiography and recently non-invasive cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA). It is clear that there is correlation between geometrical parameters and both the haemodynamic alterations augmenting the atherosclerosis-prone environment and the extent of plaque burden. The purpose of this review is to discuss the currently available literature regarding this issue and propose a potential non-invasive imaging biomarker, the geometric risk score, which could be of importance to allow early detection of individuals at increased risk of developing CAD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0305.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: chitosan; cardiac tissue engineering; scaffolds
Online: 23 March 2022 (03:12:40 CET)
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Cardiovascular diseases complication can give rise to myocardial infarction which produces cell death by blockage of blood flow, leading to loss of heart function. Current treatments directed at heart repair have several disadvantages such as the lack of donors for heart transplantation or the use of non-bioactive inert materials for replacement of the damage tissue. New treatment strategies involve stimulation of heart tissue regeneration with the use of bioactive materials like chitosan, in combination with cells and biochemical factors. Chitosan scaffolds have the necessary proprieties of biocompatibility, porosity, and biodegradation, that imitates the heart extracellular matrix. Chitosan scaffolds physical proprieties, such as electrical conductivity and mechanical proprieties, can be improved by different preparation techniques and by the functionalization with other materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0512.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Endurance training; angiogenesis; cardiac tissue
Online: 22 March 2021 (10:49:50 CET)
Exercise can ameliorate cardiovascular dysfunctions in diabetes condition, but its precise molecular mechanisms have not been entirely understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of endurance training on expression of angiogenesis-related genes in cardiac tissue of diabetic rats. Thirty adults male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (N=10) including diabetic training (DT), sedentary diabetes (SD), and sedentary healthy (SH) in which diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg). Endurance training (ET) with moderate-intensity was performed on a motorized treadmill for six weeks. Training duration and treadmill speed were increased during five weeks, but they were kept constant at the final week and slope was zero at all stages. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR) analysis was used to measure the expression of myocyte enhancer factor-2C (MEF2C), histone deacetylase-4 (HDAC4) and Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in cardiac tissues of the rats. Our results demonstrated that six weeks of ET increased gene expression of MEF2C significantly (P<0.05), and caused a significant reduction in HDAC4 and CaMKII gene expression in the DT rats compared to the SD rats (P<0.05). We concluded that moderate-intensity ET could play a critical role in ameliorating cardiovascular dysfunction in a diabetes condition by regulating the expression of some angiogenesis-related genes in cardiac tissues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0354.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: heart failure; mid-range ejection fraction; atrial fibrillation; cardiac inflammation; cardiac fibrosis; risk factors.
Online: 15 July 2021 (10:18:01 CEST)
Aims: Heart failure (HF) is frequently accompanied by atrial fibrillation (AF), a combination that worsens the outcomes of both diseases. Despite advances in the treatment of AF, it remains a serious and unsolved problem for clinicians and researchers. The aim of this study was to examine risk factors for incidents of paroxysmal and persistent AF in patients having heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF). Methods. Overall, 71 patients with HFmrEF and non-valvular AF, including paroxysmal and persistent types, were enrolled in this study. As a control group, 42 HFmrEF patients without AF were also enrolled. All patients underwent detailed physical examination, including resting electrocardiography, echocardiography, and 24-hour ambulatory Holter monitoring. Levels of the inflammation markers high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and the fibrotic marker transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were measured by ELISA and expressed as odds ratios. Results: We show that paroxysmal AF was associated with higher diastolic blood pressure, whereas both paroxysmal and persistent forms of AF were associated with more frequent occurrence of hypertensive crisis episodes and greater body mass index. Progression from paroxysmal to persistent AF was associated with significant ventricular remodeling. Persistent and paroxysmal AF were associated with higher levels of inflammatory markers when compared to HFmrEF patients having no AF. In addition, TGF-1 was significantly increased in HFmrEF patients having persistent but not paroxysmal AF. Conclusions: Occurrence of AF, first paroxysmal and then persistent, in HFmrEF patients is associated with left ventricular remodeling and the appearance of systemic inflammatory and fibrotic markers. Changes in those parameters may be indicators by which to identify patients at increased risk of atrial fibrillation. Further studies are needed to determine the prognostic validity of these markers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0246.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy; arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy; cardiac conduction system; sudden unexpected cardiac death; autopsy
Online: 9 June 2021 (08:49:09 CEST)
A retrospective study was conducted on pathologically diagnosed arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) from consecutive cases over the past 34 years (n = 1,109). The cardiac conduction system (CCS) was removed in two blocks, containing the following structures: Sino-atrial node (SAN), atrio-ventricular junction (AVJ) including the atrio-ventricular node (AVN), the His bundle (HB), the bifurcation (BIF), the left bundle branch (LBB) and the right bundle branch (RBB). The ACM cases (2.07% of the total cases) consisted of 20 (86.96%) sudden unexpected cardiac death (SUCD) and 3 (13.04%) native explanted hearts; 16 (69.56%) were males and 7 (30.44%) were females, ranging in age from 5 to 65 (mean age ± SD, 36.13 ± 16.06) years. The following anomalies of the CCS, displayed as percentages of ACM SUCD cases, have been detected: Hypoplasia of SAN (80%) and/or AVJ (86.67%) due to fatty-fibrous involvement, AVJ dispersion and/or septation (46.67%), central fibrous body (CFB) hypoplasia (33.33%), fibromuscular dysplasia of SAN (20%) and/or AVN (26.67%) arteries, hemorrhage and infarct-like lesions of CCS (13.33%), islands of conduction tissue in CFB (13.33%), Mahaim fibers (13.33%), LBB block by fibrosis (13.33%), AVN tongue (13.33%), HB duplicity (6.67%%), CFB cartilaginous meta-hyperplasia (6.67%), and right sided HB (6.67%). Arrhythmias are the hallmark of ACM, not only from the fatty-fibrous disruption of the ventricular myocardium that accounts for reentrant ventricular tachycardia, but also from the fatty-fibrous involvement of CCS itself. The careful examination of the cardiac conduction system on serial sections was crucial in documenting the fatty-fibrous infiltration of CCS in ACM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0267.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: CHD; newborn; management; organization; cardiac surgery
Online: 15 September 2021 (14:55:42 CEST)
Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most common birth anomaly affecting approximately 1% of births and have a prevalence of about 5.8 per 1000 people. CHD is the most common congenital anomaly in newborn babies. Management of the newborn with CHD represents a frontier of clinical pediatric cardiology. Progress in diagnosis and surgical treatment of the individuals with a heart defect has progressed to the point that almost all heart defects can be significantly improved and treated. Cardiovascular malformations account for about 10% of infant deaths and nearly half of all deaths from malformations
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0424.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: ImageJ; Kymograph; Cardiac Performance; Zebrafish; Daphnia
Online: 21 October 2020 (09:31:42 CEST)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of death worldwide. This condition resulted in huge research on CVD increasing the need for animal models suitable for the in vivo research. Daphnia and Zebrafish are good animal models for cardiovascular research due to their relative body transparency and easy culture property. Several methods have been developed to conduct cardiac performance measurement in Daphnia and Zebrafish. However, most of the methods only able to obtain heartbeat rate. The other important cardiac endpoints like stroke volume, ejection fraction, fraction shortening, cardiac output and heartbeat regularity must use other programs for measurement. To overcome this limitation, in this study, we successfully developed a one-stop ImageJ-based method using kymograph macros language that able to obtain multiple cardiac performance endpoints simultaneously for the first time. To validate its utility, we incubate Daphnia magna at different ambient temperatures and exposed zebrafish with astemizole to detect the corresponding cardiac performance alterations. In summary, the kymograph method reported in this study provides a new, easy to use, and inexpensive one-stop method on obtaining multiple cardiac performance endpoints with high accuracy and convenience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Cardiac troponin I; Ischemic heart disease
Online: 9 August 2016 (14:31:47 CEST)
Background and objectives: The correlation of cardiac troponin I with early in-hospital outcomes in acute myocardial infarction is not well established. This study aims to assess the role of troponin I in predicting in-hospital outcomes and early left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Patients and methods: In a prospective study, 116 patients (74males and 42 females), with STEMI who had been admitted to the Coronary CareUnit from March 2015 to September 2015 were enrolled. Patients were divided according to the level of troponin I on admission into 3 groups (low, medium and high elevation). Results: The mean age (+ SD) of the patients was 60+11.4 years. The troponin level of 66.2% of males was high compared with 52.4% of females (p=0.002). The incidence of acute pulmonary edema (21.1%), cardiogenic shock (7%) and early left ventricular systolic dysfunction (49.3%) was significantly higher among patients with high troponin level compared with (0%, 0% and 16%, respectively) among patients with low troponin level. All deaths and cardiac arrest were of high troponin level. Conclusions: High admission troponin I in STEMI permits early identification of patients at increased risk of major cardiac complications and death.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0178.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: cardiac muscle; cardiac contractility; force generation; enhanced molecular dynamics simulations; allostery; protein folding; disease; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Online: 12 October 2021 (12:20:26 CEST)
Cardiac myosin-binding protein C (MyBPC) is a thick-filament associated regulatory protein in the sarcomere. It regulates the sensitive contractile system of the myocardium by acting as a mechanical tether, sensitizing the thin filament or modulating myosin motor activity. Mutations in the MYBPC3 gene are a frequent cause for the development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the most frequent cardiac disorder. Recently, the monoallelic double mutation MYBPC3Δ25bp/D389V has been discovered as a subset of the common MYBPC3Δ25bp variant in South Asia. MYBPC3Δ25bp/D389V carriers exhibit hyperdynamic features, which are considered an early finding for the development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Using correlation-guided molecular dynamics simulations sampling, we show that the D389V mutation shifts the conformational distribution of the C2 domain of MyBPC. We further applied biochemical approaches to probe the effects of the D389V mutation on structure, thermostability and protein-protein interactions of MyBPC C2. The melting temperature (Tm) of MyBPC C2 D389V is decreased by 4 to 7 °C compared to wild type while the interaction of the C0-C2 domains with myosin and actin remains unchanged. Additionally, we utilized steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations to investigate the altered unfolding pathway of MyBPC C2 D389V. Based on our data, we propose a pathomechanism for the development of HCM in MYBPC3Δ25bp and MYBPC3Δ25bp/D389V carriers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0177.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Sickle cell disease; cardiopulmonary complications; inflammation; acute chest syndrome; cardiac hypertrophy; cardiac fibrosis; diastolic dysfunction; pulmonary hypertension
Online: 10 February 2023 (03:13:42 CET)
Cardiopulmonary complications remain the major cause of mortality despite newer therapies and improvements in lifespan of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Inflammation has been identified as a major risk modifier in the pathogenesis of SCD associated cardiopulmonary complications in recent mechanistic and observational studies. In this review, we discuss recent cellular and molecular mechanisms of cardiopulmonary complications in SCD and summarize the most recent evidence from clinical and laboratory studies. We emphasize the role of inflammation in the onset and progression of these complications to better understand the underlying pathobiological processes. We also discuss future basic and translational research in addressing questions about the complex role of inflammation in the development of SCD cardiopulmonary complications, which may lead to promising therapies and reduce morbidity and mortality in this vulnerable population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0230.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: cardiac arrhythmia; mechano-electric feedback; Piezo1 channel
Online: 14 February 2023 (03:30:10 CET)
The rhythmical nature of the cardiovascular system constantly generates dynamic mechanical forces. At the center of this system is the heart which must detect these changes and adjust its performance accordingly. Mechano-electric feedback provides a rapid mechanism for detecting even subtle changes in the mechanical environment and transducing these signals into electrical responses which can adjust a variety of cardiac parameters such as heart rate and contractility. However, pathological conditions can disrupt this intricate mechanosensory system and manifest as potentially life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Mechanosensitive ion channels are thought to be the main proponents of mechano-electric feedback as they provide a rapid response to mechanical stimulation and can directly affect cardiac electrical activity. Here we demonstrate that the mechanosensitive ion channel Piezo1 is expressed in zebrafish cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, chemically prolonging Piezo1 activation in zebrafish results in cardiac arrhythmias indicating that this ion channel plays an important role in mechano-electric feedback. This also raises the possibility that Piezo1 gain of function mutations could be linked to heritable cardiac arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation in humans.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0177.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: variant effect maps; cardiac arrest; cardiovascular genetics
Online: 9 February 2023 (03:38:29 CET)
