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REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0355.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: chitosan; polyelectrolyte complexes; food packaging
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:38:20 CEST)
The current challenges in the food packaging field are, on one side, replacing plastic from non-renewable sources with biopolymers and, on the other hand, generating a packaging material with attractive properties for the consumer. Nowadays, the consumer is concerned ecologically; the food packaging industry must ahead satisfy their needs. In this sense, incorporating several compounds with properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, or nutraceutical properties results attractive for the consumers. However, many of these properties can be diminished, so an encapsulation system is required. A good encapsulating system is crucial for these purposes, so polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) can be used with that finality. Nowadays, PECs are eye-catching in many fields because of their fascinating properties, which make them very attractive, mainly for being used as encapsulating systems. Hence, this paper reviews the use of PECs in food packaging where chitosan forms polyelectrolyte complexes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0308.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Wound healing; Antibacterial; Hydrogel; Meshfill; Silver nanocomposite
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:34:40 CEST)
Introduction: Among the many factors that may limit effective wound healing in patients with chronic ulcers, bacterial infection and poor cell recruitment are primary causes that contribute to prolonged healing. Thus, a novel strategy that aims to prevent bacterial infection within the wound, while at the same time providing structural scaffolding that promotes endogenous tissue repair, would be of great interest. Here, we developed a thermo-sensitive silver nanoparticle hydrogel composite as an antibacterial nutritional scaffold for the wound that contains all nutrients required for cell growth while preventing bacterial infection with the ability to fill up all the cavities and void areas in wounds regardless of their geometry. Methods: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by chemical reduction. After characterization, silver hydrogel nanocomposite was developed by reconstitution of collagen-based hydrogel powder in a nanoparticle suspension of varying AgNPs concentrations (200, 400, and 600 ppm). The antibacterial activity of the formulations was examined in vitro and in vivo in subcutaneous implant infected model. The wound healing efficacy of the hydrogel nanocomposite was also evaluated using a splinted wound model in rats through comparison of clinical wound measurements and histological assessments. Cytocompatibility assay and biochemical analysis of blood at the end of in vivo wound healing study were performed to evaluate the safety of formulations. Results: The synthesized nanoparticles were spherical and stable. While hydrogel alone did not show any bacterial reduction in vitro, the inhibition of bacterial growth was significant in all silver hydrogel nanocomposites compared to controls (p <0.05) and was dose-dependent, with maximum reduction observed in the 600 ppm group (4.56±0.26 LOG CFU/mL, P<0.001). All concentrations of AgNPs hydrogel composites showed significant antibacterial activity in vivo as well (P<0.0001). Treatment of splinted wounds with AgNPs hydrogel composite resulted in faster wound closure and accelerated wound re-epithelialization. The formulations were non-cytotoxic and did not differ significantly in hematological and biochemical factors from the control group in in vivo study. Conclusions: By presenting promising antibacterial and wound healing activity, silver hydrogel nanocomposite offers a safe therapeutic option that can be used as a functional scaffold for an acceleration of wound healing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0302.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: hybrid material; hydroxyapatite formation; amorphous calcium phosphate; platelet-poor plasma; phase composition
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:14:48 CEST)
Applying of blood biopolymers to regulate the phase composition is promising in designing the hydroxyapatite-based hybrid biomaterials with controllable resorbability. Hybrid materials based on hydroxyapatite and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) were formed in conditions of chemical precipi-tation at pH 11, [Ca2+] / [PO43–] ratio 1.67, PPP volume fraction of 6–24%, maturing time of 4–9 days. Mineral component of the materials was represented as 53% hydroxyapatite / 47% amor-phous calcium phosphate after 4 days of maturation, and 100% hydroxyapatite after 9 days of maturation. Varying PPP content from 6% to 24% provided forming of materials with rather de-fined content of amorphous calcium phosphate and biopolymer component, having desired mor-phology ranging from typical apatitic conglomerates to hybrid apatite-biopolymer fibers. Co-precipitated hybrid materials based on hydroxyapatite and PPP are promising for bone regen-eration in osteoplastic and maxillofacial applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0246.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: breast implants; silicone prosthesis aging; accidental impacts; crash test; compression tests
Online: 5 June 2023 (05:38:46 CEST)
The employment of breast silicone implants, both in aesthetic and reconstructive medicine, is widespread thanks to their recognized biocompatibility and durability. Some critical situations, as for example in case of accidental impacts, may however induce concerns by potential patients about their use. Experimental data is collected by means of static compressive and tensile tests. Aging at 37, 60, 75° and 90° Celsius is performed in a physiological saline solution (0,9% NaCl). Impact dynamic tests are carried out using a Hybrid II anthropomorphic test dummy with the prostheses implanted. Mechanical tensile and compressive tests show mechanical degradation of the prostheses characteristics after aging. Impact dynamic tests show a great probability of breast implant rupture at speeds up to 90 km/h. Accidental events like car crashes or bad falls, are con-firmed as possible causes of significant damages to implanted prostheses. In addition, the possi-ble long-term aging of the silicone shell, although of limited relevance in terms of body compati-bility or reaction, can lead to some degradation of mechanical properties, rendering the outcome of accidental events even more worthy of attention.
Fri, 2 June 2023
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0220.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: hydrogel-forming microneedles; transdermal drug delivery; controlled release; permeation pathway; environmental response
Online: 2 June 2023 (15:57:01 CEST)
Transdermal drug delivery (TDD) is one of the key approaches for treating diseases, avoiding first-pass effects, reducing systemic adverse drug reactions and improving patient compliance. Microneedling, iontophoresis, electroporation, laser ablation and ultrasound facilitation are often used to improve the efficiency of TDD. Among them, microneedling is a relatively simple and efficient means of drug delivery. Microneedles usually consist of micron-sized needles (50-900 μm in length) in arrays that can successfully penetrate the stratum corneum and deliver drugs in a minimally invasive manner below the stratum corneum without touching the blood vessels and nerves in the dermis, improving patient compliance. Hydrogel-forming microneedles (HFMNs) are safe, non-toxic, no residual matrix material, high drug loading capacity, controlled drug release and are suitable for long-term, multiple drug delivery. This work reviewed the characteristics of skin structure and transdermal drug delivery; introduced TDD strategies based on hydrogel microneedles; summarised the characteristics of HFMNs TDD systems and the evaluation methods of HFMNs; and the application of HFMNs drug delivery systems in disease treatment. The HFMNs drug delivery system has a wide scope for development, but the translation to clinical application still has more challenges.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0211.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: biomaterials; decellularization; extracellular matrix; placenta; placental-derived biomaterials; wound healing
Online: 2 June 2023 (14:14:07 CEST)
Chronic wounds are associated with considerable patient morbidity and present a significant economic burden to the healthcare system. Often, chronic wounds are in a state of persistent in-flammation and unable to progress to the next phase of wound healing. Placental-derived bio-materials are recognized for their biocompatibility, biodegradability, angiogenic, an-ti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-fibrotic, immunomodulatory, and immune privileged prop-erties. As such, placental-derived biomaterials have been used in wound management for more than a century. Placental-derived scaffolds are composed of an extracellular matrix (ECM) that can mimic the native tissue, creating a reparative environment to promote ECM remodeling, cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Reliable evidence exists throughout the literature to support the safety and effectiveness of placental-derived biomaterials in wound healing. How-ever, differences in source (i.e., anatomical regions of the placenta), preservation techniques, decellularization status, design, and clinical application have not been fully evaluated. This re-view provides an overview of wound healing and placental-derived biomaterials, summarizes the clinical results of placental-derived scaffolds in wound healing, and suggests directions for future work.
Thu, 1 June 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0091.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Collagen; hydrogel; interpenetrating network; beta pancreatic cells; vascular endothelial factor; biomaterial
Online: 1 June 2023 (12:48:03 CEST)
Three-dimensional matrices are a new strategy used to tackle type I diabetes; a chronic metabolic disease characterized by the destruction of beta pancreatic cells. Type I collagen is an abundant extracellular matrix (ECM), component that has been used to support cell growth. However, pure collagen possesses some difficulties including low stiffness and strength, and high susceptibility to cell-mediated contraction. Therefore, we developed a collagen hydrogel with a poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) interpenetrating network (IPN), functionalized with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to mimic the pancreatic environment for the sustenance of beta-pancreatic cells. We analyzed the physicochemical characteristic of the hydrogels and found that they were successfully synthesized. The mechanical behavior of the hydrogels improved with the addition of VEGF, and the swelling degree and the degradation were stable over time. In addition, it was found that 5 ng/mL VEGF-functionalized collagen/PEGDA IPN hydrogels sustained and enhanced viability, proliferation, respiratory capacity and functionality of beta pancreatic cells. Hence, this is a potential candidate for future preclinical evaluation, which may be favorable for diabetes treatment.
Wed, 31 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2168.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: antibacterial films; carboxymethylcellulose; chitosan; silver nanoparticles; nanoporous silicon; composite material; layer-by-layer
Online: 31 May 2023 (03:58:13 CEST)
The design and engineering of antibacterial materials is key for preventing bacterial adherence and proliferation in biomedical and house-hold instruments. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and chitosan (CHI) are broad-spectrum antibacterial materials with different properties, whose combined application is currently under optimization. This study proposes the formation of antibacterial films with AgNPs embedded in carboxymethylcellulose/chitosan multilayers by the layer-by-layer (LbL) method. The films were deposited onto nanoporous silicon (nPSi), an ideal platform for bioengineering applications, due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and bioresorbability. We focus on two alternative multilayer deposition processes: cyclic dip coating (CDC) and cyclic spin coating (CSC). The physicochemical properties of the films were the subject of microscopic, microstructural and surface-interface analyses. The antibacterial activity of each film was investigated against Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) bacteria strains as model microorganisms. According to the findings, CDC technique produced multilayer films with higher antibacterial activity for both bacteria compared to the CSC method. Bacteria adhesion inhibition was observed from only 3 cycles. The developed AgNPs-multilayer composite film offers advantageous antibacterial properties for biomedical applications.
Tue, 30 May 2023
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2142.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: biopolymers; Edible films and coatings; food packaging; polysaccharides; proteins
Online: 30 May 2023 (12:41:30 CEST)
As a novel post-harvesting strategy, edible films and coatings for fruits and vegetables offer preservation measures to meet the growing needs of hunger and agricultural management. Albeit edible films and coatings would differ in their processing and physio-mechanical characteristics, but functionality is distinctly the same as they are designed to improve shelf-life, barrier, and nutritional properties of the food. With emerging concerns on sustainability, biomacromolecules have been widely considered for preparing edible films and coatings, which are Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) substances. Biopolymers, including polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids are the main sources of preparing edible films and coatings. These biomacromolecules make stable colloidal dispersions that deliver processing convenience with various formulation, blending, casting, coating, and film-forming methods. However, biopolymers based edible films and coating require improvements for their extended performance due to several structural and barrier limitations. Therefore, preparing blends and composites, incorporating target molecules to introduce different functionalities, and designing complex multilayers are among the many recent research approaches developed to overcome those limitations. Thereby ensuring enhanced food preservation and extended shelf-life, essential requirements of food waste management without or with minimal influence on the texture, flavor, and nutritional value of food and vegetables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2101.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: calcium phosphate; magnesium phosphate; bone cement; antibacterial properties; ; cytocompatibility
Online: 30 May 2023 (09:45:06 CEST)
The development of magnesium calcium phosphate bone cements (MCPCs) have garnered big attention. MCPCs are bioactive and biodegradable and have appropriate mechanical and antimicrobial properties for use in reconstructive surgery. In this study, the cement powders based on a (Ca + Mg)/P = 2 system doped with Zn2+ at 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% were obtained and investigated. After the mixing with a cement liquid, structural and phase composition, morphology, chemical structure, setting time, compressive strength, degradation behavior, solubility, antibacterial activities, and in vitro behaviour of the cement materials were examined. A high compressive strength of 48 ± 5 MPa (mean ± SD) was achieved for the cement made from Zn2+ 1.0-wt.%-substituted powders. The Zn2+ introduction led to antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains, with an inhibition zone diameter up to 8 mm. Biological assays confirmed that the developed cements are cytocompatible and promising as a potential bone substitute in reconstructive surgery.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2064.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: freeze-drying; biomaterials; collagen; gelatin; alignment; medical devices; biomedical engineering; modeling; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 30 May 2023 (07:23:46 CEST)
Freeze-drying is a well-established process in biomedical engineering for the fabrication of three-dimensional open-porous medical devices, especially those based on biopolymers. One of the most used biopolymers in this field is collagen, the most abundant protein in the human body and the main component of the extracellular-matrix, as well as its derivatives. Freeze-dried collagen-based sponges with a wide variety of attributes can be produced by design and have led to a wide range of successful commercial medical devices, foremost for dental, orthopedic, hemostatic and neuronal applications. However, this is still considered a high-cost and time-consuming process that is often used in a non-optimized manner. By combining advances in other technological fields, the opportunity arises to further evolve this process in a sustainable manner, and optimize the resulting products as well as create new opportunities in this field.
Fri, 26 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1870.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: fibronectin; functionalization; activated vapor silanization (AVS); mesenchymal stem cells (MSC); biomaterial.
Online: 26 May 2023 (05:50:27 CEST)
Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) substrates were functionalized through the covalent binding of fibronectin, and the effect of the presence of this extracellular matrix protein on the surface of the material was assessed employing mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) cultures. The functionalization process com-prised the usage of the activation vapor silanization (AVS) technique to deposit a thin film with a high surface density of amine groups on the material, followed by the covalent binding of fi-bronectin to the amine groups using the N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N′-ethylcarbodiimide hy-drochloride / N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) crosslinking chemistry. The biological effect of the fibronectin on murine MSCs was assessed in vitro. It was found that functionalized samples not only showed enhanced initial cell adhesion compared with bare titanium, but also a three-fold increase in the cell area, reaching values comparable to those found on the polystyrene controls. These results represent a clear indication of the potential of modulating the response of the or-ganism to an implant through the covalent binding of extracellular matrix proteins on the pros-thesis.
Thu, 25 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1803.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: bioplastic; gum arabic; polyvinyl alcohol; dehydration; FTIR; XRD; TGA; DTA; AFM; microbial biodegradation
Online: 25 May 2023 (10:46:48 CEST)
NDBs were fabricated from gum arabic (GA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in different ratios using novel techniques (casting, dehydration, and peeling). The GA/PVA blends were cast with a novel vibration-free horizontal flow (VFHF) technique, producing membranes free of air bubble defects with a homogenous texture, smooth surface, and constant thickness. The casting process was achieved on a self-electrostatic template (SET) made of poly-(methyl methacrylate), which made peeling the final product membranes easy due to its non-stick behavior. After settling of the cast membranous blind, sheets were dried using nanometric dehydration under a mild vacuum stream using a novel stratified nanodehydrator (SND) loaded with P2O5. After drying the TBM, the dry, smooth membranes were peeled easily without scratching defects. The physicochemical properties of the NDBs were investigated using FTIR, XRD, TGA, DTA, and AFM to ensure that the novel techniques did not distort the product quality. The NDBs retained their virgin characteristics, namely, their chemical functional groups (FTIR results), crystallinity index (XRD data), thermal stability (TGA and DTA), and ultrastructural features (surface roughness and permeability), as well as their microbial biodegradation ability. Comparing the two TBM’ s precursors, PVA had a higher crystallinity index (CI), more mass loss at higher temperatures, greater thermal stability due to higher heat resistance, and a higher clearance of surface roughness due to its large particle size (PS), as well as its higher permeability parameters, namely pore diameter (PD) and void volume (VV), than those for GA. Accordingly, increasing the PVA allocation in the bioplastic blends can enhance their properties except for mass loss, whereby increasing the GA allocation in the TBM blend reduces its mass loss at an elevated temperature. In addition, there is no statistical difference between the NDBs and ordinary air-dried NDBs in PS, PD, and VV, indicating that the novel procedures used did not distort their parent properties examined, as well as their ability for biodegradation. In comparison to control samples, the separated bacteria and fungus destroyed the NDBs. Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus spp. were the two main strains of isolated bacteria, and Rhizobus spp. was the main fungus. The nanodehydration method gave the best solution for the prompt drying of water-based biopolymers free of manufacturing defects, with simple and easily acquired machinery required for the casting and peeling tasks, in addition to its wonderful biodegradation behavior when buried in wetted soil.
