ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0269.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; diabetes cardiomyopathy; echocardiography
Online: 5 October 2023 (10:57:29 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among the diabetic population. Given the high prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Saudi Arabia and the high prevalence of heart failure in the diabetic population, this study assesses the echocardiographic changes in Saudi patients with type 2 DM (T2DM) compared with healthy controls. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective case control study, 80 patients with diabetes (45 males, age: 58.78±10.2 years) were compared with 80 controls (45 males, age: 58.6±10 years) who underwent an echocardiographic study in the King Saud University Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results: There were no significant differences between patients with diabetes and controls in terms of aortic root diameter, left atrium diameter, posterior wall, interventricular wall thickness, left ventricular diameters and ejection fraction. However, diastolic dysfunction was statistically significantly higher in the diabetic group compared with the control group (P <0.05). Conclusions: This is the first case control study in Saudi Arabia that assesses echocardiographic parameters in T2DM patients. DM is an independent risk factor for diastolic dysfunction regardless of its association with hypertension and dyslipidemia.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0469.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: diabetes knowledge; diabetes; prediabetes; prevention; health promotion; awareness
Online: 25 November 2022 (06:02:45 CET)
We aimed to study the knowledge of diabetes among high-risk individuals for diabetes in the Indian state of Kerala. The baseline data collected from 1007 participants of the Kerala Diabetes Prevention Program were analyzed. Diabetes knowledge was assessed using a scale adapted from a large nationwide study conducted in India. The composite score of the scale ranges from 0 to 8. The mean age of participants was 46.0 (SD: 7.5) years, and 47.2% were female. The mean diabetes knowledge score was 6.9 (SD: 2.1), with 59.5% having the maximum possible score of 8. Of 1007 participants, 968 (96.1%) had heard the term diabetes, and of them, 84.7% know what diabetes is, 87.2% think more and more people are getting diabetes nowadays, 79.6% know that diabetes can cause complications in organs, and 75.9% know that diabetes can be prevented. While the level of diabetes knowledge was high among our participants, a quarter of them (24.1%) were not aware that diabetes can be prevented. Thus, there is a need for health promotion programs to increase the knowledge of diabetes prevention among high-risk individuals in Kerala.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0217.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Diabetes Technology; CGM; Accuracy; Type 1 Diabetes; Sustainability
Online: 12 November 2021 (11:58:57 CET)
Aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and usability of a novel continuous glucose moni-toring (CGM) system designed for needle-free insertion and reduced environmental impact. We assessed sensor performance of two GlucoMen® Day CGM systems worn simultaneously in eight participants with type 1 diabetes. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) was performed reg-ularly over 14 days at home. Participants underwent two standardized 5-hour meal challenges with frequent plasma glucose (PG) measurements using a laboratory reference instrument at the research center. When comparing CGM to PG the overall mean absolute relative difference (MARD) was 9.7 [2.6-14.6]%. The overall MARD of CGM vs SMBG was 13.1 [3.5-18.6]%. In the consensus error grid (CEG) analysis, 98% of both CGM/PG and CGM/SMBG pairs were in the clinically acceptable zones A and B. The analysis confirms that GlucoMen® Day CGM meets the clinical requirements for state-of-the-art CGM. The needle-free insertion technology is well toler-ated by users and reduces medical waste compared to conventional CGM systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0398.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: diabetes mellitus; sepsis; diabetes complication severity index score
Online: 22 July 2018 (10:54:29 CEST)
Background Diabetic patients have an increased risk of infections; however, the association between type 2 diabetes and hospital outcomes of sepsis remains controversial when the diabetes severity is not considered. We examined this association using nationwide and hospital-based databases concomitantly. Methods The first part of this study was conducted using 2 nationwide databases: the Longitudinal Cohort of Diabetes Patients and the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. The diabetic complication burden was evaluated using the adapted Diabetes Complications Severity Index score (aDCSI score). In the second part, we used the hospital-based database with laboratory data, such as initial blood glucose and HbA1c levels, to make comparisons between surviving and dead patients with type 2 diabetes and sepsis. Results The nationwide study included 19,719 type 2 diabetic sepsis patients and an equal number of non-diabetic patients. The diabetic sepsis patients had an increased odds ratio (OR) of 1.14 (95% CI 1.1-1.19) for hospital mortality. The OR for mortality increased as the complication burden increased (diabetic sepsis patients with aDCSI scores of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and ≥5 had ORs of 0.91, 0.87, 1.14, 1.25, 1.56, and 1.77 for mortality, respectively (all P<0.001 and P for trend <0.001)). A total of 1,054 diabetic sepsis patients were included from the hospital-based database. Initial blood glucose levels in the surviving and dead diabetic sepsis patients did not differ significantly: 273.9 ± 180.3 versus 266.1 ± 200.2 (mg/dL) (P=0.095). Moreover, the surviving diabetic sepsis patients did not have a lower HbA1c (%): 8.4 ± 2.6 versus 8.0 ± 2.5 (P=0.078). Conclusions In the case of type 2 diabetic sepsis patients, the diabetes-related complication burden is the major determinant of hospital mortality rather than the diabetes itself. Contrary to popular belief, initial blood glucose and HbA1c levels may not be as important as previously thought.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0225.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019; COVID-19; children; diabetes; type 1 diabetes; type 2 diabetes; recommendations
Online: 15 May 2020 (04:54:43 CEST)
Recent reports suggest that the clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in previously healthy children is usually milder as compared to adults. However, children with comorbid conditions such as diabetes are at increased risk of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as well as morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19. Experience in adults with diabetes shows that they are prone to faster metabolic decompensation, develop diabetes-related complications, and have a poor prognosis when hospitalized with COVID-19. Data on children are limited. The aim of this mini-review is to discuss the possible risks to children and adolescents with diabetes during the current pandemic and the special considerations in management in those affected with COVID-19. The challenges for children who develop new-onset type 1 diabetes during the COVID-19 lockdown, especially in accessing healthcare, are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0481.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: diabetes status; prediabetes; type 2 diabetes; breast cancer; NHANES
Online: 30 September 2022 (08:40:03 CEST)
Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine whether breast cancer and diabetes status are related in adult Americans. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 7,599 individuals from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Diabetes was classified as type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes. Both prediabetes and diabetes were diagnosed according to ADA 2014 guidelines. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to explore the relationship between diabetes status and breast cancer. Results: We found that prediabetes (OR = 0. 60, 95% CI:(0. 40, 0. 88), P= 0. 009613) and non-diabetes (OR = 0.05.3,95% CI: (0.34, 0.83), P = 0. 006014) were associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in comparison to Type 2 diabetes (literature). Prediabetes in non-Hispanic blacks was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer (OR=0. 55,95%CI:0. 40-0. 75, P<0. 001). Using two segmented linear regression models to fit the relationship between BMI and breast cancer, we found that the relationship between BMI and breast cancer was nonlinear, but there was a threshold effect. The threshold effect analysis found that BMI affcted breast cancer at an inflection point 26. 3 Kg/m2. Adjusted OR (95% CI) on both sides of the turning point was 1. 0799 ( 1. 0029, 1. 1629 ) and 0. 9873 ( 0. 9638, 1. 0115 ), respectively. Conclusions: Diabetes status is associated with the risk of breast cancer development. Moreover, the risk of developing breast cancer steadily increased from nondiabetes to prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. In addition, the prevalence of breast cancer showed a gradual increase withincreasing BMI up to 26. 3 Kg/m2 with the highest prevalence of breast cancer. There was an inverse U-shaped relationship between BMI and the breast cancer prevalence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0153.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: hypoglycemia; hospitalization; diabetes
Online: 22 September 2022 (03:22:16 CEST)
Background: Severe hypoglycemia is defined as low blood glucose levels that requires another person to be treated. Severe hypoglycemia is an emergency and is a complication that can occur in people taking insulin and some anti-diabetic drugs. The aim of our study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with hospitalization. Methods: We performed a retrospective study based on the clinical records of adults with severe hypoglycemia who were admitted consecutively to the Emergency Department (ED) of the Carlo Poma Hospital from January 2021 to December 2021. Results: Overall, 50 patients were identified and most of these were elderly patients with multiple comorbidities. They were treated with oral hypoglycemic drugs such as sulfonylureas or glinides (42%), insulin (46%) or both (6%). Hospitalization rates and in-hospital deaths occurred in 62% and in 4%, respectively. No risk factors were statistically significant correlated with hospitalization. The frailty of the elderly patients and their comorbidities were often the reason of hospitalization, rather than the episode of severe hypoglycemia. Conclusions: In our study, episodes of severe hypoglycemia can be a sign of the frailty of elderly diabetic patients and poor home care, who often require hospitalization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0341.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: AGEs; aortic calcification; type 2 diabetes mellitus; diabetes-related complications
Online: 21 May 2020 (09:46:56 CEST)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted from January 2017 to June 2018. One-hundred and four consecutive patients with DM2 were given lateral lumbar X-rays in order to quantify aortic abdominal calcification AAC. Circulating levels of AGEs and classical cardiovascular risk factors were determined. Clinical history was also registered. Patients with higher AGEs values had higher grades of aortic calcification and higher number of diabetic related complications. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that being older, male and having high levels of AGEs and triglycerides were the independent risk factors associated to moderate-severe AAC when compared to no-mild AAC. Our results suggest that AGEs plays a role in the pathogenesis of aortic calcifications. In addition, the measurement of AGEs levels may be useful for assessing the severity of AAC in the setting of diabetic complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0255.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: COVID-19 Pandemic, Diabetes, DSMQ, Self-management, Saudi patients with diabetes
Online: 5 December 2023 (15:00:18 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted healthcare worldwide, potentially impacting disease management. This cross-sectional study assessed the influence of COVID-19 on diabetes self-management in 341 Saudis with type 2 diabetes using the Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire (DSMQ). The DSMQ contains 16 items across 4 domains assessing glucose management, dietary control, physical activity, and healthcare use. Three additional items measured the perceived overall impact of COVID-19. Total DSMQ scores were significantly higher in patients aged >60 years versus younger groups. Scores were significantly lower in patients diagnosed for 1-5 years versus longer durations. Patients on insulin had higher glucose management subscores than oral medication users. Overall, DSMQ scores were higher than the pre-pandemic Saudi population and Turkish post-pandemic findings. DSMQ results suggest that while COVID-19 negatively impacted some self-management domains, Saudi patients upheld relatively good diabetes control during the pandemic. Further research is warranted on specific barriers to optimize diabetes care during public health crises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0621.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Type 1 Diabetes; Emotions; Emotional Intelligence; Health Behaviour; Emotions, Diabetes Management.
Online: 26 February 2021 (14:04:29 CET)
The functioning of the parents’ emotional sphere is very important to a child’s mental and physical health. This study focused on investigating the association between mothers’ emotional intelligence (EI) and paediatric type I diabetes (T1DM) disease management in their children. We hypothesized that mothers’ EI is associated with T1DM outcomes. Mothers of children with T1DM aged 6-12 years were surveyed. One hundred and thirty-four mothers, the main caregivers of their diabetic children, provided measures of EI and completed a demographic questionnaire. The primary indicator of diabetes management was haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c; the main form of glycosylated haemoglobin). EI scales and subscales were associated with glycaemic management indices. Logistic regression analysis was applied for the assessment of the association between parents’ EI and their paediatric with T1DM disease management. The analysis demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between T1DM management and mothers’ ability to understand and control own emotions, to transform their own negative emotions into positive and to control own negative emotions. Mothers’ EI scales and subscales of understanding and regulating their own emotions, subscales of transforming their own negative emotions into positive ones and controlling their own negative emotions were statistically reliable predictors of glycaemic control in children with T1DM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: metformin; pregnancy; gestational diabetes; polycystic ovarian syndrome; type 2 diabetes; obesity
Online: 6 June 2018 (12:09:00 CEST)
Metformin use in pregnancy is increasing worldwide as randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence is emerging demonstrating its safety and efficacy. The Metformin in Gestational Diabetes (MiG) RCT changed practice in many countries demonstrating that metformin had similar pregnancy outcomes to insulin therapy with less maternal weight gain and a high degree of patient acceptability. A multicentre RCT is currently assessing the addition of metformin to insulin in pregnant women with type 2 diabetes. RCT evidence is also available for the use of metformin for women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and for non-diabetic women with obesity. No evidence of an increase in congenital malformations or miscarriages has been observed even when metformin is started before pregnancy and continued to term. Body composition and metabolic outcomes at two, seven and nine years have now been reported for the offspring of mothers treated in the MiG study. In this review, we will briefly discuss the action of metformin and then consider the evidence from the key clinical trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1268.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: diabetes,cancer,anemia,albumin
Online: 19 July 2023 (08:33:25 CEST)
Abstract: Background and Objectives: A growing number of epidemiologic studies have found that diabetes mellitus may increase cancer risk and is implicated in numerous other metabolic and inflammatory disorders. The increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines plays a major role in insulin resistance and leads to hypoalbuminemia, and micro- and macrovascular diabetes complications, including kidney disease and anemia. This study aimed to investigate the utility of CEA, CRP, serum albumin level, hemoglobin, and LDH as biomarkers for cancer risk and the biological implications of diabetes on the evolution and prognosis of oncological patients. Material and methods: We conducted a retrospective, longitudinal, observational study, on a total group of 434 patients, 217 diagnosed with a form of cancer and with type 2 diabetes as a comorbidity, and the other 217 – control group, without diabetes. These patients were admitted to the oncology clinic. In subgroups, the same number of patients was considered, depending on the location of the oncological pathology. Anemia, hypoalbuminemia, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, glycated hemoglobin, and C-reactive protein levels are more pronounced in subjects with type 2 diabetes and cancer. Conclusions: The presence of diabetes negatively affects the clinical and biological prognosis of cancer patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0244.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: breast cancer; diabetes; metformin
Online: 13 January 2023 (07:29:32 CET)
Background: Metformin is a drug used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes, especially those who suffer from obesity. It is also used in the treatment of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This disease has been shown to be related to insulin resistance and multiplied blood sugar ranges. Further, it has been found that the use of metformin improves the menstrual cycles and ovulation rates of these women. Methods: A structured questionnaire will be conducted to determine the prevalence of breast cancer among women using metformin in the Ha’il region. Result: Incidence of breast cancer among women using metformin in the Ha’il region is very low. Conclusions: According to previous findings, metformin has been linked to lower breast cancer risk in women with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, the findings of this study have corroborated the literature for the same by indicating that there is a substantial connection between metformin use and a lower risk of breast cancer in women with type 2 diabetes
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0263.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Pregnancy; Diabetes; Screening, Lifestyle
Online: 11 January 2022 (12:24:01 CET)