While genetic testing is becoming mainstream in the management of patients with potentially inherited cardiovascular disease, the prevalence of uncertain results severely limits its utility. One promising approach is to generate variant effect maps that report the function of all possible variants in a gene prospectively. The proactive clinical application of these maps is nascent, and it requires careful integration with current American College of Medical Genetics guidelines for variant interpretation. Here, we describe three pediatric cases of cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac death with variants of uncertain significance in calmodulin genes. We demonstrate the prospective clinical utility of a calmodulin variant effect map to inform variant interpretation, and therefore diagnosis and family care, in each case. This study was approved by the Stanford University and Vanderbilt University Medical Center IRBs. Consent was waived based on low risk of de-identified retrospective data collection per the IRB.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0258.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: desflurane; cardiac surgery; halogenated; kidney; heart; preconditioning
Online: 20 June 2022 (04:52:02 CEST)
Introduction: The effect of halogenated drugs as cardioprotectors in cardiac surgery has been evaluated in several studies. However, the possibility that there is a protective role at renal level, triggered by their use, is currently under study. Aortic valve replacement and coronary revascularization are the most frequent surgeries in cardiac surgery. Our research evaluates the effect of desflurane compared to propofol in aortic valve replacement surgery at renal level; including its administration during extracorporeal circulation. Method: Quasi-experimental prospective study performed on 60 patients, divided into 2 groups according to the drug used in intraoperative aortic valve replacement surgery. In group 1 propofol was used as a hypnotic during surgery, in group 2 desflurane was used. Differences in kidney damage measured through the urinary NGAL marker were evaluated. Other markers of renal function and myocardial damage and the need for inotropic support during the first 48 hours were also measured. Results: There were significant variations in the values of urinary NGAL and creatinine regarding to basal values in the propofol group, but not in the desflurane group, in which there were no differences in the hemodynamic parameters and myocardial damage. Conclusion: the use of desflurane during aortic valve replacement surgery produced better renal preservation than propofol.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0315.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Emergency Department; Diagnosis; ECG monitoring; Cardiac dysrhythmias
Online: 18 January 2021 (10:37:33 CET)
Background and Objectives: The IPED study showed that a smartphone-based event recorder increased the number of patients in whom an ECG was captured during symptoms over five-fold to more than 55% at 90 days compared to standard care  and concluded that this safe, non-invasive and easy to use device should be considered part of on-going care to all patients presenting acutely with unexplained palpitations or pre-syncope. This study reports the process of establishing a smartphone palpitation and pre-syncope service. Materials and Methods: A clinical Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) was devised, and funding was secured through a business case for the purchase of 40 AliveCor devices in the first instance. The clinic was launched on 22nd July 2019. Results: Between 22nd July 2019 and 31st October 2019, 68 patients seen in the ED with palpitations or pre-syncope were referred to SPACC. 30 were male and 38 female and mean age was 45.8 (SD 15.1) with a range from 18 to 80 years. 50 (74%) patients underwent full investigation. 7 (11%) patients were deemed on first assessment to have non-cardiac palpitations and were not fitted with the device. All patients who underwent full investigation achieved symptomatic rhythm correlation most with sinus rhythm, ventricular ectopics or bigeminy. A symptomatic cardiac dysrhythmia was detected in 6 (8.8%) patients. 3 patients had supraventricular tachycardia; SVT (4%), 2 had atrial fibrillation (3%) and 1 atrial flutter (2%). Qualitative feedback from the SPACC team suggested several areas where improvement to the clinic could be made. Conclusion: We believe a smartphone palpitation service based in ambulatory care is simple to implement and is effective at detecting cardiac dysrhythmia in ED palpitation patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0575.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Amyloidosis; Right Heart; Cardiac involvement; heart ultrasound
Online: 24 September 2020 (08:26:32 CEST)
Amyloidosis is due to deposition of an excessive amount of protein in many parenchymal tissues, including myocardium. The onset of cardiac Amyloidosis (CA) is an inauspicious prognostic factor, that can lead to sudden death. We retrospectively analyzed 135 patients with systemic amyloidosis, admitted to our ward between 1981 and 2019. Among them, 54 patients (46.30% F / 53.70% M, age 63.95±12.82 years) presented CA at baseline. In 53 patients, there was associated with multiorgan involvement, while in one there was primary myocardial deposition. As control group, we enrolled 81 patients (49.30% F / 50.70% M, aged 58.33±15.65) who did not meet the criteria for CA. In 44/54 of patients CA was associated with AL, 5/54 with AA, 3/54 of patients with ATTR, in 1/54 AL was related to hemodialysis and 1/54 to Gel-Amyloidosis. The most common AL type was IgG (28/44); less frequent forms were either IgA (7/40) or IgD (2/40), while seven patients had a λ free light chain form. The 32 AL with complete Ig were 31 λ-chain and just one k-chain. CA patients presented normal BP (SBP 118.0±8.4 mmHg; DBP 73.8±4.9 mmHg), while those with nCA had increased proteinuria (p=0.02). TnI and NT-proBNP were significantly increased compared to nCA (p= 0.031 and p=0.047, respectively). In CA patients we found an increased LDH compared to nCA (p=0.0011). CA patients were also found to have an increased interventricular septum thickness compared to nCA (p=0.002), a decreased Ejection Fraction % (p=0.0018) and Doppler velocity E/e’ ratio (p=0.0095). Moreover, CA patients were seen to have an enhanced right atrium area (p=0.0179), right ventricle basal diameter (p= 0.0112) and wall thickness (p=0.0471) as compared to nCA, as well as an increased inferior cava vein diameter (p=0.0495). TAPSE was the method chosen to evaluate systolic function of the right heart. In CA subjects very poor TAPSE levels were found compared to nCA patients (p=0.0495). Additionally, we found a significant positive correlation between TAPSE and lymphocyte count (r=0.47; p=0.031) as well as Gamma globulins (r=0.43, p=0.033), Monoclonal component (r=0.72; p=0.047) and IgG values (r=0.62, p=0.018). On the contrary, a significant negative correlation with LDH (r=-0.57, p=0.005), IVS (r=-0.51, p=0.008) and diastolic function evaluated as E/e’ (r=-0.60, p=0.003) were verified. CA patients had very poor survival compared to controls (30 vs. 66 months in CA vs nCA, respectively, P=0.15). Mean survival of CA individuals was worse also when stratified according to NT-proBNP levels, using 2500 pg/mL as class boundary (174 vs. 5.5 months, for patients with lower vs higher values than the median, respectively p=0.013). In much the same way, decreased right heart systolic function was correlated with a worse prognosis (18.0 months median survival, not reached in subjects with lower values than 18mm, p=0.0186). Finally, our data highlight the potential prognostic and predictive value of right heart alterations characterizing amyloidosis, as a novel clinical parameter correlated to increased LDH and immunoglobulins levels. Overall, we confirm the clinical relevance of cardiac involvement and propose that right heart evaluation may be considered as a new marker for clinical risk stratification in patients with amyloidosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0419.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: artificial sweeteners; zebrafish; Daphnia; cardiac performance; toxicity
Online: 18 September 2020 (04:47:33 CEST)
Artificial sweeteners are widely used food ingredients in beverages and drinks to lower calorie intake which in turn prevent lifestyle diseases such as obesity. Epidemiological evidences suggest that an overdose of artificial sweeteners could result to adverse effects after consumption. Thus, our study aims to systematically explore the potential adverse effects of eight commercial artificial sweeteners, including acesulfame-K, alitame, aspartame, sodium cyclamate, dulcin, neotame, saccharin and sucralose on cardiac performances of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Daphnia as model animals. Embryonic zebrafish and Daphnia were exposed to eight artificial sweeteners at 100 ppb concentrations and their cardiac performance (heart rate, ejection fraction, fractional shortening, stroke volume, cardiac output and heartbeat regularity) were measured and compared. Saccharin significantly increased the heart rate of zebrafish larvae while a significant decrease was observed in Daphnia. Significant increase was also noted in zebrafish heart rate variability after incubation in acesulfame K, dulcin, sodium cyclamate, and sucralose. However, a significant increase in Daphnia was only observed after incubation in dulcin. Based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering results, several artificial sweetener samples were species-specific to zebrafish and Daphnia. Our study demonstrates the potential adverse physiological effects of artificial sweeteners in cardiovascular systems of zebrafish larvae and Daphnia.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0531.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: endocarditis; surgery; cardiac surgery; drug abuse; ethics
Online: 24 August 2020 (11:36:38 CEST)
Background: This study discerns surgeons’ attitudes and practices in the determination of heart valve replacement for patients with endocarditis due to intravenous drug use (IVDU-IE). We aimed to identify factors contributing to surgeons’ decision-making process for initial and recurrent surgical heart valves, and the availability of institutional guidance. Methods: An IRB approved, anonymous mixed-methods survey instrument was designed and validated with 24 questions. Cardiothoracic surgeons in the U.S. and globally were recruited with a total of 220 enrolling in the study with 176 completing every question on the survey. Results: A cluster analysis revealed that although surgeons can be divided into sub-groups based on their previous experience with valve replacements, these groups are not perfectly homogenous, and the number of identified clusters is dependent on technique used. ANOVA analysis revealed that the variables that most clearly divided the surgeons into subgroups were, in order of importance, years of practice, number of valve replacements, and geography. Conclusions: Our analysis showed heterogeneity among cardiothoracic surgeons regarding how they make clinical decisions regarding re-operative valve replacement related to IVDU-IE Therefore, an opportunity exists for an interprofessional team to develop guidelines to decrease variability in surgical decision-making regarding valve replacement associated with IVDU-IE
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0017.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: matrix metalloproteases; muscular dystrophy; skeletal muscle; cardiac muscle
Online: 1 November 2021 (12:56:58 CET)
Matrix metalloproteinases have been implicated in muscular dystrophy progression and recent studies described the role of MMP-10 in skeletal muscle pathology of young dystrophic mice. Nevertheless, its implication in dystrophin deficient hearts is still missing. Here, we aimed at investigating MMP-10 implication in severe muscular dystrophic progression and characterize MMP-10 loss in skeletal and cardiac muscles of aged dystrophic mice. We examined the histopathological effect of MMP-10 ablation in aged mdx mice, both in the hind limb muscles and heart tissues. We have found that MMP-10 loss compromises survival rates of aged mdx mice, with skeletal and cardiac muscles developing a chronic inflammatory response. Our findings indicate that MMP-10 is implicated in severe muscular dystrophy progression, identifying a new area of investigation that could lead to future therapies for dystrophic muscles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0110.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: cardiac fibroblasts; sex-specific; estrogen; fibrosis; heart failure
Online: 6 September 2021 (17:24:51 CEST)
Several studies have demonstrated estrogen’s cardioprotective abilities in decreasing the fibrotic response of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs). However, the majority of these studies are not sex-specific, and those at the cellular level utilize tissue culture plastic, a substrate that has a stiffness much higher than physiological conditions. Understanding the intrinsic differences between male and female CFs under more physiologically “healthy” conditions will help to elucidate the divergences in their complex signaling networks. We aimed to do this by conducting sex-disaggregated analysis of changes in cellular morphology and relative concentrations of profibrotic signaling proteins in CFs cultured on 8kPa stiffness plates with and without 17-β estradiol (E2). Cyclic immunofluorescent analysis indicated that there is a negligible change in cellular morphology due to sex and E2 treatment and that the differences between male and female CFs are occurring at a biochemical rather than structural level. Several proteins corresponding to profibrotic activity had various sex-specific responses with and without E2 treatment. Single-cell correlation analysis exhibited varied protein-protein interaction across experimental conditions. These findings demonstrate the need for further research into the dimorphisms of male and female CFs to develop better tailored, sex-informed prevention and treatment interventions of cardiac fibrosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0566.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Uniaxial testing; tissue mechanics; cardiac mechanics; tensile testing
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:31:57 CEST)
Abstract : This paper presents the investigation of biomechanical behaviour of sheep heart fibre using uniaxial tests in various samples. Non-linear Finite Element models (FEA) that are utilised in understanding mechanisms of different diseases may not be developed without the accurate material properties. This paper presents uniaxial mechanical testing data of the sheep heart fibre. The mechanical uniaxial data of the heart fibre was then used in fitting four constitutive models including the Fung model, Polynomial (Anisotropic), Holzapfel (2005) model, Holzapfel (2000) model and the Four-fibre Family model. Even though the constitutive models for soft tissues including heart myocardium have been presented over several decades, there is still a need for accurate material parameters from reliable hyperelastic constitutive models. Therefore, the aim of this research paper is to select five hyperelastic constitutive models and fit experimental data in the uniaxial experimental data of the sheep heart fibre. A fitting algorithm was made used to optimally fitting and determination of the material parameters based on selected hyperelastic constitutive model. In this study, the evaluation index (EI) was used to measure the performance and capability of each selected anisotropic hyperelatic model. It was observed that the best predictive capability of the mechanical behaviour of sheep heart fibre the Polynomial (anisotropic) model has the EI of 100 and this means that it is the best performance when compared to all the other models.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0220.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Post-cardiac injury syndrome; pericarditis; percutaneous coronary intervention.