Wed, 24 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1711.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: nanoparticle; potential of mean force; protein adsorption; proteins corona; bionano interface; multiscale modelling
Online: 24 May 2023 (12:57:21 CEST)
Food processing and consumption involves multiple contacts between biological fluids and solid materials of processing devices of which steel is one of the most common. Due to complexity of these interactions, it is difficult to identify the main control factors in the formation of undesirable deposits on the device surfaces that may affect safety and efficiency of the processes. Mechanistic understanding of biomolecule-metal interactions involving food proteins could improve management of these pertinent industrial processes and consumer safety in food industry and beyond. In this work, we perform a multiscale study of formation of protein corona on iron surfaces and nanoparticles in contact with cow milk proteins. By calculating the binding energies of proteins with the substrate we quantify the adsorption strength and rank proteins by the adsorption affinity. We use a multiscale method involving all-atom and coarse-grained simulations as well as generation of 3D structures of the proteins for this purpose. Finally, using the adsorption energy results, we predict the composition of protein corona on iron nanoparticles and flat surfaces via a competitive adsorption model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1681.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: hemoglobin sub-micron particles; CD163; monocytes; scavenger receptors
Online: 24 May 2023 (04:04:06 CEST)
Hemoglobin based oxygen carriers (HBOC) as blood substitutes are one of the great hopes of modern transfusion and emergency medicine. After the major safety-relevant challenges of the last decades seem to be largely overcome, current developments have in common that they are affected by degradation and excretion at an early stage in test organisms. Several possible mechanisms that may be responsible for this are discussed in the literature. One of them is CD163, the receptor of the complex of haptoglobin (Hp) and hemoglobin (Hb). The receptor has been shown in various studies to have an affinity for Hb in the absence of Hp. Thus, it seems reasonable that CD163 could possibly also bind Hb within HBOC and cause phagocytosis of the particles. In this work we investigated the role of CD163 for the uptake of our HbMP (hemoglobin sub-micron particles) in monocytes and additionally screened for alternative ways of particle recognition by monocytes. In our experiments, blockade of CD163 by specific monoclonal antibody proved to partly inhibit HbMP-uptake by monocytes. It appears however, that several other phagocytosis pathways for HbMP might exist, independent of CD163 and also Hb.
Tue, 23 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1660.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: raspberry fruit; cultivated; balanced fertilization; conditions, commodity evaluation; quality of fruit
Online: 23 May 2023 (14:02:56 CEST)
(Background:) Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) is very popular with consumers around the world for its intense flavor, attractive appearance and health benefits. In recent years, interest in healthy eating and natural products has increased, and raspberry fits perfectly into these trends, which translates into its greater importance on the consumer market. (Aim) The aim of the study was the commodity evaluation of raspberry fruits bearing fruit on 2-year-old shoots, cultivated under the conditions of varied nitrogen fertilization against the background of constant phosphorus-potassium fertilization. The first-order factor were cultivars ('Laszka' and ‘Glen Ample’), and the second-order factor was nitrogen fertilization (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha-1), against the background of constant phosphorus-potassium fertilization (100 kg P2O5 and 120 kg K2O ha-1). The experiment was set up in a dependent split-plot design, in 3 repetitions. (Results) The importance of raspberry on the consumer market was shaped by: taste and quality of fruit, health benefits, naturalness and freshness, universality of use, availability and nutritional trends. (Conclusion) The tested cultivars were characterized by similar production and quality capabilities. Fertilization of the tested cultivars with a dose of 135 kg N·ha-1 turned out to be justified in terms of yield. Increasing nitrogen doses resulted in a significant increase in fresh fruit yield and 1000 fruit weight. Different doses of nitrogen increased fruit resistance to mechanical damage, firmness and improved quality indices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1651.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Chitosan, Fibres, Ursolic acid, antibacterial, Chitosan Fibres.
Online: 23 May 2023 (11:07:17 CEST)
Over the years, chitosan has been the subject of numerous studies and has gained significant popularity as a biomaterial due to its various characteristics, including biocompatibility, biodegradability, and bioactivity. In this work, chitosan fibres surface was modified with ursolic acid to improve their antibacterial properties by wet impregnation method. Five specimens of chitosan fibres were immersed in ursolic acid (UA) solution for varying immersion times of 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours. Characterization was carried out by means of FTIR, SEM, UV-Vis spectroscopy; the results indicated an ongoing chemical reaction between chitosan and ursolic acid resulting in changes to the chemical structure. After 2 hours, the absorbance ratio remained constant; suggesting that the reaction had reached completion and the chemical structure of the sample remained stable. Antibacterial tests were performed on the resulting chitosan fibres against two bacterial strains. The fibres without ursolic acid did not exhibit any noteworthy antibacterial activity against either strain. However, the chitosan fibres modified with ursolic acid showed significant and almost strong antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive strain, S. aureus. These results suggest that chitosan fibres modified with ursolic acid could have potential applications as antibacterial materials, particularly against Gram-positive bacteria.
Mon, 22 May 2023
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1531.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Biomaterials; Hybrid Materials; Tissue Engineering; Regenerative Medicine
Online: 22 May 2023 (16:19:46 CEST)
The main purpose of tissue engineering is to fabricate and exploit engineered constructs suitable for the effective replacement of damaged tissues and organs, and able to perfectly integrate with the host’s organism without eliciting any adverse reaction. Ideally, autologous materials represent the best option, but they are often limited due to the low availability of compatible healthy tissues. So far, one therapeutic approach relies on the exploitation of synthetic materials: they exhibit good features in terms of impermeability, deformability and flexibility, but present chronic risks of infections and inflammations. Alternatively, biological materials, including naturally derived ones and acellular tissue matrices of human or animal origin, can be used to induce cells growth and differentiation, which are needed for tissue regeneration: however, this kind of materials lacks satisfactory mechanical resistance and reproducibility, affecting their clinical application. In order to overcome the above-mentioned limitations, hybrid materials, which can be obtained by coupling synthetic polymers and biological materials, have been investigated with the aim to improve biological compatibility and mechanical features. Currently, the interest in these mate-rials is growing, but the ideal ones have not been found yet. The present review aims at exploring some applications of hybrid materials, with particular mention to urological and cardiovascular fields: in the first case, the efforts to find a construct that can guarantee impermeability, mechanical resistance and patency will be herein illustrated; in the second case, the search for impermeability, hemocompatibility and adequate compliance will be been disclosed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1508.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: hemostasis; topical hemostatic agents; chitosan-based composites; blood-material interaction
Online: 22 May 2023 (10:51:01 CEST)
Hemorrhage is a detrimental event present in traumatic injury, surgery, and disorders of bleeding, that can become life-threatening if not properly managed. Moreover, uncontrolled bleeding can complicate surgical interventions, altering the outcome of surgical procedures. Therefore, to reduce the risk of complications and decrease the risk of morbidity and mortality associated with hemorrhage, it is necessary to use an effective hemostatic agent that ensures immediate control of bleeding. In recent years, there have been increasingly rapid advances in developing novel generation of biomaterials with hemostatic properties. Nowadays, a wide array of topical hemostatic agents is available, including chitosan-based biomaterials that have shown outstanding properties such as: antibacterial, antifungal, hemostatic, analgesic activity, in addition to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and wound-healing effects. This review provides an analysis of chitosan-based hemostatic and discusses the progress made in their performance, mechanism of action, efficacy, cost, and safety in recent years.
Fri, 19 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1428.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Angiotensin converting enzyme II; Polystyrene; Molecular dynamics simulation; Adsorption behaviors; Biochips
Online: 19 May 2023 (10:20:13 CEST)
The adsorption of proteins on polymer is widely used in biosensors. Here, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was used to study the immobilization of angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2) with six initial orientations proposed on polystyrene (PS) at the ambient conditions of pH (4.5, 6, 7, 8, 9.5) and NaCl (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25 M). ACE2 immobilization under favorable ambient conditions was characterized by minimum distance (short), settlement time (fast), interaction energy (substantial) and protein configuration (stable). ACE2 orientations proposed in 0.15M NaCl were respectively preferable to (90, 0, 0), (0, 0, 0) and (0, 270, 0), (180, 0, 0) and (0, 90, 0), (90, 0, 0) at pH 4.5, 6, 7, 9.5. ACE2 immobilization was further evaluated at pH 7 by optimizing NaCl concentration. Its proposed orientations of (i) (0, 270, 0), (ii) (0, 0, 0) and (90, 0, 0), and (iii) (0, 90, 0) and (90, 0, 0) were preferable in 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 M NaCl, respectively. The great significance of cubic-orientation settlement mode provides tangible improvement for the microfabrication of biochips for rapid diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus II (SARS-CoV-2).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1359.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: hen’s eggshell; polymer coating; mechanical properties
Online: 19 May 2023 (02:33:49 CEST)
Deformation behavior of the composite "hen's eggshell - polymer plomb" under bending is examined. Polymer coating does not change the type of behavior of the composite based on eggshell that continues to be brittle despite the mechanical characteristics of the composite could vary in wide limits for brittle structure. Joining "hen's eggshell – polymer plomb" never crack under loading and, hence, it exhibits the high cohesion strength under stresses applied in these experiments. It seems that the composite "hen's eggshell - polymer plomb" could apply as the substitution of the composite "tooth enamel - polymer plomb" under elaboration of novel restorative materials for dentistry, namely, for estimation of their mechanical properties including cohesive strength.
Thu, 18 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1261.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: biocompatible materials; calcium phosphates; hydrated pastes; bone tissue
Online: 18 May 2023 (03:07:39 CEST)
The injectable hydrated calcium phosphate bone-like paste (hCPP) have been developed with suitable nanoscale characteristics and unindered injection through 23G standard needles. In vitro assays showed the cytocompatibility of hCPP with mesenchymal embryonic C3H10T1/2 cell cultures. The hCPPs were identified to be composed of aggregated nano-sized particles with sphere-like shapes with low crystallinity. The ability of serum proteins (FBS) to adsorb on hCPP particles was also studied. The hCPP demonstrated high protein adsorption capacity, thereby indicating its potential in various biomedical applications. The results of the in vivo assay upon subcutaneous injection in Wistar rats indicated the nontoxicity and biocompatibility of experimental hCPP, as well as the gradual resorption of hCPP, comparable to the period of bone regeneration. The data obtained are of great interest for the development of commercial highly effective osteoplastic materials for bone tissue regeneration and augmentation.
Wed, 17 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1225.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: dual-step release; berberine hydrochloride; hybrid; electrospinning; nanofibers; electrospraying; microparticle
Online: 17 May 2023 (10:17:55 CEST)
In this nano era, nanomaterials and nanostructures are popular in developing novel functional materials. However, the combinations of nanoproducts with materials at micro and macro scale can open new routes for conceiving novel materials with an improved or even new functional performances. In this study, a brand-new hybrid, containing both nanofibers and particles having a microsize, was fabricated using a sequential electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) process. Firstly, the microparticles loaded with drug (berberine hydrochloride, BH) molecules in the cellulose acetate (CA) were fabricated using a solution electrospraying process. Later, these microparticles were suspended into a co-dissolved solution containned BH and a hydrophilic polymer (polypyrrolidone, PVP), and were co-electrospun into the nanofiber/microparticle hybrids. The EHDA processes were clearly recorded, and the resultant products showed a typical hybrid topography, with microparticles distributed all over the nanofibers, which was demonstrated by SEM assessments. FTIR and XRD demonstrated that the components within the hybrids were presented in an amorphous state and have fine compatibility with each other. In vitro dissolution tests verified that the hybrids were able to provide the designed dula-step drug release profiles, a combination of the fast release step of BH from the hydrophilic PVP nanofibers through an erosion mechanism and the sustained release step of BH from the insoluble CA microparticles via a typical Fickian diffusion mechanism. The present protocols pave a new way for developing trans-scale functional materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1204.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Chitosan; tripolyphosphate; TPP; tensile strength; Chitosan Fibres
Online: 17 May 2023 (07:42:45 CEST)
Chitosan's favourable characteristics, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and bioactivity, have made it a popular biomaterial and the subject of numerous studies over the last years. This study investigates the enhancement of mechanical properties of chitosan fibres through wet impregnation using tripolyphosphate (TPP) as cross-linker. A 1% w/v solution of TPP was prepared and five separate chitosan fibre specimens were immersed individually in TPP solution for varying times (1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours). The specimens were then characterized using FTIR, SEM, and dynamometry to evaluate their physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. The FTIR results indicated successful interaction between the protonated amine groups of chitosan and TPP ions, with the crosslinking reaction reaching completion after 2 hours of immersion. SEM images showed that the surface of the fibres became rougher after the crosslinking reaction, suggesting the formation of new chemical bonds. Mechanical testing revealed a significant improvement in tensile strength for the treated samples compared to untreated ones, indicating successful strengthening through crosslinking. The fibres demonstrate significant potential for use in wound healing dressings.
Tue, 16 May 2023
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1139.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: DNA-based hydrogels; biosensors; stimuli-responsive; Progesterone detection; mRNA quantification; sensors
Online: 16 May 2023 (09:34:09 CEST)
Nanotechnology and polymer engineering are steering towards a new development to invade deleterious mysteries. In the last few decades, polymer engineering has grabbed researchers’ attention and similarly, polymeric network-engineered structures have been vastly studied. Prior to therapeutic application, early and quick detection analyses are critical. Therefore, developing nanoscale sensors to manage the acute expression of feeble states and malignancies to draw therapeutic lines demands advanced nanoengineering. In spite of nano-therapeutics have emerged as an alternative approach to tackling strenuous diseases. Also, studies have shown highly biocompatible biomedical engineering has emerged with sheer progression. Moreover, hydrogels have emerged as a three-dimensional (3D) polymeric network that consists of hydrophilic natural or synthetic polymers. The resemblance of hydrogels with tissue structure makes it more unique to study inquisitively. Preceding studies have shown a vast spectrum of synthetic and natural polymer deployment in the field of biotechnology and molecular diagnostics. This review explores recent studies on synthetic and natural polymer engineered hydrogel-based biosensors and their applications in multipurpose diagnostics and therapeutics. We reviewed the latest studies on hydrogel-engineered biosensors, exclusively DNA-based and DNA hydrogels fabricated biosensors.
Mon, 15 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0985.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: gold nanoparticles; phospholipids; biomedical applications; membrane fluidity; infrared spectroscopy
Online: 15 May 2023 (07:09:52 CEST)
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are promising candidates in various biomedical applications such as sensors, imaging, and cancer therapy. Understanding the influence of AuNPs on lipid membranes is important to assure their safety in the biological environment and to improve their scope in nanomedicine. In this regard, the present study aims to analyze the effects of different concentrations (0.5, 1, and 2 w %) of dodecanethiol functionalized hydrophobic AuNPs on the structure and fluidity of zwitterionic 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (SOPC) lipid bilayer membranes using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and fluorescent spectroscopy. The size of AuNPs was found to be 2.2 ± 1.1 nm using transmission electron microscopy. FTIR results have shown that the AuNPs induced a slight shift in methylene stretching bands, while the band positions of carbonyl and phosphate group stretching were unaffected. Temperature-dependent fluorescent anisotropy measurements have shown that the incorporation of AuNPs up to 2 w % did not affect the lipid order in membranes. Overall, these results indicate that the hydrophobic AuNPs in the studied concentration did not cause any significant alterations in the structure and membrane fluidity, which suggests the suitability of these particles to form liposome-AuNP hybrids for diverse biomedical applications including drug delivery and therapy.
