ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0453.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: ARDS; VIP; Aviptadil; RLF-100; Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome; Sepsis
Online: 20 July 2020 (03:46:11 CEST)
Purpose: To assess the clinical safety and possible effectiveness of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide in the treatment of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) related to sepsis. Methods: Under FDA Investigational New Drug clearance, 8 patients with ARDS related to sepsis were treated with 50 pmole/kg/hr – 100 pmole/kg/hr of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide by intravenous infusion for 12 hours. All patients were on mechanical ventilation and full telemetery. Results: No drug-related serious adverse events were seen. Hypotension was seen in association with two infusions and diarrhea in association with one, but did not necessitate cessation of therapy. Bigeminy was seen in association with one infusion without sequelae. Seven of eight patients demonstrated a successful course during intensive care and were successfully removed from mechanical ventilation and discharged from intensive care. The eighth patient succumbed to purulent secretions in the lungs. Of those who were discharged from the ICU, six demonstrated successful 30 day survival. The seventh died from a cerebral infract at day 30, deemed unrelated to treatment with VIP. Serum levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor α were obtained in 6 patients at baseline and 24 hours and were seen to decrease with treatment in five patients. Conclusions: Initial clinical results of treatment with VIP in patients with ARDS demonstrated a safety profile consistent with previous studies in normal volunteers. The successful clinical course seen in 7 of 8 patients in the setting of an expected 50% survival may suggest that VIP shows promise in the treatment of other infectious conditions that damage the pulmonary epithelium, particularly COVID-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0099.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: pneumonia; acute respiratory distress syndrome; pathogenesis; protein-homeostasis-system; corticosteroid; intravenous immunoglobulin
Online: 18 November 2016 (10:18:58 CET)
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is caused by infectious insults, such as pneumonia from various pathogens or related to other noninfectious events. Clinical and histopathologic characteristics are similar across severely affected patients, suggesting that a common mode of immune reaction may be involved in the immunopathogenesis of ARDS. There may be etiologic substances that have an affinity for respiratory cells and induce lung cell injury in cases of ARDS. These substances originate not only from pathogens, but also from injured host cells. At the molecular level, these substances have various sizes and biochemical characteristics, classifying them as protein substances and non-protein substances. Immune cells and immune proteins may recognize and act on these substances, including pathogenic proteins and peptides, depending upon the size and biochemical properties of the substances (this theory is known as the protein-homeostasis-system hypothesis). The severity or chronicity of ARDS depends on the amount of etiologic substances with corresponding immune reactions, the duration of the appearance of specific immune cells, or the repertoire of specific immune cells that control the substances. Therefore, treatment with early systemic immune modulators (corticosteroids and/or intravenous immunoglobulin) as soon as possible may reduce aberrant immune responses in the potential stage of ARDS.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0360.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; acute respiratory distress syndrome; hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction; alveolar edema; early low-flow oxygen
Online: 11 February 2021 (11:40:30 CET)
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread over the world for more than one year. COVID-19 often develops life-threatening hypoxemia. Endothelial injury caused by the viral infection leads to intravascular coagulation and ventilation-perfusion mismatch. However, besides above pathogenic mechanisms, the role of alveolar edema in the disease progression has not been discussed comprehensively. Since the exudation of pulmonary edema fluid was extremely serious in COVID-19 patients, we bring out a hypothesis that severity of alveolar edema may determine the size of poorly-ventilated area and the blood oxygen content. Treatments to pulmonary edema (alcohol-oxygen vapor therapy and fluid management) may be great helpful for reducing occurrence of severe cases. Given that late mechanical ventilation may cause mucus (edema fluid) to be blown to the deep of the small airways, oxygen therapy should be given at the early stages. The optimal time and SpO2 threshold for oxygen therapy are also discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0035.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Experimental radiotherapy; radiobiology; Mesenchymal stem cells; Cell therapy; Exosome; Annexin A1; Acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome; COVID-19
Online: 2 August 2020 (14:54:24 CEST)