Online: 10 May 2021 (15:48:46 CEST)
Background: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is known as a very rare possible trigger of pericarditis. Most frequently it develops after a latent period or early in case of periprocedural complications. In this report, we present an atypical early onset of pericarditis after the uncomplicated PCI. Case Summary: A 58-year-old man was admitted to the hospital for the PCI of the chronic total occlusion of left anterior descending (LAD) artery. An initial electrocardiogram (ECG) was unremarkable. PCI attempt was unsuccessful. There were no procedure related complications observed at the end of PCI attempt and patient was symptom free. Six hours after interventional procedure the patient complained of severe chest pain. The ECG demonstrated ST-segment elevation in anterior and lateral leads. Troponin I was mildly elevated but coronary angiogram did not reveal impairment of collateral blood flow to the LAD territory. Because of pericarditic chest pain, typical ECG findings and pericardial effusion with elevated C-reactive protein, the diagnosis of acute pericarditis was established, and a course of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was initiated. Chest pain was relieved and ST-segment elevation almost completely returned to baseline after three days of treatment. The patient was discharged in stable condition without chest pain on the fourth day after symptom onset. Conclusions: Acute pericarditis is a rare complication of PCI. Despite the lack of specific clinical manifestation, post-traumatic pericarditis should be considered in patients with symptoms and signs of pericarditis and a prior history of iatrogenic injury or thoracic trauma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0278.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: sheep; gestation; hemodinamycs; heart rate variability; cardiac output
Online: 13 October 2020 (12:15:51 CEST)
This study aimed at evaluating changes in the clinical and echocardiographic parameters of pregnant sheep, as well as the HRV indexes due to the physiological alterations that happen at this stage implicating in high maternal metabolic demands. For this purpose, the study evaluated 10 Dorper sheep through their pregnancy, starting from the second month until the day before birth, conducting clinical, echocardiographic and electrocardiographic examinations focused on the HRV. The echocardiogram was conducted in a doppler ultrasound device with a multifrequency sectorial transducer in bidimensional mode. The HRV indexes were obtained through the Televet 100® system. There were increases in the thickness of the interventricular septum during diastole starting from the third month, and in the internal diameter of the left ventricle during systole and diastole at the second and third months, while the ejection fraction increased as the pregnancy progressed. The size of the left atrium increased starting at the second month. The SDNN, RMSSD and PNN50 HRV indexes were higher at the fifth month of pregnancy and after delivery. There were no significant differences in the frequency-domain HRV indexes during pregnancy. The gestation leads to alterations in the clinical parameters and the activity of the autonomic nervous system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0650.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Myocarditis; Diagnosis; Convolutional Neural Network; Cardiac MRI; prediction
Online: 26 July 2020 (17:44:05 CEST)
Myocarditis is the form of an inflammation of the middle layer of the heart wall which is caused by a viral infection and can affect the heart muscle and its electrical system. It has remained as one of the most challenging diagnoses in cardiology. Myocardial is the prime cause of unexpected death in approximately 20% of adults less than 40 years of age. Cardiac MRI (CMR) has been considered as a noninvasive and golden standard diagnostic tool for suspected myocarditis and plays an indispensable role in diagnosing various cardiac diseases. However, the performance of CMR is heavily dependent on the clinical presentation and non-specific features such as chest pain, arrhythmia, and heart failure. Besides, other imaging factors like artifacts, technical errors, pulse sequence, acquisition parameters, contrast agent dose, and more importantly qualitatively visual interpretation can affect the result of the diagnosis. This paper introduces a new deep learning-based model called Convolutional Neural Network-Clustering (CNN-KCL) to diagnose the Myocarditis. The hybrid CNN-KCL method performs the early and accurate diagnosis of Myocarditis. To the best-of-our-knowledge, a Convolutional neural network has never been used before for the diagnosis of Myocarditis. In this study, we used 47 subjects to diagnose myocarditis patients from Tehran's Omid Hospital. The total number of data examined is 10425. Our results demonstrate that CNN-KCL achieves 92.3% in terms of diagnosis myocarditis prediction accuracy which is significantly better than those reported in previous studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0394.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: physical activity; elderly population; mediastinal lymphomas; cardiac transplantation
Online: 30 December 2019 (09:35:38 CET)
The incidence of post transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) and other neoplasms in organ transplant patients is higher than in the non-transplanted population. This event is more frequent in older subjects, due, at least in part, to the immune dysfunction induced by immunosuppressants administered to prevent rejection. Alterations of the immune system mechanisms of protection against carcinogenesis appear to be the key role in the in the pathogenesis of these neoplasms. The data of our study on the incidence of neoplasms occurred during a long-term follow-up in an elderly population after they underwent cardiac transplantation. This study gives, also evidence of the favorable effect of physical activity programs on cardiorespiratory and psychomotor function.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: emerin; atrial cardiac defects; BAF; actin; mechano-transduction
Online: 15 May 2019 (11:09:44 CEST)
Emerin is a nuclear envelope protein that contributes to genome organization and cell mechanics. Through its N-terminal LEM-domain, emerin interacts with the DNA-binding protein Barrier-to-Autointegration (BAF). Emerin also binds to members of the Linker of the Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC) complex. Mutations in the gene encoding emerin are responsible for the majority of cases of X-linked Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy (X-EDMD). Most of these mutations lead to an absence of emerin. A few missense and short deletion mutations in the disordered region of emerin are also associated with X-EDMD. More recently, missense and short deletion mutations P22L, ∆K37 and T43I were discovered in emerin LEM-domain, associated with isolated atrial cardiac defects (ACD). Here we reveal which defects, at both molecular and cellular levels, are elicited by these LEM-domain mutations. Whereas DK37 mutation impairs correct folding of the LEM-domain, P22L and T43I have no impact on the 3D structure of emerin. Surprisingly, all three mutants bind to BAF, albeit with a weaker affinity in the case of DK37. In human myofibroblasts derived from a patient’s fibroblasts, emerin ∆K37 is correctly localized at the inner nuclear membrane, but is present at a significantly lower level, indicating that this mutant is abnormally degraded. Moreover, SUN2 is reduced, and cells are defective in producing actin stress fibers when grown on a stiff substrate and after cyclic stretches. Altogether, our data suggest that the main effect of mutation DK37 is to perturb emerin function within the LINC complex in response to a mechanical stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0611.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: hydrogels; cardiac patches; 3D bioprinting; furfuryl-gelatin; lattice
Online: 31 July 2018 (08:06:27 CEST)
3D bioprinting holds great promise in the field of regenerative medicine as it can create complex structures in a layer-by-layer manner using cell-laden bioinks, making it possible to imitate native tissues. Current bioinks lack both the high printability and the biocompatibility required in this respect. Hence, the development of bioinks that are capable of both properties is needed. In our previous study, a furfuryl-gelatin based bioink, crosslinkable by visible light, was used for creating mouse mesenchymal stem cell-laden structures with high fidelity. In this study, lattice mesh geometries were printed in a comparative study to test against the properties of a traditional rectangular-sheet. After 3D printing and crosslinking, both structures were analysed for swelling and rheological properties, and their porosity estimated using scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that the lattice structure was relatively more porous but sturdy and exhibited a lower degradation rate compared to the rectangular-sheet. Further, the lattice allowed encapsulation of a greater number of cells, allowing them to proliferate to a greater extent compared to the rectangular-sheet that retained a lesser number of cells initially. All of these results collectively affirmed that the lattice poses as a superior scaffold design for tissue engineering applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0115.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: regenerative medicine; reprogramming; cardiac differentiation; secretoma; tissue engineering
Online: 15 March 2018 (05:02:41 CET)
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are reprogrammed cells that have hallmarks similar to embryonic stem cells including the capacity of self-renewal and differentiation into cardiac myocytes. The improvements in reprogramming and differentiating methods achieved in the past 10 years widened the use of hiPSCs, especially in cardiac research. hiPSC-derived cardiac myocytes (CMs) recapitulate phenotypic differences caused by genetic variations, making them human attractive disease models and useful tools for drug discovery and toxicology testing. In addition, hiPSCs can be used as source cells for cardiac regeneration in animal models. Here, we review the advances in the genetic and epigenetic control of cardiomyogenesis that underlies the significant improvement of the induced reprogramming of somatic cells to CMs. We also cover the phenotypic characteristics of the hiPSCs derived CMs, their ability to rescue injured CMs through paracrine effects, the novel approaches in tissue engineering for hiPSC-derived cardiac tissue generation, and finally, their potential use in biomedical applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0092.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: PMMA; bone cement; cardiac embolism; cement leakage; viscosity
Online: 26 September 2016 (10:34:26 CEST)
Percutaneous vertebroplasty procedure is of major importance, given the significant increasing aging population and higher number of orthopedic procedures related to vertebral compression fractures. Vertebroplasty is a complex technique involving injection of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) into the compressed vertebral body for mechanical stabilization of the fracture. Our understanding and ability to modify these mechanisms through alterations in cement material is rapidly evolving. However, the rate of cardiac complications secondary to PMMA injection and subsequent cement leakage has increased with time. The following review considers the main features of PMMA bone cement on the heart, and the extent of influence of materials on cardiac embolism. Clinically, cement leakage results in life-threatening cardiac injury. The convolution of this outcome through an appropriate balance of complex material properties is highlighted via clinical case report.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Cardiac arrest; normothermia; EEG; SSEP; GWR; long term predictors
Online: 8 January 2021 (10:26:27 CET)
Introduction Early prediction of long term outcomes in patients resuscitated after cardiac arrest (CA) is still challenging. Guidelines suggested a multimodal approach combining multiple predictors. We evaluated whether the combination of the electroencephalography (EEG) reactivity, somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) cortical complex and Gray to White matter ratio (GWR) on brain computed tomography (CT) at different temperatures could predict survival and good outcome at hospital discharge and after six months. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study including consecutive adult, non-traumatic patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital CA who remained comatose on admission to our intensive care unit from 2013 to 2017. We acquired SSEPs and EEGs during the treatment at 36°C and after rewarming at 37°C, Gray to white matter ratio (GWR) was calculated on the brain computed tomography scan performed within six hours of the hospital admission. We primarily hypothesized that SSEP was associated with favorable functional outcome at distance and secondarily that SSEP provides independent information from EEG and CT. Outcomes were evaluated using the Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) scale at six months from discharge. Results Of 171 resuscitated patients, 75 were excluded due to missing of data or uninterpretable neurophysiological findings. EEG reactivity at 37 °C has been shown the best single predictor of good outcome (AUC 0.803) while N20P25 was the best single predictor for survival at each time point. (AUC 0.775 at discharge and AUC 0.747 at six months follow up) Predictive value of a model including EEG reactivity, average GWR, and SSEP N20P25 amplitude was superior (AUC 0.841 for survival and 0.920 for good outcome) to any combination of two tests or any single test. Conclusion Our study, in which life-sustaining treatments were never suspended, suggests SSEP cortical complex N20P25, after normothermia ad off sedation, is a reliable predictor for survival at any time. When SSEP cortical complex N20P25 is added into a model with GWR average and EEG reactivity, the predictivity for good outcome and survival at distance is superior than each single test alone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0240.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Post-mortem Cardiac magnetic resonance; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; sudden death
Online: 6 November 2020 (10:44:52 CET)
Post-mortem cardiac magnetic resonance (PMCMR) is an emerging tool supporting forensic medicine for the identification of the causes of cardiac death, as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We proposed a new method of PMCMR to diagnose HCM despite myocardial rigor mortis. Methods: we performed CMR in 49 HCM patients, 30 non-HCM hypertrophy and 32 healthy controls. In cine images, rigor mortis was simulated by the analysis of the cardiac phase corresponding to the 25% of diastole. Left ventricular mass, mean and standard deviation (SD) of WT, maximal WT, minimal WT and their difference, were compared for the identification of HCM. These parameters were validated at PMCMR, evaluating 8 hearts with HCM, 10 with coronary artery disease and 10 with non-cardiac death. Results: The SD of WT with a cut-off of > 2.4 had the highest accuracy to identify HCM (AUC 0.95, 95%CI 0.89-0.98). This was particularly evident in female population of HCM (AUC=0.998), with 100% specificity (95%CI 85-100%) and 96% sensitivity (95%CI 79-99%). Using this parameter, at PMCMR all the 8 patients with HCM were correctly identified with no false positive. Conclusions: PMCMR allows to identify HCM as cause of sudden death using the SD of WT >2.4 as diagnostic parameter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0589.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Mechanical properties; constitutive modelling; cardiac mechanics; anisotropy; biaxial testing
Online: 24 September 2020 (18:24:41 CEST)
Regional mechanics of the heart is vital in the development of accurate computational models for the pursuit of relevant therapies. Challenges related to heart dysfunctioning are the most important sources of mortality in the world. For example, myocardial infarction (MI) is the foremost killer in sub-Saharan African countries. Mechanical characterisation plays an important role in achieving accurate material behaviour. Material behaviour and constitutive modelling are essential for accurate development of computational models. In most cases previously, the mechanical properties of the heart myocardium were assumed to be homogeneous. The main objective of this paper is to determine the mechanical material properties of healthy porcine myocardium in three regions, namely left ventricle (LV), mid-wall/interventricular septum (MDW) and right ventricle (RV). The biomechanical properties of the pig heart RV, LV and MDW were characterised using biaxial testing. The biaxial tests show the pig heart myocardium behaves non-linearly, heterogeneously and anisotropically. In this study, it was shown that RV, LV and MDW may exhibit slightly different mechanical properties. Data presented here may be helpful in regional tissue mechanics, especially for the understanding of various heart diseases and development of new therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0395.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: cardiac hypertrophy; cardiomyocytes; disease model; endothelin-1; stem cells
Online: 30 November 2019 (12:38:21 CET)