Basildon and Thurrock University Hospital in the East of England region of the United Kingdom (U.K), witnessed rapidly increasing numbers of pregnant women with diabetes, causing overburdened specialist clinics, poorer patient experience and worsening clinical outcomes. This prompted the multidisciplinary team’s remodelling of care pathways, launching the General ownership of Diabetes (GooD) Pregnancy Network in 2014. Contrary to conventional limitation of care to specialist diabetes antenatal clinics, this novel initiative highlights contemporary necessity to equip and empower all maternity stakeholders to deliver basic care of gestational diabetes (GDM). It strategically connects a Midwife Tele-Clinic “hub” to Educating Gestational diabetics Group Sessions (EGGS) and standard antenatal clinics. Patients were key partners, regularly participating in feedback surveys and promoting public awareness by co-producing local newspaper articles that served up their stories as case studies. Furthermore, the EGGS “faculty” includes a former GDM patient whose video testimony has inspired almost 2000 patients and their families; aiming to foster long term healthy lifestyle changes. Final summative evaluation in November 2019 showed the new culture of wider consciousness has shortened ‘diagnosis to first consultation’ intervals and eliminated overbooked specialist clinics (none since January 2016), without further worsening of clinical outcomes. It also boosted research recruitment and avoided additional running costs to the tune of £66,384 a year.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0365.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: cannabis; cannabinoid; diabetes; insulin
Online: 16 July 2021 (09:24:11 CEST)
The purpose of the study was to describe and compare the pharmacokinetics of five commercial edible marijuana products, determine the influence of body composition on pharmacokinetics, and, in light of epidemiology suggesting marijuana may offer diabetes protection, explore the influence of edible marijuana on glucose tolerance. Seven regular users of marijuana self-administered five edible products in a randomized crossover design; each product contained 10mg of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). 30-minutes following marijuana ingestion, participants imbibed a 75g glucose beverage. Time-to-peak plasma THC concentration ranged between 35 and 90 minutes; maximal plasma THC concentration (Cmax) ranged between 3.2 and 5.5 ng/mL. Differences between products in plasma THC concentration during the first 20-to-30 minutes were detected (P=0.019). Relations were identified between body composition and pharmacokinetic parameters for some products; however, none of these body composition characteristics were consistently related to pharmacokinetics across all five of the products. Edible marijuana had no effect on oral glucose tolerance compared with a marijuana-free control (Matsuda Index; P>0.395). Commercially available edible marijuana products evoke different plasma THC concentrations shortly after ingestion, but do not appear to influence acute glucose regulation. These data may allow marijuana users to make informed decisions pertaining to rates of edible marijuana ingestion and avoid overdose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0483.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Heavy metal, herbal, diabetes
Online: 29 June 2018 (11:36:18 CEST)
Gasca D herbal formulation is an antidiabetic medicine for the management of diabetes mellitus produced exclusively from natural ingredients. The level of some essential elements (Copper, chromium, Cobalt, Iron, Manganese, Nickel and zinc) and toxic (Cadmium, Arsenic, Mercury, and Lead) heavy metals were determined using microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MP-AES). The aim of this study is to evaluate the levels of essential and toxic heavy metals and also identify bioactive compounds present in Gasca D herbal formulation. The result shows no traces of Lead, Mercury, Zinc, Arsenic and Zinc, Iron was found to have highest concentration 67.16 + 7.5 µg/g and Cadmium lowest concentration 0.4 + 0.03µg/g. GC-MS analysis of Gasca D herbal formulation revealed the presence of 14 biologically active compounds which include N-Formyl-beta-alanine, Paromomycin, 3,4-Altrosan, Benzamide, 1,3,4-Thiadiazol-2-amine, Carbamodithioic acid, Carbonic acid, alpha-D-Glucopyranoside, Ethyl isocyanide, 2-Propanesulfinic acid, Propanamide, 2-Butenenitrile, Dicyclopropyl carbinol, Isoxazolidine, 1,5-Hexadiene 10-Azido-1-decanethiol. Conclusion: The result indicates that the mean levels of toxic metals in Gasca D herbal formulation were below WHO permissible levels. Gasca D herbal formulation also contains various bioactive compounds that can have various medicinal application which can be used for the treatment of various diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1761.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: type 1 diabetes mellitus; qualitative research; patient experience; self-management; diabetes care
Online: 26 July 2023 (10:54:04 CEST)
Type 1 diabetes imposes a complex and challenging routine on patients and caregivers. Therefore, considering individual experiences and personal facilitators to promote assertive interventions is crucial. However, no studies have addressed these perspectives in the Brazilian adult population. We aimed to identify psycho-behavioral characteristics perceived as facilitators for coping with the condition. We used a biographical method to conduct semi-structured, face-to-face, in-depth interviews for each participant. Transcripts were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Participants (n = 22) were aged 18–57 years (mean: 30.2, standard deviation (SD): 8.7), and the duration since diagnosis was approximately 20.6 years (SD: 4.6). Twelve (54.4%) were women, 13 (59.1%) used insulin pumps, 14 (63.6%) had at least a college degree, and 13 (59.1%) had HbA1C (glycated hemoglobin) levels above 58 mmol/mol (7.5%). Five major themes emerged: 1) peer learning, 2) ownership, 3) welcoming experiences, 4) equity, and 5) reframe the path (P.O.W.E.R.). All themes appeared in the lived experiences shared by participants with HbA1C levels below 58 mmol/mol (7.5%). Improved glycemic control can be achieved, and the challenges encountered in diabetes care within similar socioeconomic contexts can be addressed, by an interdisciplinary care team that takes P.O.W.E.R into consideration when providing person-centered care strategies.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1504.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Diabetes; pre-diabetes; early childhood dental caries; refined sugar; dietary counseling; Sri Lanka
Online: 22 May 2023 (10:42:40 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus and dental caries (tooth decay) are not only common Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) contributing to high burden of diseases but costly diseases to manage. Diabetes mellitus is a leading cause of mortality and reduced life expectancy across the globe. Early child hood dental caries (ECC) denotes a common chronic childhood disease and cariogenic dietary patterns dominated by refined sugar is one of the main causative factors. Thus, high burden of ECC could be a proxy indicator of excessive refined sugar consumption of a child. If such unhealthy dietary patterns are continued through to adolescent to adulthood, there is a high probability of an individual becoming a diabetic. Therefore, it is rational to argue high ECC burden in a country could be an indicator of future burden of diabetes. Moreover, ECC provides a critical period and a window of opportunity across life-course perspective, to intervene with cariogenic dietary patterns underpinned by common risk factor approach. This could be achieved by tailored dietary counseling for parental care givers of children with ECC. A healthy dietary pattern fostered in the childhood, most probably would continue to adulthood which may become beneficial in reducing the incidence of diabetes. Against this backdrop, we provide a perspective from Sri Lanka: a lower-middle-income country (LMIC) which records the highest prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes in south Asia. Our perspective will provide novel insights and innovative ideas into prevention and control of diabetes burden in LMICs, harnessing the potential of preventive dentistry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0569.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: diabetes; type 1 diabetes; regeneration; axolotl; salamander; beta cell; beta cell regeneration; streptozotocin
Online: 31 January 2023 (04:11:24 CET)
Diabetes is a group of diseases characterized by loss of β cell mass and/or -function, resulting in hyperglycemia. Approx. 537 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes – a number which is expected to increase. Diabetes is primarily treated by exogenous insulin, which comes with the challenges of maintaining glycemic control to prevent ketoacidosis and severe complications. The need for a curative treatment has initiated the research in β cell regeneration. Several studies in mice have identified essential genes for β cell fate, which can be manipulated in other cells to induce generation of new β cells. Zebrafish, a regeneration-positive animal model, has shown several different sources of new β cells, including regeneration by self-replication, neogenesis by duct-associated progenitor cells, and transdifferentiation of other endocrine islet cells. The animal models used in this research area are either limited by their low regenerative ability (mice), or their small size and remoteness from humans (zebrafish). There is a need for new animal models of diabetes, in which the molecular pathways of endogenous regeneration can be studied. This study proposes the axolotl salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum) as a model for studying the regeneration of β cells. The axolotl has shown great regenerative capability, as they have proven capable of regenerating amputated limbs, and hearts with myocardial infarction, among other organs. This study aims to establish a diabetic axolotl model, investigate their regenerative ability in the pancreas, and examine the potential systemic effects of the induced disease. In a pilot study, five different protocols using STZ (streptozotocin) were tested, and the most optimal protocol was found. Furthermore, the glucose tolerance test was optimized to characterize the glycemic state of the animals. The effect of the treatment on blood glucose levels was measured to characterize the development and decline of the disease. The histological changes in the pancreas were examined. Moreover, the systemic effects of the STZ treatment were investigated in blood and urine. The study indicated that it is possible to induce diabetes in the axolotl, but variations between the animals should be minimized, or the sample size should be increased to conduct a satisfying experiment, as it was not possible to induce diabetes in all animals. Regeneration was not observed histologically, but a restoration of blood glucose levels was seen over the span of the experiment. Lastly, edema formation was observed in some of the STZ-treated animals, but the cause of edema remains undetermined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0184.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: type 2 diabetes; lifestyle behaviors; healthcare provider advice; provider-patient interactions; health care setting; brief lifestyle intervention exposure; diabetes prevention; diabetes management
Online: 15 February 2022 (09:20:36 CET)
Growing evidence suggests that healthcare provider advice may increase tobacco cessation, reduce alcohol use, and improve the adoption of desirable lifestyle behaviors among patients. However, how brief interventions and other provider-patient interactions can shape cumulative adoption of multiple modifiable behaviors is less well studied for diabetes prevention and control. Using weighted internet panel survey data from a large socio-demographically diverse urban population in the United States (n=1,003), the present study describes differences in group characteristics among those who had been “ever diagnosed” with prediabetes/diabetes versus those who had not. It also examines the associations between the cumulative adoption of lifestyle behaviors and each of the following: a) lifetime prediabetes/diabetes diagnosis; b) brief lifestyle intervention exposure (i.e., received provider advice/encouragement); and c) recent provider-patient communication about diabetes. There were several group differences in “ever diagnosed” prediabetes/diabetes status by age, employment status, health status, nutrition knowledge, blood pressure/hypertension diagnosis, and diabetes-related health behaviors (p<0.05). Each of the three provider-patient interactions of interest were positively associated with a higher cumulative sum of adopted modifiable lifestyle behaviors for diabetes prevention and management. Results suggest that provider advice/provider-patient interactions of any type can have a salutary impact on whether individuals with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes will engage in recommended lifestyle behavior modifications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0859.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: diabetes; Alzheimer’s disease; dementia; hospitalization
Online: 13 October 2023 (08:26:02 CEST)
Hospitalizations for patients with diabetes and dementia take a significant health and economic toll on older adults in the United States. The present study sought to examine the differences in hospitalization characteristics and outcomes associated with diabetes and dementia separately and together using discharge record data of Los Angeles County residents aged 50+ from the California Department of Health Care Access and Information for the period 2019-2021. Results from multiple linear regression analyses indicated that when compared to those with no diabetes or dementia, patients with diabetes alone exhibited the highest total charges, while those with comorbid diabetes and dementia exhibited lower charges (p≤.05). Results of a multinomial logistic regression found that patients with comorbid diabetes and dementia had the highest odds of having a length of stay of 7+ days (AOR=1.49; 95% CI=1.44-1.53). A matched-case control analysis found that comorbid diabetes and dementia was associated with significantly lower odds of hypertensive disease than diabetes alone (MOR=0.81; 95% CI=0.67-0.97). These results highlight the complexity of factors affecting variation in hospitalization outcomes across these distinct disease profiles. Findings suggest a need to carefully consider this complexity when developing health policies or strategies to improve hospitalization outcomes involving these disease conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0582.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Green tea; Diabetes; CVD; cardiovascular
Online: 8 September 2023 (09:54:11 CEST)
A preventive effect for tea and its bio active components in cardiovascular health has been suggested by the results of several epidemiological studies, treatments utilizing randomized controlled trials, and mechanistic investigations. Therefore, scientific interest in green tea's ability to prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is growing. Green tea benefits for the metabolic syndrome, which includes diabetes and hypertension but may also raise cholesterol levels. Additionally, green tea reduces the mortality from any cause, arrhythmia, stroke, coronary heart disease, heart failure, and other conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1986.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: diabetes; adolescence; cognition; insulin; inflammation
Online: 30 August 2023 (03:29:31 CEST)
Increased insulin levels may support the development of neural circuits involved in cognition, while chronic mild inflammation may also result in cognitive impairment. This study aimed to gain more insight into whether cognition is impacted already during adolescence in a genetic rat model for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Cognitive functioning throughout adolescence and early adulthood was investigated in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF), ZDF lean and healthy outbred Long Evans rats using operant touchscreens. Blood glucose, insulin and lipids were longitudinally analyzed. Histological analyses were performed in the liver, white adipose tissues and the prefrontal cortex. Adolescent ZDF obese rats outperformed lean rats on visual discrimination performance. During the longitudinal cognitive testing period, insulin levels sharply increased over weeks in ZDF obese rats and were significantly enhanced from 6 weeks of age onwards. Early signs of liver steatosis and enlarged adipocytes in white adipose tissue were observed in ZDF early adult obese rats. Histological analyses at early adulthood showed no group differences in the number of prefrontal cortex neurons and microglia, nor PSD95 and SIRT1 mRNA expression levels. Together, our data show that adolescent obese ZDF rats even display enhanced cognition despite their early diabetic profile.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0297.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: ALS; frontotemporal dementia; insulin; diabetes
Online: 24 January 2023 (10:25:55 CET)
Background. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease involving motor neuron degeneration. The few drugs approved for treatment have at most a marginal benefit, and death usually occurs 2-5 years after diagnosis. Methods. A thorough manual examination of the relevant literature, covering over 35,000 papers. Results. Two major phenomena that are generally not known to clinicians were found. First, insulin signaling is impaired in ALS even in patients not diagnosed with diabetes (DB). Almost all studies that have explicitly tested insulin function in non-DB ALS patients using glucose tolerance tests (18 out of 20, 1964-2022, different groups) have found it to be impaired. Second, there is strong evidence for excessive insulin-independent glucose uptake (IIGU) in ALS. In addition, (i) early/late diabetes are associated with increased/decreased risk, respectively; (ii) insulin-based diabetes drugs are protective in ALS in large retrospective human studies; and (iii) strong animal and human evidence shows that insulin opposes all of the major pathological processes in ALS. Conclusion. Most ALS patients have insulin impairment, yet this is commonly not diagnosed, likely because excessive IIGU normalizes glucose levels. The impairment promotes disease progression. Late diabetes is associated with decreased risk because high glucose levels indicate non-excessive IIGU, and because diabetes drugs are protective. Insulin-based treatment (e.g., GLP1 agonists, insulin) is beneficial and can be disease-modifying in ALS and in frontotemporal dementia variants comorbid with ALS. ALS patients should be routinely tested for insulin function and treated if test results are positive.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0069.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: gestational diabetes mellitus; epigenetics; microbiota
Online: 6 January 2022 (10:30:40 CET)
Gestational diabetes (GDM) is considered a significant and increasing problem worldwide. The growing body of evidence points out that a hostile intrauterine environment in mothers with GDM via epigenetic mechanisms induces "diabetogenic" and "obesogenic" changes in an offspring's DNA. This sets in motion a vicious intergenerational cycle of metabolic diseases gradually deteriorating the health of the human population. One of the most important players in this process seems to be altered microbiota/microbiome. There is a chance that the identification of specific epigenetic marks may provide a key for future diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic solutions/measures in the field of person-alized medicine. Given the reversibility of most epigenetic changes, an opportunity arises to improve the long-term health of the human population/race. In this manuscript, we aim to summarize available data on epigenetic changes among women suffering from GDM and their progeny in association with changes in microbiome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0426.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: microRNA; diabetes; pregnancy; prenatal testing