Previously we have shown that the combination of radiotherapy with human-umbilical-cord-derived mesenchymal stem-cell therapy significantly reduces the size of the xenotumours in mice, both in the directly irradiated tumour and in the distant non-irradiated tumour or in its metastasis. We have also shown that exosomes secreted from mesenchymal stem-cells pre-irradiated with 2 Gy are quantitatively, functionally and qualitatively different from the exosomes secreted from non-irradiated mesenchymal cells and also that proteins, exosomes and microvesicles secreted by mesenchymal cells suffer a dramatic change when cells are activated or non-activated, with the amount of protein present in the exosomes of the pre-irradiated cells being 1.5-fold times greater compared to those from non-irradiated cells. This finding correlates with a dramatic increase in the anti-tumour activity of the exosomes secreted by pre-irradiated mesenchymal-cells. After the proteomic analysis of the load of the exosomes released from both irradiated and non-irradiated cells, we conclude that annexin A1 is the most important and significant difference between the exosomes released by the cells in either status. Knowing the role of annexin A1 in the control of hypoxia and inflammation which is characteristic of acute-distress-respiratory syndrome, we have designed a hypothetical therapeutic strategy, based on the transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells stimulated with radiation, to alleviate the symptoms of patients who, due to pneumonia caused by COVID-19, require the care of an intensive care unit for patients with life-threatening conditions. With this hypothesis, we would seek to improve the patients’ respiratory capacity and increase the expectations of their cure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0097.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: acute respiratory distress syndrome; mesenchymal stem/stromal cells,; exosome; COVID-19; Clinical trials
Online: 4 December 2020 (10:10:11 CET)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has reached a global epidemic across the world after first reported in Wuhan, China’s Hubei province in December 2019. The pandemic is also associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) characterized by excess inflammation, progressive arterial hypoxemia and dyspnea. Mesenchymal stem/ stromal cells (MSCs) have been investigated as treatment for ARDS due to immunomodulatory property. Exosomes derived from MSCs play an important role in paracrine signaling of MSCs, thereby contributed to immunomodulation of the immune microenvironment. Exosomes are emerged as potential alternative to MSC cell therapy with superiority of safety. In this review, we will introduce MSC-derived exosomes and briefly discuss current progress on MSCs and exosomes in ARDS, which may have clinical implications in pathogenesis and treatment of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0177.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; acute respiratory distress syndrome; methylprednisolone; mechanical ventilation; ventilator-free days; SARS-CoV-2 infection
Online: 11 January 2021 (10:13:42 CET)
Objectives: There are limited data regarding the efficacy of methylprednisolone in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. We aimed to determine whether methylprednisolone increases the number of ventilator-free days (VFDs) among these patients. Design: Retrospective single-center study Setting: Intensive care unit Patients: All patients with ARDS due to confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and requiring invasive mechanical ventilation between 1 March and 29 May 2020 were included Interventions: None Measurements and Main Results: The primary outcome was ventilator-free days (VFDs) during the first 28 days, defined as being alive and free from mechanical ventilation. The primary outcome was analyzed with competing-risks regression based on Fine and Gray’s proportional subhazards model. Death before day 28 was considered to be the competing event. A total of 77 patients met the inclusion criteria. Thirty-two patients (41.6%) received methylprednisolone. The median dose was 1 mg.kg-1 (IQR: 1-1.3 mg.kg-1) and median duration of 5 days (IQR:5-7 days). Patients who received methylprednisolone had a mean 18.8 VFDs (95% CI, 16.6-20.9) during the first 28 days vs. 14.2 VFDs (95% CI, 12.6-16.7) in patients who did not receive methylprednisolone (difference, 4.61; 95% CI, 1.10-8.12; P = 0.001). In the multivariable competing-risks regression analysis and after adjusting for potential confounders (ventilator settings, prone position, organ failure support, severity of the disease, tocilizumab, and inflammatory markers), methylprednisolone was independently associated with a higher number of VFDs (subhazards ratio: 0.10, 95%CI: 0.02-0.45; p=0.003). Hospital mortality did not differ between the two groups (31.2% vs. 28.9%, p=0.82). Hospital length of stay was significantly shorter in the methylprednisolone group (24 days [IQR:15-41 days] vs. 37 days [IQR:23-52 days], p=0.046). The incidence of positive blood cultures was higher in patients who received methylprednisolone (37.5% vs. 17.8%, p=0.052). However, 91% of patients who received methylprednisolone also received tocilizumab. The number of days with hyperglycemia was similar in the two groups. Conclusions: Methylprednisolone was independently associated with increased VFDs and shortened hospital length of stay. The combination of methylprednisolone and tocilizumab was associated with a higher rate of positive blood cultures. Further trials are needed to evaluate the benefits and safety of methylprednisolone in moderate or severe COVID-19 ARDS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0158.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; accessory protein; mapping; structure; Open reading frame, Orf.