Cardiac hypertrophy is an important and independent risk factor for the development of heart failure. To better understand the mechanisms and regulatory pathways involved in cardiac hypertrophy, there is a need for improved in vitro models. In this study, we investigated how hypertrophic stimulation affected human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs). The cells were stimulated with endothelin-1 (ET-1) for 8, 24, 48, 72, or 96h. Parameters including cell size, ANP-, proBNP-, and lactate concentration were analyzed. Moreover, transcriptional profiling using RNA-sequencing was performed to identify differentially expressed genes following ET-1 stimulation. The results show that the CMs increase in size by approximately 13% when exposed to ET-1 in parallel to increases in ANP and proBNP protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, the lactate concentration in the media was significantly increased indicating that the CMs consume more glucose, a hallmark of cardiac hypertrophy. Using RNA-seq, a hypertrophic gene expression pattern was also observed in the stimulated CMs. Taken together, these results show that hiPSC-derived CMs stimulated with ET-1 display a hypertrophic response. The results from this study also provide new molecular insights about the underlying mechanisms of cardiac hypertrophy and may help accelerate the development of new drugs against this condition.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0077.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: heart failure; angiogenesis; angiopoietin-1; angiopoietin-2; cardiac fibrosis
Online: 8 October 2019 (05:59:11 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Ischemic and idiopathic heart failure are two different etiologies, however reactive cardiac fibrosis together with impaired vasculogenesis has been described in both of them. Implication of main proangiogenic factors as: angiogenin, agiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) has been described mainly in experimental models of heart failure. However, differences in molecular pathways between these cardiomyopathies are still under investigation. In this short communication we aimed to evaluate and compare the expression of pro-angiogenic molecules in the heart tissue of patients with advanced chronic heart failure (CHF) of ischemic and idiopathic etiology. Methods and Results: Heart tissue from left ventricular walls was obtained at transplantation from ischemic heart disease (IHD), idiopathic cardiomyopathy (ICM) patients. Tissue samples were examined using immunohistochemistry for angiogenic molecules. Immunopositivity (I-pos) for angiopoietin-1 was mainly observed in the cardiomyocytes, while I-pos for Ang-2 and Tie-2 receptor mainly in endothelial cells. Procollagen-I (PICP), angiogenin, Ang-1, Tie-2 receptor, were similarly expressed in IHD and ICM patients. In contrast, endothelial immunopositivity for Ang-2 was higher in IHD samples compared to ICM (p=0.03). Conclusions: Ang-2 expression is different in heart tissue of ICM and ICM patients and distribution of Ang-1 and angiogenin is higher in cardiomyocytes, whereas Ang-2 higher in endothelial cells, suggesting a different pattern of angiogenic stimulation, or at least of altered endothelial integrity. This data may serve for further studies investigating angiogenesis signaling pathways and in HF of different etiology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0718.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: event-driven processing; ECG; cardiac diseases; features extraction; classification
Online: 30 October 2018 (09:15:43 CET)
The aim of this paper is to develop an intelligent event-driven Electrocardiogram (ECG) processing module in order to achieve an efficient solution for diagnosis of the cardiac diseases. The suggested method acquires the signal with an event-driven A/D converter (EDADC). The output of EDADC is passed through the activity selection and interpolation blocks. It allows focusing only on the important signal parts and resampling it uniformly. Later on, the signal is de-noised. The autoregressive (AR) method is used to extract the classifiable features of the de-noised signal. Afterwards, the output is classified by employing different robust classification techniques such as support vector machines (SVMs), K- Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The event-driven feature enables to adapt the system processing load according to the signal temporal variations. This interesting feature of the devised system aptitudes a drastic reduction in its processing activity and therefore in the power consumption as compared to the traditional ones. A comparison of the performance of different classifiers is also made in terms of accuracy. Results show that the proposed system is a potential candidate for an automatic diagnosis of the cardiac diseases.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0424.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Traumatic cardiac arrest; gastrothorax; diaphragmatic rupture; diaphragmatic hernia; localized tamponade
Online: 27 July 2022 (15:03:27 CEST)
Traumatic cardiac arrest has a high mortality. We report the case of a 65 years old women who presented a cardiac arrest following traffic accident. Examinations concluded to a tension gastro thorax with a delayed diagnosis. Naso gastric tube insertion was for many authors a temporary care while waiting for surgery. We report on the diagnostic difficulties found in the literature and a recent review of published cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0584.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: burn injury; cardiac dysfunction; gene profiling; mitochondrial metabolism; oxygen consumption
Online: 23 November 2020 (13:59:47 CET)
Burn-induced cardiac dysfunction is thought to involve mitochondrial dysfunction although the mechanisms responsible are unclear. In this study, we used our established model of in vivo burn injury to understand the genetic evidence of burn-induced mitochondrial metabolism confusion by describing cardiac mitochondrial metabolism-related gene expression after burn. Cardiac tissue was collected at 24 hours after burn injury. An O2K respirometer system was utilized to measure cardiac mitochondrial function. Oxidative phosphorylation complex activities were determined using enzyme activity assays. RT Profiler PCR array was used to identify differential regulation of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism. Quantitative qPCR and Western Blotting were applied to validate differentially expressed genes. Burn-induced cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction was supported by the finding of decreased state 3 respiration and decreased mitochondrial electron transport chain activity in complex I, III, IV, and V following burn injury. Eighty-four mitochondrial metabolism-related gene profiles were measured. The mitochondrial gene profile showed that one third of genes related to mitochondrial energy and metabolism was differentially expressed. Of these 28 genes, 15 were more than 2-fold upregulated and 13 were more than 2-fold downregulated. All genes were validated using qPCR; 4 genes had a protein level which correlated with the observed change in gene expression. This study provides preliminary evidence that a large percentage of mitochondrial metabolism-related genes in cardiomyocytes were significantly affected by burn injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0229.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: heart failure; left ventricular assist device; cardiac recovery; mechanical circulation
Online: 13 March 2020 (10:11:43 CET)
In this paper, we aim to assess the electric current parameters and report the analysis of the associated degree of ventricular recovery during left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support. An assumption was made there is a linear relationship between ventricular recovery degree and the pump electric current pulsatility index (PI). The experimental study was carried out using the ViVitro Pulse Duplicator System with Sputnik 1 LVAD connected. Cardiac output (CO) and cardiac power output (CPO) were used as a measure of ventricular recovery degree. Different heart rates (HR) (59, 73, 86 bpm) and pump speeds (7600–8400 rpm in 200 rpm steps) were investigated. Ventricular stroke volumes in the range of 30–80 ml for each heart rate at certain pump speed were used. The obtained relationships of CO and CPO vs. PI was linear as the coefficients of determination for each regression curve were more than 0.8. CO vs. PI: R2=0.9218; 0.9271; 0.9172 and CPO vs. PI: R2=0.8517; 0.841; 0.8244 for HR=59 bpm; 73 bpm; 86 bpm, respectively. Study findings suggest that adequate interpretation of parameters could potentially serve as a valuable clinical tool to assess ventricular recovery based on LVAD infrastructure without requiring any special hemodynamic assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0131.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: calcium signaling; calcium release; sparks; ventricular cardiac myocytes; RyR-channels
Online: 30 June 2017 (11:29:29 CEST)
We simulate elementary calcium release events (sparks) in a single calcium release unit in ventricular myocyte. Previously developed and tested electron-conformational model of the stochastic dynamics of RyR-channels is integrated to the calcium dynamics model in the cardiac cell. This approach allows to observe RyRs opening/closing in details on the macromolecular level during the calcium dynamics course. We simulate calcium diffusion in the dyadic space and “domino-like” RyR’s activation during the so-called “calcium induced-calcium release process”. Ca2+ sparks initiation, spread and termination are investigated in the computer experiments. Sparks’ initiation and termination rate dependence on the Ca2+ diffusion velocity is observed. We show that sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen local depletion and RyR’s stochastic attrition could be the reasons of Ca2+ spark termination.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0227.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: 12-lead electrocardiogram; body surface cardiac mapping; Medtronic; electrocardiograph mapping; arrhythmia
Online: 9 August 2020 (22:17:30 CEST)
Despite the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) being the gold standard in evaluating clinical presentations of arrythmias of various kinds, several notable limitations, namely in accuracy and localization, have recently garnered concern with respect to administering appropriate therapeutic measures. The following text puts these limitations under the spotlight, highlighting the difficulty and challenging nature of standard ECG analysis and therapeutic measures, while simultaneously showing a novel body surface electrocardiographic mapping system that utilizes 3D spatial imaging and pinpoint localization algorithms in order to compensate for the shortcomings of the standard ECG, thereby providing higher precision data collection. We provide a brief overview of the novel device in a selection of arrhythmic demographics, along with its validity and reliability, while illustrating the benefits and positive outcomes of its utility.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0112.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: heterotaxy syndromes; cardiac isomerism; chick embryo; Pitx2; proepicardium; non-compaction cardiomyopathy
Online: 10 October 2019 (05:54:08 CEST)
Except for a few species, the outer shape of vertebrates normally is characterized by bilateral symmetry. The inner organs, on the other hand, normally are arranged in bilaterally asymmetric patterns, which are of special importance for the normal function of the cardiovascular system of lung-breathing vertebrates. Deviations from the normal organ asymmetry can occur in the form of mirror imagery of the normal arrangement (situs inversus), or in the form of arrangements that have the tendency for development of bilateral symmetry, either in a pattern of bilateral left-sideness (left isomerism) or bilateral right-sidedness (right isomerism). The latter two forms of visceral situs anomalies are called “heterotaxy syndromes”. During the past 30 years, remarkable progress has been made in uncovering of the genetic etiology of heterotaxy syndromes. However, the pathogenetic mechanisms causing the spectrum of cardiovascular defects found in these syndromes remain poorly understood. In the present report, a spontaneous case of left cardiac isomerism found in a HH-stage 23 chick embryo is described. The observations made in this case suggest that hearts with left cardiac isomerism may have the tendency for development of a non-compaction cardiomyopathy caused by defective development of the proepicardium.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0357.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Performance, Sports, Aortic Valve, Sinus of Valsalva, Echocardiography, Sudden cardiac death
Online: 18 September 2018 (14:40:43 CEST)
Aortic rupture is known as one of the potential causes of sudden cardiac death in athletes. Nevertheless, adaptation strategies for aortic root dilation in athletes vary. The purpose of this study was to investigate aortic root adaptation to physical workload and to determine if aortic root’s and left ventricle sizes are contingent upon the physical workload. Echocardiography was applied to 151 subjects to measure the aortic root at aortic valve annulus (AA) and at sinus of Valsalva (VS). 122 were athletes (41 females and 81 males) and 29 were non-athletes (14 females and 15 males). Of the 41 female athletes, 32 were endurance athletes, and 9 strength athletes. From 81 male athletes, 56 were endurance athletes, and 25 were strength athletes. AA and VS mean values for the body surface area were presented as rAA and rVS. Left ventricle (LV) meaures incuded LV end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD), interventricular septum thickness in diastole (IVSTd), LV posterior wall thickness in diastole (LVPWTd), LV mass (LVM), LV mass index, LV end-diastolic diameter index (LVEDDI). Results indicated that VS was higher in female athletes (28.9±2.36mm) than in non-athletes (27.19±2.87mm, p=0.03). On the other hand, rAA was higher in strength athletes (12.19±1.48mm/m2) than in endurance athletes (11.12±0.99mm/m2, p=0.04). Additionally, rVS and rAA were higher in female strength athletes (17.19±1.78mm/m2, 12.19±1.48mm/m2) than female basketball players (15.49±1.08mm/m2, p=0.03, 10.75±1.06 mm/m2, p=0.02). Statistically significant positive moderate correlations were found between VS and LVEDD, LVM, IVSTd, LVPWTd, rVS and LVEDDI parameters in all athletes. The diameter of Valsalva sinus was greater in female athletes compared to non-athletes. The rAA mean value for body surface area was greater in female athletes practising strength sports as compared to their counterparts who were practising endurance sports. The diameter of the aortic root at sinuses positively correlated with the LV size in all athletes. Trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03656861, September 3, 2018 (retrospectively registered).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Fabry disease; Cardiac magnetic Resonance; T1 mapping; Late gadolinium enhancement; Feature tracking.
Online: 14 October 2022 (03:25:53 CEST)
Fabry disease (FD) is a X-linked inheritable storage disease caused by deficiency of al-pha-galactosidase causing lysosomal overload of sphingolipids. FD cardiomyopathy is character-ized by left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and should be considered in differential diagnosis with all the other causes of LV hypertrophy. An early diagnosis of FD is very important because the enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) may change the fate of patients by blocking both cardiac and systemic involvement and improving prognosis. Diagnosis may be relatively easy in young patients with the typical signs ans symptoms of FD, but in male patients with late onset of disease and in females, diagnosis may be very challenging. Morphological and functional aspects are not specific for FD, which cannot be diagnosed or excluded by echocardiography. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) with tissue characterization capability, is the preferred technique for the differential diagnosis of LV hypertrophy. The finding of decreased myocardial T1 value in LV hypertrophy is very specific for FD. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) is found in late stage of disease but it is useful to predict the cardiac response to ERT and to stratify the prognosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0019.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: leptin; JAK/STAT pathway; myocardial infarction; hemodynamics; arrhythmias; dyslipidaemia; inflammation; cardiac remodeling
Online: 2 August 2021 (11:24:57 CEST)
Hyperleptinemia potentiates the effects of many atherogenic factors, such as inflammation, platelet aggregation, migration, hypertrophy, proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cell dysfunction. The present study analysed the eﬀects of long-term hyperleptinemia in an in vivo myocardial ischemia-reperfusion model to demonstrate whether the in vivo deleterious effect also affects cardiac structure and function. Rats by were subcutaneously administered leptin for 8 days to estimate the involvement of the JAK/STAT pathway. Data from 58 male Wistar rats were included in the final analysis. Myocardial infarction (MI) was modelled by the 30-minute ligation of the main left coronary artery followed by 120-minute reperfusion. Hemodynamic measurements, electrocardiography monitoring, echocardiography, myocardial infarct size and area at risk, blood biochemical parameters, leptin, IL-6, TNF-alpha, FGF-21, and cardiomyocyte morphology were measured. Statistical analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistics v.26. Seven-day hyperleptinemia in rats led to increased an blood pressure and heart rate, myocardial hypertrophy, impaired LV function, an increased frequency of ischemic arrhythmias, dyslipidaemia, systemic inflammation, and an increased size of induced myocardial infarction. The blockade of the JAK/STAT signalling pathway effectively reversed the negative effects of leptin, including increased blood pressure and total cholesterol.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0692.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Ryanodine receptor; skeletal muscle; cardiac muscle; exercise and injury; heart function; diet
Online: 29 June 2021 (08:37:53 CEST)