Online: 27 December 2021 (11:37:18 CET)
Background/Aims: Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are currently done at 24 - 28 weeks of conception, missing out on the most vulnerable period of organogenesis and thus preventing clinicians from starting treatments until the late second or third trimester. MicroRNAs (miR) are small non-coding RNA molecules that could aid in detecting or predicting GDM through establishing a novel non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) tool. The objective of this study was to summarize the most recent updates on plasma microRNAs as GDM diagnostic biomarkers. Methods: Between April and June 2021, a PubMed literature search was undertaken to review recent articles on human plasma miR associated with GDM. Animal studies and papers that are written in languages other than English were excluded. Only plasma miRNAs were used to avoid coagulation biases. Results: A total of 31 miRNAs were found significantly upregulated in the plasma samples of patients with GDM. It was found mainly during the 2nd or 3rd trimester except for miR-223 and miR-23a that were upregulated at 9 – 11 weeks of gestation. Conclusion: Though extensive prospective cohort studies are required, miR-223 and miR-23a should be considered the most promising to develop a successful NIPT tool because they were found to be upregulated earliest, during the first trimester.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Neonatal Diabetes; Congenital Hypothyroidism; GLIS3
Online: 23 December 2020 (09:28:02 CET)
Permanent neonatal diabetes may occur either in isolation or associated with multi-organ syndromes. It is caused by mutations in the genes responsible for pancreatic β cell mass or function. We report new cases of consanguineous parents from Saudi Arabia with a homozygous deletion of exons 1and 2, and exon 5-9 of the GLIS3 gene, who presented with permanent neonatal diabetes associated with intrauterine growth retardation, severe congenital hypothyroidism without other manifestation in the liver, renal or eyes in the 1st one and cystic renal changes in the 2nd patient. Mutations in the GLI-similar 3 (GLIS3) gene encoding the transcription factor GLIS3 are a rare cause of neonatal diabetes and congenital hypothyroidism with only 15 reported patients worldwide to date.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0040.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: diabetes; exercise; cardiomyopathy; heart failure
Online: 3 October 2019 (13:59:22 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus is associated with cardiovascular, ophthalmic, and renal comorbidities. Among these, diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) causes the most severe symptoms and is considered to be a major health problem worldwide. Exercise is widely known as an effective strategy for the prevention and treatment of many chronic diseases. Importantly, the onset of complications arising from diabetes can be delayed or even prevented by exercise. Regular exercise is reported to have positive effects on diabetes mellitus and the development of DCM. The protective effects of exercise include the prevention of cardiac apoptosis, fibrosis, oxidative stress, and microvascular diseases, as well as improvement in cardiac mitochondrial function, and calcium regulation. The present review summarizes the recent findings to describe the potential mechanisms by which exercise may prevent DCM and heart failure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0082.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: obesity, diabetes, cardiomyopathy, echocardiography, ultrasound
Online: 3 May 2018 (16:06:24 CEST)
Cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among all complications of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obese patients. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC) is characterized by changes in cardiac morphology with declines in both systolic and diastolic functions. No rodent models fully captured phenotypes of DC. The ZDSD rat, a new generation of T2D rat model with intact leptin signaling features with slow onset of diabetes and obesity, which closely mimics the development of the disease in patients. Age-matched male ZDSD and SD rats were monitored for blood pressure, glucose and cardiac function using echocardiography. Animals were also challenged with 1 mg/kg dobutamine for the assessment of cardiac reserve. ZDSD rats developed hypertension from age of 18 weeks with blood pressure significantly higher than controls. At resting state, ZDSD rats showed biphasic changes in left ventricular posterior wall thickness and cavity volume. Concomitantly, both ejection fraction (EF) and transmitral E/A ratio of LV declined at 34 weeks old. Upon treatment with dobutamine, ZDSD lost cardiac contractility. Therefore, ZDSD rats may serve as a suitable preclinical model to study potential therapeutic approaches to treat cardiomyopathy with presence of metabolic syndromes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0195.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: phytotherapy; hyperglycemia; diabetes; medicinal plants
Online: 31 December 2017 (03:36:25 CET)
Phytotherapy has long been a source of medicinal products and many attempts to use herbal medicine for the treatment of diabetes has been done over the years. Several medicinal plants and their preparations demonstrated to act in key points of glucidic metabolism. The most common mechanisms of action found include the inhibition of α-glucosidase and of AGE formation, the increase of GLUT-4 and PPARs expression and the antioxidant activity.Despite the large amount of literature available, the actual clinical effectiveness of medicinal plants in controlling diabetes related symptoms is still controversial and there is a crucial need for stronger evidence-based data. In this review, an overview of the medicinal plants, which use in the management of diabetes is supported by authoritative monograph, is provided. References to some species which are currently under growing clinical investigation are also reported.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0080.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Type 1 Diabetes mellitus; Insulin; Diabetes management; Technology; Continuous glucose monitoring systems; Insulin pumps
Online: 1 June 2023 (11:07:07 CEST)
Type 1 Diabetes mellitus (T1DM) occurs when insulin is not produced in the Pancreas due to the autoimmune destruction of the beta cells. The patients may be diagnosed after 80-90% of the beta cells are destroyed. Insulin remains the essential medicine in T1DM management, under continuous monitoring of glucose levels. T1DM management consists of a complex and precise set of self-care measures for the entire life; during this continuous process, the patients could become overwhelmed, angry, anxious, frustrated, and/or discouraged. Therefore, to be widely used and provide general benefits, new technologies for DM management must provide clinical advantages without compromising safety. The compliance of T1DM patients is also essential, thus improving their quality of life (QoL). Moreover, the accessibility of the new system for patients through healthcare coverage is critical; they must be able to buy the new devices and accessories and pay for their maintenance. In this context, our work aims to describe the most recent technologies regarding continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) systems, correlated with psychosocial impact and capacity to improve T1DM patients' life quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0053.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: diabetes type-1; T1D; diabetes type-2; T2D; antibiotics; antibiotic classes; microbiome; dysbiosis; prevalence; concordance
Online: 3 December 2021 (12:45:23 CET)
Abstract: Several publications have raised the issue that the development of diabetes is preceded by alteration of the microbiome (dysbiosis) and hence, the role of environmental factors, triggering dysbiosis, should be considered. Antibiotics are powerful agents inducing dysbiosis and the authors wanted to explore the possible relationship between the consumption of different major classes of antibiotics and the prevalence of diabetes (type-1, /T1D/, type-2 /T2D/) in thirty European countries. According to our hypothesis, if such association exists, the dominant use of certain major antibiotic classes might be reflected in the prevalence of T1D and T2D in different countries. Comparisons were performed between the prevalence of diabetes (T1D and T2D) estimated for 2019 and featured in the Diabetes Atlas with the average yearly consumption of major antibiotic classes of the previous 10 years (2010-19) extracted from the ECDC yearly reports on antibiotic consumption in Europe. Pearson correlation and variance analysis were used to estimate the possible relationship. Strong, positive (enhancer) associations were found between the prevalence of T1D and the consumption of tetracycline (J01A /p: 0.001/) and the narrow spectrum penicillin (J01CE /p: 0,006/, CF /p: 0.018/). Strong negative (inhibitor) association was observed with broad-spectrum, beta-lactamase resistant penicillin (J01CR /p: 0.003/), macrolide (J01F /p: 0.008/) and quinolone (J01M /p: 0.001/). T2D showed significant positive associations with cephalosporin (J01D /p: 0.048/) and quinolone (J01M /p: 0.025/), and a non-significant negative association was detected with broad-spectrum, beta-lactamase-sensitive penicillin (J01CA /p: 0.67/). Countries with the highest prevalence of diabetes (first 10 positions) showed concordance with the higher consumption of “enhancer” and the lower consumption of “inhibitor” antibiotics (first 10 positions) as indicated by variance analysis. Countries with high prevalence of T1D showed high consumption of tetracycline (p: 0.015), and narrow spectrum, beta-lactamase sensitive penicillin (p: 0.008), and low consumption of “inhibitor” antibiotics (broad-spectrum, beta-lactamase resistant, combination penicillin (p: 0.005), cephalosporin (p: 0.036), and quinolone (p: 0.003). Countries with a high prevalence of T2D consumed more cephalosporin (p: 0.084), quinolone (p: 0.54), and less broad-spectrum, beta-lactamase sensitive penicillin (p: 0.012) than other countries. Conclusion/Interpretation: The development of diabetes-related dysbiosis might be attached to higher consumption of specific classes of antibiotics, showing positive (enhancer) associations with the prevalence of diabetes, and the low consumption of other classes of antibiotics shoving negative (inhibitory) associations. Those groups of antibiotics are different in T1D and T2D
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0283.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Type 1 diabetes; human leukocyte antigen; Kuwait Type 1 Diabetes Study; Islet autoantibodies; Insulin; prediction
Online: 13 August 2021 (08:19:26 CEST)
The incidence of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) in the Arab world, particularly, oil and gas rich Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC) countries has more than doubled in the last twenty years. Therefore, there is a dire need for careful systematic familial cohort studies, especially in high-risk populations. Several immunogenetic factors affect the pathogenesis of the disease. Genes in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) account for the major genetic susceptibility to the disease. The triggering agents initiate disease onset by destruction of pancreatic β-cells. The autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), insulinoma antigen-2 (IA-2A), insulin (IAA), and zinc transporter-8 (ZnT-8A) comprise the most reliable biomarkers for T1D in both children and adults. Although three of the GCC countries, namely Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Qatar are among the top 10 countries with high incidence rate of T1D, no proper diagnostic and prediction tools were applied in the region. Understanding the disease sequelae in a homogenous gene pool with high consanguinity in the GCC could help solve the challenges in understanding pathogenesis, as well as hasten the prevention of T1D. Arab states must incorporate T1D predictive and intervention policies on a war-footing basis to minimize the burden of this serious disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0225.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: circular RNAs (circRNAs); circulating circRNA; type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); pre-diabetes; microarray analysis; biomarker
Online: 29 August 2016 (13:37:38 CEST)
The purpose of current study was to investigate the expression characteristic of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in peripheral blood of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and their potentials as diagnostic biomarkers for pre-diabetes and T2DM. In present study, the circRNAs in the peripheral blood from 6 healthy individuals and 6 T2DM patients were collected for microarray analysis. The results indicated that there were 489 differentially expressed circRNAs, of which 78 were upregulated and 411 were downregulated in the T2DM group. Then we selected 5 circRNAs as the candidate biomarkers under a stricter screening criteria and further verified them in another cohort (control group, n=20; pre-diabetes group, n =20; T2DM group; n=20). 3 of the 5 circRNAs presented upregulated expression in the experimental groups, including 2 circRNAs of the T2DM group that had higher expression than the pre-diabetes group. Hsa_circ_0054633 was identified to have the largest area value under the carve (AUC). In another independent cohort (control group, n=60; pre-diabetes group, n=63; T2DM group, n=64), the diagnostic capacity of hsa_circ_0054633 was tested. The results showed that the AUC for the diagnosis of pre-diabetes was 0.751(95% confidence interval=[0. 666-0.835], P＜0.001) while it was 0.793 ([0.716-0.871], P＜0.001) for the diagnosis of T2DM. After including the risk factors of T2DM, the AUC increased to 0.841 ([0.773-0.910], P <0.001) and 0.834 ([0.762-0.905], P <0.001), respectively. Hsa_circ_0054633 presented a certain diagnostic capability for pre-diabetes and T2DM.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0782.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: adiponectin; adiporon; diabetes; Adipo1; Adipo 2
Online: 12 October 2023 (20:09:06 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus, a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, presents a formidable global health challenge with its associated complications. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, has emerged as a significant player in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Beyond its metabolic effects, adiponectin exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and vasoprotective properties, making it an appealing therapeutic target for mitigating diabetic complications. The molecular mechanisms by which adiponectin impacts critical pathways implicated in diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and cardiovascular problems are thoroughly examined in this study. In addition, we explore possible treatment options for increasing adiponectin levels or improving its downstream signaling. The multifaceted protective roles of adiponectin in diabetic complications suggest its potential as a novel therapeutic avenue. However, further translational studies and clinical trials are warranted to fully harness the therapeutic potential of adiponectin in the management of diabetic complications. This review highlights adiponectin as a promising target for the treatment of diverse diabetic complications and encourages continued research in this pivotal area of diabetes therapeutics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0515.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Abrus precatorius; diabetes; GSEA; PPARalpha; SCD
Online: 7 September 2023 (11:11:58 CEST)
ObjectivesAbrus precatorius (AP) is a medicinal plant seldomly studied for its beneficial effects and as such significant gap exists in understanding the basis by which AP leaf bioactives (APLBs) elicit beneficial effects against diabetes mellitus (DM) type-1. MethodsWe estimated DM type-1 related parameters - total protein (TP), direct bilirubin (DB), urea, creatinine, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum glucose (SG) after treatment with methanol extracts of AP leaves (APMLE) for 21 days followed by histopathological analysis of kidney and liver sections. APLBs were collected from GCMS fractions, database and literature searches and common targets were cross-intersected with annotated DM type-1 genes from experimental GSE14503 microarray dataset and genecard database. Overlapping differentially expressed genes were collected, their protein-protein interaction network was constructed and analyzed using various bioinformatics tools: Enrichr, SRplot, GSEA, Cytoscape, PyRx, and Discovery Studio to provide insight into the potential molecular basis of APLBs in DM-type-1.Results 15 compounds were identified from GCMS analysis of APMLE. Antidiabetic potential of APMLE was observed with significant (p <0.05) normalization of SG, TP, DB, ALT, AST, ALP, urea & creatinine while hepatorenal photomicrographs indicated moderate safety of use. Erucic acid, oleic acid, phytol and stigmasterol interact with 25 type-1 DM biomarkers revealed to be enriched in lipid and prostaglandin metabolic processes, neuroactive ligand receptor interaction, PPAR signaling pathway, diabetic cardiomyopathy, and cAMP signaling pathway. Furthermore, PPARalpha (peroxisome proliferator-activated alpha) and SCD (stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase) were revealed as core biotargets interacting with APLBs via hydrogen bond, hydrophobic interaction and van der Waals forces from docking study. ConclusionThis study demonstrated the potency of APLBs in vivo against type-1 DM. The potential basis of action has been studied from computational perspective. Future interests may provide additional experimental data into mechanisms by which APLBs elicit this remarkable ability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1413.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: diabetes; cardiovascular; renal; SGLT1; SGLT2; therapy.
Online: 22 August 2023 (07:45:50 CEST)
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) are two devastating diseases that may occur in non-diabetics or individuals with diabetes and when combined is referred to as cardiorenal disease. The impact of cardiorenal disease on society, the economy and the healthcare system is enormous. Although there are numerous therapies for cardiorenal disease, one therapy showing a great deal of promise is sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. The SGLT family member, SGLT2, is often implicated in the pathogenesis of a range of diseases and dysregulation of the activity of SGLT2 markedly effects the transport of glucose and sodium across the luminal membrane of renal cells. Inhibitors of SGLT2 were developed based on the anti-diabetic action initiated by inhibiting renal glucose reabsorption, thereby increasing glucosuria. Of great medical significance, large-scale clinical trials utilising a range of SGLT2 inhibitors have demonstrated both metabolic and biochemical benefits via numerous novel mechanisms such as sympathoinhibition which will be discussed in this review. In summary, SGLT2 inhibitors clearly exert cardio-renal protection in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects in both pre-clinical and clinical settings by improving hyperglycemia, high blood pressure, hyperlipidemia and diabetic retinopathy. (188 Words)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2059.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: streptozotocin diabetes; ultrastructural diagnosis; insulin resistance.
