Shridhar, P.; Chen, Y.; Khalil, R.; Plakseychuk, A.; Cho, S.K.; Tillman, B.; Kumta, P.N.; Chun, Y. A Review of PMMA Bone Cement and Intra‐Cardiac Embolism. Materials2016, 9, 821.
Shridhar, P.; Chen, Y.; Khalil, R.; Plakseychuk, A.; Cho, S.K.; Tillman, B.; Kumta, P.N.; Chun, Y. A Review of PMMA Bone Cement and Intra‐Cardiac Embolism. Materials 2016, 9, 821.
Percutaneous vertebroplasty procedure is of major importance, given the significant increasing aging population and higher number of orthopedic procedures related to vertebral compression fractures. Vertebroplasty is a complex technique involving injection of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) into the compressed vertebral body for mechanical stabilization of the fracture. Our understanding and ability to modify these mechanisms through alterations in cement material is rapidly evolving. However, the rate of cardiac complications secondary to PMMA injection and subsequent cement leakage has increased with time. The following review considers the main features of PMMA bone cement on the heart, and the extent of influence of materials on cardiac embolism. Clinically, cement leakage results in life-threatening cardiac injury. The convolution of this outcome through an appropriate balance of complex material properties is highlighted via clinical case report.
PMMA; bone cement; cardiac embolism; cement leakage; viscosity
MATERIALS SCIENCE, Biomaterials
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.