Thu, 11 May 2023
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0832.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: biomaterials; coatings; calcium phosphates; hydroxyapatite; bone implant; biocompatibility; bioactivity; hard tissue repair
Online: 11 May 2023 (09:03:34 CEST)
This review article deals with the design of bioactive calcium phosphate coatings deposited on metallic substrates to produce bone implants. The bioceramic coating properties are used to create a strong bonding between the bone implants and the surrounding bone tissue. They provide a fast response after implantation and increase the lifespan of the implant in the body environment. The first part of the article describes the different compounds belonging to the calcium phosphate family and their main properties for applications in biomaterials science. The calcium to phosphorus atomic ratio (Ca/P)at. and the solubility (Ks) of these compounds define their behavior in a physiological environment. Hydroxyapatite is the gold standard among calcium phosphate materials, but other chemical compositions/stoichiometries have also been studied for their interesting properties. The second part reviews the most usual deposition processes to produce bioactive calcium phosphate coatings for bone implant applications. Plasma spraying is the main industrial process, but magnetron sputtering, pulsed laser deposition, electrospray deposition, electrophoretic deposition, and electrodeposition are also widely studied in academic and industrial research. The last part describes the main physicochemical properties of calcium phosphate coatings and their impact on the bioactivity of bone implants in a physiological environment.
Wed, 10 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0724.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Microparticles; Gellan Gum; Alginate; Design of Experiments; Coaxial airflow
Online: 10 May 2023 (09:53:32 CEST)
Polysaccharides such as alginate and gellan gum are biocompatible and easily accessible biopolymers with excellent properties to produce microparticles as drug delivery systems. However, the production methods often fail in reproducibility, compromising the translational potential of such systems. In this work, microparticles made from gellan gum and alginate were optimized using the coaxial air flow method, and an inexpensive and reproducible production method. A Design of Experiments was used to identify the main parameters that affect the microparticle’s production and optimization, focusing on the diameter and dispersibility. Airflow was the most significant factor for both parameters. Pump flow affected the diameter, whilst the gellan gum/alginate ratio affected dispersibility. After optimization, microparticle swelling, drug entrapment and release profile were analyzed at two pH, 7.4 and 6.5. Using methylene blue as a model drug, higher encapsulation and swelling indexes were obtained at pH 7.4, whilst a more pronounced release occurred at pH 6.5. The microparticle release profiles were studied by resorting to well-known models, showing a Fickian type release. The developed microparticles show promising results as drug-delivery vehicles for biomedical applications.
Mon, 8 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0451.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Electrospun wound dressing; Skin tissue engineering; Regenerative medicine; Gelatin; Poly (glycerol sebacate); Diabetic wound
Online: 8 May 2023 (05:15:40 CEST)
Infectious diabetic wounds can result in severe injuries or even death. Biocompatible wound dressings offer one of the best ways to treat these wounds, but creating a dressing with suitable hydrophilicity and biodegradation rate can be challenging. To address this issue, we used the electrospinning method to create a wound dressing composed of poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) and gelatin (Gel). We dissolved the PGS and Gel in acetic acid (75 v/v%) and added EDC/NHS solution as a crosslinking agent. Our measurements revealed that the scaffolds' fiber diameter ranged from 180.2 to 370.6 nm, and all the scaffolds had porosity percentages above 70%, making them suitable for wound healing applications. Additionally, we observed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the contact angle from 110.8° ± 4.3° for PGS to 54.9° ± 2.1° for PGS/Gel scaffolds, indicating an improvement in hydrophilicity of the blend scaffold. Furthermore, our cell viability evaluations demonstrated a significant increase (p < 0.05) in cultured cell growth and proliferation on the scaffolds during the culture time. Our findings suggest that the PGS/Gel scaffold has potential for wound healing applications.
Fri, 5 May 2023
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0300.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Chitosan; Hydrogel; biomedical application; stimuli-responsive hydrogels; synthesis methods; characterization methods
Online: 5 May 2023 (04:50:52 CEST)
The prospective applications of chitosan-based hydrogels (CBHs), a category of biocompatible and biodegradable materials, in biomedical disciplines such as tissue engineering, wound healing, drug delivery, and biosensing have garnered great interest. The synthesis and characterization processes used to create CBHs play a significant role in determining their characteristics and effectiveness. The processing procedure could be tailored to obtain specific features like porosity, swelling, mechanical strength, degradation rate, and bioactivity, affecting the properties of CBHs to a great extent. Additionally, characterization methods aid in gaining access to the microstructures and properties of CBHs. Especially, this review provides a comprehensive assessment of the state-of-the-art with a focus on the affiliation between particular properties and application domains. The main obstacles and prospects for the future of CBH development for biomedical applications are also covered in the review.
Wed, 3 May 2023
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0126.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: bone tissue engineering; hydroxyapatite; reduced graphene oxide; human mesenchymal stem cell; osteogenic differentiation
Online: 3 May 2023 (09:54:45 CEST)
In recent years, bone tissue engineering (BTE) has made significant progress in promoting the direct and functional connection between bone and graft, including osseointegration and osteoconduction, to facilitate the healing of damaged bone tissues. Herein, we introduce a new, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective method for synthesizing reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and hydroxyapatite (HAp). The method uses epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) as a reducing agent to synthesize rGO (E-rGO), and HAp powder is obtained from Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus). The physicochemical analysis indicated that the E-rGO/HAp composites had exceptional properties for use as BTE scaffolds, as well as high purity. Moreover, we discovered that E-rGO/HAp composites facilitated not only proliferation, but also early and late osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Our work suggests that E-rGO/HAp composites may play a significant role in promoting the spontaneous osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs, and we envision that the E-rGO/HAp composites could serve as promising candidates for BTE scaffolds, stem cell differentiation stimulators, and implantable device components due to their biocompatible and bioactive properties. Overall, we suggest a new approach for developing cost-effective and environmentally friendly E-rGO/HAp composite materials for BTE application.
Tue, 2 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0033.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: polylactic acid(PLA); modified vegetable oils (MVO); maleinization; mechanical properties
Online: 2 May 2023 (01:09:06 CEST)
Polylactic acid (PLA) was modified with three types of MVOs, which are the epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO), maleinized sunflower oil (MSO) and maleinized olive oil (MOO), at different weight fractions. A co-rotating twin screw extruder was used to produce composite materials by melt mixing process. The effect of MVOs content, from 2.5% to 10%, on the morphology, mechanical properties, density and water absorption were investigated in detail. Addition of ESBO and maleinized vegetable oils leads to a slight decrease in density of PLA from 1.252 to 1.231 g/cm3. As the concentration of MVO in PLA increases, the amount of water absorption also increased and the highest water absorption value was observed in P10MSO. In general, the elastic modulus (EM) was slightly changed by the addition of MVO to PLA, while the tensile strength (TS) decreased. Due to the plasticizing effect of MVOs, an increase in the Izod impact strength was obtained.
Wed, 26 April 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1001.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Eclipta prostrata; gelatin; foam dressing; wound dressing; physical property; absorption; dehydration; pH environment
Online: 26 April 2023 (15:23:50 CEST)
Developing novel wound dressings containing medicinal plant extracts can have several potential benefits, including improving the therapeutic value of the dressings and reducing the cost of producing wound dressings. In this study, we prepared foam dressing containing Eclipta prostrata leaf extract and gelatin (Eclipta prostrata dressing). Chemical composition was verified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and pore structure was obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The physical properties, including absorption and dehydration properties, were also evaluated. The chemical properties were measured to determine the pH environment after being submerged with Eclipta prostrata dressings. The results revealed that the Eclipta prostrata dressing had a pore structure with an appropriate pore size (313.25 ± 76.51 µm and 383.26 ± 64.45 µm for the Eclipta prostrata A and Eclipta prostrata B dressings, respectively). The Eclipta prostrata B dressing was more consistent porosity, resulting in a higher absorption capacity and faster dehydration rate. According to physical properties, the Eclipta prostrata B dressing is best used on low-exuding wounds. Furthermore, the Eclipta prostrata A and B dressings make a slightly acidic environment. Therefore, our foam dressing will not interfere wound healing process.
Mon, 24 April 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0820.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: luminescent sensors; mercury ions; iron ions; binding affinity; selective detection; adsorption capacity
Online: 24 April 2023 (04:29:47 CEST)
The substrate N1, N3, N5 -tris(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (Sensor A) was prepared in the reaction of 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid (trimesic acid) and o-aminophenol in ethanol. The prepared organic sensor fulfills the chemiluminescent requirements including luminophore, spacer, and suitable binding receptor that distress the probe's luminescent features, providing selective and sensitive detection of mercury and iron ions in aqueous solutions. The sensor selectively detects mercury and iron ions in a water matrix containing various metal ions including sodium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, and nickel. Strong and immediate binding was observed between mercury ions and the substrate at pH 7.0 with a binding affinity toward Hg (II) enhanced by nine folds higher than that observed for iron sensor binding affinity, which makes the substrate a distinctive luminescence sensor for mercury detection at ambient conditions. The sensor shows a linear response toward Hg (II) in the concentration range from 4.2 x 10-5 to 2.0 x 10-8 M with a limit of detection of 1.0 x 10-8 M. Further, Sensor A provides linear detection for iron ions in the range from 1.5 x 10-3 to 1.5 x 10-8 M. The measured adsorption capacity of Sensor A toward mercury ions ranged from 1.25 to 1.97 mg/g and the removal efficiency from water samples reached 98.8% at pH 7.0. The data demonstrate that Sensor A is an excellent probe for detecting and removing mercury ions from water bodies.
Wed, 19 April 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0595.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone; polymeric scaffolds; bone regeneration; mesoporous bioactive glass
Online: 19 April 2023 (13:36:52 CEST)
Composite biomaterials that combine osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties are a promising approach for bone tissue engineering (BTE) since it allows osteogenesis stimulation while mimicking the extracellular matrix (ECM) morphology. In this context, the aim of the present research work was to produce polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanofibers containing mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) 80S15 nanoparticles. These composite materials were produced by electrospinning technique. The design of experiments (DOE) was used to estimate the optimal electrospinning parameters to reduce average fiber diameter. The polymeric matrices were thermally crosslinked under different conditions, and the fiber’s morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Evaluation of the mechanical properties of nanofibrous mats revealed a dependence on thermal crosslinking parameters and on the presence of MBG 80S15 particles inside the polymeric fibers. Degradation tests indicated that the presence of MBG led to a faster degradation of nanofibrous mats. On the other hand, MBG presence also leads to higher swelling capacity. The assessment of in vitro bioactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF) was performed in MBG pellets and PVP/MBG (1:1) composites to assess whether the bioactive properties of MBG 80S15 were kept when it was incorporated into PVP nanofibers. FTIR and XRD analysis along with SEM–EDS results indicated that a hydroxy-carbonate apatite (HCA) layer was formed on the surface of MBG pellets and nanofibrous webs after soaking in SBF over different time periods. In general, the materials revealed no cytotoxic effects on Saos-2 cell line. The overall results for the produced materials show the potential of the composites to be used in BTE.
Thu, 13 April 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0325.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: agarose; methyl substituent; DSC; NMR; water retention; rheology; gelation hysteresis; gel in ethanol
Online: 13 April 2023 (12:49:48 CEST)
Abstract: Agarose is known to form a homogeneous thermoreversible gel in aqueous medium over a critical polymer concentration. The solid-liquid phase transitions are thermoreversible but depend on the molecular structure of the agarose sample tested. Then, in a first step, the structure was characterised by 1H and 13C NMR in D2O and in DMSO which is a solvent of agarose whatever the temperature. A low yield in methyl substituent on the D-galactose unit was determined. Then, evolution of the 1H NMR spectrum was followed as a function of temperature in increasing and decreasing temperature process from 25 to 80°C. A large thermal hysteresis is obtained and discussed. It helps to interpret rheological behaviour. In fact, NMR signals are related to proton relaxation and especially to proton involved in H-bonds between water and -OH agarose for tightly bound water and agarose/agarose in chain packing. In a second step, water was exchanged against ethanol which is a non solvent of agarose. A stable gel was demonstrated and characterised by rheology to be compared with aqueous behaviour. Bound water playing the role of plasticizer is probably removed and the gel is much stronger (and brittle) in ethanol with a larger thermal stability. It is the first time that such gel is characterised without phase transition when passing from a good-solvent to a non-solvent. This extends the domains of application of agarose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0286.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: graphene oxide; nanocellulose; reduced graphene oxide; polydopamine; wound healing
Online: 13 April 2023 (03:21:21 CEST)
Plant extracts have been evaluated to determine their bioactivities and their potential use in wound healing. In this study, a conductive composite material, based on graphene oxide (GO), nanocellulose (CNF) and tannins (TA) from pine bark, reduced using polydopamine (PDA), was developed for wound dressing. The amount of CNF and TA was varied in the composite material and a complete characterization including SEM, FTIR, XRD, XPS, TGA was performed. Also, the conductivity, mechanical properties, cytotoxicity, and in vitro wound healing of the materials were evaluated. The results showed a successful physical interaction between CNF, TA and GO. In-creasing the CNF amount in the composite reduced the thermal properties, surface charge and conductivity of the material, but its strength, cytotoxicity and wound healing performance were improved. The TA incorporation slightly reduced the cell viability and migration, which may be associated with the doses used and the chemical composition of the extracts. However, the in vitro obtained results demonstrated that these composite materials can be suitable for wound healing.
Mon, 3 April 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0026.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: M13 bacteriophage; Metallic nanoparticles; Plasmonics; Dynamic response; Self-assembly; Simulations
Online: 3 April 2023 (11:13:17 CEST)
The dynamic and surface manipulation of the M13 bacteriophage meeting application demands enable a pathway to design efficient applications with high selectivity and responsivity rate. Herein, we report the role of the M13 bacteriophage thin film layer deposited on an optical nanostructure involving gold nanoparticles/SiO2/Si and its influence on optical and geometrical properties. The thickness of the M13 phage layer was either controlled by varying the concentration or humidity exposure levels, and optical studies were conducted. We designed a standard and dynamic model based upon three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D FDTD) simulations distinguishing the necessity of each model under variable conditions. As seen from the experiments, the origin of respective peak wavelength positions is addressed in detail with the help of simulations. The importance of the dynamic model was noted when humidity-based experiments were conducted. Inexpensive, multi-wavelength optical characteristics from a single structure, reproducibility, and reversible properties are significant advantages of involving M13 bacteriophage. We believe this work will provide fundamental insight into understanding and interpreting the geometrical and optical properties of the nanostructures involving M13 bacteriophage.