Online: 3 November 2022 (10:27:01 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic first observed in December 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has influenced every individual on the planet. The virus has influenced our lifestyle, education, economy and the environment. Though the vaccines against COVID-19 have provided protection against the disease; new strains of the virus have lowered the efficiency of the vaccines. There is still no effective therapy for the treatment of the disease. Understanding the protein structure of the virus may lead to the development of effective therapies for the disease. We recently mapped the structural proteins and non-structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2. The accessory proteins (Open reading frames, Orfs) of SARS-CoV-2 modulate the host environment to favor virus replication. This paper reports mapping the accessory proteins (Orfs) of SARS-CoV-2.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0153.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; 2019-nCoV; COVID-19; angiotensin converting enzyme 2; Receptor; Live Attenuated Oral Vaccine; Intestine; proximal and distal enterocytes; herd immunity
Online: 9 April 2020 (13:10:50 CEST)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2/2019-nCoV) infection is an emerging pandemic. The virus binds to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and TMPRSS2 which are abundantly expressed on various human cells including lung epithelial cells and intestinal cells and the virus can infect these cells. Currently no specific treatments or vaccines are available for this disease. A per oral live attenuated vaccine can be beneficial in SARS-Cov-2 infection because the attenuated virus initially infects the gut, stimulates the mucosa associated immune system sparing the respiratory system during the initial immune response. The live virus can also spread in the community boosting herd immunity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0092.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Acute coronary syndrome; inflammation; neutrophil; outcome
Online: 7 April 2020 (11:18:03 CEST)
Aims: Clinical evidence indicates that innate immune cells may contribute to the onset and outcome of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Our prospective study aimed at analysing neutrophil phenotypes in ACS and their role in predicting 1-year major cardiovascular events. Methods: Blood neutrophil phenotypes were analysed by flow cytometry. Differential blood cell count and plasma levels of soluble markers were recorded at admission and at 6-month follow-up. Results: 108 patients categorized in chronic stable coronary artery disease (n=37), unstable angina (UA) (n=19), Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) (n=25), and ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) (n=27) were included. STEMI and NSTEMI patients displayed higher neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) than stable and UA patients (P<0.0001), which normalized at 6-month after MI. STEMI patients were characterized by elevated percentages of band cells in low-density neutrophils (P=0.007) and in high-density neutrophils (P=0.019) compared to the other patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that plasma levels of total MPO was associated with STEMI when compared to stable (OR: 1.434; 95% CI: 1.119-1.837; P<0.0001), UA (1.47; 1.146-1.886; P=0.002), and NSTEMI (1.213; 1.1-1.134; P=0.0001) patients, while increased neutrophil SSC signal intensity was associated with NSTEMI compared to stable patients (3.828; 1.033-14.184; P=0.045). Based on multivariable Cox regression analysis, elevated plasma levels of PCSK9 and low-density neutrophil percentage predicted 1-year outcome independently of cardiovascular risk factors (c-index: 0.915; IQR: 0.908-0.929). Conclusions: Changes in neutrophil phenotype are concomitant to ACS. These changes may differ between STEMI and NSTEMI. They may also contribute to ACS risk and patient outcome.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1589.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia; acute lymphoblastic leukemia; single-cell RNA sequencing; Down syndrome, trisomy 21; personalized medicine; multi-omics approach
Online: 25 September 2023 (04:20:18 CEST)
The molecular basis of Down syndrome (DS) predisposition to leukemia is not fully understood but involves various factors such as chromosomal abnormalities, oncogenic mutations, epigenetic alterations, and changes in selection dynamics. Myeloid leukemia associated with DS (ML-DS) is preceded by a preleukemic phase called transient abnormal myelopoiesis driven by GATA1 gene mutations and progresses to ML-DS through additional mutations in cohesin genes, CTCF, RAS, or JAK/STAT pathway genes. DS-related ALL (ALL-DS) differs from non-DS ALL in terms of cytogenetic subgroups and genetic driver events and aberrant expression of CRLF2, JAK2 mutations, and RAS pathway activating mutations are frequent in ALL-DS. Recent advancements in single-cell multi-omics technologies have provided unprecedented insights into the cellular and molecular heterogeneity of DS-associated hematologic neoplasms. Single-cell RNA sequencing and digital spatial profiling enable the identification of rare cell subpopulations, characterization of clonal evolution dynamics, and exploration of the tumor microenvironment's role. These approaches may help identify new druggable targets and tailor therapeutic interventions based on distinct molecular profiles, ultimately improving patient outcomes with the potential to guide personalized medicine approaches and the development of targeted therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1916.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: High flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy; acute respiratory failure; geriatrics; acute non-intensive hospital setting