The ryanodine receptor (RyR) is a Ca2+ release channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal and cardiac muscles and plays a key role in excitation-contraction coupling. The activity of the RyR is regulated by many intracellular factors such as divalent cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+), nucleotides, associated proteins, and reactive oxygen species. Since these intracellular factors change depending on the condition of the muscle, e.g., exercise, fatigue, or disease states, the RyR channel activity will be altered accordingly. In this review, we describe how the RyR channel is regulated under various conditions and discuss the possibility that the RyR acts as a sensor for change in the cellular environment of muscles.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0559.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: sports cardiology; athlete; caffeine; anabolic steroids; heart disease; cardiac magnetic resonance imaging
Online: 22 December 2020 (12:39:52 CET)
Several performance-enhancing or ergogenic drugs have been linked to both significant adverse cardiovascular effects and increased cardiovascular risk. Even with increased scrutiny on the governance of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) in professional sport and heightened awareness of the associated cardiovascular risk, there are some who are prepared to risk their use to gain competitive advantage. Caffeine is the most commonly consumed drug in the world and its ergogenic properties have been reported for decades. Thus, the removal of caffeine from the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) list of banned substances, in 2004, has naturally led to an exponential rise in its use amongst athletes. The response to caffeine is complex and influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Whilst the evidence may be equivocal, the ability of an athlete to train longer or at a greater power output cannot be overlooked. Furthermore, its impact on the myocardium remains unanswered. In contrast, anabolic steroids are recognised PEDs that improve athletic performance, increase muscle growth and suppress fatigue. Their use, however, comes at a cost, afflicting the individual with several side effects, including those that are detrimental to the cardiovascular system. This review addresses the effects of the two commonest PEDs, one legal, the other prohibited, and their respective effects on the heart, as well as the long-term implications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0257.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV2; Acute Cardiac Injury; Arrhythmia; Heart Failure; Cardiogenic Shock
Online: 11 August 2020 (07:47:51 CEST)
A newly identified novel coronavirus named as severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus2 (SARS‐CoV 2) has given rise to the global pandemic. SARS-CoV2 which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is a positive-stranded RNA virus with nucleocapsid. It binds to host angiotensin-converting enzyme2 (ACE2) receptor through surface glycoprotein (S protein). These ACE 2 receptors are attached to the cell membranes of many organs. Thus, COVID-19 does not only result in acute respiratory distress syndrome but also affects multiple organ systems, requiring a multidisciplinary approach to manage this disease. COVID-19 can damage the myocardial cells and result in fulminant myocarditis, acute cardiac injury, cardiomyopathy, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, or arrhythmia. COVID-19 seeds harmful immune response through cytokine storm leading to indirect organ damage. In this literature review, the available data is comprehended regarding cardiovascular complications in COVID-19, and the correlation of biomarkers with the disease activity is discussed. This literature review also highlights the important treatment options and outcomes of the individual study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0330.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery; anesthetic technique; high-sensitivity troponin i
Online: 29 September 2019 (07:08:24 CEST)
The cardioprotective effects of volatile anesthetics versus total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) are controversial, especially in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Using current generation high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn), we aimed to evaluate the effect of anesthetics on the occurrence of myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS). From February 2010 to December 2016, 3555 patients without preoperative hs-cTn elevation underwent non-cardiac surgery under general anesthesia. Patients were grouped according to anesthetic agent; 659 patients were classified into a propofol-remifentanil total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) group, and 2896 patients were classified into into a volatile group. To balance the use of remifentanil between groups, a balanced group (n=1622) was generated with patients who received remifentanil infusion in the volatile group, and two separate comparisons were performed (TIVA vs. volatile and TIVA vs. balanced). The primary outcome was occurrence of MINS, defined as rise of hs-cTn I ≥ 0.04 ng/mL within postoperative 48 hours. The secondary outcomes were 30-day mortality, postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI), and adverse events during hospital stay (mortality, type I myocardial infarction (MI), and new-onset arrhythmia). In propensity-matched analyses, the occurrence of MINS was lower in the TIVA group compared to the volatile group (OR 0.642; 95% CI 0.450-0.914; p = 0.014). However, after balancing the use of remifentanil, there was no difference between groups in the risk of MINS (OR 0.832; 95% CI 0.554-1.251; p-value = 0.377). There were no significant associations between the two groups in type 1 MI, new-onset atrial fibrillation, in-hospital and 30-day mortality before and after balancing the use of remifentanil. However, the incidence of postoperative AKI was lower in the TIVA group (OR 0.362; 95% CI 0.194-0.675; p-value = 0.001). After balancing the use of remifentanil, volatile anesthesia and TIVA showed comparable effects on MINS in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery without preoperative myocardial injury. Further studies are needed on the benefit of remifentanil infusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0266.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: β2-adrenergic receptor; cAMP; cardiac myocytes; CRISPR; Epac1; fibrosis; osteopontin; signal transduction
Online: 1 March 2019 (05:15:17 CET)
Cardiac β2-adrenergic receptors (ARs) are known to inhibit collagen production and fibrosis in cardiac fibroblasts and myocytes. The β2AR is a Gs protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and, upon its activation, stimulates generation of cyclic 3', 5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). cAMP has two effectors: protein kinase A (PKA) and the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac). Epac1 has been shown to inhibit cardiac fibroblast activation and fibrosis. Osteopontin (OPN) is a ubiquitous pro-inﬂammatory cytokine, mediating also fibrosis in several tissues, including the heart. OPN underlies several cardiovascular pathologies, including atherosclerosis and cardiac adverse remodeling. We have found that the cardiotoxic hormone aldosterone transcriptionally upregulates OPN in H9c2 rat cardiac myoblasts, an effect prevented by endogenous β2AR activation. Additionally, CRISPR-mediated OPN deletion enhances cAMP generation in response to both b1AR and β2AR activation in H9c2 cardiomyocytes, leading to upregulation of Epac1 protein levels. These effects render β2AR stimulation capable of completely abrogating transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-dependent fibrosis in OPN-lacking H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Finally, OPN interacts constitutively with Gas subunits in H9c2 cardiac cells. Thus, we have uncovered a direct inhibitory role of OPN in cardiac β2AR anti-fibrotic signaling via cAMP/Epac1. OPN blockade could be of value in the treatment and/or prevention of cardiac fibrosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0400.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: maximal heart rate; endurance athletes; cardiopulmonary exercise test; HRmax; cardiac rehabilitation; running; cycling
Online: 22 March 2023 (14:26:11 CET)
Maximal heart rate (HRmax) is a widely used measure of cardiorespiratory fitness. Prediction of HRmax is an alternative to cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), but its accuracy among endurance athletes (EA) requires evaluation. This study aimed to externally validate HRmax prediction models in the EA independently for running and cycling CPET. 4043 runners (age=33.58 (8.12) years; 83.53% males; BMI=23.66 (2.54) kg·m−2) and 1026 cyclists (age=36.88 (9.03) years; 89.67% males; BMI=24.04 (2.65) kg·m−2) underwent maximum CPET. Student t-test, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), mean absolute error (MAE), and root mean square error (RMSE) were applied to externally validate 8 running and 5 cycling HRmax equations. HRmax was 184.60 (9.79) beats·min−1 and 182.66 (10.28) beats·min−1 respectively for running and cycling, p=0.001. Measured and predicted HRmax differed significantly (p=0.001) for 9 of 13 (69.23%) models. HRmax was overestimated by 8 (61.54%) and underestimated by 5 (38.46%) formulae. Overestimated HRmax ranged 0.08-4.94 beats·min−1 and underestimated HRmax ranged 0.03-4.90 beats·min−1. MAE and RMSE were 0.18-4.94 beats·min−1 and 9.13-10.47, respectively. MAPE ranged 3.95-4.69%. Prediction models do not allow for accurate estimation of HRmax. HRmax was more often underestimated than overestimated. Predicted HRmax can be implemented for EA as a supplemental method but CPET is the preferable approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0316.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: cardiac surgery; bone fracture; median sternotomy; rehabilitation; ossicication; functional mobility; assistanve device; feedback
Online: 7 December 2021 (23:36:05 CET)
Patients often need the use of their arms to assist with functional activities, but after bone disruption, pushing is frequently limited to less than 4.5 kg. No method exists to measure arm weight bearing objectively in clinical settings. This project aimed to design, construct, and test a walker for patients who need to limit arm force to prevent excessive bone stress during post-fracture (iatrogenic or traumatic) ossification. First, a qualitative study was conducted to obtain critiques of a Clinical Force Measuring (CFM) walker prototype from rehabilitation professionals. Key statements and phrases were coded that allowed “themes” to emerge from transcribed interviews, which guided device revisions. Next, a second CFM Walker prototype was designed based on the qualitative data and device criteria/constraints and finally tested. The result was fabrication of a new lightweight, streamlined, and cost-effective prototype walker with a simple visual display and auditory cue with upper limit alarms. Key features included attachments for medical equipment and thin film force-sensing resistors integrated into the walker handles that progressively activated 3 LEDs and a buzzer when arm force exceeded programmed thresholds. The innovative CFM Walker will help patients with restricted arm weight bearing, especially elderly adults, recover safer and faster in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0244.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Myocardium tissue; Left ventricle mechanics; right ventricle mechanics; cardiac septum mechanics; anisotropy index
Online: 14 September 2021 (15:12:23 CEST)
Heart myocardia are critical to the facilitation of heart pumping and blood circulating around the body. The biaxial mechanical testing of the Left Ventricle (RV) is utilised to build the computa-tional model of the whole heart with little importance given to the unique mechanical properties of Right Ventricle (RV) and Mid-wall (MDW). Most of those studies focussed on the LV of the heart, and then apply the obtained characteristics with a few modifications to the right side of the heart. However, that view has been contested over time with the realisation that the right side of the heart possesses its own unique mechanical properties that are widely distinct from that of the left side of the heart. This paper is aimed at reporting and evaluating the passive mechanical property dif-ferences in the three main walls of the rat heart based on biaxial tensile test data. Fifteen mature Wistar rats weighing 225 ± 25 g were euthanised by inhalation of 5 % halothane. The hearts were excised after which all the top chambers comprising the two atria, pulmonary and vena cava trunks, aorta and valves are all dissected out. Then 5 x 5 mm sections from the middle of each wall were carefully dissected with a surgical knife to avoid over-prestraining the specimens. The specimens were subjected tensile test. The elastic moduli, peak stresses in the toe region and stresses at 40 % strain, anisotropy indices as well as the stored strain energy in the toe and linear region up to 40 % strain are used for statistical significance tests. The following are the main findings of this study: (1) LV and MDW tissues have relatively shorter toe regions of 10 - 15 % strain as compared to RV tissue whose toe region extends up to twice as much as that (2) LV tissues have higher strain energy storage in the linear region despite being lower in stiffness than the RV (3) the MDW has the highest strain energy storage along both directions which might be directly related to its high level of anisotropy. These findings, though for a specific animal species at similar age and around the same body mass, emphasize the importance of application of wall specific material parameters to obtain accurate ventricular hyperelastic models. The findings further enhance our understanding of the desired mechanical behaviour of the different ventricle walls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0036.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: wearable cardiac sensors; electrocardiography; photoplethysmography; heart rate variability; signal quality; real-life measurements
Online: 1 July 2021 (15:40:21 CEST)
Wearable cardiac sensors pave the way to advanced cardiac monitoring applications based on heart rate variability (HRV). In real-life settings, heart rate (HR) measurements are subject to mo-tion artifacts that can be timely removed from the recordings. This leads to frequent data loss in the HR signal, especially for commercial devices based on photoplethysmography (PPG). The cur-rent study had two main goals: (i) to provide a white-box quality index that estimates the amount of missing samples in any piece of HR signal; and (ii) to quantify the impact of data loss on feature extraction in a PPG-based HR signal. This was done by comparing real-life recordings from com-mercial sensors featuring both PPG (Empatica E4) and ECG (Zephyr BioHarness 3). After an out-lier rejection process, our quality index was used to isolate portions of ECG-based HR signal that could be used as benchmark, to validate the output of Empatica E4 at the signal level and at the feature level. Our results showed high accuracy for estimating the mean HR, poor accuracy for short-term HRV features and moderate accuracy for longer-term HRV features. Levels of error could be substantially reduced by using our quality index to identify time windows with few or no missing data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0338.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: severe aortic stenosis; longitudinal axis strain; late gadolinium enhancement; cardiac magnetic resonance imaging
Online: 28 December 2018 (07:12:57 CET)
To analyze the predictive ability and incremental value of left ventricular longitudinal axis strain (LAS) and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) using standard cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging for the diagnosis and prognosis of severe aortic stenosis (AS) in patients with an indication for aortic valve replacement. We conducted a prospective study on 128 patients with severe AS and 52 volunteers. The evaluation protocol included standard biochemistry tests, novel biomarkers of myocardial fibrosis, 12-lead electrocardiograms and 24-hour Holter, the 6-minute walk test and extensive echocardiographic and CMR imaging studies. Outcomes were defined as the composite of major cardiovascular events (MACEs). Among AS patients, most (n = 17, 77.2%) of those who exhibited LGE at CMR imaging had MACEs during follow-up. Kaplan-Meier curves for event-free survival showed a significantly higher rate of MACEs in patients with LGE (p < 0.01) and decreased LAS (p < 0.001). In Cox regression analysis, only reduced LAS [hazard ratio 1.33, 95%CI (1.01 to 1.74), p < 0.01] and the presence of LGE [hazard ratio 11.3, 95%CI (1.82 to 70.0), p < 0.01] were independent predictors for MACEs. The predictive value increased if both LGE and reduced LAS were added to LVEF. None of the biomarkers of increased collagen turnover exhibited any predictive value for MACEs. LAS by CMR is an independent predictor of outcomes in patients with AS and provides incremental value beyond the assessment of LVEF and the presence of LGE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0421.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Postoperative atrial fibrillation; cardiac surgery; conventional extracorporeal circulation; circulating ferritin levels; POAF onset biomarker
Online: 27 October 2022 (05:53:09 CEST)