Tue, 21 March 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0378.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Yam tuber; metabolomics; pathways; molecular-mechanism; dormancy; regulation
Online: 21 March 2023 (13:55:59 CET)
;Yams are economic and medicinal crops with a long growth cycle, spanning between 9-11 months due to the prolonged tuber dormancy. Tuber dormancy has constituted a major constraint in yam production and genetic improvement. In this study, we performed non-targeted comparative metabolomic profiling of tubers of two white yam genotypes, (Obiaoturugo and TDr1100873), to identify metabolites and associated pathways that regulate yam tuber dormancy using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Yam tubers were sampled between 42 days after physiological maturity (DAPM) till tuber sprouting. The sampling points include 42-DAPM, 56-DAPM, 87DAPM, 101-DAPM, 115-DAPM, and 143-DAPM. A total of 949 metabolites were annotated, 559 in TDr1100873 and 390 in Obiaoturugo. 39 differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) were identified across the studied tuber dormancy stages in the two genotypes. 27 DAMs were conserved between the two genotypes, whereas, 5 DAMs were unique in the tubers of TDr1100873 and 7 DAMs were in the tubers of Obiaoturugo. The differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) spread across 14 major functional chemical groups. Amines and biogenic polyamines, amino acids and derivatives, Alcohols, flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, esters, coumarins and phytohormone positively regulated yam tuber dormancy induction and maintenance, whereas, fatty acids, lipids, nucleotides, carboxylic acids, sugars, terpenoids, benzoquinones, and benzene derivatives positively regulated dormancy breaking and sprouting in tubers of both yam genotypes. Metabolite set enrichment analysis (MSEA) revealed that 12 metabolisms were significantly enriched during yam tuber dormancy stages. Metabolic pathway topology analysis further revealed that six metabolic pathways (linoleic acid metabolic pathway, phenylalanine metabolic pathway, galactose metabolic pathway, starch and sucrose metabolic pathway, alanine-aspartate-glutamine metabolic pathways and purine metabolic pathway) exerted significant impact on yam tuber dormancy regulation. This result provides vital insights into molecular mechanisms regulating yam tuber dormancy.
Mon, 27 February 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0472.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Flax; Flexural behavior; Damage behavior; Acoustic Emission; Digital Image Correlation
Online: 27 February 2023 (10:13:53 CET)
Understanding the effect of staking sequences and identifying the damage occurring within a structure using a structural health monitoring system are the keys to an efficient design of composite-based parts. In this research, a combination of digital image correlation (DIC) and acoustic emission (AE) is used to locate and classify the type of damage depending on the stacking sequence of the laminate during flexural loading. A comparison of the strain field results for unidirectional, cross-ply, and quasi-isotropic laminates was made in a first attempt to discuss their global behavior and to correlate the different damage patterns with the possible failure mechanisms. The damage was then addressed using a comprehensive interpretation of the acoustic emission signatures using the K-means classification of the acoustic events. The development of each damage mechanism was correlated to the applied load and expressed as a function of the loading rate to highlight the effect of the stacking sequence. Finally, the results of DIC and AE were combined to improve the reliability of the damage investigation without limiting the failure mechanism to matrix cracking, interfacial failure, and fiber breakage, as expected by the unsupervised event clustering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0449.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: titanium; hydrothermal treatment; surface modification; local drug delivery system; osseointegration
Online: 27 February 2023 (06:41:55 CET)
The topography and chemical composition modification of the titanium (Ti) implants play a decisive role in improving biocompatibility and bioactivity, accelerating osseointegration, and, thus, determining clinical success. In spite of the development of surface modification strategies, bacterial contamination is a common cause of failure. The use of systemic antibiotic therapy does not guarantee action at the contaminated site. In this work, we proposed a surface treatment for Ti implant that aim to improve its osseointegration and reduce bacterial colonization in surgery site due to local release of antibiotic. The Ti disks were hydrothermally treated with 3M NaOH solution to form a nanostructured layer of titanate on the Ti surface. Metronidazole was impregnated on these nanostructured surfaces to allow its local release. The samples were coated with poly(vinyl alcohol) - PVA films with different thickness to evaluate a possible control of drug release. Gamma irradiation was used to crosslink the polymer chains leading to a hydrogel layer formation and to sterilize the samples. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, FTIR, contact angle measurements, “in vitro” bioactivity, and drug release analysis. The alkaline hydrothermal treatment successfully produced intertwined, web-like nanostructures on the Ti surface, providing wettability and bioactivity to Ti samples (Ti+TTNT samples). Metronidazole was successfully loaded and released from Ti+TTNT samples coated or not with PVA. Although the polymeric film acted as a physical barrier to drug delivery, all groups reached the minimum inhibitory concentration for anaerobic bacteria. Thus, the surface modification method presented is a potential approach to improve the osseointegration of the Ti implant and to associate local drug delivery to dental implants, preventing early infections and bone failure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0431.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: nanocomposites; bacterial nanocellulose; microporosity; biomineralization process and bone regeneration
Online: 27 February 2023 (02:29:23 CET)
Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) surface has a negative charge that allows the adsorption of calcium ions to initiate the nucleation of different calcium phosphate phases. The aim of this study was to investigate different methods of mineralization on three-dimensional microporous bacterial nanocellulose, to mimetize the composition, structure, and biomechanical properties of natural bone. To generate 3D microporous biomaterial, the porogen particles were incorporated during the BNC fermentation with the strain Komagataeibacter medellinensis. Calcium phosphates (CPs) were deposited on BNC scaffolds by five alternating immersing cycles with calcium and phosphate solutions. Scanning electron microscopy micrograph showed that the scaffolds have different pore sizes, between 70 and 350 µm, but the porous interconnectivity was affected by the biomineralization method and time. The crystals on the BNC surface are shown to be rod-shaped with a calcium phosphate ratio similar to that of immature bone, increasing from 1.13 to 1.6 with cycle numbers. The main mineral phases obtained by X-ray diffraction were Octacalcium Dihydrogen Hexakis (phosphate (V)) Pentahydrate (OCP). In vitro cell studies showed good cellular adhesion and higher cell viability to 95% in all the scaffolds. Osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on the scaffolds was evaluated by bone expression markers like alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and osteopontin. In conclusion, it is possible to prepare 3D BNC scaffolds with controlled microporosity, which could allow osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation.
Wed, 22 February 2023
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0371.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: collagen biomatrix; optimization; modification; corneal epithelial cells; limbal epithelial stem cells; biocompatibility
Online: 22 February 2023 (03:03:50 CET)
Since the past few decades, numerous modifications and innovations have been done to design the optimal corneal biomatrix for corneal epithelial cells (CECs) or limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs) carriers. However, researchers have yet to discover the ideal optimization strategies in the development of corneal biomatrix design and its effects on cultured CECs or LESCs. This review further discusses and summarizes recent optimization strategies to develop an ideal collagen biomatrix and its interaction with CECs and LESCs. Using PRISMA guidelines, the articles published from June 2012 to June 2022 were systematically searched using Web of Science (WoS), Scopus, PubMed, Wiley, and EBSCOhost databases. The literature search identified 444 potential relevant published articles, with 29 relevant articles selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria after the screening and appraising processes. The current paper highlights the physicochemical and biocompatibility (in vitro and in vivo) characterization methods, which were inconsistent throughout the different studies. Despite the variability in the methodology approach, the reviewer postulated that the modification of the collagen biomatrix improves its mechanical and biocompatibility properties toward CECs and LESCs. All findings were discussed in this review; thus, it provides a general view of up-to-date trends in this field.
Mon, 20 February 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0314.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Electrospinning; Nanofibers; Polycaprolactone; Plantago Major L; Drug delivery; Wound dressing
Online: 20 February 2023 (01:32:00 CET)
Plantago major L. is a worldwide available plant that has been used traditionally for several medical application due to its properties such as wound healing, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial etc. This work aimed to develop and evaluate nanostructured PCL electrospun dressing with P. major extract encapsulated in nanofibers for application in wound healing. The extract from leaves was obtained by extraction in a mixture of water:ethanol= 1:1 of the freeze-dried extract presented a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Staphylococcus Aureus susceptible and resistant to methicillin of 5.3 mg/mL, a high antioxidant capacity, but a low content of total flavonoids. Electrospun mats without defects were successfully produced using two P. major extract concentrations based on MIC value. The extract incorporation in PCL nanofibers was confirmed by FTIR and contact angle measurements. The PCL/P. major extract was evaluated by DSC and TGA demonstrating that incorporation of the extract decreases the thermal stability of the mats as well as the degree of crystallinity of PCL-based fibers. The P. major extract incorporation on electrospun mats produced a significant swelling degree (more than 400%) and increased the capacity of adsorbing wound exudates and moisture, important characteristics for skin healing. The extract-controlled release evaluated by in vitro study in PBS (pH, 7.4) shows that P. major extract delivery from the mats occurs in the first 24 h, demonstrating their potential capacity to be used in wound healing.
Mon, 6 February 2023
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0061.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Supramolecular hydrogels; hydrogel chemistry; self-healing hydrogels; adhesive hydrogels; conductive hydrogels; clays; 3D structures
Online: 6 February 2023 (10:32:53 CET)
Supramolecular structures are of great interest due to their applicability in various scientific and industrial fields. These fields of scientific action include promising applications i biomedical areas, in sensing, and in conductive and electrical phases. The sensible definition of supramolecular molecules is being set by investigators, who, because of the different sensitivities of their methods and observational timescales, may have different views as to what constitute these supramolecular structures. Besides, diverse polymers can be found to offer unique avenues for multifunctional systems with properties in medicine industrial applications. Aspects of this review provide different conceptual strategies to address molecular design, properties, and potential applications of self-assembly materials and the use of metal coordination as a feasible and useful strategy for constructing complex supramolecular structures. In this order of appreciations and ideas order, it is that this review report involves classic topics such as hydrogels that range from their relationship with drug delivery systems, to metallo-supramolecular materials, through applications in ophthalmic systems, in applications that require adhesiveness and electrically conductive hydrogels. This review also addresses systems that are largely based on hydrogel chemistry and the enormous opportunities to design very specific structures for applications that demand enormous specificity.
Wed, 4 January 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0058.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Bone Tissue Engineering; Bone Scaffold; Citric Acid; Silk Resin; Compression Molding
Online: 4 January 2023 (03:37:54 CET)
Thermoplastic molded regenerated silk was proposed as structural material in tissue engineering applications, mainly for application in bone. The protocol allows to obtain a compact non-porous material with a compression modulus in the order of a Giga Pascal starting from silk fibroin by compressing a silk fibroin lyophilized sponge of powder in mold at temperature higher than the glass transition temperature (Tg). The main purpose of the produced resin was the osteofixation and other structural applications in which the lack of porosity was not an issue. In this work, we introduced the use of citric acid in the thermoplastic molding protocol of SF to obtain a porosity inside the structural material. In addition to the previously developed protocols the addition of citric acid allowed us to obtain a structural material. The CA powder during the compression acted as a template for the pore formation. In addition, the CA was able to effectively crosslink the SF chain improving the mechanical strength. This effect was proved both evaluating the compression modulus and by studying the spectra obtained by Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). This protocol may be applied in the near future to the production of a structural bone scaffold.
Mon, 19 December 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0332.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Biomechanics; Orthodontic force; Torque; Tooth Movement; Removable Thermoplastic Appliance; Aging; Aligners
Online: 19 December 2022 (09:10:51 CET)
The aim of this study is to study the effect of aging in different media (deionized water and artificial saliva) on the force/torque generation by thermoplastic orthodontic aligners. Ten thermoformed aligners made of Essix ACE® thermoplastic sheets were aged in deionized water and in artificial saliva over two weeks at 37 C, five in each medium. The force/torque generated on upper second premolar (Tooth 25) of a resin model was measured at day 0 (before aging), 2, 4, 6, 10, and 14, using a biomechanical test set-up. The results showed that the thermocycling of aligners has no significant impact on their force/torque decay. No significant differences were also found in force/torque between the aligners stored in deionized water nor artificial saliva. The vertical extrusion-intrusion forces were measured in the range of 1.4 to 4.6 N, the horizontal oro-vestibular forces were 1.3 to 2.5 N, while the torques on mesio-distal rotation were 5.4 to 41.7 Nmm. It could be concluded that the influence of saliva on the mechanical properties can be classified as insignificant, and no significant difference between artificial aging in deionized water or artificial saliva was observed.
Thu, 15 December 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0266.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: enzymatic hydrolysis; biomodified kraft pulp; cellulose; xylan; cryogel; crystallinity
Online: 15 December 2022 (06:23:58 CET)
The global development of bioeconomy is impossible without technologies for comprehensive processing of plant renewable resources. The use of proven pretreatment technologies raises the possibility of industrial implementation of enzymatic conversion of polysaccharides from lignocellulose considering the process complexity. For instance, a well-tuned kraft pulping produces a substrate easily degraded by cellulases and hemicelulases. Enzymatic hydrolysis of bleached hardwood kraft pulp was carried out using an enzyme complex of endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases, b-glucosidases and xylanases produced by recombinant strains of Penicillium verruculosum at a 10 FPU/g mixture rate and a 10 % substrate concentration. As a result of biocatalysis the following products are obtained: sugar solution, mainly glucose, xylobiose, xylose, as well as other minor reducing sugars; modified complex based on cellulose and xylan. The composition of biomodified kraft pulp was determined involving the use of HPLC. The method for determining the degree of crystallinity on an X-ray diffractometer was used to characterize the properties. The article shows the possibility of producing modified cellulose cryogels by amorphization with concentrated 85 % H3PO4 followed by precipitation with water and supercritical drying. Analysis of the enzymatic hydrolysate composition reveals the predominance of glucose (55...67 %) in reducing sugars with a maximum content of up to 6 % in the solution after 72 hours. The properties and structure of modified kraft pulp were shown to change during biocatalysis, in particular, the degree of crystallinity increased by 5 % after 3 hours of enzymatic hydrolysis. We obtained cryogels based on the initial and biomodified kraft pulp with conversion rates of 35, 50 and 70 %. The properties of these cryogels are not inferior to those based on industrial microcrystalline cellulose, as confirmed by the specific surface area, degree of swelling, porosity and SEM images. Thus, kraft pulp enzymatic hydrolysis offers prospects not only for producing sugar-rich hydrolysates for microbiological synthesis, but also for producing cellulose powders and cryogels with specified properties.
Wed, 7 December 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0115.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: bioactive glass; gelatin; tissue engineering; bone; composite
Online: 7 December 2022 (04:30:39 CET)
Nano/micron-sized bioactive glass (BG) particles are attractive candidates for both soft and hard tissue engineering. They can chemically bond to the host tissues, enhance new tissue formation, activate cell proliferation, stimulate the genetic expression of proteins, and trigger unique an-ti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer functionalities. Recently, composites based on bi-opolymers and BG particles have been developed with various state-of-the-art techniques for tis-sue engineering. Gelatin, a semi-synthetic biopolymer, has attracted the attention of researchers because it is derived from the most abundant protein in the body, viz., collagen. It is a polymer that can be dissolved in water and processed to acquire different configurations, such as hydro-gels, fibers, films, scaffolds, etc. Searching "bioactive glass gelatin" in the tile on Scopus renders 80 highly relevant articles published in the last ~10 years, which signifies the importance of such composites. First, this review addresses the basic concepts of soft and hard tissue engineering, in-cluding the healing mechanisms and limitations ahead. Then, current knowledge on gelatin/BG composites including composition, processing and properties is summarized and discussed both for soft and hard tissue applications. This review explores physical, chemical and mechanical features and ion-release effects of such composites concerning osteogenic and angiogenic respons-es in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, recent developments of BG/gelatin composites using 3D/4D printing for tissue engineering are presented. Finally, the perspectives and current challenges in developing desirable composites for the regeneration of different tissues are outlined.