Online: 26 May 2023 (10:22:17 CEST)
Background. There are scant data about the effectiveness of high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy in patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory failure (ARF) in non-intensive medical wards, particularly regarding the effect on arterial oxygenation compared to conventional oxygen therapy (COT) and non-invasive ventilation (NIV) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Methods. In a retrospective observational study, oxygenation parameters were measured before and immediately after HFNC initiation in 37 consecutive patients hospitalized in a geriatric ward in 2017. Results. HFNC was used as escalation therapy for untreatable hypoxia after failure of NIV/CPAP (n=18) or COT (n=19). Twenty-two patients died, 2 were transferred to the intensive care unit, while 13 were discharged alive. A “do not intubate” status was identified in 17 of the 22 deceased patients. Partial pressure of oxygen (pO2, p< 0.0001), oxygen saturation (SO2, p< 0.0001), pO2/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (p=0.004) and peripheral SO2 measured by pulse oximetry (p< 0.0001) significantly increased soon after HFNC application. Oxygenation improvements were greater after escalation from NIV/CPAP and in patients discharged alive. Conclusion. HFNC significantly improved oxygenation in severe ARF after failure of COT or NIV/CPAP and may be particularly suitable for older patients hospitalized in non-intensive medical wards.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0019.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Acute Compartment Syndrome; MEMS; Scientific process; biomarker; pressure; sensor; diagnosis; medical device; bioengineering; medicine
Online: 1 May 2023 (05:24:58 CEST)
Background: Sensor usage in the classical scientific process has allowed new experimentation in medicine. We report on the design process of a MEMS sensor being used for muscle trauma evaluation in diagnosing acute compartment syndrome (ACS), a medical ailment costing society billions of dollars per year. Objectives: Modeling the disease with scientific process allows a more complete under-standing of the disease. The goal was to formulate a hypothesis that could be tested to aid in making the diagnosis of ACS accurately. Methods: Scientific process was observed throughout the disease modelling process. Background information was improved and clarified, new pre-clinical models were de-signed and verified, a hypothesis built on pressure measurement with MEMS sensors was carried out, and the testing of the model as verified against previous clinical data was accomplished. Results: Scientific process resulted in hypothesis generation around the relationship of intracompartmental pressure measurement and the disease process and therapy. This resulted in new understanding of ACS, accurate modelling, and sensor design resulting in a MEMS device that has an extremely high sensitivity and specificity (over 99%) in treating and diagnosing the disease. Conclusion: MEMS sensor technology defines the new gold standard of implanting a sensor in a muscle compartment that allows accurate diagnosis of ACS with continuous trends in pressure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0136.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: acute toxicity; cardiovascular depression; intravenous lipid emulsion; propofol; rat model; respiratory depression
Online: 23 October 2018 (09:34:43 CEST)
Abstract: Background and objective: Propofol is an anesthetic agent that is frequently used in anesthesia induction, maintenance and sedation. Propofol has severe side effects such as hypotension, bradycardia and respiratory depression. Although propofol is commonly used, there is no known antidote for its toxic effects. An approach to prevent toxic effects of propofol would be beneficial. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) therapy in the prevention of depressive effects of propofol on cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight Sprague-Dawley adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. The saline-administered group was determined as the Control group. The second group was administered propofol (PP group); the third group was administered ILE (ILE group), and the fourth was administered propofol with ILE therapy (ILE+PP group). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), Diastolic blood pressure (DBP), Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), Respiratory rate (RR), Heart rate (HR) and mortality were recorded at 10 points during 60 minutes. A repeated measures linear mixed-effect model with unstructured covariance was used to compare the groups. Results: In the PP group, SBP, DBP, MAP, RR and HR levels were declining steadily; all rats in this group died after 60 minutes. In the ILE+PP group, after a while, the decreased SBP, DBP, MAP, RR and HR levels increased SBP, DBP, MAP, RR and HR levels of the Propofol group were found to be significantly lower than those of the other groups (p<0.01). The mortality rate was 100% (surviving period, 60 min) for the PP group, whereas 0% for the ILE, ILE+PP and Control groups. Conclusion: Our results suggest that undesirable side effects that can be seen after propofol application such as hypotension, bradycardia and respiratory depression might be prevented by using ILE therapy.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0317.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2); COVID19; Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; bioaerosol; aerosol