Background: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is the most common arrhythmia after cardiac surgery in conventional extracorporeal circulation (CECC), with an incidence of 15-50%. The POAF pathophysiology is not known, and no blood biomarkers exist. However, an association between increased ferritin levels and increased AF risk, has been demonstrated. Based on such evidence, here, we evaluated the effectiveness of ferritin and other haemato-chemical parameters as a POAF onset biomarker in subjected to cardiac surgery. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 90 patients (mean age= 66.9±2.8 years; 40 men and 20 females) with diverse heart pathologies and subjected to cardiothoracic surgery. Their blood samples were collected and used to determine haemato-chemical parameters. The tree test approach was used to detect the best data-driven ferritin cuff-off value (=141 ng/ml) to predict POAF risk. Results: The data obtained demonstrated significant higher concentrations, absolute values, and percentages, of ferritin, RDW, PLTs, in POAF patients. However, the ferritin resulted to be the independent factor associated with the onset POAF risk. Thus, we detected the ferritin cut-off value, which, when ≥ 141 ng/ml identifies the subjects at the highest POAF risk. Conclusions: Ferritin values≥ 141 ng/ml might be used as predictive POAF biomarker.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0227.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: global myocardial injury; BMSCs; active cardiac support device (ASD); stem cell treatment; epicardial delivery
Online: 7 September 2020 (07:30:47 CEST)
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been considered a promising therapeutic approach to cardiovascular disease. This study intends to compare the effect of BMSCs through a standard active cardiac support device (ASD) and intravenous injection on global myocardial injury induced by isoproterenol. BMSCs were cultured in vitro, and the transplanted cells were labeled with a fluorescent dye CM-Dil. Isoproterenol (ISO) was injected into the rats; two weeks later, the labeled cells were transplanted into ISO-induced heart-injury rats through the tail vein or ASD device for five days. The rats were sacrificed on the first day, the third day, and the fifth day after transplantation to observe the distribution of cells in the myocardium by fluorescence microscopy. The hemodynamic indexes of the left ventricle were measured before sacrificing. H&E staining and Masson’s trichrome staining were used to evaluate the cardiac histopathology. In the ASD groups, after three days of transplantation, there were many BMSCs on the epicardial surface, and after five days of transplantation, BMSCs were widely distributed in the ventricular muscle. But in the intravenous injection group, there were no labeled-BMSCs distributed. In the ASD+BMSCs-three days treated group and ASD+BMSCs -five days-treated group, left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), the maximum rate of left ventricular pressure rise (+dP/dt), the maximum rate of left ventricular pressure decline (-dP/dt) increased compared with model group and intravenous injection group (P<0.05). By giving BMSCs through ASD device, cells can rapidly and widely distribute in the myocardium and significantly improve heart function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: 1; brain protection 2; HTK 3; cardiac arrest 4; hypoxic injury 5; HIF-1α
Online: 5 October 2018 (15:45:43 CEST)
Ischemic neuron loss contributes to brain dysfunction in patients with cardiac arrest (CA). Histidine–tryptophan–ketoglutarate (HTK) solution is a preservative used during organ transplantation. Can HTK also protect neurons from severe hypoxia (SH) following CA? We isolated rat primary cortical neurons and induced SH with or without HTK. Changes in caspase-3, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α), and NADPH oxidase-4 (NOX4) expression were evaluated at different time points till 72 h. Using a rat asphyxia model, we induced CA-mediated brain damage and then completed resuscitation. HTK or sterile saline was administered into the left carotid artery. Neurological deficit scoring and mortality were evaluated for 3 days. Then the rats were sacrificed for evaluating NOX4 and H2O2 level in blood and brain. In the in vitro study, HTK attenuated SH- and H2O2-mediated cytotoxicity in a volume- and time-dependent manner, associated with persisted HIF-1α expression, reductions in procaspase-3 activation and NOX4 expression. The inhibition of HIF-1α abrogated HTK’s effect on NOX4. In the in vivo study, neurological scores were significantly improved by HTK. H2O2 level, NOX4 activity and NOX4 gene expression were all decreased in the brain specimen of HTK-treated rats. Our results suggest that HTK acts as an effective neuroprotective solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0056.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: nonparametric change point detection; singular spectrum analysis; cumulative sums; ecg; ppg; arrhythmias; cardiac monitoring
Online: 11 December 2017 (06:54:53 CET)
While the importance of continuous monitoring of electrocardiographic (ECG) or photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals to detect cardiac anomalies is generally accepted in preventative medicine, there remain major barriers to its actual widespread adoption. Most notably, current approaches tend to lack real-time capability, exhibit high computational cost, and be based on restrictive modeling assumptions or require large amounts of training data. We propose a lightweight and model-free approach for the online detection of cardiac anomalies such as ectopic beats in ECG or PPG signals based on the change detection capabilities of Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) and nonparametric rank-based cumulative sum (CUSUM) control charts. The procedure is able to quickly detect anomalies without requiring the identification of fiducial points such as R-peaks and is computationally significantly less demanding than previously proposed SSA-based approaches. Therefore, the proposed procedure is equally well suited for standalone use and as an add-on to complement existing (e.g. heart rate (HR) estimation) procedures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0325.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; hydroxychloroquine; azithromycin; QTc interval; cardiac rhythm; safety; torsades de pointe
Online: 17 March 2023 (11:34:00 CET)
Background Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) combined with azithromycin (AZM) has been widely administered to patients with COVID-19 despite scientific controversies. In particular the potential to prolong cardiac repolarisation by using this combination has been discussed. Materials and methods We report a pragmatic and simple safety approach which we implemented in the first patients treated for COVID-19 in our center early 2020. Treatment contraindications were the presence of severe structural or electrical heart disease, baseline corrected QT interval (QTc) >500 ms, hypokalaemia, or other drugs prolonging QTc that could not be interrupted. Electrocardiogram and QTc was evaluated at admission and re-evaluated after 48 hours of the initial prescription. Results Among 424 consecutive adults (mean age 46.3 ± 16.1 years; 216 women). Patients were followed in conventional wards (21.5%) or in a day-care unit (78.5%). A total of 11 patients (2.6%) had contraindications to HCQ-AZ combination. In the remaining 413 treated patients, there were no arrhythmic events in any patient during the 10-day treatment regimen. QTc was slightly but statistically significantly prolonged by 3.75 ± 25.4 ms after two days (p=0.003). Ten patients (2.4%) developed QTc prolongation >60 ms, and none had QTc >500 ms. Conclusions This report do not aim to contribute to knowledge of the efficacy of treating COVID-19 with HCQ-AZ. However, a simple initial assessment of patient medical history, ECG and kalaemia identifies contraindicated patients and enables the safe treatment by HCQ-AZ of COVID-19 patients. QT-prolonging anti-infective drugs can be used safely in acute life-threatening infections, provided that a strict protocol and close collaboration between infectious disease specialists and rhythmologists are followed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0003.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: aortic diseases; serum creatinine; acute kidney injury; cardiac surgery; in-hospital mortality; cross-clamp time
Online: 14 November 2022 (01:12:17 CET)
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complication that can occur after cardiac surgery and requires ongoing research in light of the exponential expansion of technological advancements and knowledge in medicine. In this study, we aim to evaluate the outcomes of treated electives of emergency aortic disease with high serum creatinine levels (SCr). Methods: The cohort includes 183 patients, all of whom have an aortic disease and whose SCr levels were checked upon admission on the first day in the intensive care unit (ICU) and upon discharge from the hospital. We examined the correlation of SCr levels with in-hospital mortality and immediate mortality at least six months after discharge as well as with cross-clamp time and bypass time.Results: A high SCr level upon admission is a significant predictive factor of n-hospital mortality (p = 0.001) but not immediate mortality (p = 0.409). A statistically significant correlation was also observed between elevated SCr level on the first day of ICU and aortic disease (p = 0.041) but not immediate mortality (p = 0.119). We observed a significant correlation between aortic disease and in-hospital mortality (p < 0.001), but no correlation was found between high SCr level on the first day of ICU and immediate mortality (p = 0.119). The cross-clamp time is statistically significant correlated with elevated SCr level (p = 0.013) and in-hospital mortality (p = 0.001) but not immediate mortality (p = 0.847). Furthermore, the bypass time is negatively correlated with a high SCr level on the first day of ICU (p = 0.090), in-hospital mortality (p = 0.410), and immediate mortality (p = 0.625). We also found that aortic disease is not correlated with elevated creatinine levels at ICU discharge (p = 0.152) or long-term mortality (p = 0.106). Conclusions: Although this study only included a small portion of the elaborate aspects of surgical and medical management developed around cardiac patients who received invasive treatment, the conclusions reached are nevertheless clearly relevant, as evidenced by the significantly correlations uncovered. In order to manage AKI after AAS and improve the outcome, the SCr level could be used as a marker for renoprotective strategy. Moving forward, these results serve as a first step in motivating us to expand the range of our research, collect newly relevant data, and use it to benefit patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0155.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: cardiac-brain interaction; context-familiarity; naturalistic paradigm; mixed effect modelling; emotional film; emotional arousal; introception
Online: 18 April 2022 (05:43:25 CEST)
Our brain continuously interacts with the body as we engage with the world. Although we are mostly unaware of internal bodily processes, such as our heartbeats, they may be influenced by and in turn influence our perception and emotional feelings. While there is a recent focus on understanding cardiac interoceptive activity and interaction with brain activity during emotion processing, the investigation of cardiac-brain interactions with more ecologically valid naturalistic emotional stimuli is still very limited. We also do not understand how an essential aspect of emotions like context familiarity influences affective feelings and is linked to cardiac-brain interactions. Hence to answer these questions, we designed an exploratory study by recording ECG and EEG signals for the emotional events while participants were watching emotional movie clips. Participants also rated their familiarity with the stimulus on the familiarity scale. Linear mixed effect modelling was performed in which the ECG power and familiarity were considered as predictors of EEG power. We focused on three brain regions, including prefrontal (PF), frontocentral (FC) and parietooccipital (PO). The analyses showed that cardiac-brain interaction is dependent on familiarity such that the interaction is stronger with high familiarity. In addition, the results indicate that arousal is predicted by cardiac-brain interaction, which also depends on familiarity. The results support emotional theories that emphasize context dependency and interoception. Multimodal studies with more realistic stimuli would further enable us to understand and predict different aspects of emotional experience.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0153.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Cardiac mechanics; Biaxial testing; Rat heart; Left ventricle mechanics; Mid-wall mechanics; Right ventricle mechanics
Online: 6 August 2021 (08:24:19 CEST)
This article presents raw data of biaxial tensile measurements of rat heart passive myocardium conducted in lab scale environment. The passive myocardium of the rat was divided into three regions, namely: left ventricle, mid-wall and right ventricle. The biaxial dataset of passive rat myocardia is presented as stress vs strain of the passive rat myocardium in various regions. The determination of valid material properties of the heart plays an important role in the development computational models. These computational models are useful in studying various scenarios and mechanisms of heart diseases. In addition, valid and accurate materials are critical in the development of new therapies. The dataset presented here is useful in the area of soft tissue mechanics including studying the mechanisms of heart diseases such as myocardial infarction. Accordingly, the evaluation of stress and strain in left ventricle, mid-wall and right ventricle was performed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0541.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: cardiac arrhythmias; atrial fibrillation; PITX2; computational model; electrical remodelling; structural remodelling; calcium handling; mRNA; electrophysiology
Online: 22 June 2021 (12:32:52 CEST)
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia. Better prevention and treatment of AF are needed to reduce AF-associated morbidity and mortality. Several major mechanisms cause AF in patients, including a genetic predisposition to develop AF. Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with AF populations, with the strongest hits clustering on chromosome 4q25, close to the gene coding for the homeobox transcription PITX2. Because of the inherent complexity of the human heart, experimental and basic research on PITX2-dependent AF is not sufficient for understanding atrial functional proprieties. Linking PITX2 to ion channels, cells, tissues, atria and the whole heart, computational models are necessary for achieving a quantitative understanding of atrial structure and function in PITX2-dependent AF. Computational approaches are used to capture all that we know about PITX2-dependent AF and to develop improved therapies. In the present review, we discuss advances in atrial modelling and focus on the mechanistic links between PITX2 and AF. Challenges in applying models for improving patient health are described, as well as a summary of future perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling; propofol; low cardiac output; pharmacokinetics; neonate; developmental pharmacology; asphyxia; hypothermia; pediatrics; pharmacokinetics
Online: 8 August 2022 (06:12:36 CEST)
Background: pathophysiological changes like low cardiac output (LCO) impact pharmacokinetics, but its extent may be different throughout pediatrics compared to adults. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling enables further exploration. Methods: A validated propofol model was used to simulate the impact of LCO on propofol clearance across age groups using the PBPK platform, Simcyp® (version 19). The hepatic and renal extraction ratio of propofol was then determined in all age groups. Subsequently, dose explorations were conducted under LCO conditions, targeting a 3 µg/mL (80-125%) propofol concentration range. Results: Both hepatic and renal extraction ratios increased from neonates, infants, children to adolescents and adults. The relative change in clearance following CO reductions increased with age, with the least impact of LCO in neonates. The predicted concentration remained within the 3 µg/mL (80-125%) range under normal CO and LCO (up to 30%) conditions in all age groups. When CO was reduced by 40-50%, a dose reduction of 15% is warranted in neonates, infants and children, 25% in adolescents and adults. Conclusions: PBPK driven, the impact of reduced CO on propofol clearance is predicted to be age-dependent, proportionally greater in adults. Consequently, age group specific dose reductions for propofol are required in LCO conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: animal models; cardiac aftereffects; COVID-19; hypoxia; echocardiogram; pulmonary hypertension; right ventricular dilatation; right ventricular hypertrophy
Online: 5 May 2022 (09:36:47 CEST)
COVID-19 affects many organs in our body, including the heart and lungs. COVID-19 cases that require hospitalization often exhibit pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to changes in the lung microvasculature in which the blood vessels become stiff, damaged, or narrow, causing increased pulmonary arterial pressure. This review examines the hypothesis that PH can lead to right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) as a long-lasting aftereffect of COVID-19. Recent studies have shown that significant percentages of hospitalized patients develop right ventricular hypertension and right ventricular dilatation (RVD), which may lead to right ventricular failure and death. Despite recommendations for echocardiogram reports to include right ventricular wall thickness to assess RVH, few published reports have reported this parameter. Relevant studies on animal models of PH in which the timing of PH can be precisely controlled suggest that one to three weeks of PH can cause RVH. Thus, according to the hypothesis proposed here COVID-19 patients who have long-lasting severe disease (e.g., needed to be on a ventilator for one or more weeks) accompanied by PH and RVD may develop RVH as a long-lasting sequela outlasting the infection itself. Echocardiogram studies of recovered COVID-19 patients may determine whether oft-reported cardiovascular sequelae include RVH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0303.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Microvascular complications; Cardiac autonomic neuropathy; Diabetic peripheral neuropathy; Diabetic nephropathy; Diabetic retinopathy; patient profiles; machine learning