Fri, 2 December 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0048.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: poly(hexamethylene biguanide); polyhexamethylene biguanide; polyhexanide; PHMB; membrane; controlled drug release; wound dressing; antimicrobial; cytotoxicity; wound healing
Online: 2 December 2022 (10:31:38 CET)
The prevalence for chronic, non-healing skin wounds in the general population, most notably diabetic foot ulcers, venous leg ulcers and pressure ulcers, is approximately 2% and is expected to increase, driven mostly by an aging population and the steady rise in obesity and diabetes. Non-healing wounds often become infected, increasing the risk of life-threatening complications, which poses a significant socioeconomic burden. Aiming at an improved management of infected wounds, a variety of wound dressings incorporating antimicrobials (AMDs), namely polyhexanide (poly(hexamethylene biguanide); PHMB), have been introduced in the wound care market. However, many wound care professionals agree that none shows comprehensive and optimal antimicrobial activity. This manuscript summarizes and discusses studies on novel PHMB-releasing membranes (PRMs) for wound dressings, detailing their preparation, physical properties relevant in the context of AMDs, drug loading and release, antibacterial activity, biocompatibility, wound healing capacity, and clinical trials conducted. Some of these PRMs were able to improve wound healing in in vivo models, with no associated cytotoxicity, but significant differences in study design make it difficult to compare overall effi-cacies. It is hoped that this review, which includes, whenever available, international standards for testing AMDs, will provide a framework for future studies.their preparation, physical properties relevant in the context of AMDs, drug loading and release, antibacterial activity, biocompatibility, wound healing capacity, and clinical trials conducted. Some of these PRMs were able to improve wound healing in in vivo models, with no associated cytotoxicity, but significant differences in study design make it difficult to compare overall efficacies. It is hoped that this review, which includes, whenever available, international standards for testing AMDs, will provide a framework for future studies.
Mon, 14 November 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0256.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: clove buds; choline chloride: lactic acid; extraction; design of experiment; eugenol
Online: 14 November 2022 (11:08:08 CET)
In this study, the effect of extraction conditions on the total phenolic content of clove buds was investigated. Clove buds were extracted using a deep eutectic solvents like mixtures choline chloride: lactic acid in the 1:2 molar ratio. Additionally, the HPLC-DAD method was used to determine the main components of the clove extracts, including eugenol, eugenol acetate, and β-caryophyllene. The conditions used in the extraction with choline chloride: lactic acid (molar ratio 1:2) included extraction temperature (t = 40 – 80°C), water addition (5.6 – 40%), and extraction time (30 – 90 min). Determination of the phenolic compounds was done by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The optimum operating conditions for the total phenolic content were identified at 77°C, 30 min, and a water addition of 40%. Based on the results, the highest amount of eugenol (307.26 ± 8,44 mg/g dry raw material) was determined in clove extracts which were extracted under condition of 60°C, 22.8%, and 30 min.
Thu, 10 November 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0191.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: UHMWPE; relative density; porosity; stress relaxation; operando analysis; Prony series; X-ray to-mography; Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS); Dyben 1.0 miniature 1 kN universal mechanical testing
Online: 10 November 2022 (05:58:50 CET)
The reported study was devoted to the investigation of viscoelastic behavior for solid and porous ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) under compression. The obtained experimental stress curves were interpreted using a two-term Prony series to represent the superposition of two coexisting activation processes corresponding to long molecular (~160 s) and short structural (~20 s) time scales, respectively, leading to good statistical correlation with the observations. In the case of porous polymer, the internal strain redistribution during relaxation was quantified using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) analysis. The strongly inhomogeneous deformation of the porous polymer was found not to affect the relaxation times. In order to generalize the results to three dimensions, X-ray tomography was used to examine the porous structure at the macro- and micro-scale levels. DIC analysis revealed positive correlation between the applied force and relative density. The apparent stiffness variation for UHMWPE foams with mixed open and closed cells was described using a newly proposed three-term expression. Furthermore, the in situ tensile loading and X-ray scattering study was applied for isotropic solid UHMWPE specimens to investigate their parameters of internal structure during orientation and stress relaxation process at another mode.
Fri, 4 November 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0092.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Jackfruit; Silver; Nanoparticles; Scaffold; Biomaterials
Online: 4 November 2022 (13:14:10 CET)
Starch is a widespread natural polymer used in healthcare applications due to its low cost and antibacterial properties. The use of starch in its many forms and its sometimes combination with metallic nanoparticles have all contributed to the advancement of biomaterials. However, few studies have been conducted on biocomposites composed of jackfruit starch and silver nanopar-ticles (AgNPs). As a result, this research aims to study the physicochemical, morphological, and cytotoxic features of a Brazilian jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) starch-based scaffold loaded with AgNPs. Gelatinization and chemical reduction were used to synthesize the scaffold and AgNPs, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were utilized to explore the properties. The findings supported the development of anisotropic, stable, monodispersed AgNPs. The presence of AgNPs in the scaffold matrix was revealed by XRD and SEM-EDS. AgNPs were found to modify the crystallinity, roughness, and thermal stability of the scaffold while leaving its chemical and physical characteristics unchanged. Finally, the scaffolds did not show adverse effects on the L929 cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0081.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: clay; polymer-matrix; nanocomposites; mechanical properties; morphology
Online: 4 November 2022 (01:06:01 CET)
In contrast to the traditional fillers, clay, in particular, natural smectite clay represents an environmentally significant alternative to improve the properties of polymers. Compared to con-ventional nanofillers, smectite clay can effectively enhance the physical and mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites with a relatively small amount of addition (< 5 wt%). The present study focuses on investigating the reinforcing efficiency of different amounts (up to 5 wt%) of a natural Brazilian smectite clay on the mechanical and thermal properties of poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) nanocomposites. Natural Brazilian clay modified by addition of quaternary salt and sodium carbonate (MBClay) was infused into the PBT polymer by melt extrusion, using a twin-screw extruder. It was found that the best properties for PBT were obtained at 3.7 wt% of modified BClay. Tensile strength at break exhibited an increase of about 60 %, flexural strength increased by 24 % and flexural modulus increased by 17 %. In addition, an increase in the crystallinity percentage of PBT/BClay nanocomposite was confirmed by DSC and XRD analysis, and a gain of about 45 % in HDT was successfully achieved due to incorporation of 3.7 wt% of MBClay.
Thu, 3 November 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0069.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: reconstituted lipid nanoparticles; drug delivery systems; solvent diffusion method
Online: 3 November 2022 (03:57:32 CET)
Nanomedicine holds great potential to devise better drug delivery systems (DDSs). However, many reported nanomedicines still fall short of commercial requirements including specific targetability, scale-up manufacturing and safety. Cell/tissue based carriers, including cell membrane vehicle and exosome, are biocompatible and targeting platforms but usually suffered from low yields and unstable reproducibility. Here in this study, we proposed the concept and preparation of reconstituted lipid nanoparticles (rLNPs) to develop highly reproducible cell/tissue based lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) for drug delivery, which holds the potential as a versatile drug delivery platform. The whole lipids of cell or tissue were firstly extracted and then prepared into rLNPs using solvent diffusion method. In this way, the preparation of ultra-small (~20 nm) rLNPs can be easily applied to both cell (mouse breast cancer cell line, 4T1) and tissue (mouse liver tissue). Our results demonstrated that mouse liver tissue derived rLNPs can be further labeled/modified with imaging, targeting or other functional moieties. Furthermore, rLNPs were highly biocompatible and capable of loading different drugs including doxorubicin hydrochloride (Dox) and curcumin (Cur). Most importantly, Dox loaded rLNPs (rLNPs/Dox) showed preferable in vitro and in vivo anticancer performance. Therefore, rLNPs might be a versatile drug delivery platform for future application in the treatment of a variety of diseases.
Mon, 24 October 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0325.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: nanozymes; circulating tumor nucleci acid; liquid biopsy; magnetic enrichment; minimal residual disease; cell-free RNA
Online: 24 October 2022 (10:33:57 CEST)
Iron oxide nanozymes are a form of nanomaterial with both superparamagnetic and enzyme-mimicking properties. Given the multifunctional nature of iron oxide nanozymes, it is attractive for creating iron oxide hybrid nanozymes through biomolecular modifications to imbue with auxillary properties. Such iron oxide hybrid nanozymes can be useful for rapid and cost-effective analysis of circulating tumor nucleic acids (ctNAs) in patient liquid biopsies during minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring of cancer recurrence. Herein, the use of streptavidin-modified iron oxide hybrid nanozymes is reported for magnetic enrichment and bioelectrocatalytic sensing of three prostate cancer (PCa) ctRNA biomarkers with high detection specificity and sensitivity (10 copies) over an ultrabroad dynamic range (five orders of magnitude). Furthermore, the feasibility of ctRNA analysis for pre- and post-cancer treatment MRD monitoring is demonstrated using PCa urinary liquid biopsy samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0354.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Spidroin; wet spinning; methanol
Online: 24 October 2022 (07:14:38 CEST)
Spider silk has excellent strength and elasticity in natural, researchers have been working for decades try to achieve natural spider silk outstanding mechanical properties using recombinant spider silk protein (spidroin) through artificial spinning. In this work, we chose wet spinning method to explore the relationship between concentration of coagulation bath and fiber performance. It was found that the concentration of methanol has important effect on fiber continuity, diameter and mechanical properties. Lower concentration favors spinning continuous thinner, fibers with high strain. Secondary stretching benefits spinning silk fibers with stable mechanical properties, and thermal stability. Through applying different methanol concentration and additional stretching, we obtained silk fibers with Young’s modulus of 3.052± 2.626 GPa, stress of 25.3944 ± 17.48 MPa, and strain of 140 ± 95.4%.
Fri, 21 October 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0325.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: nanozymes; circulating tumor nucleci acid; liquid biopsy; magnetic enrichment; minimal residual disease; cell-free RNA
Online: 21 October 2022 (09:35:59 CEST)
Iron oxide nanozymes are a form of nanomaterial with both superparamagnetic and enzyme-mimicking properties. Given the multifunctional nature of iron oxide nanozymes, it is attractive for creating iron oxide hybrid nanozymes through biomolecular modifications to imbue with auxillary properties. Such iron oxide hybrid nanozymes can be useful for rapid and cost-effective analysis of circulating tumor nucleic acids (ctNAs) in patient liquid biopsies during minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring of cancer recurrence. Herein, the use of streptavidin-modified iron oxide hybrid nanozymes is reported for magnetic enrichment and bioelectrcatalytic sensing of three prostate cancer (PCa) ctRNA biomarkers with high detection specificity and sensitivity (10 copies) over an ultrabroad dynamic range (five orders of magnitude). Furthermore, the feasibility of ctRNA analysis for pre- and post-cancer treatment MRD monitoring is demonstrated using PCa urinary liquid biopsy samples.
Fri, 30 September 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0471.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: biodegradable lubricating grease; friction; energy; penetration; sugar cane filter cake mud oil; temperature and wear
Online: 30 September 2022 (02:28:30 CEST)
Environment approachable products such as fuels and lubricants are among the best choices in several countries that contain renewable products as alternatives. To protect human life, alternative methods of saving the environment and production balance is needed to reduce the effects of the crisis and the contamination of the Environment. This research concentrated on the Manufacturing and testing of bio- grease from sugar cane filter mud vegetable oil as a lubricant for friction reduction and determining the properties of both bio grease and Mineral oil grease with environmental problems. SC filter mud oil as an alternative use for bio-grease preparation in addition to mineral oil grease. The Testing was accepted to determine the quality of the eco-friendly grease produced. For the preparation of this bio- grease, the SC Filter cake sample is taken from different sugar factory which found in Ethiopia. The sample has a moisture content of 78%. Using this sample first oil is extracted by Soxhlet apparatus, n-hexane solvent and temperature for extraction from 42 -68℃. The maximum temperature and time for extraction of oil were 68 and 7hrs respectively. The extracted oil's physical properties include color, acid value, specific graphite, saponification value, iodine value, density, and viscosity. Finally, the friction behavior in function of time for both grease at identical load, the friction coefficient vs time for SC filter Cake Grease_ Na_ MoS2 and industrial mineral one (I_ Greasily _ MoS2), grease was determined.
Fri, 23 September 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0365.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: pineapple; wastes; biorefinery; COVID-19; circular economy; biomedical.
Online: 23 September 2022 (09:22:33 CEST)
Pineapple is a highly demanded fruit in international markets, thanks to its unique appearance and flavor, high fiber content, vitamins, folic acid, and minerals. It makes the pineapple production and processing market a significant source of income for producing countries, such as Costa Rica. Nowadays, its processing produces a large amount of waste with negative consequences for the environment. However, pineapple waste is an essential source of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and other high-value products like enzymes (bromelain). These by-products can be obtained by pineapple waste biorefinery, generating an additional source of export goods and foreign currency, framing pineapple processing in the concept of the circular economy. This review discusses how incorporating biorefinery in the pineapple production processes can contribute to the post-COVID 19 economy in Costa Rica. Pineapple production in Costa Rica is explored, and the contamination of generated residues is delineated. Furthermore, the primary processes for by-product extraction via biorefinery, their general characteristics and applications in the medical field, and their contribution to the circular economy are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0356.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: PEG; viability; osteoblasts; fibroblasts; pH; polyurethane; polyethylene glycol
Online: 23 September 2022 (03:52:52 CEST)
Grafting polyethylene glycol (PEG) on polymers surface is widely used to improve biocompatibility by reducing protein and cell adhesion. Although PEG is considered to be bioinert, its incorporation to biomaterials has shown to improve cell viability depending on the amount and molecular weight (MW) used. This phenomenon was studied here by grafting PEG of three MW onto polyurethane (PU) substrata at three molar concentrations to assess their effect on PU surface properties and on the viability of osteoblasts and fibroblasts. PEG formed a covering on the substrata which increased the hydrophilicity and surface energy of PUs. Among the results it was observed that osteoblast viability increased for all MW and grafting densities of PEG employed compared with unmodified PU. However, fibroblast viability only increased at certain combinations of MW and grafting densities of PEG, suggesting an optimal level of these parameters. PEG grafting also promoted a more spread cell morphology than that exhibited by unmodified PU; nevertheless, cells became apoptotic-like as PEG MW and grafting density were increased. These effects on cells could be due to PEG affecting culture medium pH, which became more alkaline at higher MW and concentrations of PEG. Results support the hypothesis that surface energy of PU substrates can be tuned by controlling the MW and grafting density of PEG, but these parameters should be optimized to promote cell viability without inducing apoptotic-like behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0352.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: bioreactor; secondary caries; caries model; DCPD; micro-CT
Online: 23 September 2022 (03:00:11 CEST)
This study evaluated the efficacy of experimental TEGDMA-functionalized dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (T-DCPD) filler-based resin-based composites (RBC) in preventing caries lesions around the restoration margins (secondary caries”, SC). Standardized Class-II cavities were made in sound molars having the cervical margin in dentin. Cavities were filled with a commercial resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC) or experimental RBCs containing a BisGMA-TEGDMA resin blend and one of the following inorganic fractions: 60 wt.% Ba glass (RBC-0); 40 wt.% Ba glass, 20 wt.% T-DCPD (RBC-20); 20 wt.% Ba glass, 40 wt.% T-DCPD (RBC-40). An open-system bioreactor produced S. mutans biofilm-driven SC. Specimens were scanned using micro-CT to evaluate demineralization depths. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy characterized the specimens’ surfaces, while antimicrobial activity, buffering effect, and ion uptake by the biofilms were also evaluated. ANOVA and Tukey’s test were applied at p<0.05. RBC-0 and RBC-20 showed SC development in dentin, while RBC-40 and RMGIC significantly reduced the lesion depth at the restoration margin (p<0.0001). Initial enamel demineralization could be observed only around RBC-0 and RBC-20 restorations. A direct antibiofilm activity could explain SC reduction by RMGIC, while a buffering effect on biofilm’s acidogenicity explained the behavior of RBC-40. Experimental RBC with CaP-releasing functionalized T-DCPD filler could prevent SC with the same efficacy as F-releasing materials.