Online: 28 June 2023 (20:40:06 CEST)
Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrinopathies, estimated to affect about 5.4% of the world's population around 2025. It is thought that nearly a third of diabetic patients have some type of skin condition. Frequently, the cutaneous effects of this heterogeneous syndrome are accurately detected late in the progressive form of the disease. Methods: Skin fragments were harvested from adult white Wistar rats of both sexes, with the weight of 200 g, 12 weeks after streptozotocin diabetes was induced. In parallel with histopathological diagnosis by using hematoxylin and eosine staining, samples were processed by transmission electron microscopy technique and examined with a Philips CM100 microscope. Results: In the apparently macroscopically unchanged tegument, photon microscopy revealed both progressive thinning of the epidermis in the early stages of diabetes and a significant process of fibrosis and collagen hyalinization in the dermis. In addition, in the early stages, the electron microscopic study provided ultrastructural details characteristic of a senescent phenotype with reduced cell proliferation. Conclusions: The morphological changes in the skin may be the first signs of disruption of carbohydrate metabolism and in the case of established diabetes may reflect its progression and the efficacy of therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1578.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Gut Microbiota; Dysbiosis; Endocrine; Diabetes; Therapeutic
Online: 21 June 2023 (16:02:04 CEST)
Gut microbiota is a complex and dynamic ecosystem that influences various aspects of human health. Unfortunately, there is a lack of literature highlighting the importance of gut microbiome especially in diabetes management. This paper performs bibliometric analysis to establish the rising interest of researchers in this area and the importance of gut microbiota in diabetes management. Subsequently, the study performs a narrative review to provide an overview of the gut microbiota consisting of bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses, and its diversity, composition, and variation among individuals. The paper further discusses the role of the gut microbiota in different diseases, including Clostridium difficile infection, behavioral disorders, cancer, obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease, among others. It emphasizes the link between gut dysbiosis (imbalanced gut microbiota) and the development of chronic metabolic disorders. Additionally, the paper discusses the factor negatively impacting the gut microbiota. The paper concludes by explaining the mechanistic abnormalities that link dysbiosis to type 2 diabetes, including changes in short-chain fatty acid production, amino acid metabolism, bile acid regulation, and the production of specific bacterial products. Thus, the paper highlights the importance of understanding gut microbiota and related mechanisms for developing therapeutic interventions targeting the gut microbiota.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2045.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: diabetes; epigenetic inheritance; functional foods.; transgenerational
Online: 30 May 2023 (04:53:35 CEST)
Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a growing global health problem that requires new and effective prevention and management strategies. Recent research has highlighted the role of epigenetic changes in the development and progression of T2D, and the potential of functional foods as complementary therapy for the disease. This review aims to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge on the preventive epigenetic mechanisms of functional foods in T2D. We provide background information on T2D and its current treatment approaches, an explanation of the concept of epigenetics, and an overview of the different functional foods with demonstrated preventive epigenetic effects in T2D. We also discuss the epigenetic mechanisms by which these functional foods prevent or manage T2D and the studies that have investigated their preventive epigenetic effects. In addition, we revisit works on the beneficial influence of functional foods against the programming and complications of parentally-triggered offspring diabetes. We also postulate, albeit based on the scarce data, that epigenetic inheritance mechanistically mediates the impacts of functional nutrition against the metabolic risk of diabetes in the offspring. Finally, our review highlights the importance of considering the preventive epigenetic mechanisms of functional foods as a potential avenue for the development of new prevention and management strategies for T2D.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0752.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Swietenia macrophylla; Nanoparticles; Antioxidant; Cardioprotector; Diabetes
Online: 10 May 2023 (12:02:01 CEST)
Abstract: Hyperglycemia caused cardiac cell damage by increasing ROS production in diabetic complications. The current study will prove the antioxidant activity of Swietenia macrophylla (S. macrophylla) extract nanoparticles as a protector against Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced cardiac cell damage. In this research, high-energy ball milling is used to make S. macrophylla extract nanoparticle. Furthermore, characterize the size of S. macrophylla extract nanoparticles with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). Forty male rats were divided randomly into five groups. Control group: rats received orally aqua dest; Diabetic group: rats were injected STZ intraperitoneally; S. macrophylla group: rats were injected STZ and given orally with S. macrophylla extract nanoparticles. The DLS showed that the S. macrophylla extract nanoparticles size was 91.50 ± 23.06 nm. Injected with STZ significantly increased cardiac tissue of MDA levels, serum of CK-MB and LDH levels. STZ also significantly reduced expression of Nrf2, level of SOD and GPx in cardiac tissue compared with control group (p<0.05). In contrast, administration of S. macrophylla extract nanoparticles can prevent STZ-induced cardiac cell damage by decreasing level of CK-MB and LDH in serum, and level of MDA in cardiac tissue. S. macrophylla extract nanoparticles also significantly increments Nrf2 expression, SOD and GPx levels in cardiac tissue. These effects are related to the prevention of cardiac histopathological alteration (degeneration and necrosis) in diabetic rats. These results suggest that S. macrophylla nanoparticles might be a potential cardioprotective agent against STZ-induced cardiac cell damage due to its antioxidant properties
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0505.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: acromegaly; adenoma; diabetes; feline; hypophysis; microadenoma
Online: 8 May 2023 (10:09:38 CEST)
The detection of subtle changes in the pituitary dimensions has relevant implications since this gland is crucial for the endocrine system. In cats, few studies established the cut-offs values of the pituitary gland’s dimensions, but using small and inhomogeneous samples. The aims of this study were: to determine by computed tomography (CT) the pituitary linear dimensions and the pituitary-to-brain (P:B) ratio in a sample of domestic short-haired (DSH) cats; to assess the effects of sex, age and weight on pituitary dimensions; to evaluate the inter- and intra-observer agreement for such measurements. Exclusion criteria were: clinical, laboratory or CT alterations of pituitary gland or brain diseases, fractures of the neurocranium, or diabetes mellitus. Pituitary dimensions and brain area were assessed by two different observers using multiplanar reconstructions and automated segmentation tools. Fifty-one cats were included in the final sample. The intraclass correlation coefficient for intra- and inter-observer reliability showed good/excellent and moderate/good reliability, respectively. No differences between sexes were detected, and negligible correlations were found with age and weight. Findings from the current study provided normal reference values for pituitary height (1.88 – 4.01 mm) and P:B ratio (0.25 – 0.49), useful for assessing abnormally enlarged pituitary gland in DSH cats.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0373.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ischemia; cardiovascular disease; diabetes; obesity; galectins
Online: 21 March 2023 (07:56:47 CET)
Background Epidemiological studies have associated plasma galectin-4 (Gal-4) levels with prevalent and incident diabetes, and with increased risk of coronary artery disease, but data regarding possible associations with stroke are lacking. Methods We tested Gal-4 association with prevalent stroke in a population-based cohort, and whether Gal-4 increases after ischemic stroke in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Results Gal-4 was higher in subjects with compared to without prevalent ischemic stroke, and was associated with prevalent ischemic stroke (odds ratio 1.52; 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.30; p=0.048) adjusted for age, sex and covariates of cardiometabolic health. Plasma Gal-4 increased after stroke in both controls and HFD-fed mice, but HFD exposure was devoid of impact in Gal-4 levels. Conclusions This study demonstrates higher plasma Gal-4 levels in both a stroke mouse model and individuals with prevalent stroke.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0519.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; HbA1c; gender; age; correlation
Online: 28 February 2023 (10:39:45 CET)
Objectives: Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels play an important role in the diagnosis, screening, and monitoring of treatment in diabetes. The aim of our study is to determine whether there is a relationship between HbA1c levels and age and gender in Turkish adults who have not been diagnosed with diabetes.Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included 6776 Turkish adults without diabetes. Cross-sectional analyzes of A1C levels were performed between different age and gender categories. In statistical analysis, t-test, linear regression analysis, one-way ANOVA analysis, and LSD post hoc were used.Results: HbA1c levels in the individuals examined by dividing into different age groups increased with age in all groups. In our study, HbA1c levels were significantly higher in males than females (p < 0.001) in all groups, especially between the ages of 30-49, and were positively associated with age for males and females. There was a positive correlation between HbA1c and age in both men and women aged 30-49 years (P < 0.05). In the HbA1c ≥ 6.5 group, HbA1c levels gradually decreased with age in both genders, and no significant effect of age on Hb1Ac level was detected (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Our results showed that it is important to evaluate the effects of age and gender when using HbA1c levels in the diagnosis, screening, and treatment of diabetes, especially in the young and middle-aged population. Applying this situation to daily practice may reduce the misdiagnosis of diabetes in elderly patients, overtreatment of diabetes, and its associated risks.K
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0096.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus; Diabetic Complications; Pyroptosis; Bibliometrics
Online: 5 January 2023 (03:37:02 CET)
Objective: To visualize and analyze the published literature on diabetes and pyroptosis based on a bibliometric approach, so as to provide a comprehensive picture of the hot research directions and dynamic progress in this field. Methods: This study was based on the web of science core collection database to conduct a comprehensive search of the published literature in the field of diabetes and Pyroptosis from January 1985 to August 2022, including the published research literature in this field, as well as a visual analysis of the number of citations, year of publication, journal, author, research institution, country, and research topic. Results: A total of 139 literature on research related to diabetes and cellular scorch from 2011 to 2022 were retrieved, with a total of 3009 citations and a maximum of 255 citations for a single article, which had a first authorSchmid-Burgk, JL The first author of this article is from Germany; among 20 publishing countries, China leads with 100 articles; among 222 publishing institutions, Harbin Medical University leads with 18 articles and 184 citations; among 980 authors, Chen, X from China tops the list of high-impact authors with 5 articles and 29 citations; Among the 98 journals, "CELL DEATH DISEASE" ranked first in both volume and high impact journals with 4 articles and 29 citations; among 349 keywords, "pyroptosis" ranked first with a cumulative frequency of 65 times. The cluster analysis was divided into three categories, chronic complications of diabetes and pyroptosis (67 articles), diabetes and pyroptosis (60 articles), and diabetes combined with other diseases and pyroptosis (12 articles), and the number of articles related to diabetes and its chronic complications increased rapidly from 2019, among which, diabetic cardiomyopathy (27 articles) had the highest number of articles. Conclusions: Based on a comprehensive analysis of published literature in the field of diabetes and pyroptosis from 2011-2022, this study achieved a visual analysis of studies with significant and outstanding contributions to the field, thus framing a picture showing the development and changes in the field. At the same time, this study provides research information and direction for clinicians and investigators to conduct diabetes and pyroptosis related research in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0184.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; diet, education; systematic review.
Online: 8 July 2021 (09:57:01 CEST)
As the incidence and prevalence of diabetes increases, intervention through dietary education is becoming more important for diabetes control. This systematic review aimed to confirm the ef-fect of dietary intervention education on diabetes control. The study subjects were type 2 diabet-ic patients, and the main outcome variable was glycosylated hemoglobin level (HbA1c). The target studies were randomized controlled trials. Thirty-six studies were included in the analysis, of which 33 were included in the meta-analysis. The effect size between the dietary education and general intervention, was -0.42 (n=5,639, MD=-0.42; 95% CI -0.53 to -0.31) and was signifi-cantly different (Z=7.73, P<.001). When subgroup analyses were performed following the appli-cation periods, intervention methods, and intervention contents, the mean differences in 4–6-month application, individual education, diet-exercise-psychosocial intervention were -0.51, (n=2,742, 95% CI -0.71 to -0.32), -0.63 (n=627, 95% CI -1.00 to -0.26), and -0.51 (n=3.244, 95% CI -0.71 to -0.32), respectively. Dietary education interventions provided for at least 3 months were highly effective in controlling blood sugar levels. Regarding the education method, individual-ized education was more effective, and for this, contact or non-contact education may be applied. Combining diet, exercise, and psychosocial intervention is more effective than diet education alone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0302.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Earwax; Glucose; Glycated Haemoglobin; Diabetes; diagnosis
Online: 14 October 2020 (10:52:13 CEST)
Increased chronic glucose is associated with pandemic diseases. To date, there is not a practical, as well as accurate sample for reflecting that level. We measured earwax glucose in 37 controls. They provided standard serum samples, Glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1c) and earwax samples on two time-points, one month a part. The specimens measured baseline fasting glucose, a follow-up postprandial glucose level and a between sample chronic glucose, calculated using the average level on the two occasions. The baseline earwax sample was obtained using a clinical method and the follow-up using a novel self-sampling earwax device. The earwax analytic time was significantly faster using the novel device in comparison to the clinical use of the syringe. Earwax accurately reflected glucose at both assessments with stronger correlations than HbA1c. Follow-up postprandial concentrations were more significant than their respective fasting baseline concentrations, reflecting differences in fasting and postprandial glycaemia and more efficient standardisation at follow up. Earwax demonstrated to be more predictable than HbA1c in reflecting systemic fasting, postprandial and long-term glucose levels and immune by confounders. Earwax glucose was approximately 60% more predictable than HbA1c in reflecting glycaemia over a month. The self-sampling device provided a sample that might accurately reflect chronic glycaemia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0228.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Obesity; Dietary practices; Diabetes; College students
Online: 13 May 2020 (15:26:52 CEST)
Obesity is an issue of public health concern as it contributes to chronic non-communicable diseases despite the fact that it is preventable. Dietary practices and environment have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, overweight and obesity among young people. This study aimed to assess the dietary patterns associated with obesity among Babcock University students. A descriptive cross-sectional study was used to obtain data from 391 participants. Results reveal respondent’s knowledge was 12.06 ± 2.3 translating to an 80% prevalence performance, level of perception was 37.23 ± 9.23 with prevalence of 59.0%, dietary practices was 19.6 ± 5.23 with 59% prevalence. Factors influencing dietary practices revealed mean score of 15.2 ± 4.5 with 72.3% prevalence performance. The factors identified in this study has a great influence on dietary practices of the study participants. In conclusion Babcock University students have an excellent knowledge of dietary practices related to obesity. They also had good dietary practices. The identified factors had a great influence on the study participants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0355.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: vitamin D; ACE2; diabetes; cardiovascular disease
Online: 20 April 2020 (01:37:43 CEST)
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a new virus which causes respiratory illness. Older adults and people who have previous chronic medical conditions are at higher risk for more serious complications from COVID-19.Hypovitaminosis D is attributed to the increased risk of lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as well as diabetes, Cardiovascular event and associated comorbidities, which are the main causes of severe clinical problem in COVID-19 patients. Considering the protective role of vitamin D through modulating the innate and adaptive immune system as well as inhibition of Renin Angiotensin System (RAS), vitamin D supplementation might boost the immune system of COVID-19 patients and reduce severity of the disease in vitamin D deficient individuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0089.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: type 2 diabetes; KCNJ11; RFLP; SNP
Online: 5 July 2019 (04:53:09 CEST)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a polygenic metabolic disease described by hyperglycemia, which is caused by insulin resistance or reduced insulin secretion. Interaction between various genetic variants and environmental factors triggers T2DM. The main aim of this study was to find the risk associated with genetic variant (rs5210) of KCNJ11gene in the development of T2D in Indian Population. A total number of 300 cases of T2D and 100 control samples were studied to find the polymorphism in KCNJ11 through PCR-RFLP. The genotype and allele frequencies in T2DM cases were significantly different from the control population. We found a significant association of KCNJ11 (rs5210) gene polymorphism with T2DM in North Indian patients indicating the role of this variant in developing risk for T2DM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0280.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: diabetes mellitus; breast cancer; pulmonary volumes
Online: 27 June 2019 (06:08:48 CEST)
Background and Objective: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and breast cancer (BC) are diseases of high prevalence worldwide. Both alter lung function separately. So suffering both tables would increase this decrease in lung function. The objetive was to determine the effects of DM2 and BC on ventilation volumes and pressures in adult women. Material and Methods: Forty-two women patients were recruited, of whom 40 were accepted under the exclusion criteria. They were divided into four groups: control group (CG), DM2, BC and DM2+BC. Body plethysmography was used to measure forced vital capacity, lung volumes, airway resistance and muscle pressures. Finally the normality of the data was determined using Student's t test or the Mann-Whitney U test; the threshold of significance was p<0.05. Results: No significant differences were observed in the anthropometric variables between the control group and the other groups. The ventilation flows showed no significant differences, while the lung volumes presented significant differences in the inspiratory capacity (IC) variables (p<0,002). Maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP-MEP) also presented significant diminution (p<0,001; p<0,041, respectively). Conclusions: From the results obtained we can conclude that the combination of type 2 diabetes mellitus with breast cancer caused a diminution in ventilation volumes and pressures, specifically in IC, MIP and MEP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0324.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, health care utilization