Online: 17 November 2021 (11:54:23 CET)
Microvascular complications are one of the key causes of mortality among type-2 diabetic patients. This study was sought to investigate the use of a novel machine learning approach for predicting these complications from patient demographic, clinical, and laboratory profiles only. A total of 96 Bangladeshi participants having type-2 diabetes were recruited during their routine hospital visits. All patient profiles were assessed by using a Chi-squared (2) test to statistically determine the most important markers in predicting four microvascular complications; namely cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN), diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), diabetic nephropathy (NEP), and diabetic retinopathy (RET). A machine learning approach based on random forest (RF) and support vector machine (SVM) was then developed to ensure automated clinical testing for microvascular complication in diabetic patients. The highest prediction accuracies were obtained by RF using diastolic blood pressure, Albumin-Creatinine ratio, and gender for CAN testing (98.67%), Microalbuminuria, smoking history, and hemoglobin A1C for DPN testing (67.78%), Albumin-Creatinine ratio for NEP testing (100%), and hemoglobin A1C, Microalbuminuria, and smoking history for RET testing (84.38%). This study suggests machine learning as a promising automated tool for predicting microvascular complications in diabetic patients using their profiles, which could help prvent those patients from further microvascular complications leading to early death.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0455.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: emergency health services; emergency medical services; motorcycles; health policy; cardiac arrest; response time; two-wheelers; ambulances
Online: 20 July 2021 (14:49:36 CEST)
Motorcycles can be considered a new form of smart vehicle when taking into account their small and modern structure and due to the fact that nowadays they are used in the new role of ambu-lance to rapidly reach emergency patients in large cities with traffic congestion. However, there is no study regarding the measuring of access time for motorcycle ambulances in large cities of Thailand. Therefore, this study aims to compare access times to patients between motorcycle ambulances and conventional ambulances, including analysis of the use of AED installed on motorcycle ambulances to contribute to the sustainable development of public health policies. In two hundred and seventy-one operations, it was found that the times from dispatch to vehicle (ambulance and motorlance) being en route and times from the 1669 center (center for com-mand-and-control EMS in Thailand) call receipt to arrival on scene (response time) of motorcycle ambulances was shorter than that of a conventional ambulance and the use of AED on a motor-cycle ambulance can increase the chances of survival for patients with cardiac arrest outside the hospital in public places where AEDs are not available and in all cases where access to an AED was less than eight minutes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0444.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: vitamin C; ascorbic acid; cardiac surgery; antioxidant therapy; nutrient; oxidative stress; organ dysfunction; multi organ failure
Online: 27 June 2018 (12:29:23 CEST)
The pleiotropic biochemical and antioxidant functions of Vitamin C (Vit C) have recently sparked interest in its application in intensive care. Vit C protects important organ systems such as the cardiovascular, neurologic and renal system during inflammation and oxidative stress. Vit C also influences the systems of coagulation and inflammation and its application might prevent the development of organ damage. The current evidence of Vit C’s effect on the pathophysiological reactions during various acute stress events, such as sepsis, shock, trauma, burn and ischemia-reperfusion injury imposes the question, if the application of Vit C might be especially beneficial for cardiac surgery patients, who are routinely exposed to ischemia/reperfusion and subsequent inflammation, systematically affecting different organ systems. This review covers current knowledge about the role of Vit C in cardiac surgery patients with focus on its influence on organ dysfunctions. The relationships between Vit C and clinical health outcomes are reviewed with special emphasis on its application in cardiac surgery. Additionally, this review pragmatically discusses evidence regarding the administration of Vitamin C in every day clinical practice, tackling the issues of safety, monitoring, dosage and most the appropriate application strategy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0086.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Information; resources; coronary heart disease; digital health; education; cardiac rehabilitation; secondary prevention; text message; sensors; cardiovascular risk
Online: 6 December 2022 (02:09:28 CET)
A critical aspect of coronary heart disease (CHD) care and secondary prevention is ensuring patients have access to evidence-based information. The purpose of this review is to summarise the guiding principles, content, context and timing of information and education that is beneficial for supporting people with CHD and potential communication strategies including digital interventions. We conducted a scoping review involving searching four databases (Web of Science, PubMed, CINAHL, Medline) for articles published from January 2000 to August 2022. Literature was identified through title and abstract screening by expert reviewers. Evidence was synthesised according to the review aims. Results demonstrated that information-sharing, decision-making, goal-setting, positivity and practicality are important aspects of secondary prevention and should be patient-centred and evidenced based with consideration of patient need and preference. Initiation and duration of education is highly variable between and within people, but hence communication and support should be regular and ongoing. In conclusion, text messaging programs, smartphone applications and wearable devices are examples of digital health strategies that facilitate education and support for patients with heart disease. There is no one size fits all approach that suits all patients at all stages and hence flexibility and a suite of resources and strategies is optimal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0214.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Adra1b; cardiac ischemia; hypoxia; Crem; gene expression control; gene expression coordination; gene hierarchy; heart failure; transcriptomic stoichiometry
Online: 15 June 2022 (07:37:53 CEST)
Decades of research identified numerous gene biomarkers of cardiac diseases whose restored sequence or/and expression level was hoped to recover the normal cardiac function. However, each human has unique and dynamic pathophysiological characteristics resulting from the unrepeatable combination of favoring factors such are: race, sex, age, medical history, diet, stress, exposure to toxins, habits etc. As such, no treatment fits everybody and finding personalized solutions is a top priority for medicine of 21st century. The Genomic Fabric Paradigm (GFP) provides the most theoretically possible comprehensive characterization of the transcriptome, its alterations in disease and recovery following a treatment. By attaching to each gene the independent average expression level, expression variation and expression coordination with each other gene, GFP delivers thousands times more information than the traditional analysis. This report presents the theoretical bases of the GFP and some applications to our microarray data from mouse models of post ischemic, and constant and intermittent hypoxia-induced heart failure. The GFP analyses revealed novel transcriptomic aspects of the gene expression control and networking under ischemic conditions. Through all-inclusive characterization of the transcriptome and the unrepeatable gene hierarchy in each condition, GFP is an essential avenue towards development of a truly personalized cardiogenomic therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0176.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Polymeric Biomaterials; Natural Cellulose; Tissue Engineering; Differentiation; Bone Regeneration; Skin Regeneration; Cardiac Regeneration; Vascular Regeneration; Neural Regeneration
Online: 14 February 2022 (14:02:16 CET)
In the recent years, tissue engineering researchers have exploited a variety of biomaterials that can potentially mimic extracellular matrix (ECM) for tissue regeneration. Natural cellulose, mainly obtained from bacterial (BC) and plant-based (PC) sources, can serve as a high potential scaffold material for different regenerative purposes. Natural cellulose has drawn the attention of researchers due to its advantage over synthetic cellulose in terms of availability, cost-effectiveness, perfusablility, biocompatibility, negligible toxicity, mild immune response and due to imitating native tissues. In this article, we will review the recent in vivo and in vitro studies aimed to assess the potentials of natural cellulose for the purpose of soft (skin, heart, veins, nerve, among others) and hard (bone and tooth) tissue engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0046.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: voltage-gated sodium channels; cardiac sodium channels; SCN5A; veratridine; toxins; molecular docking; Rosetta; electrophysiology; site-directed mutagenesis
Online: 5 January 2022 (18:02:52 CET)
The cardiac sodium ion channel (NaV1.5) is a protein with four domains (DI-DIV), each with six transmembrane segments. Its opening and subsequent inactivation results in the brief rapid influx of Na+ ions resulting in the depolarization of cardiomyocytes. The neurotoxin veratridine (VTD) inhibits NaV1.5 inactivation resulting in longer channel opening times, and potentially fatal action potential prolongation. VTD is predicted to bind at the channel pore, but alternative binding sites have not been ruled out. To determine the binding site of VTD on NaV1.5, we performed docking calculations and high-throughput electrophysiology experiments. The docking calculations identified two distinct binding regions. The first site was in the pore, close to the binding site of NaV1.4 and NaV1.5 blocking drugs in experimental structures. The second site was at the “mouth” of the pore at the cytosolic side, partly solvent-exposed. Mutations at this site (L409, E417, and I1466) had large effects on VTD binding, while residues deeper in the pore had no effect, consistent with VTD binding at the mouth site. Overall, our results suggest a VTD binding site close to the cytoplasmic mouth of the channel pore. Binding at this alternative site might indicate an allosteric inactivation mechanism for VTD at NaV1.5.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0565.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: primary prevention of sudden cardiac death; non-ischemic cardiomyopathy; ischemic cardiomyopathy; appropriate ICD therapy; mortality rate comparison
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:26:43 CEST)
(1) Background: In patients suffering from heart failure, the main causes of death are either he-modynamic failure, or ventricular arrhythmias. The only tool to significantly reduce arrhythmic sudden death is the implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), but not all patients benefit to the same extend of these devices. (2) Methods: The primary outcome of this single center study was defined as cardiovascular death in patients with ischemic and non-ischemic heart failure who have benefited from ICD therapy. The secondary outcomes were death from any cause, sudden cardiac death, ICD-related therapies (appropriate antitachycardia pacing or shock therapy for ventricular tachycardia or fi-brillation) and recurrences of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. (3) Results: A total of 403 consecutive ICD recipients – symptomatic heart failure patients with ICD for the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death – were included retrospectively: 59% is-chemic cardiomyopathy (ICMP) and 41% non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICMP). Within a median follow-up period of 36 months, the incidence of cardiovascular mortality was not signif-icantly different in patients with NICMP and ICMP: the primary outcome had occurred in 9 pa-tients (5.4%) in the NICMP group and in 14 patients (5.9%) in the ICMP group (hazard ratio 1; 95%confidence interval [CI] 0.45 to 2.28; p =0.97). All-cause mortality occurred in 14 of 166 pa-tients (8.4%) in NICMP group and 18 of 237 patients (7.6%) in ICMP group. Sudden cardiac death occurred in 2 patients (1.2%) in the NICMP group and in 4 patients (1.7%) in the ICMP group (hazard ratio 0.71; 95% CI, 0.13 to 3.88; P=0.69). The rate of appropriate device therapies was comparable in both groups. (4) Conclusion: In this study, ICD implantation for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients with symptomatic systolic heart failure was associated with similar rates of cardiovas-cular and all-cause mortality in patients with ischemic heart disease, and in patients with heart failure from other causes. NICMP and ICMP showed comparable rates of recurrent ventricular tachyarrhythmias and appropriate ICD therapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0163.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SIRT6, Diabetes, Gluconeogenesis, Cancer, Aging, Heart Disease, Pharmacological SIRT6 Inhibitor, Cardiac Hypertrophy, Tumorigenesis, Neurodegeneration, Neurodegenerative Diseases, AD
Online: 29 August 2018 (13:04:23 CEST)
SIRT6 is a NAD+ dependent enzyme and stress response protein that has sparked the curiosity of a plethora of researchers in different branches of the biomedical sciences. A unique member of the known Sirtuin family, SIRT6 has several different functions in several different molecular pathways related to DNA repair, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, tumorigenesis, neurodegeneration, cardiac hypertrophic responses and so on. Only in recent times however did the potential usefulness of SIRT6 come to light as we learned more about its biochemical activity, regulation, biological roles and structure . Even until very recently, SIRT6 was known more for chromatin signaling but being a nascent topic of study, more information has been ascertained and its potential involvement in major human diseases namely, diabetes, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and heart disease has been demonstrated. It is pivotal to explore the mechanistic workings of SIRT6 since future research may hold the key to engendering strategies, involving SIRT6, that may have significant implications for human health and expand upon possible treatment options. In this review, we are primarily concerned with exploring the latest understanding of SIRT6 and how it can alter the course of several life-threatening diseases that cripple today’s society such as processes related to aging, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, heart disease and diabetes. In addition, SIRT6 has shown to be involved in liver disease, inflammation and bone related issues but more emphasis is given to the former. Lastly, any recent promising pharmacological investigations and study of potential therapeutic targets are also delineated in this review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0238.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Median sternotomy; Ossification; Cardiac surgery; Rehabilitation; Functional mobility; Bone fracture; Assistive device; Feedback training; Sternal precautions; Instrumented walker
Online: 18 October 2021 (10:43:01 CEST)
Patients recovering from bone disruption due to trauma or surgery need to limit movement to minimize shear force, thereby protecting callus formation and osteogenesis. Patients often use their arms to assist with functional activities, but pushing is frequently limited to <10 lb (4.5 kg). With only verbal instructions, patients’ ability to accurately limit weight-bearing (WB) force is poor. A therapeutic intervention to improve patient adherence with upper extremity (UE) WB guidelines during functional mobility using an instrumented walker could be beneficial. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to describe a feedback training protocol to improve the ability to modulate weight-bearing force in older adults and then provide an overview of the efficacy of this protocol and subsequent development of a Clinical Force Measuring Walker. An instrumented walker was used to measure UE WB during functional mobility in older healthy subjects (n = 30) before, during, and after (immediately and 2 hours) a visual and auditory concurrent feedback training session. During feedback training, force was significantly reduced with all 3 sessions as compared to baseline. When using the front wheeled walker, UE WB force during the second and third feedback training trials went down compared to the first trial. During the third feedback training trial, force was greater than the two previous trials while transferring sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit. After completion of practice with feedback, UE WB force was significantly reduced and remained so 2 hours later. These findings suggest that feedback training is effective for helping patients to modulate UE WB. Use of an instrumented walker and feedback training would be beneficial in clinical practice, especially with older patients. A more intensive feedback training with additional trials and or simultaneous visual and auditory cues during whole-practice may be needed to get UE WB below a 10 lb threshold.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0590.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Hydrogel; Extracellular matrix hydrogels; Myocardial infarctions; Myocardial infarction therapy; Cardiac stem cell therapy; Tissue engineering; Cell-based therapy.