Thu, 15 September 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0222.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: PEDOT:PSS; Neural recording; Immune response; BMI
Online: 15 September 2022 (08:04:38 CEST)
One of the significant challenges today in the brain-machine interface using invasive methods is the stability of the chronic record. In recent years, polymer-based electrodes have gained notoriety for achieving mechanical strength values close to that of brain tissue, promoting a lower immune response to the implant. In this work, we fabricated fully polymeric electrodes based on PEDOT:PSS for neural recording in Wistar rats. We characterized the electrical properties and both in-vitro and in-vivo functionality of the electrodes. Also, we employed histological processing and microscopical visualization to evaluate tecidual immune response in 7, 14, and 21 days post-implant days. Electrodes with 400-micrometer channels showed a 12dB signal-to-noise ratio. Local field potentials were characterized under two conditions: anesthetized and free-moving. There was a proliferation of microglia to the tissue-electrode interface in the first days, with a decrease after 14 days. Astrocytes also migrated to the interface, but there was no continuous recruitment of these cells in the tissue, showing inflammatory stability at 21 days. The signal was not affected by this inflammatory action, demonstrating that fully polymeric electrodes can be an alternative to prolong the valuable time of neural recordings.
Mon, 12 September 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0144.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Biocomposites (A); Natural fibres (A); Thermomechanical properties (B); Annealing (E); Biocompatibility
Online: 12 September 2022 (09:58:48 CEST)
Several biomedical products, like scaffolds, implants, prostheses, and orthoses, require materials having superior physicochemical and biological properties. Polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) is being increasingly used for various biomedical applications. There are a few studies on PETG-based composites, however, natural fibers like silk short fibers reinfored PETG composites have not been attempted. Being a cost-effective widely available material, PETG-Silk combination can be potential biocomposite for several biomedical applications. Here, we report a novel short silk fiber reinforced PETG composite prepared by a wet-mixing route, ensuring homogenous dispersion of the filler. Different ratios (2-10%) of short silk fibers were used to prepare composites with varied compositions. The mechanical, physicochemical, and biological properties of the prepared composites were analyzed. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that such composites are thermally stable up to 390 °C and can be used for thermal extrusion-based manufacturing. The tensile modulus of the samples increased with fiber content; however, the failure strain reduced with fiber content. Furthermore, upon annealing, the tensile modulus increased but, the failure strain of the composites decreased, XRD study revealed that heat treatment has altered the crystalline nature of the composites. Finally, we evaluated the cytocompatibility of the prepared composites to assess their suitability for various biomedical applications.
Fri, 9 September 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0128.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Hydrogels; polymers; regeneration; antibacterial; drug release; garlic; alicin
Online: 9 September 2022 (03:56:12 CEST)
Hydrogels can provide instant relief to pain and facilitate the fast recovery of wounds. Currently the incorporation of medicinal herbs/plants in polymer matrix is being investigated due to their anti-bacterial and wound healing properties. Herein, we investigated the novel combination of chitosan (CS), chondroitin sulfate (CHI) and garlic (Gar) to synthesize hydrogels through freeze gelation process for faster wound healing and resistance to microbial growth at the wound surface. The synthesized hydrogels were characterized via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), which confirmed the presence of relevant functional groups. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images exhibited the porous structure of the hydrogels, which is useful for the sustained release of Gar from the hydrogels. The synthesized hydrogels showed significant inhibition zones against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Furthermore, cell culture studies confirmed the cyto-compatibility of the synthesized hydrogels. Thus, the novel hydrogels presented in this study can offer antibacterial effect during wound healing and promote tissue regeneration.
Wed, 31 August 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0534.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Targeted Adenoviral Vectors (Ad), Streptavidin-Polylysine (STAVpLys), messenger Ribonucleic Acid (mRNA)
Online: 31 August 2022 (05:08:33 CEST)
Molecular therapies exploiting mRNA vectors embody enormous potential, as evidenced by the utility of this technology for the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. None-the-less, broad implementation of these promising strategies has been restricted by the limited repertoires of delivery vehicles capable of mRNA transport. On this basis, we explored a strategy based on exploiting the well characterized entry biology of adenovirus. To this end, we studied an adenovirus-polylysine (AdpL) that embodied “piggyback” transport of the mRNA on the capsid exterior of adenovirus. We hypothesized that the efficient steps of Ad binding, receptor-mediated entry, and capsid-mediated endosome escape could provide an effective pathway for transport of mRNA to the cellular cytosol for transgene expression. Our studies confirmed that AdpL could mediate effective gene transfer of mRNA vectors in vitro and in vivo. Facets of this method may offer key utilities to feasibilize the promise of mRNA-based therapeutics.
Tue, 2 August 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0066.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Mesoporous silica; Polyacrylic acid; Calcium ion; 5-Fluorouracil; Drug delivery
Online: 2 August 2022 (12:15:03 CEST)
In this work, polyacrylic acid-functionalized MCM-41 was synthesized, which was further interacted with calcium ions, to realize enhanced pH-responsive nanocarrier for sustained drug release. First, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were prepared by the sol-gel method. Afterward, (3-trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMSPM) modified surface was prepared by using the post-grafting method, then polymerization of acrylic acid was proceeded. After adding calcium chloride solution, polyacrylic acid-functionalized MSNs with calcium-carboxyl ionic bonds in the polymeric layer, which can prevent the cargo from leaking out of the mesopore, were prepared. The structure and morphology of the modified nanoparticles (PAA-MSNs) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, etc. The controlled release of guest molecules was studied by using 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The drug molecules-incorporated nanoparticles showed different releasing rates under different pH conditions. It is considered that our current materials have the potential as pH-responsive targeted nanocarriers in the field of medical treatment.
Thu, 14 July 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0203.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: lignin; nanocomposite; nanofiber; optimization; percent elongation; starch; tensile strength; Young’s modulus
Online: 14 July 2022 (03:50:51 CEST)
The optimization of production of lignin-nanofiber-filled thermoplastic starch composite film for potential application in food packaging was carried using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), through the adoption of the Box-Wilson Central Composite Design (CCD) with 1 center point. The effects of filler loading on moisture absorption (MAB), tensile strength [TS], percent elongation [PE] and Young’s modulus [YM]) of the films were investigated in order to construct the desirability indices of the composite. The quality of the fitting model was expressed by the coefficient of determination, R2 and the adjusted R2. Results showed that the nanocomposite films were best fitted by a quadratic regression model with a high coefficient of determination (?2) value. The selected film has desirability of 76.80%, close to the objective function, and contained 4.81% lignin and 5.00% nanofibre. The MAB, TS, YM and PE of the selected film were 17.80 %, 21.51 MPa, 25.76 MPa and 48.81%, respectively. The addition of lignin and nanofiber to starch composite reduced the moisture absorption tendency but increased the mechanical properties of the films due to the good filler/matrix interfacial adhesion. Conclusively, results suggested that these films would be suitable for packaging application.
Tue, 5 July 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0073.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: calcium pyrophosphate; calcium polyphosphate; biocompatibility; bone implants; regenerative medicine
Online: 5 July 2022 (13:13:30 CEST)
Biocompatibility of ceramic materials in CaO-P2O5 system was investigated using different methods, including in vitro and in vivo tests. Ceramics based on calcium pyrophosphate Ca2P2O7 were obtained by annealing cement-salt stone from highly concentrated hardening suspensions (HCHS). Cement-salt stone was prepared using powder mixtures of calcium citrate tetrahydrate Ca3(C6H5O7)2·4H2O and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O. These salts were mixed with each other in such a way that calcium pyrophosphate and calcium polyphosphate were present in the final ceramic product in the following weight ratios: Ca(PO3)2/Ca2P2O7 = 0/100; 5/95; 10/90 and 20/80. Distilled water was added to a homogenized powder mixtures of Ca3(C6H5O7)2·4H2O and Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O by a water/solid ratio of 0,5 by weight. The obtained suspensions were shaped using silicon molds and left to dry in air for a week. The phase composition of the obtained samples of cement-salt stone was represented by brushite CaHPO4·2H2O, monetite CaHPO4, calcium citrate tetrahydrate Ca3(C6H5O7)2·4H2O and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O. According to the XRD data, the phase composition of ceramic materials after annealing in the temperature range of 800-1000 0C was mainly represented by the β-Ca2P2O7 phase. In vivo tests shown that obtained ceramic materials can be recommended for regenerative treatments for bone defects.
Fri, 1 July 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0023.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: electrospinning; morphology structures; propolis; polycaprolactone; drug delivery
Online: 1 July 2022 (17:39:00 CEST)
The structure of wound dressing materials presents one of the most relevant characteristics for effective skin tissue repair. Electrospinning is a common technique used to produce polymeric fibres that can mimic fibrillar disposition of skin extracellular matrix, favouring cell migration, and thus regeneration of the damaged tissue. Moreover, beads, also known as by-products of electrospinning, have potential as reservoirs for sustained drug release. Processing parameters, such as molecular weight and viscosity of the polymer solution, can affect the desirable morphologies of electrospun films. Thereby, this work had the purpose of producing and characterized electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) mats loaded with propolis, a popular extract in traditional medicine with potential for skin repair aid. Films with different morphologies were obtained depending on the storage period of the solution prior to the lectrospinning, probably due to the PCL hydrolysis. FTIR analyses of the extract confirmed propolis composition. GPC and viscosity analyses demonstrated that the decrease in molar mass over the storage period was responsible for nanostructure diversity. Propolis acts as a lubricant agent, affecting the spun solutions' viscosity and the thermal properties and hydrophilicity of the films. All films are within the value range of the water vapour transpiration rate of the commercial products. The presence of beads did not affect the propolis release pattern. However, "in vitro" wound healing assay showed that propolis-loaded films composed by beaded fibres increased the cell migration process. Thus, it can be inferred that these films presented the potential for wound dressing application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0013.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: fish scale powder; high-speed grinding; heat treatment; hydroxyapatite; magnesium whitlockite; nanosized grain
Online: 1 July 2022 (10:05:25 CEST)
Mixture of abramis brama (freshwater bream), carassius carassius (crucian carp), and sander lucioperca (pike perch) scales was used for the preparation of fish scale powder containing about 26.5 wt. % of removed when heating components preferably of organic nature, and 63.5 wt. % of mineral components. Fish scale powder enriched with inorganic components was prepared from washed, dried, and ground fish scale mixture using vibration sieving. Inorganic powders consisting of hydroxyapatite and magnesium whitlockite were obtained via heat treatment of this fish scale powder at 800-1000 oC. Particles of these inorganic powders consisted of sintered grains with dimensions less than 100 nm after heat treatment at 800 oC, less than 200 nm after heat treatment at 900 oC, and 100-500 nm after heat treatment at 1000 oC. Fish scale powder enriched with inorganic components as well as heat-treated inorganic powders consisting of hydroxyapatite and magnesium whitlockite can be recommended for the production of different materials such as ceramics or composites.
Fri, 24 June 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0338.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: wood; size effect; Weibull; weakest link; strength; timber; lumber
Online: 24 June 2022 (10:41:14 CEST)
This review critically examines the various ways in which the mechanical properties of wood have been understood. Despite the immense global importance of wood in construction, most understanding of its elastic and inelastic properties is based on models developed for other materials. Such models neglect wood’s cellular and fibrous nature. This review thus questions how well models that were originally developed for homogeneous and effectively continuous materials can describe wood’s mechanical properties. For example, the elastic moduli of wood have been found by many authors to depend on the size of the test specimen. Such observations are incompatible with classical elasticity theory. There is also much uncertainty about how well elastic moduli can be defined for wood. An analysis of different models for size effects of various inelastic properties of wood shows that these models only approximate the observed behaviour, and do not predict or explain the scatter in the results. A more complete understanding of wood’s mechanical properties must take account of it being in some sense intermediate between a material and a structure.
Mon, 13 June 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0183.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Biomarkers; Drug Signature Identification; Key pathways; Oral Cancer; Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Online: 13 June 2022 (10:14:58 CEST)
Background: Oral cancer (OC) is serious health concerning issue that has a high fatality rate. The oral cavity has seven kinds of OC, including the lip, tongue, and floor of the mouth, as well as the buccal, hard palate, alveolar, retromolar trigone, and soft palate. The goal of this study is to look into new biomarkers and important pathways that might be used as diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic candidates in OC. Methods: Publicly available repository the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) was responsible to collect OC-related datasets. GSE74530, GSE23558, and GSE3524 microarray datasets were collected to apply analysis. Minimum cut-off criteria of |log fold-change (FC)| > 1 and adjusted p < 0.05 were applied to figure out the up-regulated and down-regulated differential expression genes (DEGs) from the three datasets. After that only common DEGs in all three datasets were collected to apply further analysis. Gene ontology (GO) and Pathway analysis were implemented to explore the functional behaviors of DEGs. Then protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were built to identify the most performed genes, clustering algorithm was also implemented to identify complex parts of PPI. TF-miRNA networks were also constructed to study deeply about OC-associated DEGs. Finally, top gene performers from PPI networks were used to apply drug signature analysis. Results: After applying filtration and cut-off criteria 2508, 3377, and 670 DEGs were found for GSE74530, GSE23558, and GSE3524 respectively, and 166 common DEGs were found in every dataset. The GO annotation remarks that most of the DEGs were associated with the terms of type I interferon signaling pathway. The pathways of KEGG reported that the common DEGs are related to the Cell cycle and Influenza A. The PPI network holds 88 nodes and 492 edges and CDC6 had the highest number of connections. 4 clusters were identified from the PPI. Drug signatures doxorubicin and resveratrol showed high significance according to the hub genes. We anticipate that our bioinformatics research will aid in the definition of the pathophysiology and the development of new therapies for OC.
Mon, 30 May 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0396.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: scaffold; collagen vitrigel; tissue engineering; cornea; corneal endothelium
Online: 30 May 2022 (11:25:19 CEST)
We set a feasible method to produce tailored collagen scaffolds and analyzed its potential for corneal engineering. Collagen-vitrigel membranes (CVM) were produced with a 1:1 ratio of Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM), 1% antibiotics and 8% fetal bovine serum, and 5mg/mL collagen type I. Three volumes of collagen were used: 1X (2.8 L/mm2 of collagen), 2X, and 3X. Vitrification was done at 40% relative humidity (RH), 40° C, and 30 rpm using a matryoshka system set with a shaking-oven and a desiccator with a saturated K2CO3 solution. The CVM was characterized for width, microstructure, transparency, and biocompatibility using NIH3T3 cells. Surgical manipulation was assessed in an ex vivo corneal model. Constructs of corneal endothelial cells (CECs) and 2X-CVM were transplanted into five 18-month-old White New Zealand rabbits. CVM exhibited homogeneous surface and laminar organization. Membrane width increased with gel volume from 3.65µm to 7.2µm. 1X and 2X-CVM exhibited a 99% transmittance. NIH3T3 cells concentration increased 3-fold within 48 h with no significant difference among the 3 CVM (p = 0.323). The 2X-CVM was surgically manipulable. Transplantation of corneal endothelial cells (CECs) seeded over 2X-CVM restored corneal endothelium. The matrioshka system is a feasible method that yields CVM suitable for corneal engineering.
Wed, 25 May 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0348.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: zirconia; molecular precursor method; dental-implant; osseointegration; bone-to-implant contact
Online: 25 May 2022 (10:10:35 CEST)
In previous studies regarding the osseointegration of zirconia (ZrO2) implants, a lack of consistency was observed in the surface topographies of the ZrO2 and Ti samples because of the difficult processability of ZrO2 surfaces. To resolve this problem, we used the molecular precursor method (wet process), which is a surface-modifying technique that can easily change the surface chemistry without changing the surface topography. A roughened Ti surface was prepared using sandblasting (large-grit) and acid treatment. We were able to create ZrO2-coated Ti implants with the same topography as that of roughened Ti substrates using the molecular precursor method, which solution contained a Zr complex. The uniform presence of tetragonal Zr was confirmed, and the apparent zeta potential of the surface of the ZrO2-coated Ti implant was higher than that of Ti. In animal experiments, ZrO2-coated Ti implants showed an equivalent or higher bone-to-implant contact ratio compared to that of the non-coated implants inserted into the femur bone defects of the rats. ZrO2 with the same surface topography as that of roughened Ti exhibits a promotion of osteogenesis equivalent to or better than that of Ti in the early stages of bone formation.