Online: 31 January 2019 (08:56:46 CET)
Introduction: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major driver of health care costs, thus treatments enabling T2D reversal may reduce expenditures. We examined the impact of a T2D continuous care intervention (CCI) on health care utilization. Previous research documented that CCI, including individualized nutrition supported by remote care, simultaneously reduced hemoglobin A1c and medication use and improved cardiovascular status after two years; however, the impact on utilization is unknown. Methods: This study used four years of data (two years pre-intervention, two years post-intervention) from the Indiana Network for Patient Care (INPC) health record. Two methods estimated the impact of CCI on utilization. First, an interrupted time series (ITS) including only CCI participants (n=193) compared post-intervention utilization to expected utilization had the pre-intervention trend persisted. Deviation from the trend was estimated non-parametrically for each 6-month interval after the implementation of CCI . Second, a 1:3 matched comparator group (n=579) was constructed and used for a difference-in-differences (DiD) analysis. The primary outcome was annualized outpatient encounters. Secondary outcomes included emergency encounters and hospitalizations. Results: In two years prior to intervention, CCI participants had a mean of 5.77 annualized encounters (5.62 outpatient, 0.04 hospitalizations, 0.11 emergency). The CCI group showed a reduction in outpatient utilization after intervention. In ITS analysis, 1.6 to 1.9 fewer annualized outpatient encounters occurred in each 6-month interval post-intervention relative to expected utilization based on pre-intervention trends (p<0.01 each 6-month period; 28-33% reduction). The DiD analysis suggested a larger reduction; 5 fewer annualized outpatient encounters in the quarter after intervention, diminishing to 2.5 fewer after 2 years (p<0.01 each quarter). The study was underpowered to draw conclusions about hospitalization and emergency encounters due to the limited number of CCI patients and the rarity of encounters. Conclusions: Outpatient encounters were significantly reduced for a T2D patient population up to 2 years after receiving an individualized intervention supporting nutrition and behavior change through remote care.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0453.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: sugars, fructose, fruit juice, diabetes, overweight
Online: 24 September 2018 (11:51:47 CEST)
Much epidemiological research confirms a correlation between a high consumption of sugar sweetened beverages and obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In many of these studies, soft drinks, fruit drinks with added sugars and 100% fruit juices without added sugars were considered as one separate category and the total consumption was calculated cumulatively. Being able to make statements about the effects of individual types of drinks, as present in these clusters, is therefore impossible. However, recent data from well-controlled studies and meta-analyses on consumption of 100% fruit juice show that there is no effect on diabetes risks. Adults and children who choose to drink 100% juice appear to have a healthier lifestyle, consume better quality food and usually have a more favorable body weight. Although 100% fruit juice in relation to soft drinks contains a range of nutrients that are considered to be beneficial for health, the associated positive effects can be nullified by high sugar intake, in case of excessive consumption. That is why a golden rule can be applied: "100% fruit juice, as part of a healthy diet, is a healthy choice provided that you do not consume more juice than present in max. 1-3 fruits at a time. In the case of orange juice, this corresponds to a champagne glass full of juice (100-150ml). In this respect 100% fruit juice should be perceived as a nutritional drink that can be consumed with a meal and not as a thirst quencher.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0079.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Diabetes; GPR40; AKRB1; PPARγ; GLUT-4
Online: 9 January 2018 (08:54:18 CET)
We synthesized a small series of five 3-[4-arylmethoxy)phenyl]propanoic acids using an easy and short step synthetic route. All compounds were tested in vitro against a set of four protein targets identified as key elements in diabetes: GPR40, aldose reductase (AKR1B1), PPARγ and GLUT-4. Compound 1 displayed an EC50 value of 0.075 μM against GPR40 and was an AKR1B1 inhibitor, showing IC50 = 7.4 μM. Compounds 2 and 3 behave as AKR1B1 inhibitors, GPR40 agonists and showed an increase of 2 to 4-times in the mRNA expression of PPARγ, as well as the GLUT-4 levels. Docking studies were conducted in order to explain the polypharmacological mode of action and the interaction binding mode of the most active compounds on these targets. Compounds 1-3 were tested in vivo at 100 mg/kg dose, being 2 and 3 orally actives, reducing glucose levels in a non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus mice model. Compounds 2 and 3 showed robust in vitro and in vivo efficacy, and could be considered as promising multitarget antidiabetic drug candidates. This is the first report of a single molecule with these four polypharmacological target action.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0153.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: diabetes; education; environmental tobacco smoke; smoker
Online: 20 March 2017 (09:09:44 CET)
Background: Smoking, including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is a well-known risk factor for diabetes. Low socioeconomic status, especially lack of education, also is a risk factor for diabetes. Therefore, we assessed the association of education and smoking status, including ETS exposure, with the prevalence of diabetes. Methods: Data were from the 2007–2013 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES). Multivariable logistic regression examined associations between various lifestyle and health factors and prevalence of diabetes while controlling for potential confounding variables. Subgroup analysis was performed according to smoking status to determine factors associated with diabetes. Results: Of 19,303 individuals analyzed, 1,325 (11.4%) had diabetes. Greater average age, male sex, lower educational level, unemployment, and coexisting health problems were significantly associated with diabetes. Individuals with only elementary, middle, or high school level education had significantly greater odds ratios (p<0.05) compared to college graduates; smokers and nonsmokers exposed to ETS had significantly greater OR (p<0.05) than nonsmokers unexposed to ETS. Subgroup analysis of diabetics according to smoking status revealed significant associations (p<0.05) for diabetic nonsmokers exposed to ETS with female sex, single status, elementary level education, urban residence, National Health Insurance (NHI), hypertension, no alcohol intake, and no moderate physical activity. For diabetic smokers, there were significant associations (p<0.05) with elementary education, urban residence, lack of moderate physical activity, no alcohol intake, and NHI. Conclusions: The results suggested that smoking status, including ETS exposure, was associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes especially in populations with less education. Thus, we should direct efforts for controlling diabetes toward individuals with lower levels of education, and those who are smokers and nonsmokers exposed to ETS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1958.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Gestational diabetes; health promotion; behavior change; process evaluation; diabetes prevention; diet; physical activity; intervention; couple interviews
Online: 29 May 2023 (04:12:43 CEST)
Promoting diet and physical activity is important for women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and their partners to reduce the risk of future type 2 diabetes (T2D). The study aimed to understand how motivation for changing diet and physical activity behaviors among women with recent GDM and their partners was experienced after participation in the Danish Face-it intervention. Fourteen couple interviews were conducted. Data analysis followed reflexive thematic analysis. Guided by self-determination theory and interdependence theory, we identified four themes affecting couples’ motivation for health behavior change: 1) The need for relatedness after delivery, 2) Promoting competence and autonomy for health behavior change, 3) Individual and mutual preferences for health behaviors, and 4) The health threat of future T2D as a cue to action. We found that the couples in general perceived the Face-it intervention as useful and motivating. Using couple interviews increased our understanding of how the women and partners influenced each other’s perspectives after a GDM-affected pregnancy and thus how targeting couples as opposed to women alone may motivate health behavior change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2048.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; diabetes; new-onset diabetes; long-COVID; postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2
Online: 29 September 2023 (07:50:01 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an infectious disease pandemic, affected millions of people globally, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Causing further concern, significant proportions of COVID-19 survivors suffer from the lingering health effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pathogen that causes COVID-19. One of the diseases manifesting as a post-acute sequela of COVID-19 is new-onset diabetes. This systematic review and meta-analysis will perform a comprehensive and systematic literature search to estimate the burden of new-onset diabetes after COVID-19. Specifically, this study will estimate the magnitude of the incidence, risk, and population-attributable fraction of new-onset diabetes. The study will also explore and summarize the data on the natural history or clinical course of the new-onset diabetes cases. Five bibliographic databases, including PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science, will be searched for eligible studies. The World Health Organization COVID-19 Research Database, preprint servers, and conference abstracts will also be searched. Cohort studies of COVID-19 patients of all ages providing data on new cases of diabetes in the post-acute phase of the illness will be included. The comparators to estimate the pooled risk ratio will be those with no diagnosis of COVID-19 or those infected with other respiratory tract infections. The findings of this study will likely inform clinical practice, public health guidelines, and policies for early detection and treatment of new-onset diabetes cases in the long-COVID phase. This protocol has been registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO: No.CRD42020200432).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0595.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: vitamin D; insulin-resistance; metabolic syndrome; type 1 and 2 diabetes; gestational diabetes; cardiovascular diseases and metabolism
Online: 8 September 2023 (15:34:53 CEST)
In the last decade, an increasing awareness was directed to the role of Vitamin D in non-skeletal and preventive roles for chronic diseases. Vitamin D is a key hormone involved in the regulation of calcium/phosphorous balance and it has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammation, insulin resistance and obesity. Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3) and Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2) are the main form of vitamin D: the active form (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D) is the result of two hydroxylations that take place in liver, kidney, pancreas and immune cells. Some anti-inflammatory cytokines are produced at higher levels by vitamin D, while some pro-inflammatory cytokines are released at lower levels. Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) expression is increased and a pro-inflammatory state is also linked to low levels of vitamin D. Regardless of how it affects inflammation, various pathways suggest that vitamin D directly improves insulin sensitivity and secretion. The level of vitamin D in the body may change the ratio of pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokines, which would impact insulin action, lipid metabolism, and the development and function of adipose tissue. Many studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between vitamin D concentrations and pro-inflammatory markers, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, metabolic syndrome, obesity and cardiovascular disease. It's interesting to note that several long-term studies also revealed an inverse correlation between vitamin D level and the occurrence of diabetes mellitus. Vitamin D supplementation in people has controversial effects, in fact while some studies demonstrated improvements in insulin sensitivity, glucose and lipid metabolism, others revealed no significant effect on glycemic control and inflammation. The aim of this review is to provide insight into the molecular basis of the relationship between vitamin D, insulin-resistance, metabolic syndrome, type 1 and 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0196.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; Epitope, Glutamic acid decarboxylase; Latent-autoimmune diabetes in adults; Prediction; Type 1 diabetes
Online: 4 May 2023 (05:18:16 CEST)
Anti-islet autoantibodies serve as key markers in immune-mediated type 1 diabetes (T1D) and slowly-progressive T1D (SPIDDM), also known as latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). Autoantibodies to insulin (IAA), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), tyrosine phosphatase-like protein IA-2 (IA-2A), and zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8A) are currently employed in the diagnosis, pathological analysis, and prediction of T1D. GADA can also be detected in non-diabetic patients with autoimmune diseases other than T1D and may not necessarily reflect insulitis. Conversely, IA-2A and ZnT8A serve as surrogate markers of pancreatic β-cell destruction. Combinatorial analysis of these four anti-islet autoantibodies demonstrated that 93-96% of acute-onset T1D and SPIDDM cases were diagnosed as immune-mediated T1D, while the majority of fulminant T1D cases were autoantibody-negative. Evaluating the epitopes and immunoglobulin subclasses of anti-islet autoantibodies help distinguish between diabetes-associated and non-diabetes-associated autoantibodies and is valuable for predicting future insulin deficiency in SPIDDM (LADA) patients. Additionally, GADA in T1D patients with autoimmune thyroid disease reveals the polyclonal expansion of autoantibody epitopes and immunoglobulin subclasses. Recent advancements in anti-islet autoantibody assays include nonradioactive fluid-phase assays and the simultaneous determination of multiple biochemically defined autoantibodies. Developing a high-throughput assay for detecting epitope-specific or immunoglobulin isotype-specific autoantibodies will facilitate more accurate diagnosis and prediction of autoimmune disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0316.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Type 2 diabetes; cancer; shared pathways; shared genes and proteins; relationship between cancer and type 2 diabetes
Online: 15 October 2020 (09:47:35 CEST)
Obesity, type 2 diabetes, and different forms of cancers are among the leading human diseases and highly complex in terms of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Diabetes and cancer are among the most frequent and complex diseases and based on epidemiological evidence and study it can be concluded that the patients suffering from diabetes are considered to be significantly at higher risk for a number of cancer types. Both these diseases are among the highly complex and heterogeneous in nature. There are a number of evidences which support the hypothesis that these diseases interlinked and obesity may aggravate the risk(s) of both these diseases type 2 diabetes and different types of cancers. Multi-level unwanted alterations such as (epi-)genetic alterations, changes at the transcriptional level, and altered signaling pathways (receptor, cytoplasmic, and nuclear level) are the major source which promotes a number of complex diseases and such heterogeneous level of complexities are considered as the major barrier in the development of therapeutic. With so many known challenges, it is critical to understand the relationships and the common shared causes between type 2 diabetes and cancer which is difficult to unravel and understand. Furthermore, the real complexity arises during diagnosis from contended corroborations that specific drug(s) (individually or in combination) during diagnosis process of type 2 diabetes may increase or decrease the cancer risk or affect cancer prognosis. In this review article, we have presented the recent and most updated evidences from the studies where the origin, biological background, correlation between them have been presented or proved. Furthermore, we have summarized the methodological challenges and tasks that are frequently encountered. we have also outlined the physiological links between type 2 diabetes and cancers. Finally, we have presented and summarized the outline of the hallmarks for both these diseases diabetes and cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1773.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: Obesity; Diabetes; Ficus carica L.; Phytochemicals; Antioxidant
Online: 27 October 2023 (10:26:21 CEST)
Utilization of medicine derived from plants has been documented in various traditional systems of medicines throughout the world for different diseases. Therefore, the current research work was carried out to evaluate the phytochemical and biological potential of Ficus carica L ethanolic leaf extract. For this purpose, physicochemical and phytochemical analysis, total phenolic and flavonoids contents was performed. Antioxidant potential was determined by FRAP, DPPH and H2O2 assay. Proteinase inhibition, heat induced hemolysis and BSA denaturation assay was carried out for inflammation. Antiglycation potential was assessed by fructosamine assay, Congo-red assay and estimation of free carbonyl groups. In-vivo antidiabetic, anti-obesity, effect on liver and kidney were investigated by high fat high sugar diet model. FTIR, HPLC and LCMS/MS analysis was performed to find out the compounds. Tablet based formulation was developed using wet granulation method and tested for physicochemical parameters. Results shows that total phenolic and flavonoids content was (333 mg GAE/g) and (123 mg RE/g) respectively, H2O2 assay shows 35.6% free radical inhibition potential, DPPH assay shows (IC50) inhibitory concentration at 0.58 mg/mL, and 88.769 µg/g Fe2SO4 solution FRAP values. Proteinase inhibition assay, Heat induced hemolysis and BSA-denaturation assay shows percentage inhibition of 28 ± 0.01, 55 ± 0.03 and 51.2 ± 0.05 respectively. In Antiglycation activity β-amyloid formation assay shows absorption of 0.017, Fructosamine assay shows inhibition of 19.4±0.06 and free carbonyl group estimation shows inhibition of 17.0±0.03. In in-vivo study FLE at (500 mg/kg) significantly decreased total bilirubin (p ≤ 0.001), decreased (p ≤ 0.05) alanine transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, decreased blood glucose, triglycerides and total cholesterol (p ≤ 0.01) while HDL (p ≤ 0.01) was significantly increased in comparison to obesity and diabetic-obesity groups. Different functional groups presence was confirmed by FTIR spectrum. HPLC analysis revealed the existence of ferulic acid, rutin, chlorogenic acid, coumarin and thymoquinone and these results are corelated by LC-MS/MS. Pre-compression characterization showed angle of repose (33.04°), bulk density (0.54 g/cm3), tapped density (0.73 g/cm3), compressibility index (35.179 %) and Hausner’s ratio (1.35), while the post-compression characterization showed weight variation 826±4.17 mg, thickness 10.50±0.25 kg/cm2, friability 0.57 %, and disintegration time 8.19 min. From the above results it is concluded that F. carica L. leaves extract has strong antioxidant, antidiabetic and hypolipidemic potential and can be used for an obesity and diabetes treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1095.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: diabetes; oxidative stress; enalapril; paricalcitol; testicular dysfunction
Online: 18 October 2023 (08:44:33 CEST)