Online: 22 April 2021 (08:16:51 CEST)
The peril of a 3-dimensional, robust and sustained myocardial restoration by means of Tissue Engineering is that it still remains a largely experimental approach. Prolific protocols have been developed and tested in small and large animals, but as clinical cardiac surgeons, we have not come to the privilege of utilizing any of them in our clinical practice. The question arises: why? The heart is a unique organ, anatomically and functionally. It is not an easy target to replicate with current techniques, or even to support its viability and function. Currently available therapies fail to reverse the loss of functional cardiac tissue, the fundamental pathology remains unaddressed and a heart transplantation is an ultima ratio treatment option. Owing to equivocal results of cell-based therapies, several strategies have been pursued to overcome limitations of the current treatment options. Preclinical data as well as first-in-human studies conducted to date have provided important insights into the understanding of injection-based approaches for myocardial restoration. In the light of the available data, injectable biomaterials suitable for transcatheteter delivery appear to have the highest translational potential,. This article presents a current state-of-the-art in the field of hydrogel-based myocardial restoration therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0417.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Recreational substance abuse; drug abuse; marijuana; amphetamine; acute ischemic stroke; risk factors; young adult; NIS; Stroke; Sudden Cardiac Death
Online: 27 September 2022 (09:41:00 CEST)
Background: Substance use continues to be on the rise in the United States and has been linked to new onset cardiovascular (CVDs) and cerebrovascular disorders (CeVDs) leading to hospitalizations. We aimed to study the association of different subtypes of substance use disorders (SUDs) among hospitalized patients, with the different subtypes of CVDs and CeVDs, using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) Database. Additionally, we aimed to assess the odds of hospitalizations with new onset CVDs and CeVDs among patients with different types of SUDs. Methods: A retrospective study of the NIS database (2016-2017) using the ICD-10-CM codes was performed. The hospitalizations with a secondary diagnosis of SUDs were identified. Weighted univariate analysis using the chi-square test and multivariate survey logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate for the incidence, prevalence, and odds of association between vascular events and SUDs. Results: There were a total of 58,259,589 hospitalizations, out of which 21.42% had SUDs. Out of all the hospitalized patients between the age 18-50, more patients had SUDs than not (31.83%, p< 0.0001). This difference existed for all the different subtypes of SUDs including alcohol related disorder (42.61%), amphetamine dependence (76.17% vs 31.83%), cannabis related disorder (75.17%), cocaine related disorders (57.87%), hallucinogen related disorder (82.91%), inhalant related disorders (67.25%), opioid related disorders (52.86%), and nicotine dependence (35.72%). We found a significant association of acute ischemic stroke with amphetamine dependence (OR 1.23, 95%CI 1.14-1.33), cocaine related disorders (1.17, 1.12-1.23) and nicotine dependence (1.42, 1.40-1.43). Similarly, the association of intracerebral hemorrhage was higher with amphetamine dependence (2.58, 2.26-2.93), and cocaine related disorders (1.62, 1.46-1.79). The association of subarachnoid hemorrhage was noted to be higher with amphetamine dependence (1.82, 1.48-2.24) and nicotine dependence (1.47, 1.39-1.55). In terms of association of cardiovascular disorders with SUDs,the patients with myocardial infarction had higher odds of nicotine dependence (1.85, 1.83-1.87) than not, Similarly, the patients with angina pectoris were noted to have a higher association with cocaine related disorders (2.21, 1.86-2.62), and those with atrial fibrillation had a higher association alcohol related disorders (1.14, 1.11-1.17). Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the variability of CVD and CeVD in patients hospitalized for SUD. Findings from our study may help promote increased awareness and early management of these events. Further studies are needed to evaluate specific effects of frequency and dose on the incidence and prevalence of CVD and CeVD in patients with SUD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: cardiac surgery; cardiopulmonary bypass; systemic inflammatory response; nutrition risk stratification; underfeeding; postoperative nutritional management; supplemental parenteral nutrition; enteral nutrition; pharmaconutrition
Online: 8 April 2018 (10:24:31 CEST)
Nutrition support is increasingly recognized as a clinically relevant aspect of the intensive care treatment of cardiac surgery patients. However, evidence from adequate large-scale studies evaluating its clinical significance for patients’ mid- to long-term outcome remains sparse. Considering nutrition support as a key component in the perioperative treatment of these critically ill patients, led us to review and discuss our understanding of the metabolic response to the inflammatory burst induced by cardiac surgery. In addition, we discuss how to identify patients who may benefit from nutrition therapy, when to start nutritional interventions, present evidence about the use of enteral and parenteral nutrition and the potential role of pharmaconutrition in cardiac surgery patients. Although the clinical setting of cardiac surgery provides advantages due to its scheduled insult and predictable inflammatory response, researchers and clinicians face lack of evidence and several limitations in the clinical routine, which are critically considered and discussed in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; emergency physician; medical decision; asystole; advanced life support; Charlson comorbidity index; emergency medical service; prehospital emergency
Online: 20 July 2021 (11:48:59 CEST)
The objective of this study was to identify the key elements used by prehospital emergency physicians (EP) to decide whether or not to attempt advanced life support (ALS) in asystolic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). From 01.01.2009 to 01.01.2017, all adult victims of asystolic OHCA in Geneva, Switzerland, were retrospectively included. Patients with signs of "obvious death" or with a Do-Not-Attempt-Resuscitation order were excluded. Patients were categorized as having received ALS if this was mentioned in the medical record, or, failing that, if at least one dose of adrenaline had been administered during cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Prognostic factors known at the time of EP's decision were included in a multivariable logistic regression model. 784 patients were included. Factors favourably influencing the decision to provide ALS were witnessed OHCA (OR=2.14, 95%CI1.43–3.20) and bystander CPR (OR=4.10, 95%CI2.28–7.39). Traumatic aetiology (OR=0.04, 95%CI0.02–0.08), age >80 years (OR=0.14, 95%CI0.09–0.24) and a Charlson comorbidity index greater than 5 (OR=0.12, 95%CI0.06–0.27) were the factors most strongly associated with the decision not to attempt ALS. Factors influencing the EP’s decision to attempt ALS in asystolic OHCA are the relatively young age of the patients, few comorbidities, presumed medical aetiology, witnessed OHCA and bystander CPR.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0312.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: embryonic heart tube; extracellular matrix; cardiac jelly; hydraulic skeleton; heart skeleton; valveless pumping; blood flow; non-circular cross sections; ballooning; trabeculation
Online: 30 January 2019 (11:16:14 CET)
The early embryonic heart is a multi-layered tube consisting of (1) an outer myocardial tube; (2) an inner endocardial tube; and (3) an extracellular matrix layer interposed between myocardium and endocardium, called “cardiac jelly” (CJ). During the past decades, research on CJ has mainly focused on its molecular and cell biological aspects. This review focuses on the morphological and biomechanical aspects of CJ. Special attention is given to (1) the spatial distribution and fiber architecture of CJ; (2) the morphological dynamics of CJ during the cardiac cycle; and (3) the removal/remodeling of CJ during advanced heart looping stages, which leads to the formation of ventricular trabeculations and endocardial cushions. CJ acts as a hydraulic skeleton displaying striking structural and functional similarities with the mesoglea of jellyfish. CJ not only represents a filler substance, facilitating end-systolic occlusion of the embryonic heart lumen. Its elastic components antagonize the systolic deformations of the heart wall and thereby power the refilling phase of the ventricular tube. Non-uniform spatial distribution of CJ generates non-circular cross sections of the opened endocardial tube (initially elliptic, later deltoid), which seem to be advantageous for valveless pumping. Endocardial cushions arise from non-removed remnants of the original CJ.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0176.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: acute myocardial infarction (AMI); cardiac Troponin I (cTnI); chemiluminescence; biosensor; luminol; monoclonal antibody; flow injection assay; microfluidic system; monolithic column; protein expression
Online: 10 February 2023 (02:58:24 CET)
Cardiac vascular diseases, especially acute myocardial infarction (AMI), are one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Therefore cardio-specific biomarkers such as cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) play an essential role in diagnostics. In order to enable rapid and accurate measurement of cTnI with the potential of online measurements, a proof of concept of a chemiluminescence-based biosensor is presented. A flow cell was designed and combined with a sensitive CMOS camera allowing an optical readout. In addition, a microfluidic setup was established, and cTnI was determined selectively. The biomarker cTnI was expressed in E. coli, and its characterization and correct folding were investigated by different analytical methods. This recombinant cTnI was used for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), calibrated against commercially available recombinant cTnI, and applied for the biosensor measurements. Based on chemiluminescence detection, the biosensor was successfully tested, and the cTnI biomarker could be reproducibly determined in buffer, spiked blood serum, and plasma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0374.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: aldosterone; apoptosis; cardiac myocyte; eplerenone; fibrosis; finerenone; G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)-5; mineralocorticoid receptor; mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA); signal transduction
Online: 17 September 2020 (05:24:29 CEST)
Background: In the heart, aldosterone (Aldo) binds the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) to exert damaging, adverse remodeling-promoting effects. We recently showed that G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-kinase (GRK)-5 blocks the cardiac MR by directly phosphorylating it, thereby repressing its transcriptional activity. MR antagonist (MRA) drugs block the cardiac MR reducing morbidity and mortality of advanced human heart failure. Non-steroidal MRAs, such as finerenone, may provide better cardio-protection against Aldo than classic, steroidal MRAs, like spironolactone and eplerenone. Herein, we sought to investigate potential differences between finerenone and eplerenone at engaging GRK5-dependent cardiac MR phosphorylation and subsequent blockade. Methods: We used the cardiomyocyte cell line H9c2 and neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs). Results: GRK5 phosphorylates the MR in H9c2 cardiomyocytes in response to finerenone but not to eplerenone. Unlike eplerenone, finerenone alone potently and efficiently suppresses cardiac MR transcriptional activity, thus displaying inverse agonism. GRK5 is necessary for finerenone`s inverse agonism, since GRK5 genetic deletion renders finerenone incapable of blocking cardiac MR transcriptional activity. Eplerenone alone does not fully suppress cardiac MR basal activity regardless of GRK5 expression levels. Finally in NRVMs, GRK5 is necessary for the anti-apoptotic and anti-fibrotic effects of both finerenone and eplerenone against Aldo, as well as for the higher efficacy and potency of finerenone at blocking Aldo-induced apoptosis and fibrosis. Conclusions: Finerenone, but not eplerenone, induces GRK5-dependent cardiac MR inhibition, which underlies, at least in part, its higher potency and efficacy, compared to eplerenone, as an MRA in the heart. GRK5 acts as a co-repressor of the cardiac MR and is essential for efficient MR antagonism in the myocardium.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0059.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: COVID-19; long COVID-19; paramagnetic contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging; MRI; CMR; myocarditis; electronic medical record; online survey; epidemiology; public health
Online: 3 March 2023 (06:30:04 CET)
The aim of study was to investigate epidemiology aspects of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during COVID-19 pandemic. The study comprised depersonalized residents of Tomsk and Tomsk Region (n = 1714). Invitations to take online survey were sent to 50,000 residents by target SMS with response rate of 1.2% (n = 727, Cohort 1). Cohort 2 comprised retrospective patients (n = 987) who underwent contrast-enhanced cardiac MRI (CMR) in 2019-2022. Referrals, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, gender, age, past COVID-19, MRI study protocols, and MRI data were analyzed. 29% of respondents in cohort 1 received MRI examination within past two years; 26% of respondents considered MRI the most informative imaging modality for detecting COVID-19 pneumonia; 12% of respondents reported MRI unavailable. Proportion of CMR among MRI studies increased during COVID-19 pandemic, and maximum incidence of cardiac diseases detected by MRI was in 2021. Incidence of myocardial fibrosis increased from ~67% in 2019 to ~84% in 2022. The rate of outpatient MRI studies significantly increased in 2020, but returned to pre-pandemic level in 2021. COVID-19 pandemic increased the need for MRI and CMR. Patients with history of COVID-19 had persistent and newly occurring symptoms of myocardial damage suggesting chronic cardiac involvement requiring continuous follow-up.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0389.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: adverse remodeling; aldosterone; cardiac myocyte; crosstalk; G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR); GPCR-kinase (GRK); heart failure; inflammation; mineralocorticoid receptor; myocardial infarction; oxidative stress; signal transduction
Online: 16 November 2018 (07:54:04 CET)
The mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone regulates sodium and potassium homeostasis but also adversely modulates the maladaptive process of cardiac adverse remodeling post-myocardial infarction. Through activation of its mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), a classic steroid hormone receptor/transcription factor, aldosterone promotes inflammation and fibrosis of the heart, the vasculature, and the kidneys. This is why MR antagonists reduce morbidity and mortality of heart disease patients and are part of the mainstay pharmacotherapy of advanced human heart failure. A plethora of animal studies using cell type–specific targeting of the MR gene have established the importance of MR signaling and function in cardiac myocytes, vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, renal cells, and macrophages. In terms of its signaling properties, the MR is distinct from nuclear receptors in that it has, in reality, two physiological hormonal agonists: not only aldosterone but also cortisol. In fact, in several tissues, including in the myocardium, cortisol is the primary hormone activating the MR. There is a considerable amount of evidence indicating that the effects of the MR in each tissue expressing it depend on tissue- and ligand-specific engagement of molecular co-regulators that either activate or suppress its transcriptional activity. Identification of these co-regulators for every ligand that interacts with the MR in the heart (and in other tissues) is of utmost importance therapeutically, since it can not only help elucidate fully the pathophysiological ramifications of the cardiac MR`s actions but also help design and develop novel better MR antagonist drugs for heart disease therapy. Among the various proteins the MR interacts with are molecules involved in cardiac G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. This results in a significant amount of crosstalk between GPCRs and the MR, which can affect the latter`s activity dramatically in the heart and in other cardiovascular tissues. This review summarizes the current experimental evidence for this GPCR-MR crosstalk in the heart and discusses its pathophysiological implications for cardiac adverse remodeling as well as for heart disease therapy. Novel findings revealing non-conventional roles of GPCR signaling molecules, specifically of GPCR-kinase (GRK)-5, in cardiac MR regulation are also highlighted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0441.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: dystrohinopathy; Duchenne muscular disease; Becker muscular disease; dystrophic deficient cardiomyopathy; cardiac fibrosis; renin angiotensin system; angiotensin 2; angiotensin converter enzyme inhibitors; angiotensin receptor blockers; heart failure
Online: 18 December 2020 (07:18:16 CET)
Dystrophin-deficient cardiomyopathy (DDC) is currently the leading cause of death in patients with dystrophinopathies. Targeting myocardial fibrosis (MF) has become a major therapeutic goal in order to prevent the occurrence of DDC. We aimed to review and summarize the current evidence about the role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in the development and perpetuation of MF in DCC. We conducted a comprehensive search of peer-reviewed English literature on PubMed about this subject. We found increasing preclinical evidence from studies in animal models during the last 20 years pointing out a central role of RAAS in the development of MF in DDC. Local tissue RAAS acts directly mainly through its main fibrotic component angiotensin II (ANG2) and its transducer receptor (AT1R) and downstream TGF-b pathway. Also, it modulates the actions of most of the remaining pro-fibrotic factors involved in DDC. Despite limited clinical evidence, RAAS blockade constitutes the most studied, available and promising therapeutic strategy against MF and DDC. Conclusion: Based on the evidence reviewed, it would be recommendable to start RAAS blockade therapy through angiotensin converter enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or AT1R blockers (ARBs) alone or in combination with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRa) at the youngest age after the diagnosis of dystrophinopathies, in order to delay the occurrence or slow the progression of MF, even before the detection of any cardiovascular alteration.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0338.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2; (soluble) ACE2; eosinophil; asthma; IL-10; Lung fibrosis; hypercapnic acidosis; hypoxia; infarction; hypertension; cardiac dysfunction; respiratory distress; coagulopathy; Angiotensin; renin; Ang (1-7); Ang (1-9); Mas receptor; AT2 receptor
Online: 6 May 2020 (04:40:25 CEST)
The article describes the rational for inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) pathways as specific targets in patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 in order to prevent the establishment of positive feedback loops triggered by COVID-19 in some predisposed subjects. Making use of a large quantity of published reports in which human/rodent ACE2 pathway inhibitors were administered in vivo, it is hypothesized a possible therapeutic pharmacological intervention through an inhibition strategy of the zinc metalloprotease ACE2 and its downstream pathway for SARS-CoV-2 patients. Of even more interest, metal (zinc) chelators and renin inhibitors (both FDA approved drugs) may also work alone or in combination in inhibiting the positive feedback loops, initially triggered by COVID-19 and subsequently sustained by hypoxia independently on viral trigger, when both arms of renin-angiotensin system (ACE2 and ACE) are upregulated, leading to critical, advanced and untreatable stages of the disease.