Thu, 12 May 2022
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0159.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: uncoated silicon nanoparticles; aggregation; in vivo toxicity; LC50 for Danio rerio larvae
Online: 12 May 2022 (07:39:46 CEST)
Silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) are highly promising for biological and biomedical applications, including bioimaging, due to their unique opltical properties (i.e. strong fluorescence and very high photostability). Their low or negligible in vitro toxicity has been reported, but in vivo toxicity and biological effects of SiNPs are still uncertain. Uncoated SiNPs were dispersed in distilled water via sonication, and their rapid aggregation was observed (319.0 ± 2.4 nm particle size). In vivo toxicity was studied using Danio rerio embryos and larvae. Rapid aggregation in their incubation medium was observed; besides that, SiNPs at 25 mg/L or higher concentration induced swim bladder malformation and/or death of the fish. The estimated LC50 value for 7-day larvae was 180 mg/L. This is the first in vivo toxicity study of uncoated and unfunctionalized SiNPs. To achieve better stability in biological media and lower toxicity, SiNPs should be covered with hydrophilic layers, but their absorption by cellular membranes may be weaker in this case.
Thu, 28 April 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0284.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA); P(3HB-co-4HB); Aneurinibacillus sp. H1; mechanical properties; surface morphology; crystallinity; active ingredients release
Online: 28 April 2022 (10:56:43 CEST)
Films prepared from poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) copolymers produced by Aneurinibacillus sp. H1 using an automatic film applicator were homogeneous and had a defined thickness, which allowed a detailed study of physicochemical properties. Their properties were compared with a poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) homopolymer film prepared by the same procedure, which proved to be significantly more crystalline by DSC and XRD. Structural differences between samples had a major impact on their properties. With increasing 4-hydroxybutyrate content, the ductility and release rate of the model hydrophilic active ingredient increased significantly. Other observed properties, such as the release of the hydrophobic active substance, the contact angle with water and ethylene glycol, or the surface morphology and roughness, were also affected by the composition. The identified properties predetermine these copolymers for wide use in areas such as biomedicine or smart biodegradable packaging for food or cosmetics. The big advantage is the possibility of fine-tuning properties simply by changing the fermentation conditions.
Wed, 27 April 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0259.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA); Aneurinibacillus sp. H1; PHA copolymers; biodegradation; simulated body fluids
Online: 27 April 2022 (10:45:30 CEST)
Novel model of biodegradable PHA copolymer films preparation was applied to evaluate biodegradability of various PHA copolymers and discuss its biomedical applicability. In this study, we illustrate the potential biomaterial degradation rate affectability by manipulation of monomer composition via controlling biosynthetic strategies. Within the experimental investigation, we have prepared two different copolymers of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 4-hydroxybutyrate – P(3HB-co-36 mol.% 4HB) and P(3HB-co-66 mol.% 4HB), by cultivating thermophilic bacterial strain Aneurinibacillus sp. H1 and further investigated its degradability in simulated body fluids (SBFs). Both copolymers revealed faster weight reduction in synthetic gastric juice (SGJ) and artificial colonic fluid (ACF) than simple homopolymer P3HB. In addition, degradation mechanisms differed across tested polymers, according to SEM micrographs. While incubated in SGJ, samples were fragmented due to fast hydrolysis sourcing from substantially low pH, which suggest abiotic degradation as the major degradation mechanism. On the contrary, ACF incubation indicated obvious enzymatic hydrolysis. Further, no cytotoxicity of the waste fluids was observed on CaCO-2 cell line. Based on these results in combination with high production flexibility, we suggest P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymers produced by Aneurinibacillus sp. H1 as very auspicious polymers for intestinal in vivo treatments.
Thu, 21 April 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0192.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: pineapple; wastes; biorefinery; COVID-19; circular economy; biomedical
Online: 21 April 2022 (07:54:36 CEST)
Pineapple is a highly demanded fruit in international markets, thanks to its unique appearance and flavor, high fiber content, vitamins, folic acid, and minerals. It makes the pineapple production and processing market a significant source of income for producing countries, such as Costa Rica. Nowadays, its processing produces a large amount of waste with negative consequences for the environment. However, pineapple waste is an essential source of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and other high-value products like enzymes (bromelain). These by-products can be obtained by pineapple waste biorefinery, generating an additional source of export goods and foreign currency, framing pineapple processing in the concept of the circular economy. This review discusses how incorporating biorefinery in the pineapple production processes can contribute to the post-COVID 19 economy in Costa Rica. Pineapple production in Costa Rica is explored, and the contamination of generated residues is delineated. Furthermore, the primary processes for by-product extraction via biorefinery, their general characteristics and applications in the medical field, and their contribution to the circular economy are presented.
Wed, 20 April 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0026.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: elastomers; hydrogels; elastomer-hydrogel systems; injectable biomaterials; adhesive surfaces; tissue engineering
Online: 20 April 2022 (11:39:28 CEST)
Novel advanced biomaterials have recently gained great attention, especially in surgical minimally invasive techniques. Applying sophisticated design and engineering methods, various elastomer-hydrogel systems (EHS) with outstanding performance have been developed in last decades. Those systems composed of elastomers and hydrogels are very attractive due to their high biocompatibility, injectability, controlled porosity and often antimicrobial properties. Moreover, elastomeric properties and bioadhesiveness are making them suitable for soft tissue engineering. Herein, we present the advances in current state-of-the-art design principles and strategies for strong interface formation inspired by nature (bio-inspiration), diverse properties and applications of elastomer-hydrogel systems in different medical fields, in particular, in tissue engineering. Functionalities of those systems, including adhesive properties, injectability, antimicrobial properties and degradability applicable to tissue engineering will be discussed in a context of future efforts towards development of advanced biomaterials.
Fri, 15 April 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0148.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Cellulose Nanofiber; Organoclay; PCM; Thermal Energy Storage; Building; Composite materials
Online: 15 April 2022 (14:55:52 CEST)
In this research, Cellulose Nanofibers (NFC) modified with a eutectic of lauric acid (LA) was prepared as a new form-stable phase change material (NFC-LA). Thermal properties of this composite were investigated by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The results revealed that the melting temperature and latent heat of NFC/LA were 21.56 °C and 88.5 J/g, respectively; and the super cooling degree for the NFC-LA composite decreased to 13.99 °C when compared to 20.28 °C of the pure lauric acid. Natural clay was purified and modified with Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) to prepare organoclay. Through FTIR spectra, we have confirmed that the clay was successfully modified. The PCM-composite was then added to the organoclay to obtain a new composite denoted NFC-LA-OC. this latter was added to cement and was investigated as a reinforcement material in cement mortars for thermal energy storage application. The prepared material can both solve the leakage problem associated to the phase change material, and reduce or even avoid the use of heating and air conditioning systems, which are energy-intensive systems, and therefore reduce energy consumption.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0142.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: metallic ions; biomedical; antibacterial; osteoporosis; therapeutic
Online: 15 April 2022 (10:27:18 CEST)
This review focuses on the therapeutic effects of metallic ions when released in physiological environments. Recent studies have shown that metallic ions like Ag+, Sr2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Ca2+, P+5, etc., have shown promising results in drug delivery systems and regenerative medicine. These metallic ions can be loaded in nanoparticles, mesoporous bioactive glass nanoparticles (MBGNs), hydroxyapatite (HA), calcium phosphates, polymeric coatings, and salt solutions. The metallic ions can exhibit different functions in the physiological environment such as antibacterial, antiviral, anti-cancer, bioactive, biocompatible, and angiogenic effect. Furthermore, the metallic ions can be loaded in scaffolds to improve osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, bone development, fibroblast growth, and improved wound healing efficacy. Moreover, different metallic ions possess different therapeutic limits. Therefore, further mechanisms need to be developed for the highly controlled and sustained release of these ions. This review paper summarizes the recent progress in the use of metallic ions in regenerative medicine and encourages further study of metallic ions as a solution to cure diseases.
Wed, 6 April 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0049.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: L-asparaginase; Enzyme immobilization; Carbon xerogels; Physical adsorption; Central Composite Design
Online: 6 April 2022 (13:49:49 CEST)
L-asparaginase (ASNase) is an aminohydrolase currently used in the pharmaceutical and food industries. Enzyme immobilization is an exciting option for both applications, allowing a more straightforward recovery and increased stability. High surface area and customizable porosity make carbon xerogels (CXs) promising materials for ASNase immobilization. This work describes the influence of contact time, pH, and ASNase concentration on the immobilization yield (IY) and relative recovered activity (RRA) using Central Composite Design methodology. The most promising results were obtained using CX with an average pore size of 4 nm (CX-4), reaching IY and RRA of 100%. At the optimal conditions, the ASNase-CXs biocomposite was characterized and evaluated in terms of kinetic properties and operational, thermal and pH stabilities. The immobilized ASNase onto CX-4 retained 71% of its original activity after six continuous reaction cycles, showed a good thermal stability at 37 °C (RRA of 91% after 90 min) and was able to adapt to both acidic and alkaline environments. Finally, the results indicated a 3.9-fold increase in the immobilized ASNase affinity for the substrate, confirming the potential of CXs as a support for ASNase and as a cost-effective tool for subsequent use in the therapeutic and food sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0041.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: multicore magnetic nanoparticles; magnetoliposomes; magnetic hyperthermia; antitumor thienopyridine derivative; chemotherapy
Online: 6 April 2022 (10:27:22 CEST)
Multicore magnetic nanoparticles of manganese ferrite were prepared using carboxymethyl-dextran and melamine as agglutinating agents. The nanoparticles prepared using melamine exhibit a flower-shape structure, a saturation magnetization of 6.16 emu/g and good capabilities for magnetic hyperthermia. Magnetoliposome-like structures containing the multicore nanoparticles exhibit sizes in the range 250 – 400 nm. A new antitumor thienopyridine derivative was loaded in these nanocarriers with a high encapsulation efficiency of 98% ± 2.6%. Release profiles in absence and presence of an AMF indicate a transport by diffusion, with a maximum compound release of 31% under the AMF. A sustained and controlled drug release in anticipated from the results, pointing to suitable characteristics of the magnetoliposomes for dual cancer therapy (combined magnetic hyperthermia and chemotherapy).
Wed, 2 March 2022
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0035.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: calcium alginate; SARS-CoV-2; bacteriophage; phi 6; biomaterials; films; hydrogels
Online: 2 March 2022 (07:17:08 CET)
The current pandemic is urgently demanding to discover alternative materials capable of inactivate the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease. Calcium alginate is a crosslinked hydrophilic biopolymer with an immense range of biomedical applications due to its excellent chemical, physical and biological properties. In this study, the cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of calcium alginate in the form of films were studied. The results showed that these films are biocompatible in human keratinocytes and are capable of inactivating enveloped viruses such as bacteriophage phi 6 with a 1.43-log reduction (94.92% viral inactivation) and SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant with a 1.64-log reduction (96.94% viral inactivation) in virus titers. The antiviral activity of these calcium alginate films can be attributed to its negative charge density that may bind to viral envelopes inactivating membrane receptors.
Wed, 23 February 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0290.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: calcium lactate pentahydrate; monocalcium phosphate monohydrate; mechanical activation; powder; brushite; monetite; calcium pyrophosphate; ceramics; biocompatibility
Online: 23 February 2022 (12:07:43 CET)
Ceramic samples based on b-calcium pyrophosphate b-Ca2P2O7 were prepared using firing at 900, 1000, and 1100 oC from powders of g-calcium pyrophosphate g-Ca2P2O7 with preset molar ratios Ca/P=1; 0,975 and 0,95. To prepare powders of g-calcium pyrophosphate g-Ca2P2O7 with preset molar ratio Ca/P=1; 0,975 and 0,95 powder mixtures based on calcium lactate pentahydrate Ca(C3H5O3)2⋅5H2O and, monocalcium phosphate monohydrate Ca(H2PO4)2⋅H2O were treated in an aqua medium in mechanical activation conditions, dried, disaggregated in acetone, and heat-treated at 600 oC. The phase composition of powder mixtures after treatment if planetary mill in aqua medium included both brushite CaHPO4⋅2H2O or monetite CaHPO4, and starting salts. The phase composition of all powder mixtures after disaggregation in acetone in planetary mill included monetite CaHPO4 and starting salts. After heat treatment at 600 oC according to the XRD data phase composition of all powder mixtures was presented by g-calcium pyrophosphate g-Ca2P2O7. The grain size of ceramics increased both with the growth of firing temperature and with decreasing of molar ratio Ca/P of powder mixtures. Calcium polyphosphate (t melt =960–968 oC) formed from monocalcium phosphate monohydrate Ca(H2PO4)2⋅H2O acted like a liquid phase sintering additive. It was confirmed by tests in vitro, that prepared ceramic materials with preset molar ratio Ca/P=1; 0,975 and 0,95 and phase composition presented by b-calcium pyrophosphate b-Ca2P2O7 according to XRD data were biocompatible and could maintain bone cells proliferation.
Tue, 22 February 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0262.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Ruthenium complex; Carbon monoxide releasing molecule; Hydrophilicity, PEGylation
Online: 22 February 2022 (03:38:19 CET)
The poor water-solubility and instability of Ru(II) carbonyl complex hamper the therapeutic application as CO releasing materials (CO-RMs). To enhance the hydrophilicity and bio-utility of CO, a robust Ru(I) carbonyl sawhorse skeleton were grafted with water-soluble PEGlyated sidearms. Twelve PEGlyted sawhorse Ru2(CO)4 complexes were prepared with satisfactory yields and characterized by IR and 1H- and 13C- NMR. X-ray diffraction analysis of CO-RM 8, 13 and 14 revealed the featured diruthenium sawhorse skeleton and PEGylated axial ligands. The ﬂask-shaking method measures the hydrophilicity of CO-RMs, indicating that both bridging carboxylate ligand and PEGlyated axial ligands regulate the hydrophilicity of these CO-RMs. Under photolysis conditions, CO-RM 4-13 sustainable released therapeutic amounts of CO in myoglobin assay. The correlation of the CO release kinetics and hydrophilicity of CO-RMs demonstrated that the more hydrophilic CO-RM released CO faster. The biological test found the low cytotoxic CO-RM 4 showed a specific anticancer activity toward HT-29 tumour cells.