Background: As the impacts of diabetes-induced reproductive damage are now evident in young people, we are now in an urgent need to devise new ways to protect and enhance the reproductive health of diabetic people. The purpose of this study was to assess the protective impact of enalapril (an ACE inhibitor) and paricalcitol (a vitamin D analogue) alone and in combination, on streptozotocin (STZ) diabetes-induced testicular dysfunction in rats. Material and methods: This study was carried on 50 male Sprague-Dawley rats; 10 normal rats were allocated as non-diabetic control group. 40 rats developed diabetes after receiving a single dose of STZ, then the diabetic rats were divided into four groups of equivalent number assigned as diabetic control, enalapril treated, paricalcitol treated, in addition to combined enalapril and paricalcitol treated groups. The effects of mono and combined therapy with paricalcitol and enalapril on testicular functions, sperm activity, glycemic state oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters as well as histopathological examination were assessed when compared to the normal and diabetic control rats. Results: As a result of diabetes induction, epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, serum levels of testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) as well as luteinizing hormone (LH) and the antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly decreased, while abnormal sperm (%), insulin resistance, nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were significantly increased, along with sever distortion of testicular structure. Interestingly, treatment with paricalcitol and enalapril either alone or in combination significantly improved the sperm parameters, increased antioxidant enzyme activities in addition to serum levels of testosterone, FSH and LH, reduced insulin resistance, IL-6 and TNF-α levels and finally ameliorated the diabetes-induced testicular oxidative stress and histopathological damage with somewhat superior effect for paricalcitol monotherapy and combined therapy with both drugs than monotherapy with enalapril alone. Conclusion: Monotherapy with paricalcitol and its combination therapy with enalapril has a somewhat superior effect in improving the diabetes-induced testicular dysfunction (most probably as a result of their hypoglycemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties), than monotherapy with enalapril alone in male rats, recommending a synergistic impact of both drugs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1822.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: capsaicin, pepper, diabetes, obesity, inflammation, gut microbiota
Online: 27 September 2023 (15:42:58 CEST)
Capsaicin, a lipophilic, volatile compound, is responsible for the pungent properties of chili peppers. In recent years, a significant increase in investigations into its properties has allowed the production of new formulations and the development of tools with biotechnological, diagnostic, and potential therapeutic applications. In this way, the possible clinical application of such compound is expanding every year. This opinion article aims to provide a synthesis of recent findings regarding the mechanisms by which capsaicin participates in the control of non-communicable diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. This opinion review also discusses the recent findings and clinical studies of the use of capsaicin in body weight control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1517.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: strain echocardiography; diabetes mellitus; fasting blood glucose
Online: 22 September 2023 (07:40:50 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Similar to diabetes, the presence of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function (DD) has been reported in various studies which were conducted with people with a diagnosis of impaired fasting blood glucose (FBG). The study aimed to examine the effects of fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels on left atrial strain (LAS) estimated by two-dimensional echocardiography speckle tracking analyses in patients without known diabetes. Material and Methods: The study included 148 participants (74 female and 74 male) without a history of diabetes mellitus or chronic disease. The patients were divided into two groups as follows: individuals with FBG <100 mg/dl and those with FBG between 100-125 mg/dl after at least 8 hours of overnight fasting and according to these FBG levels STE measures were compared. Results: There was a significant decrease in the LA reservoir (52.3±15 vs. 44.5±10.7; p=0.001) and conduit strain (36.9±11.7 vs. 28.4±9.7; p=0.001) in the impaired FBG group. When the STE findings of both ventricles were compared, no significant difference was observed between the groups in right and LV strain imaging. Conclusion: In the earliest stage of LVDD, changes in atrial functional parameters become particularly evident. Echocardiographic analyses of these parameters can help to diagnose and determine the degree of LVDD while the morphological parameters are still normal. The addition of LAS imaging to the routine TTE study in patients with impaired FBG but without a DM diagnosis may be helpful in demonstrating subclinical LVDD or identifying patients at risk for LVDD in this patient group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1448.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: fears; insulin; injection; children; parents; diabetes; Jordan
Online: 21 September 2023 (08:40:21 CEST)
Background: Regardless of the indisputable benefits of insulin therapy, initiating insulin for diagnosed children with diabetes might be intimidating for parents. This study assesses the experience, fears, barriers and adherence to insulin use among the parents of diagnosed children with diabetes. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was utilized for data collection from 218 participants between February and March 2023 in Jordan. The survey consisted of six sections to evaluate and assess: sociodemographic for both children with diabetes and their parents, the experience of using the insulin, the diabetes fear of self-injecting questionnaire (D-FISQ), the barriers for insulin administration including both sociocultural and other insulin-related factors, and insulin adherence. Results: More than 80% of the participants perceived a number of sociocultural barriers to insulin administration such as the tendency for addiction, lower efficiency of insulin than oral medication, and preference for complementary medicine over insulin. More than two-thirds of the participants complained of insulin-related barriers such as infections and sudden death in addition to learning the correct injection method. The general fear level was low, 8.56±7.87 (out of 45); however, more fear of insulin injection and self-testing was significantly associated with both sociocultural and insulin-related barriers, especially at the younger age. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that parents have several barriers to insulin administration, mainly related to insulin injection. Therefore, more awareness about insulin therapy can help adjust the cooperation of patients, acceptance of treatment, ending with improving the quality of life and well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0526.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: probiotics; pregnancy; GDM; gestational diabetes; meta analysis
Online: 7 September 2023 (11:47:54 CEST)
Background: Gestational diabetes is a common complication during pregnancy that can lead to numerous adverse outcomes. Some studies suggest that probiotics may be used to treat gestational diabetes, however, the results remain controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of probiotics on blood glucose and pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes. Methods: A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases was performed (start date to August 22, 2023). Primary outcomes included fasting blood sugar (FBS), fasting serum insulin (FSI), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). Secondary outcomes included pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Results: 15 articles (n = 1006 women) met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Compared to a placebo, probiotics can decrease FBS (MD -2.58, 95% CI -4.38 to -0.79, p < 0.01), FSI (MD -2.29, 95% CI -3.40 to -1.18, p < 0.01), HOMA-IR (MD -0.56, 95% CI -0.81 to -0.32, p < 0.01), birthweight (MD -101.20, 95% CI -184.62 to -17.77, p = 0.02), neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.89, p = 0.01), and hyperbilirubinemia (RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.61, p < 0.01), alongside higher QUICKI (MD 0.01, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.01, p < 0.01). However, no other significant results were obtained. Conclusion: Probiotics may improve blood glucose indicators and reduce neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, NICU admissions, and birth weight in women with GDM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0086.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: mtDNA; mitogenome; Type 2 diabetes; polymorphism; SNP
Online: 5 September 2023 (10:22:58 CEST)
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic systemic disease with a complex etiology, characterized by insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction in various cell tissues. To explore this relationship, we conducted a secondary analysis of complete mtDNA sequences from 1,261 T2D patients and 1,105 control individuals. Our findings revealed significant associations between certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and T2D. Notably, the variants m.1438A>G (controls: 32 [27.6%], T2D: 84 [72.4%]; OR: 2.46; 95%CI: 1.64-3.78; p<0.001), m.14766C>T (controls: 498 [36.9%], T2D: 853 [63.1%]; OR: 2.57, 95%CI: 2.18-3.04, p<0.001), and m.16519T>C (controls: 363 [43.4%], T2D: 474 [56.6%]; OR: 1.24, 95%CI: 1.05-1.47, p=0.012) were significantly associated with diabetes probability. The variant m.16189T>C Previously reported in multiple studies in different populations, it was not found to be associated with T2D in our analysis (controls: 148 [13.39] T2D: 171 [13.56%]; OR: 1.03; 95%CI: 0.815-1.31,; p=0.83). These results provide evidence suggesting a link between some mtDNA polymorphisms and T2D, probably related to association rules and topological patterns and three-dimensional confirmation associated to regions where the changes are, rather than to point mutations in the sequence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0077.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: VES-13; frailty; multimorbidity; cardiovascular diseases; diabetes
Online: 1 August 2023 (10:49:03 CEST)
With an increasing aging population worldwide, the concept of multimorbidity has attracted growing interest over recent years, especially in frailty, which leads to progressive multisystem decline and increased adverse clinical outcomes. The relative contribution of multiple disorders to overall frailty index in older populations has not been established so far. This study aimed to assess the association between the Vulnerable Elders Survey-13 (VES-13) score, which is acknowledged to be one of the most widely used measures of frailty, and the most common ac-companying diseases among hospitalized adults aged 60 years old and more. 2860 participants with an average age of 83 years were included in this study. Multiple logistic regression with adjustment for age and nutritional status was used to assess the independent impact of every particular disease on vulnerability. Diabetes mellitus type 2, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, osteoarthritis, fractures, eyes disorders, depression, dementia, pres-sure ulcers, and urinary incontinence were associated with higher scores of VES-13. Hospital admission of older subjects with those conditions should primarily draw attention to the risk of functional decline and while qualifying older patients for further treatment, particularly in surgery and oncology. At the same time, lipid disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, higher body mass index and albumins level were related to lower risk of being vulnerable, what may be attributed to younger age and better nu-tritional status of those patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0268.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Blood sugar level; Diabetes; Safety; Scuba diving
Online: 5 July 2023 (11:18:44 CEST)
Background: In past years recreational diving has attracted more and more interest and among such divers an increasing number of diabetic divers. However, there is limited research on the accuracy of CGM systems under hyperbaric conditions and consistently diving guidelines make little reference to the use of CGM. Subject and Method: This exploratory study collected blood glucose samples of one diabetic diver over four dives and assessed the deviation of intersitial glucose values from two CGM systems based on 33 samples. A notable step of this method is to collect the data from actual dives under water. Results: The results indicate that a) under hyperbaric conditions of up to 2bar additional pressure and b) after decompression both CGM systems work comparably accurate as indictated by the manufacturer under normal conditions. This has been checked in terms of MARD and Clarke Error Grid Distirbution. Conculsion: For diabetic divers the results suggest they may take CGM monitors with them on dives to react to potential hypoglycemic events before they occur, i.e. when it is still safe to supplement glucose. For dive guidelines the results imply that these could reference CGM for dive planning and monitoring during the dive to increase divers‘ safety. For research this exploratory confirms the current hypothesis that neither increased pressure nor saltwater have an effect on blood glucose and the functioning of CGM systems. Further research may include additional sampling (number and depth) and more elaborate blood glucose measurement. The experimental setup applied is an efficient way to test further CGM systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1881.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: diabetes; diabetic foot; hospital admission; limb salvage
Online: 27 June 2023 (10:18:13 CEST)
The study aims to evaluate the rate of readmission in patients affected by diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs), causes and the outcomes of patients requiring a new hospitalization. This study is a retrospective observational study including consecutive patients requiring hospitalization since January 2019 to September 2022 due to a DFU. Once they were discharged, patients were regularly followed as outpatients. After 6 months of follow-up, the rate of hospital readmission for a diabetic foot problem was recorded. According to the readmission or not, patients were divided in two groups, readmitted and not readmitted patients respectively. Hence, all patients were followed for six months more and outcomes for the two groups were analyzed and compared. The mean age was 6812yrs, with a prevalence of male (72.6%); the majority of patients were affected by type 2 diabetes (>90%) with a mean diabetes duration of approximately 20yrs. After 6 months of follow-up, 68 (21.9%) patients were readmitted. The main reason of hospital readmission were the presence of critical limb ischaemia (CLI) in the contralateral limb (6.1%), the recurrence of CLI in the previous treated limb (4.5%) and the onset of new infected DFU in the contralateral foot (4.5%). Readmitted patients reported lower rate of healing (51.5vs89.2%,p<0.0001) and higher rate of major amputation (10.3vs4.5%,p=0.04) in comparison to not readmitted patients. CLI and dialysis resulted independent predictors of hospital readmission. Hospital readmission is frequent issue among patients with DFUs, increasing the risk of non-healing and major amputation. CLI resulted the main cause of new hospitalization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0420.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: diabetes; anaerobic exercise; glut4 gene expression; streptozocin
Online: 6 June 2023 (08:52:56 CEST)
Diabetes is a chronic condition that worsens living conditions and causes significant problems, particularly in the vascular system. Many different treatment options are used to prevent these negative effects of diabetes. The most important of these is changing living conditions and exercising regularly.This study aimed todetermining the impacts of a 6-week anaerobic exercise protocol on the blood glucose levels and Glut4 gene expression in the muscle tissues of streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. A total of 45 rats were separate control, sedentary, and exercise groups (n=15 each). The STZ used to induce diabetes in rats was applied once with a single intraperitoneal injection. No diabetes was created in the control group, and no exercise was performed, whereas in the sedentary group, diabetes was induced, and no exercise was applied. It was determined that the Glut4 gene expression in the muscle tissue of the exercise group was importantly increased when compared with the sedentary diabetes group.Glut4 gene is an important gene involved in blood glucose regulation and anaerobic exercise significantly increased the expression level of this gene in our study.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1127.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; gut microbiota; diversity; diabetes; metformin
Online: 28 April 2023 (07:06:36 CEST)
The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in maintaining host health and has a significant impact on human health and disease. In this study, we investigated the alpha diversity of gut microbiota in COVID-19 patients and analyzed the impact of COVID-19 variants, antibiotic treatment, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and metformin therapy on gut microbiota composition and diversity. We used a culture-based method to analyze the gut microbiota and calculated alpha-diversity using the Shannon H' and Simpson 1/D indices. We collected clinical data, such as length of hospital stay (LoS), C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). We found that patients with T2D had significantly lower alpha-diversity than those without T2D. Antibiotic use was associated with a reduction in alpha-diversity, while metformin therapy was associated with an increase. We did not find significant differences in alpha-diversity between the Delta and Omicron groups. Length of hospital stay, CRP levels, and NLR showed weak to moderate correlations with alpha diversity. Our findings suggest that maintaining a diverse gut microbiota may benefit COVID-19 patients with T2D. Interventions aimed at preserving or restoring gut microbiota diversity, such as avoiding unnecessary antibiotic use and promoting metformin therapy, may improve patient outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0453.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Gestational diabetes; obesity; placenta; syncytiotrophoblast; matrix metalloprotease
Online: 28 October 2022 (10:04:45 CEST)
Background: During placental formation, cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) fuse into multinucleate, microvilli-coated syncytiotrophoblasts (STBs), which contact maternal blood, mediating nutrient, metabolite, and gas exchange between mother and fetus, and providing a barrier against fetal infection. Trophoblasts remodel the surrounding extracellular matrix through the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Maternal obesity and diabetes mellitus can negatively impact fetal development and may impair trophoblast function. We sought to model the impact of metabolic stress on STB function by examining MMP and hormone secretion. Methods: The BeWo CTB cell line was syncytialized to STB-like cells with forskolin. Cell morphology was examined by electron microscopy and immunofluorescence; phenotype was further assessed by ELISA and RT-qPCR. STBs were exposed to a metabolic stress cocktail (MetaC: 30 mM glucose, 10 nM insulin, and 0.1 mM palmitic acid). Results: BeWo syncytialization was demonstrated by increased secretion of HCGβ and progesterone, elevated syncytin gene expression (ERVW-1 and ERVFRD-1), loss of tight junctions, and increased surface microvilli. MetaC suppressed HCGβ and progesterone and altered both MMP-9 and MMP-2. Conclusions: Metabolic stress modeling diabetes and obesity altered BeWo STB hormone and MMP production in vitro. These results compel further study into the potential impact of metabolic stress on trophoblast formation and function.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0314.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Diabetes; Theory; Model; Concept; Management; Health Care
Online: 21 September 2022 (05:46:19 CEST)
BackgroundGood management behavior in patients with diabetes mellitus can reduce disease complications and improve quality of life. This philosophical problem is very important for nurses who are able to provide management care for diabetic patients. The purpose of this literature review is to describe the concept, model or theory that can be used in improving the management of diabetes mellitus patients.MethodsThe method used is by searching several studies published through the Scopus database, PubMed, CINAHL, SpingerLink, and web of science (WOS). The search strategy uses a combination of the terms MeSH Terms. The research questions were designed using the principles of the PICOS framework. Selected studies were published from 2017-2022.ResultsA total of 15 studies were included, with 12 using quantitative methodology and 3 were qualitative. The studies were conducted across various countries. The majority of articles used the concept of self-management intervention based on digital-based development and e-health (n=6), Dorothea Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory n=2) and the transtheoretical model (n=2). These concepts, models and theories are able to improve good self-management through lifestyle changes, psychosocial, cultural acculturation and increase in spiritual values (n=6).ConclusionTransitional change focuses on changing the modifiable factors found in the concepts, models and theories of the articles obtained. Future research can be developed to assess the existence of elaborations and modifications based on the philosophy that people with diabetes are responsible for their own health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0100.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Diabetes; Hyperglycemia; Cancer; AMPK; TET2; Natural products
Online: 11 April 2022 (14:00:31 CEST)
