Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Risk Factors Contributing to the Progression of Paroxysmal and Persistent Atrial Fibrillation in Heart Failure Patients with Mid-Range Ejection Fraction

Version 1 : Received: 13 July 2021 / Approved: 15 July 2021 / Online: 15 July 2021 (10:18:01 CEST)

How to cite: Hazarapetyan, L.; Budaghyan, L.; Maloyan, A.; Grigoryan, S. Risk Factors Contributing to the Progression of Paroxysmal and Persistent Atrial Fibrillation in Heart Failure Patients with Mid-Range Ejection Fraction. Preprints 2021, 2021070354 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202107.0354.v1). Hazarapetyan, L.; Budaghyan, L.; Maloyan, A.; Grigoryan, S. Risk Factors Contributing to the Progression of Paroxysmal and Persistent Atrial Fibrillation in Heart Failure Patients with Mid-Range Ejection Fraction. Preprints 2021, 2021070354 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202107.0354.v1).

Abstract

Aims: Heart failure (HF) is frequently accompanied by atrial fibrillation (AF), a combination that worsens the outcomes of both diseases. Despite advances in the treatment of AF, it remains a serious and unsolved problem for clinicians and researchers. The aim of this study was to examine risk factors for incidents of paroxysmal and persistent AF in patients having heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF). Methods. Overall, 71 patients with HFmrEF and non-valvular AF, including paroxysmal and persistent types, were enrolled in this study. As a control group, 42 HFmrEF patients without AF were also enrolled. All patients underwent detailed physical examination, including resting electrocardiography, echocardiography, and 24-hour ambulatory Holter monitoring. Levels of the inflammation markers high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and the fibrotic marker transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were measured by ELISA and expressed as odds ratios. Results: We show that paroxysmal AF was associated with higher diastolic blood pressure, whereas both paroxysmal and persistent forms of AF were associated with more frequent occurrence of hypertensive crisis episodes and greater body mass index. Progression from paroxysmal to persistent AF was associated with significant ventricular remodeling. Persistent and paroxysmal AF were associated with higher levels of inflammatory markers when compared to HFmrEF patients having no AF. In addition, TGF-1 was significantly increased in HFmrEF patients having persistent but not paroxysmal AF. Conclusions: Occurrence of AF, first paroxysmal and then persistent, in HFmrEF patients is associated with left ventricular remodeling and the appearance of systemic inflammatory and fibrotic markers. Changes in those parameters may be indicators by which to identify patients at increased risk of atrial fibrillation. Further studies are needed to determine the prognostic validity of these markers.

Keywords

heart failure; mid-range ejection fraction; atrial fibrillation; cardiac inflammation; cardiac fibrosis; risk factors.

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