Mon, 21 February 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0244.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: wood combustion; sawdust pellets; solid woods; heat calorific value; ash content; bio-energy; Papua New Guinea
Online: 21 February 2022 (03:23:34 CET)
Burning woody biomass for energy is gaining attention due to environmental issues associated with fossil fuels and carbon emission. The carbon released from burning wood is absorbed by plants and is carbon neutral. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combustion characteristics (heat calorific values and ash contents) of three timbers: Araucaria cunninghamii, Instia bijuga and Pometia pinnata and recommend for fuelwood. The test samples were sawdust particles (treatment) and solid woods (control) extracted from the heartwoods. The sawdust particles were oven-dried, sieved and pelletized into pellets using a hand-held pelletizing device, thus, forming cylindrical dimension (volume 1178.57 mm3, oven dry density 0.0008 g/mm3). While the solid woods were cubed and oven-dried (volume 1000.00 mm3, oven dry density 0.001 g/mm3). Prior to combustion in a semi-automatic bomb calorimeter, 90 test specimens (15 replicates per treatment and control per species) were conditioned to 14 % moisture content (at temperature 105 ºC) and weighed to a constant (unit) mass (1.0 g). The heat energy outputs and ash residues (of treatments) were analyzed statistically. The results indicated variability in heat energy outputs and ash residues between test specimens of the three species. Comparatively, the treatment specimens of A. cunninghamii produced higher calorific value (18.546 kJ/g) than the control (18.376 kJ/g) whilst the treatment specimens of I. bijuga and P. pinnata generated lower heat calorific values (17.124 kJ/g and 18.822 kJ/g) than the control (18.415 kJ/g and 20.659 kJ/g), respectively. According to ash content analysis, A. cunninghamii generated higher residues (6.3%) followed by P. pinnata (4.5%) and I. bijuga (2.8%). The treatment specimens of the three species could not meet the standard heat energy requirement (20.0 kJ/g) and thus, were unsuitable for fuelwood. However, the control specimens of P. pinnata generated equivalent heat energy (20.659 kJ/g) and could be a potential fuelwood.
Wed, 2 February 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0039.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: hydroxyapatite; oxalic acid; powder, whewellite, weddellite, calcium oxalate monohydrate, brushite, calcium hydrophosphate dihydrate, heterophase reaction, ceramics, microporosity
Online: 2 February 2022 (15:45:43 CET)
Powder mixture with given molar ratio Ca/P = 1.67 consisting of brushite (calcium hydrophosphate dihydrate) CaHPO4·2H2O, calcium oxalate monohydrate CaC2O4·H2O in form of whewellite and weddellite and some quantity of quasi-amorphous phase was obtained as a result of the interaction of hydroxyapatite powder Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 with an aqueous solution of oxalic acid H2C2O4 at a molar ratio of Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2/H2C2O4 = 1:4 under mechanical activation conditions. This powder mixture was used to produce microporous monophase ceramics based on hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 with aperient density of 1.25 g/cm3 after firing at 1200 oC. Microporosity of sintered ceramics was formed due to presence of particles with plate-like morphology, restraining shrinkage during sintering. Microporous ceramics based on hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 with roughness of the surface as a consequence of the created microporosity can be recommended as a biocompatible material for the bone defects treatment and as a substrate for bone cell cultivation.
Tue, 11 January 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0135.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Wearable sensors; skin-like; heart rate monitoring; continuous glucose monitoring; battery-free sensors
Online: 11 January 2022 (12:18:36 CET)
Currently, old-style personal medicare techniques rely mostly on traditional methods, such as cumbersome tools and complicated processes, which can be time-consuming and inconvenient in some circumstances. Furthermore, such old methods need the use of heavy equipment, blood draws, and traditional bench-top testing procedures. Invasive ways of acquiring test samples can potentially cause patients discomfort and anguish. Wearable sensors, on the other hand, may be attached to numerous body areas to capture diverse biochemical and physiological characteristics as a developing analytical tool. Physical, chemical, and biological data transferred via the skin is used to monitor health in various circumstances. Wearable sensors can assess the aberrant conditions of the physical or chemical components of the human body in real-time, exposing the body state in time, thanks to unintrusive sampling and high accuracy. Most commercially available wearable gadgets are mechanically hard components attached to bands and worn on the wrist, with form factors ultimately constrained by the size and weight of the batteries required for the power supply. Wearable gadgets with “skin-like” qualities are a new type of automation that is only starting to make its way out of research labs and into pre-commercial prototypes. In this paper, we studied the recent advancement in battery-powered wearable sensors established on optical phenomena and skin-like battery-free sensors which brings a breakthrough in wearable sensing automation.
Thu, 6 January 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0081.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O; Triple superphosphate; Fertilizer; Recrystallization; Oyster shell; Thermal decomposition
Online: 6 January 2022 (11:48:24 CET)
Calcium dihydrogen phosphate monohydrate [Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O] (a fertilizer) was successfully synthesized by the recrystallization process by using a prepared triple superphosphate (TSP) that derived from oyster shell waste as starting material. This bio-green, eco-friendly process to produce an important fertilizer can promote a sustainable society. The shell-waste-derived TSP was dissolved in distilled water and kept at 30, 50, and 80 °C. Non-soluble powder and TSP solution were obtained. The TSP solution fraction were then dried and the recrystallized products (RCP30, RCP50, and RCP80) were obtained and confirmed as Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O. Whereas the non-soluble products (NSP30, NSP50, and NSP80) were observed as calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO4·2H2O). The recrystallized yields of RCP30, RCP50, and RCP80 were found to be 51.0%, 49.6%, and 46.3%, whereas the soluble percentages were 98.72%, 99.16%, and 96.63%, respectively. RCP30 shows different morphological plate sizes, while RCP50 and RCP80 present the coagulate crystal plates. X-ray diffractograms confirm the formation of both the NSP and RCP. The infrared adsorption spectra confirmed the vibrational characteristics of HPO42‒, H2PO4‒ and H2O existed in CaHPO4·2H2O and Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O. Three thermal dehydration steps of Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O (physisorbed water, polycondensation, and re-polycondensation) were observed. Ca(H2PO4)2 and CaH2P2O7 are the thermodecomposed products from the first and second steps, whereas the final product is CaP2O6.
Wed, 5 January 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0035.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Cellulose; Biomedical; Wound healing; Drug delivery; Antibacterials; Tissue engineering
Online: 5 January 2022 (11:00:57 CET)
There are various biomaterials in nature, but none fulfills all the requirements. Cellulose, eco-friendly material-based biopolymers, have been advanced biomedicine to satisfy most market demand and circumvent many ecological concerns. This review aims to present an overview of the state of the art in cellulose's knowledge and technical biomedical applications. It included an extensive bibliography of recent research findings for fundamental and applied investigations. The chemical structure of cellulose allows modifications and simple conjugation with several materials, including nanoparticles, without tedious efforts. Cellulose-based materials were used for biomedicine applications such as antibacterial agents, antifouling, wound healing, drug delivery, tissue engineering, and bone regeneration. They advanced the applications to be cheap, biocompatible, biodegradable, easy for shaping and processing into different forms, with suitable chemical, mechanical and physical properties.
Tue, 14 December 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0233.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: up-conversion; nanomaterials; photothermal conversion; multi-modality imaging
Online: 14 December 2021 (12:15:52 CET)
In this study, a new method for synthesizing Au-NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+-DSPE-PEG2K nanocomposites was introduced. Using a hydrothermal method, the synthesized Yb3+- and Er3+-codoped NaYF4 upconversion luminescent materials and Au nanoparticles were doped into upconversion nanomaterials and modified with DSPE-PEG2k up-conversion nanomaterials. This material is known as Ag-UCNPs-DSPE-PEG2k, it improves both the luminous intensity because of the doped Au nanoparticles and has low cytotoxicity because of the DSPE-PEG2k modified. Exciting UCNPs with a wavelength of 980nm near-infrared light will emit light with a wavelength of 520nm to further excite gold nanoparticles to convert light energy into heat. Successful synthesized gold nanoparticles was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The morphology of UCNPs was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the mapping confirmed the successful doping of Au nanoparticles. Fluorescence spectra were used to compare changes in luminescence intensity before and after doping Au nanoparticles. The cytotoxicity of Au-UCNPs-DSPE-PEG2K was tested via the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) method, and its imaging ability was characterized using the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) method.
Fri, 10 December 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0178.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: hydrogel dressing; full-thickness skin regeneration; 3D cell culture; VE-cadherin; FGF
Online: 10 December 2021 (13:10:47 CET)
The process of full-thickness skin regeneration is complex and has many parameters involved, which makes it difficult to use a single dressing to meet the various requirements of the complete regeneration at the same time. Therefore, developing hydrogel dressings with multifunction, including tunable rheological properties and aperture, hemostatic, antibacterial and super cytocompatibility, is a desirable candidate in wound healing. In this study, a series of complex hydrogels were developed via the hydrogen bond and covalent bond between chitosan (CS) and alginate (SA). These hydrogels exhibited suitable pore size and tunable rheological properties for cell adhesion. Chitosan endowed hemostatic, antibacterial properties and great cytocompatibility and thus solved two primary problems in the early stage of the wound healing process. Moreover, the sustained cytocompatibility of the hydrogels was further investigated after adding FGF and VE-cadherin via the co-culture of L929 and EC for 12 days. The confocal 3D fluorescent images showed that the cells were spherical and tended to form multicellular spheroids, which distributed in about 40-60μm thick hydrogels. Furthermore, the hydrogel dressings significantly accelerate defected skin turn to normal skin with proper epithelial thickness and new blood vessels and hair follicles through the histological analysis of in vivo wound healing. The findings mentioned above demonstrated that the CS/SA hydrogels with growth factors have tremendous potential as multifunctional hydrogel dressings for full-thickness skin regeneration incorporated with hemostatic, antibacterial, sustained cytocompatibility for 3D cell culture and normal skin repairing.
Wed, 8 December 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0566.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: X-ray computed tomography; magnesium-silver alloy; wire; degradation; near-field holotomography
Online: 8 December 2021 (14:26:38 CET)
Magnesium-silver alloys are of high interest for the use as temporary bone implants due to their antibacterial properties in addition to biocompatibility and biodegradability. Thin wires in particular can be used for scaffolding, but the determination of their degradation rate and homogeneity using traditional methods is difficult. Therefore, we have employed 3D imaging using X-ray near-field holotomography with sub-micrometer resolution to study the degradation of thin (250 μm diameter) Mg-2Ag and Mg-6Ag wires. The wires were studied in two states, recrystallized and solution annealed to assess the influence of Ag content and precipitates on the degradation. Imaging was employed after degradation in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium and 10% fetal bovine serum after 1 to 7 days. At 3 days of immersion the degradation rates of both alloys in both states were similar, but at 7 days higher silver content and solution annealing lead to decreased degradation rates. The opposite was observed for the pitting factor. Overall, the standard deviation of the determined parameters was high, owing to the relatively small field of view during imaging and high degradation inhomogeneity of the samples. Nevertheless, Mg-6Ag in the solution annealed state emerges as a potential material for thin wire manufacturing for implants.
Thu, 25 November 2021
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0486.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Pectin; Food hydrocolloid; Green extraction; Heteropolysaccharide; Citrus; Bioeconomy
Online: 25 November 2021 (16:09:20 CET)
From new understanding of pectin molecular structure and physiological effects on man up to new production methods and new applications, significant new knowledge of pectin has emerged in the last two decades (2010-2020). These developments open the route to new and unexpected applications of this uniquely complex heteropolysaccharide ubiquitous in plants and fruits well beyond its traditional use as food hydrocolloid. This study provides a unified perspective on the new science and technology of pectin. Furthermore, we offer an insight into forthcoming pectin uses from an expanded perspective taking into account selected technology and economic factors that, we argue in this study, will shortly impact the pectin production and uptake in many countries.
Wed, 24 November 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0456.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: up-conversion; nanomaterials; CT imaging
Online: 24 November 2021 (13:04:14 CET)
In this study, a new method for synthesizing Ag-NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ @ SiO2 nanocomposites was introduced. Using a hydrothermal method, the synthesized Yb3+- and Er3+-codoped NaYF4 upconversion luminescent materials and Ag nanoparticles were doped into upconversion nanomaterials and coated with SiO2 up-conversion nanomaterials. This material is known as Ag-UCNPs-SiO2’ it improves both the luminous intensity because of the doped Ag nanoparticles and has low cytotoxicity because of the SiO2 coating. The morphology of UCNPs was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the mapping confirmed the successful doping of Ag nanoparticles. Successful coating of SiO2 was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fluorescence spectra were used to compare changes in luminescence intensity before and after doping Ag nanoparticles. The reason for the increase in luminescence intensity after doping with Ag nanoparticles was simulated using first-principles calculations. The cytotoxicity of Ag-UCNPs-SiO2 was tested via the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) method, and its imaging ability was characterized using the micro-CT method.
Mon, 22 November 2021
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0389.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: 3D Bioprinting; Extracellular Matrix; Extrusion; Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering
Online: 22 November 2021 (12:26:49 CET)
There is need to address the challenges of organ shortage, through development of tissues and organs with alternatives to those of the allograft-kind. This illustrates the quest behind novel biofabrication strategies such as 3D bio-printing, which is necessary to create artificial multi-cellular tissues/organs. Several findings have been reported in this review. First, the role of ECM components in tissue regenerative medicine is presented. Different ECM components such as collagen, gelatin, elastin, fibronectin, laminins and glycosaminoglycans are concisely examined for their tissue regenerative medicine applications. Next, current state of research on extrusion-based 3D bio-printing techniques and their limitations are reviewed. For example, we show that cell viability is still a challenge with extrusion, while the use of natural polymers such as collagen in improving composites’ mechanical properties is limited. Lastly, we examine unresolved research questions necessary to advance the present state of research in the field.
Fri, 19 November 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0360.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: 3D printing; polymer derived ceramics; osteogenic differentiation; human mesenchymal stem cells; Fused Filament Fabrication; SiOC(N); cellular structure; scaffolds; Bone regeneration
Online: 19 November 2021 (14:33:05 CET)
Bone tissue engineering has developed significantly in recent years as the increasing demand for bone substitutes due to trauma, cancer, arthritis, and infections. The scaffolds for bone regeneration need to be mechanically stable and have a 3D architecture with interconnected pores. With the advances in additive manufacturing technology, these requirements can be fulfilled by 3D printing scaffolds with controlled geometry and porosity using a low-cost multistep process. The scaffolds, however, must also be bioactive to promote the environment for the cells to regenerate into bone tissue. To determine if a low-cost 3D printing method for bespoke SiOC(N) porous structures can regenerate bone these structures were tested for osteointegration potential by using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). This includes checking the general biocompatibilities under the osteogenic differentiation environment (cell proliferation and metabolism). Moreover, cell morphology was observed by confocal microscopy and gene expressions on typical osteogenic markers at different stages for bone formation were determined by real-time PCR. The results of the study showed the pore size of the scaffolds had a significant impact on differentiation. A certain range of pore size could stimulate osteogenic differentiation, thus promoting bone regrowth and regeneration.
Tue, 16 November 2021
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0294.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Flexible materials; diazonium salts; surface modification; biocompatible polymers; adhesive; adhesion; eukaryotic cells; muscle fibers
Online: 16 November 2021 (14:36:25 CET)
Transparent, flexible, biaxially oriented polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheets were modified by bioactive polymer-fibronectin top layers for the attachment of cells and growth of muscle fibers. Towards this end, PET sheets were grafted with 4-(dimethylamino)phenyl (DMA) groups from the in situ generated corresponding diazonium compound. The arylated sheets served as macro-hydrogen donors for benzophenone and the growth of poly(2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) top layer by surface-confined free radical photopolymerization. The PET-PHEMA sheets were further grafted with fibronectin (FBN) through the 1,1-carbonyldiimidazole coupling procedures. The bioactive PET-PHEMA-I-FBN was then employed as a platform for the attachment, proliferation and differentiation of eukaryotic cells which after a few days gave remarkable muscle fibers, of ~120 µm length and ~45 µm thickness. We demonstrate that PET-PHEMA yields a fast growth of cells followed by muscle fibers of excellent levels of differentiation compared to pristine PET or standard microscope glass slides. The positive effect is exacerbated by crosslinking PHEMA chains with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate at initial HEMA/EGDMA concentration ratio = 9/1. This works conclusively shows that in situ generated diazonium salts provide aryl layers for the efficient UV-induced grafting of biocompatible coating that beneficially serve as platform for cell attachment and growth of muscle fibers. Beyond this work, diazonium coupling agents constitute the corner stone of next generation processes for building flexible platforms for cell adhesion and uses thereof.