Emerging evidence suggests that sustained diabetes-associated factors such as inflammation, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia are major contributors to aberrant cell proliferation and subsequent neoplastic transformation. Epidemiological studies have also highlighted that diabetes promoting a sedentary lifestyle, with or without the direct involvement of insulin, is frequently linked to cancer. However, our knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms that correlate hyperglycemia to oncogenic transformations remains limited. In this regard, a recent study has proved that hyperglycemia inactivates AMPK, which results in the destabilization of the TET2 and its tumour-suppressive role ultimately predisposing diabetes mellitus patients to cancer. To the management of hyperglycemia associated with oncogenesis, we need to explore a reverse pharmacology-based ethnopharmacological approach. Botanical-derived natural products are structurally and functionally more diverse with fewer or no side effects on humans. The present review discusses the molecular link between hyperglycemia and cancer progression with the effect of natural products as therapeutic agents on the hyperglycemia-cancer associated signalling pathway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0408.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Type 2 Diabetes; Osteoporosis; Bisphosphonate; MRONJ; Osteoclast
Online: 31 March 2022 (13:44:57 CEST)
Osteoporosis is a common metabolic bone disease in patients with diabetes, which can develop simultane-ously with Type 2 diabetes (T2D) in postmenopausal women. Bisphosphonate (BP) is administered to pa-tients with both the conditions and may cause medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ). It affects the differentiation and function of osteoclasts as well as thickness of cortical bone through bone mineralization. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of T2D on osteoclast differentiation and activity as well as cortical bone formation in postmenopausal patients with MRONJ. Tissue samples were collected from 10 patients diagnosed with T2D and Stage III MRONJ in the experimental group and from 10 patients without T2D in the control group. Histological examination was conducted, and expres-sion of dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) was assessed. Cortical bone formation was analyzed using CBCT images. The number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts and DC-STAMP-positive mononuclear cells were significantly less in the experi-mental group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the thickness and ratio of cortical bone were significantly greater in the experimental group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, T2D decreased the differentiation and function of osteo-clasts, and increased cortical bone formation in postmenopausal patients with MRONJ.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0045.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: fNIRS; diabetes; brain imaging; point of care
Online: 3 February 2022 (10:10:08 CET)
Abstract—Low-frequency Fahræus–Lindqvist-driven (not blood pressure-driven) oscillations in the small vessels are crucial because oscillations in small vessels support nutrient supply. Understanding of this is critical in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to develop therapeutic measures to prevent Alzheimer's Disease Related Dementias: vascular factors contribute to cerebrovascular disease as well as mild cognitive impairment and dementia, which are predicted to affect 152 million people by 2050 (Alzheimer's Disease International London, UK, 2019). In this clinical study, we performed functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) of the forehead to investigate the effect of the Mini-Cog with three-item recall test on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation and the relative oscillatory power in the 0.01–0.02-Hz (Fahræus–Lindqvist effect) and 0.021–0.052 Hz (smooth muscle autonomic innervation) frequency bands in elderly (60 years and older) T2DM and age-matched controls. We found a significant (p<0.01) difference in the PFC activation between elderly subjects with T2DM and age-matched elderly controls. Moreover, power spectral density (PSD) analysis revealed a significantly lower relative power in 0.021–0.052 Hz (smooth muscle autonomic innervation) frequency band in elderly subjects with T2DM during the Mini-Cog three-item recall test. Furthermore, a drop in the oscillatory power in the 0.01–0.02-Hz frequency band during Mini-Cog three-item recall test was found more pronounced in the elderly subjects with T2DM. Therefore, our study highlighted portable brain imaging to capture cerebrovascular reactivity to cognitive load that may provide a biomarker of cerebrovascular dysfunction in T2DM.Clinical Relevance— Our study establishes forehead portable brain imaging for monitoring cerebrovascular function in T2DM under cognitive load.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; cardiovascular; Channa striatus; diabetes
Online: 9 August 2021 (14:59:08 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus remains a major risk factor for developing cardiovascular diseases, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular complications. Given the burden of diabetes-related cardiovascular complications, there is a need to identify strategies, safe and effective therapeutic agents that could effectively prevent and control diabetes. Presently, many patients living with diabetes depends on traditional medicines as an alternative cure. Channa striatus (Haruan) is a freshwater fish traditionally used to treat wounds, inflammations, and pains. Several pharmacological investigations have supported the folkloric claims of C. striatus extracts, including hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and pro-platelet aggregation activities. The therapeutic potentials of C. striatus were demonstrated to be associated with the presence of high content essential amino acids and good fatty acids known to improve cell growth and facilitate wound healing. Therefore, C. striatus bioactive compounds have great potentials to serve as lead candidates in developing novel therapeutic agents for the management of diabetes and related cardiovascular diseases. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the pharmacological properties and therapeutic potentials of C. striatus for the management of diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: HbA1c; point-of-care; diabetes; glycosylated haemoglobin
Online: 18 February 2021 (10:01:13 CET)
Objectives: This study was performed to estimate diagnostic accuracy of the two commercially available point-of-care tests to identify poor glycemic control defined by HbA1c levels, with HPLC as a reference. Settings: The study was carried at two locations, general medical out-patient department of a teaching medical college in Bhopal (urban), and a primary health care centre in rural area in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India.Participants: All individuals with diabetes mellitus who presented to the health care facility for assessment of glycemic control. We excluded participants who denied a written informed consent. No other exclusions were used. We compared HbA1c estimated from two index tests (Hemocue Hb501, Sweden; SD Biosensor, South Korea) from capillary blood samples with HPLC performed from venous blood, as a reference standard. Primary and secondary outcome measures: Diagnostic properties of index tests such as sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy for identifying poor glycemic control were primary outcome measures. Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) was secondary outcome measure.Results: Out of 114 patients, all received reference standard, 103-Hemocue A1C test, and 110- SD Biosensor test. Overall both the index-tests had similar diagnostic accuracy estimates. The area under the Receiver Operating Curve for SDA1c device was 0.935 (95%CI 0.886-0.983), and for Hemocue device was 0.938 (95%CI 0.893-0.984). The Hemocue device HbA1c value of above 7.0 (positive) correctly predicted poor glycemic control 92% times (81.58% for SD device). There were 4 vs. 11 device failures and 14 vs. 12 failures with SD and Hemocue respectively. Ambient air temperatures were no different for the device test failures.Conclusions: Commercially available point-of-care tests evaluated in this study are comparable and an acceptable alternative to HPLC based measurements for assessment of glycemic control. Tests and device failure rates of both the index tests are similar.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0719.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, screening, HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose
Online: 29 September 2020 (15:12:26 CEST)
Background: Diabetes is a common non-communicable disease that is responsible for about 9% of all deaths and 25% reduction in life expectancy and nearly half of the diabetic patients are not aware of their disease. In this regard, diabetes screening to identify un-known diabetic patients is of great importance. Aims: The aims of this study were first to evaluate the performance of two commonly used diabetes screening tests that are currently recommended by the Iranian national screening program for diabetes (NSPD). Methods: The validities of the two diabetes screening tests were measured among 1057 participants older than 30 years. The studied screening tests included Capillary fasting blood glucose (CBG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). The golden standard for measuring the validity of the tests was venous fasting plasma glucose (VPG). Results: According to the results, the sensitivity of CBG and HbA1c tests were 69.01% and 84.5% and the specificity of the tests were 95.7% and 79.3% respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 53.84% and 97.72% for CBG and 22.72% and 98.61% for HbA1c respectively. The recommended cut-points for CBG and HbA1c were 116.5 mg/dl and 7.15% respectively. Using these values as the new cut-points, sensitivity and specificity of CBG and HbA1c changed to 80.30% and 89.10%, and 77.50% and 94.20% respectively. Conclusions: Compared to several other countries, the performance of NSPD is relatively higher in Iran. ROC analysis suggested new cut-points for significantly better performance of NSPD.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Diabetes; Islets; Encapsulation; Bioartificial Pancreas; tapered conduit
Online: 7 June 2020 (14:19:28 CEST)
Diabetes is a life-long illness, it requires life-long solution. Today’s treatment is trading one type of pain with another, never truly ride off the illness. When Artificial Pancreas (AP) offered a possibility of cure, it stirred up a great deal of interest in the diabetic community (1). The system was based on artificial intelligence. It can automate the dosing of insulin to reduce high blood sugar levels overnight. The most dangerous time for diabetes. Artificial Pancreas may be able to allow diabetic patients to sleep through the night without waking up to check and manage their blood glucose levels. It was a significant advancement. However, the achievement was limited: 76.4% in range with the system vs. 67.8% without the system. This accomplishment was creditable, but not optimal. If Artificial Pancreas was to be offered as a viable treatment for diabetes, it must be a life-long solution and must be a total solution. Artificial Pancreas has failed in this challenge. We decided to pursue an alternative approach, a self-regulated system: bioartificial pancreas. It has the potential became a complete cure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0011.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: diabetes mellitus; insulin resistance; inflammation; biomarkers; atherogenicity
Online: 3 June 2020 (05:41:03 CEST)
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with increased atherogenicity and inflammatory responses, which may be related to increased levels of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1). Objective: The role of HMGB1 and DKK1 in T2DM is examined in association with lipid and insulin profiles. Methods: Serum HMGB1 and DKK1 were measured in T2DM with and without hypertension and compared with controls. Results: HMGB1 and DKK1 are significantly higher in T2DM irrespective of hypertension. T2DM was also accompanied by increased atherogenicity indices. HMGB1 and DKK1 are significantly correlated with HbA1c, glucose, indices of insulin resistance, β-cell function, and glucose toxicity, and different atherogenic indices. A large part of the variance in the β-cell index (30.5%) and glucose toxicity (34.8%) was explained by the combined effects of HMGB1 and DKK1 and hypertension. We found that 18.3% of the variance of the atherogenic index of plasma was explained by HMGB1 and DKK1 levels and that 31.2% was explained by glucose toxicity, HMGB1 and body weight. Conclusion: The higher serum HMGB1 and DKK1 levels in T2DM patients and the associations with atherogenicity indicate that low grade inflammation and disorders in the Wnt pathways are associated with T2DM and that both HMGB1 and DKK1 may contribute to increased atherogenicity in T2DM. Moreover, both biomarkers may cause more deficits in β-cell function and increase glucose toxicity leading to the development of more inflammation and diabetic complications. HMGB1 and the Wnt pathways are new drug targets in the treatment of T2DM.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0114.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: COVID19; ACE2; diabetes; SARS-CoV2; liver injury
Online: 7 May 2020 (08:57:14 CEST)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) that has resulted in a global pandemic. The clinical symptoms of the disease vary from mild illness to acute respiratory issues. Older age, diabetes, cardiac diseases predict poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients. Various reports mention the incidence of liver injury with transient elevations in the levels of aminotransferases (liver function enzymes). The clinical characteristics, etiology and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms associated with liver damage in SARS-CoV2 infected patients need to be explored. This review highlights the severity of the hepatic injury in COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0218.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus; walking speed; sarcopenia
Online: 14 April 2020 (08:45:26 CEST)
Diabetes is a risk factor for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. However, how the clinical characteristics of type 2 diabetic patients with MCI are linked to sarcopenia and/or its criterion remain to be elucidated. Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were categorized into the MCI group for MoCA-J (the Japanese version of the Montreal cognitive assessment) score <26, and into the non-MCI group for MoCA-J ≥26. Sarcopenia was defined by a low skeletal mass index along with low muscle strength (handgrip strength) or low physical performance (walking speed <1.0 m/s). Univariate and multivariate-adjusted odds ratio models were used to determine the independent contributors for MoCA-J <26. Among 438 participants, 221 (50.5%) and 217 (49.5%) comprised the non-MCI and MCI groups, respectively. In the MCI group, age (61 ± 12 vs. 71 ± 10 years, p < 0.01) and duration of diabetes (14 ± 9 vs. 17 ± 9 years, p < 0.01) were higher than those in the non-MCI group. Patients in the MCI group exhibited lower hand grip strength, walking speed, and skeletal mass index, but higher prevalence of sarcopenia. Only walking speed (rather than muscle loss or muscle weakness) was found to be an independent determinant of MCI after adjusting for multiple factors, such as age, gender, BMI, duration of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, drinking, eGFR, HbA1c, and history of coronary heart diseases and stroke. In subgroup analysis, a group consisting of male patients aged ≥65 years, with BMI <25, showed a significant OR for walking speed. This is the first study to show that slow walking speed is a sole determinant for the presence of MCI in patients with type 2 diabetes. It was suggested that walking speed is an important factor in the prediction and prevention of MCI development in patients with diabetes mellitus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0208.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: oligonol; diabetes; pancreas; antioxidative stress; anti-inflammation
Online: 30 May 2017 (06:29:46 CEST)
Oligonol is a low-molecular-weight polyphenol derived from lychee fruit. This study was conducted to examine whether oligonol has an ameliorative effect on diabetes-induced pancreatic damage via oxidative stress-induced inflammation. Oligonol was orally administered at 10 or 20 mg/kg body weight/day for 10 days to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, and changes in serum glucose, C-peptide, insulin, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels as well as body weight and food and water consumption were assessed. Furthermore, rat pancreases were analyzed for weight, ROS generation, TBARS level, insulin content, and protein expressions of phosphor (p)-p38, p-extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2, p-inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa Bα, nuclear factor-kappa Bp65, cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. Markers of diabetes were shown to be decreased by oligonol administration and histological damage in the pancreas was also ameliorated. These results indicate that oligonol exerts antidiabetic activities, which may be mediated via antioxidative, stress-related, anti-inflammatory signaling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0071.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: diabetes mellitus; metformin; glibenclamide and lipid profile
Online: 14 November 2016 (07:14:00 CET)
Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been defined as a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. This study includes (84) subjects, their age ranged from (40 to 54) years. (20) subjects were healthy chosen as control group and (64) patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were divided into three groups according to their type of anti diabetic therapy: (23) newly diagnosed group without therapy (Group1), (20) with metformin therapy (Group2) and (21) with metformin plus glibenclamide therapies (Group3). In the study lipid profile level were quantitatively determine by enzymatic methods, in addition to that fasting plasma glucose (FPG), Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c%) and body mass index (BMI) were identified in the patients. There is significant increase in the level of lipid profile in patients group. Metformin alone produce a non-significant favorable effect on all lipids profile parameters while metformin plus glibenclamide showed a significant reduction in TC and LDL-C.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0029.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: HLA; type 1 diabetes; ethnicity; screening; haplotype
Online: 7 September 2016 (12:49:02 CEST)
Aims/Hypothesis): Type 1 diabetes is an immune-mediated disease with destruction of the pancreatic β-cells, a process that is conditioned by multiple genes and other factors. HLA counts as the major susceptibility gene. Significant variations in HLA genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes between Caucasians, African and Asian and other ethnic groups may have led to the variation in incidence of type 1 diabetes globally. Type 1 diabetes is characterized upon HLA identification. In this chapter we discuss global variations in genetic susceptibility of HLA with regard to type 1 diabetes globally with a particular attention to Arab population. Methods): Haplotype configuration of HLA class I A, B, C and Class II –DR/DQ/DP were studied in Caucasians, African and Asian and in Arab population to see if that is responsible for the exponential rise in the rate of type 1 diabetes. Results): Although Arabs have one of the highest global incidence and prevalence rates of type 1 diabetes, unfortunately, there is a dearth amount of information regarding HLA genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes in the Arab world. HLA haplotype configurations contribute to its risk value. However, out of an insufficient present study there are examples of misjudgment of HLA risk according to HLA alleles rather than haplotypes. Conclusion): To date HLA outlooks for the characterization of type 1 diabetes. There is an ethnicity difference in HLA characteristics which is responsible for variation in type 1 diabetes. Although Arab population have contributed heavily in the rise of burden of type 1 diabetes, however, there is significantly a dearth amount of studies on HLA in Arab population. Obviously, any future prediction, prevention or cure of the disease will be based on the HLA genetics. There is a dire need for a systematic screening of HLA for Arab population with type 1 diabetes, identification of Arab HLA-risk values and identify those who are prone to get the disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1867.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: vitamin C; ascorbic acid; diabetes; diabetes mellitus; body weight; C-reactive protein; dietary intake; dietary requirements; NHANES; EPIC-Norfolk
Online: 28 September 2023 (03:52:33 CEST)
Vitamin C is an essential enzyme cofactor and antioxidant with pleiotropic roles in human physiology. Circulating vitamin C concentrations are lower in people with diabetes mellitus suggesting a higher dietary requirement for the vitamin. We interrogated the NHANES 2017/2018 and EPIC-Norfolk datasets to compare vitamin C requirements between those with and without diabetes mellitus using dose-concentration relationships fitted with sigmoidal (four parameter logistic) curves. The NHANES cohort (n=2828 non-supplementing adults) comprised 488 (17%) participants with diabetes (self-reported or HbA1c ≥6.5%). The participants with diabetes had a lower vitamin C status (median [IQR]) than those without (38 [17, 52] µmol/L vs 44 [25, 61] µmol/L, p<0.0001), despite comparable dietary intakes between the two groups (51 [26, 93] mg/d vs 53 [24, 104] mg/d, p=0.5). Dose-concentration relationships indicated that the group without diabetes reached adequate vitamin C concentrations (50 µmol/L) with an intake of 81 (72, 93) mg/d, whilst the those with diabetes required an intake of 166 (126, NA) mg/d. In the EPIC-Norfolk cohort, comprising 20692 non-supplementing adults, 475 (2.3%) had self-reported diabetes at baseline. The EPIC cohort had lower a BMI than the NHANES cohort (26 [24, 28] kg/m2 vs 29 [25, 34] kg/m2, respectively). Correspondingly, the EPIC participants without diabetes required a lower vitamin C intake of 64 (63, 65) mg/d while those with diabetes required 129 (104, NA) mg/d to reach adequate circulating vitamin C status. C-reactive protein concentrations were strongly correlated with body weight and BMI and provided a surrogate biomarker for vitamin C requirements. In conclusion, people with diabetes have 1.4- to 1.6-fold higher requirements for vitamin C than those without diabetes. This corresponds to additional daily vitamin C intake requirements of ~30-40 mg for people with diabetes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1754.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: digital health devices; diabetes test; bio-markers; blood glucose monitoring; diabetes; exhaled breath analysis; non-invasive; volatile organic compounds
Online: 25 August 2023 (08:29:07 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus is a widespread chronic metabolic disorder demanding regular blood glucose level surveillance (BGLs). Current invasive techniques, such as finger-prick tests, often result in discomfort for patients, leading to infrequent monitoring and potential health complications. The primary objective of this study was to design a novel, portable, non-invasive system for diabetes detection using breath samples, named as DiabeticSense, an affordable digital health device for early detection, encouraging immediate intervention. The device employed MOSFET-based electrochemical sensors to assess volatile organic compounds in breath samples, whose concentrations differ between diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. The system merged body vital signs with sensor voltages obtained by processing breath sample data to predict diabetic conditions. Our research used readings from 100 patients at a nationally recognised hospital to form the dataset. Data was then processed 10 using a Gradient Boosting Classifier model, and performance was cross-validated. The proposed system attained a promising accuracy of 86.6%, marking an improvement of 20.72% over an existing regression technique. The developed device introduces a non-invasive, cost-effective, and user-friendly solution for preliminary diabetes detection. It has the potential to increase patient adherence to regular monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0398.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: diabetes; choroid thickness; gymnemic acid; glabridin; neovascularization; choriocapillaris
Online: 6 December 2023 (10:58:58 CET)
This study was to explore the effects of glabridin and gymnemic acid on the structural changes of the choroidal layer as well as the expression of VEGF and CD31 in diabetic rats. The animals were separated into five groups: the control group (C), the diabetic group (DM), the diabetic rats treated with glabridin 40 mg/kg body weight (DM+GB), the diabetic rats treated with gymnemic acid 400 mg/kg body weight (DM+GM), and the diabetic rats treated with glyburide 4 mg/kg body weight (DM+GR). There has been an increase in the thickness of both the choroid layer and the wall of the arteries in the diabetic group. A decrease in vascularity and choroidal neovascularization can be found in DM rats. After eight weeks of experimentation, the choroidal thickness and wall of choroid arteries, as well as the diameter of the lumen of choroid arteries in the DM+GB, DM+GM, and DM+GR groups, had improved. The expression of VEGF and CD31 was lower compared to the DM group. According to the findings of the current research, glabridin and gymnemic acid can improve and reduce the damage to the choroid, which is a factor that can sometimes result in vision loss.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1802.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: diabetes; terpenes; docking; MD simulation; MM-GBSA; DFT
Online: 27 October 2023 (11:50:06 CEST)
African indigenous herbs and medicinal plants are extensively reported for their protective and therapeutic potential against Diabetes. However, most of the constituent phytochemicals that may account for the therapeutic activity are largely uninvestigated. Exploring novel phytochemical–target interactions in silico could help to provide useful insights into the mechanism underpinning the biological activities of these plants and their constituent phytochemicals. The aim of this study was to explore the interactions of terpene struc-tures previously reported from selected African antidiabetic with two emerging drug targets in diabetes. Structure-based virtual screening was used to screen 107 terpene structures against DPP-4 and PTP1B enzymes. The MD simulation, MM-GBSA free energy calculation and DFT were used to clarify the inter-actions of the in silico hits with the target enzymes. Molecular docking, post-docking Prime MM-GBSA analysis revealed the top terpenes with high binding affinity with the active site regions of DPP-4 and PTP1B. Ensemble docking revealed three triterpenes viz: cucurbitacin B (T1), 6-Oxoisoiguesterin (T4) and 20-Epi-isoiguesterinol (T2) as in silico hits which exhibit strong interaction potential with critical residues that define the catalytic triad (Ser630 and His740); oxyanion cavity (Ser631); hydrophobic S1 pocket (Tyr662) and the charged S2 pocket (Arg125) in the active site region of DPP-4. The interactions of these compounds with DPP-4 exhibited structural stability and conformational flexibility during 100 ns full atomistic MD simulation as indicated by the structure dynamics parameters including RMSD, RoG, SASA and hydrogen bond number. The post-MD MM/GBSA calculations further revealed the stability of the triterpene-DPP-4 complexes. Furthermore, Frontier molecular orbital calculations showed that, the triterpenes possess high interaction potential with the enzyme. The triterpenes showed desirable ADMET properties and drug-likeness. Therefore, cucurbitacin B, 6-Oxoisoiguesterin and 20-Epi-isoiguesterinol are recommended for experimental validation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0265.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Viscum album; Paolo Pelini; veterinary medicine; hypertension,diabetes
Online: 5 October 2023 (08:27:01 CEST)
Viscum album L., also known as “Mistletoe”, is a hemiparasitic plant native to the European continent that grows on various host trees. This plant contains a wide variety of active compounds that can be used for treat various diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, as an anti- inflammatory and antioxidant. However, it is most indicated in human medicine for the adjuvant treatment of cancer patients. Both for its properties directed against neoplastic cells and for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In Veterinary Medicine, I am very few studies are recorded for animals, although formulations are available for commercial use in oral and injectable form, mostly for homeopathic use. Many studies have been conducted on a large scale by groups of independent researchers and doctors in several countries, such as Switzerland, Germany and Brazil. Therefore, this review aimed to collect data on the use of Viscum album in Veterinary Medicine in order to encourage research in this sector not only in oncological diseases but in other directions in which Viscum can find use as an anti-pretensive and anti-diabetic agent. Introduction: Lectins, flavonoids, phenols such as phenylpropanoids, coumarins, sterols, lignans, terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, alkaloids, fatty acids and viscotoxins are among the main active ingredients present in the phytocomplexes of the Viscum album plant. In particular, Attention should be given to specific oligoproteins in consideration of their activity biological . present in The foliage and fruits of V. album, as in other related species, contain low-weight proteins molecular type of thionin, called viscotoxins, as well as characteristic lectins, called viscolectins, both can contribute to its system defense and can be found in extracts and related products. These classes of Viscum microproteins have received considerable attention due to their contribution to effects cytotoxics and immunostimulants of mistletoe extracts used in medicine, as discussed later, including their mechanism of action [ 2–3] viscotoxins can increase the number of cells circulating naturalkillers and consequently improve the response host antitumor immunity [ 8]. Likewise, the a viscotoxin has an effective immunomodulatory impact on human and animal granulocytes [ 9, 10] and also acts on cellular apoptosis . The cytotoxic action of viscotoxin is comparable to that of conventional chemotherapeutic agents [ 12].
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1638.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus; pregnancy; antidiabetic drugs; prescription pattern
Online: 25 September 2023 (09:27:25 CEST)
Pregestational and gestational diabetes mellitus are relevant complications of pregnancy and antidiabetic drugs are prescribed to obtain glycemic control and improve perinatal outcomes. The objective of this study was to highlight the prescription pattern of antidiabetics before, during and after pregnancy in Italy and to evaluate its appropriateness. A multi-database cross sectional population study using a Common Data Model was performed. In a cohort of about 450,000 women, the prescribing profile of antidiabetics seemed to be in line with the Italian standards for the treatment of GDM which currently do not recommend the use of oral antidiabetics and non-insulin injection, even if a small share of new users (up to 3.8% in the third trimester) used oral antidiabetics. A substantial variability in the prescription pattern was observed among the Italian regions considered: the highest increase was registered in Tuscany (4.2%), Umbria (3.5%) and Emilia-Romagna (2.6%) while the lowest in Lombardy (1.5%), Veneto (1.7%) and Apulia (1.7%). Analysing the prevalence of use of antidiabetics between foreign women we observed that the consumption during pregnancy was higher than Italians (second trimester: 1,8% vs 0,9%, third trimester: 3,6% vs 1,8%).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0878.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Type 1 diabetes; gastrointestinal symptoms; calprotectin; gastrointestinal endoscopy
Online: 14 September 2023 (02:42:59 CEST)
(1) Background: Little research is done on the link of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) progression and diabetic gastroenteropathy in type 1 diabetes (T1D). (2) Methods. We performed a cross-sectional study with 100 T1D patients, 27 of them had progressive DKD, defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline≥3 ml/min/year or increased albuminuria stage over the mean follow-up time of 5.89±1.73 years. Newly developed score with 17 questions on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms was used. Faecal calprotectin was measured by ELISA. Lower GI endoscopies were performed in 21 patients. (3) Results: Gastrointestinal symptom score demonstrated high reliability (Cronbach's α=0.78). Patients with progressive DKD had higher GI symptom scores compared to those with stable DKD (p=0.019). The former group demonstrated more frequent bowel movement disorders (p=0.04). The scores correlated negatively with eGFR (r = -0.335; p = 0.001), positively with albuminuria (r=0.245; p=0.015), Hba1c (r=0.305, p=0.002), diabetes duration (r=0.251, p=0.012). Faecal calprotectin levels did not differ between DKD groups significantly. The most commonly reported histopathological findings of enteric mucosa were infiltration with eosinophils, lymphocytes, plasmacytes, presence of lymphoid follicles and lymphoid aggregates. Conclusion: progression of DKD positively correlated with gastrointestinal symptoms, but more research is needed to clarify the causal relationships of the gut-kidney axis in T1D.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0617.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: alexithymia; obesity; diabetes mellitus type 2; psychodynamic psychotherapy
Online: 11 September 2023 (09:21:26 CEST)
Alexithymia as the inability to describe one's own feelings, is being increasingly researched. According to contemporary psychodynamic theories, negative emotions cannot be adequately named and externalized, but remain trapped in the body. Recent research shows the connection of alexithymia with numerous somatic diseases. Diabetes mellitus type 2 and obesity represent a great challenge in treatment, and the psychological profiles in these diseases are being studied more and more often. Therefore, alexithymia enters the focus of some research as one that could play a significant role namely in these diseases as the factor that makes a difference. The aim of this paper is a review of the literature with the purpose of understanding the current knowledge about the interconnection between alexithymia, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0520.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Differential responders; Clustering; Personalized nutrition; Type 2 diabetes
Online: 7 September 2023 (11:38:56 CEST)
The global prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has surged in recent decades and the identification of differential glycemic responders can aid tailored treatment for prevention of pre-diabetes and T2DM. A mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT) based on regular foods offers potential to uncover differential responders in dynamical postprandial events. We aimed to fit a simple mathematical model on dynamic postprandial glucose data from repeated MMTTs among partic-ipants with elevated T2DM risk, to identify response clusters and investigate their association with T2DM risk factors and gut microbiota. Data were used from a 12-week multi-center dietary inter-vention trial involving high-risk T2DM adults, comparing high- versus low-glycemic index foods within a Mediterranean diet context (MEDGICarb). Model-based analysis of MMTTs from 155 participants (81 females, 74 males) revealed two distinct plasma glucose response clusters that were associated with baseline gut microbiota. Cluster A, inversely associated with HbA1c and waist circumference and directly with insulin sensitivity, exhibited a contrasting profile to cluster B. Findings imply that a standardized breakfast MMTT using regular foods could effectively distin-guish non-diabetic individuals at varying risk levels for T2DM using a simple mechanistic model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: glucagon-like peptide-1; semaglutide; type 2 diabetes
Online: 1 September 2023 (07:49:49 CEST)
Background: The number of people with type 2 diabetes is increasing daily, and therefore effective therapy is needed to successfully regulate glycemia and reduce the risk of associated complications. Recently, an oral formulation of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) semaglutide has become available. Therefore, the aim of our study was to compare the effectiveness of the new oral formulation and the existing injectable formulation of semaglutide in terms of glycemic and body weight control in a real-world setting. Patients and methods: This was a single-center retrospective observational study conducted at the Rijeka Clinical Hospital Centre. A total of 106 patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes (HbA1 ≥ 7%) on different oral or basal insulin supported oral therapy were recruited from the diabetes outpatient clinic, and data from electronic medical records were retrospectively collected and analyzed from May 2021 to November 2022. All subjects were GLP-1 RA naive and consequently prescribed 0.5 or 1.0 mg once weekly injectable semaglutide (IS) or 7 mg or 14 mg once daily oral semaglutide (OS) for at least 6 months. Glycated hemoglo-bin (HbA1c), body weight, and body mass index (BMI) were assessed prior to semaglutide administration and after a 6-month follow-up period. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in HbA1c, and sec-ondary endpoints were the change in body weight and the proportion of participants with a reduction in body weight of ≥ 5% and ≥ 10%, respectively, 6 months after the initiation of semaglutide treatment. Results: At 6-month follow-up, no significant difference was observed between the two formulations in terms of HbA1c reduction (IS -1.1% vs OS -1.4%, p=0.126) and weight loss (IS -6.50 kg vs OS -5.90 kg, p=0.714). Exactly the same proportion of participants in both groups achieved a weight loss of ≥ 5% (56.7%, n=30). A weight loss ≥ 10% was observed in 20.7% (n=11) of participants administered IS and 15.1% (n=8) of participants adminis-tered OS, respectively (p=0.454). Conclusion: In a real-world setting, oral semaglutide as add-on therapy to ongoing antihyperglycemic treatment in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes who had not previously received GLP-1 RA demonstrated the same effectiveness as injectable semaglutide in terms of gly-cemic control and weight loss after 6 months of treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1665.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: gestational diabetes; epigenetics; GDM; GDM offspring; GDM methylation
Online: 25 July 2023 (07:44:29 CEST)
In 2020, it is estimated that 7.8% of all live births in the United States were complicated with gestational diabetes, with around 10% of all pregnancies in North America involving gestational diabetes. GDM’s prevalence has been increasing over time, likely due to the population’s rising BMI and increasing maternal age. GDM has been long associated with increased complications in pregnancy, from preeclampsia and macrosomia in the short-term, to long term ramifications including the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and potential effects on the offspring, including obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and increased risk of autism. Additionally, as the field of epigenetics continuously grows, we are able to further elucidate epigenetic mechanisms at play in the development of GDM and how these changes may affect the offspring. In this narrative review, we have compiled recent and relative clinical studies that highlight the role epigenetics may play in the development and perpetuation of GDM, as well as its possible effects on the offspring.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2122.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Complementary And Alternative Medicine Keywords: medicinal plants-based foods; pharmacology; diabetes; insulin; phytoconstituents
Online: 30 June 2023 (03:52:42 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus (DM) comprises a range of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood glucose levels caused by defects in insulin release, insulin action, or both. DM is a widespread condition that affects a substantial portion of the global population, causing high morbidity and mortality rates. The prevalence of this major public health crisis is predicted to increase in the forthcoming years. Although, several drugs are available to manage DM, these are associated with adverse side effects, which limits their use. In underdeveloped countries, where such drugs are often costly and not widely available, many people continue to rely on alternative traditional medicine, including medicinal plants. The latter serve as a source of primary healthcare and plant-based foods in many low and middle-income countries. Interestingly, many of the phytochemicals they contain have been demonstrated to possess antidiabetic activity such as lowering blood glucose levels, stimulating insulin secretion and alleviating diabetic complications. Therefore, such plants may provide protective effects that could be used in the management of DM. The purpose of this article was to review the medicinal plant-based foods traditionally used for the management of DM, including their therapeutic effects, pharmacologically-active phytoconstituents and antidiabetic mode of action at the molecular level. It also presents future avenues for research in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1611.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: mHealth; gestational diabetes; health professionals; obesity; Apps; postpartum
Online: 22 June 2023 (11:42:24 CEST)
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is a common medical complication of pregnancy, which is associated with increased risk of future diabetes. mHealth (mobile health, in this paper applica-tions abbreviated to apps) can facilitate health modifications to decrease future risks. This study aims to understand mHealth app use and preferences among women with past GDM and healthcare professionals (HCP) in Australia. An explorative cross-sectional online survey was disseminated via social media, a national diabetes registry, and professional networks. Descrip-tive analyses were conducted on valid responses (women with prior GDM: n=1475; HCP: n=75). One third (33%) of women with prior GDM have used health apps, and a further 80% of non-app users were open to using a health app if recommended by their HCP. Over half (53%) of HCPs supported health information delivery via mHealth, although only 14% had recommended a health app to women post-GDM, and lack of knowledge about mHealth apps was common. Health app users reported that they preferred tracking features, while non-users desired credible health and dietary information and plans. Expanding mHealth app use could facilitate healthy behaviours, but endorsement by HCPs is important to women and currently lacking.