Online: 30 April 2020 (05:30:30 CEST)
A short review of the important studies was conducted to evaluate the potential of aerosol transmission of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The minimum size of droplets potentially carrying the SARS-CoV-2 was newly estimated and discussed in this review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0250.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: socioeconomic status; indoor air pollution; acute respiratory infection; cooking fuel; under-five children
Online: 23 July 2019 (07:45:08 CEST)
Background: Low-income families often depend on fuels such as wood, coal, and animal dung for cooking. Such solid fuels are highly polluting and are a primary source of indoor air pollutants (IAP). We examined the association between solid fuel use (SFU) and acute respiratory infection (ARI) among under-five children in Afghanistan and the extent to which this association varies by socioeconomic status (SES) and gender. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study based on de-identified data from Afghanistan’s first standard Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 2015. The sample consists of ever-married mothers with under-five children in the household (n=27,565). We used mixed-effect Poisson regression models with robust error variance accounting for clustering to examine the associations between SFU and ARI among under-five children after adjusting for potential confounders. We also investigated potential effect modification by SES and sex. Additional analyses were conducted using an augmented measure of the exposure to IAP accounting for both SFU and the location of cooking/kitchen (High Exposure, Moderate, and No Exposure). Results: Around 70% of households reported SFU, whereas the prevalence of ARI was 17.6%. The prevalence of ARI was higher in children living in households with SFU compared to children living in households with no SFU (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]= 1.10; 95%CI: 0.98, 1.23). We did not observe any effect modification by SES or child sex. When using the augmented measure of exposure incorporating the kitchen’s location, children highly exposed to IAP had a higher prevalence of ARI compared to unexposed children (aPR 1.17; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.32). SES modified this association with the strongest associations observed among children from the middle wealth quintile. Conclusion: The findings have significant policy implications and suggest that ARI risk in children may be reduced by ensuring clean cookstove as well as clean fuels and acting on the socio-environmental pathways.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0178.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Aviptadil; Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide; VIP; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Corona Virus; Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome; ARDS; Acute Lung Injury; ALI; surfactant; Alveolar Type II; ATII
Online: 2 August 2020 (18:16:20 CEST)
RLF-100 (Aviptadil), a synthetic form of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is shown to block replication of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and has been granted Fast Track Designation by the US FDA for the treatment of Critical COVID-19 with Respiratory Failure. We describe the clinical course of the first patient treated with this investigational medication in an open label manner -- a 54 year old patient suffering antibody-mediated rejection of his double lung transplant who contracted COVID-19 with respiratory failure refractory to all currently available therapies. He received three infusions of RLF-100 under an FDA-approved emergency use IND. Within 24 hours of the third infusion, substantial improvement in oxygen saturation and radiographic improvement in characteristic COVID-19 pneumonitis was noted. He was discharged from intensive care at that point and scheduled for discharge to home at 1 week on room air. Despite an intervening hospitalization for trauma, he remains alive and free of respiratory failure at 28 days post treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0213.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: troponin; high-sensitivity; chronic kidney disease; renal insufficiency; myocardial infarction; acute coronary syndrome
Online: 10 August 2021 (08:45:07 CEST)
Background: Patients with severe chronic kidney disease (CKD G4-G5) often have chronically elevated high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) values above the 99th percentile of the upper reference limit. In these patients, optimal cutoff levels for diagnosing non-ST-elevation acute cor-onary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) requiring revascularization remain undefined. Methods: Of 11,912 patients undergoing coronary angiography from 2012 to 2017 for suspected NSTE-ACS, 325 (3%) had severe CKD. Of these, 290 with available serial hs-cTnT measurements were included and 300 matched patients with normal renal function were selected as a control cohort. Results: Diagnostic performance for patients with severe CKD was high at presentation and similar to that of the control population (AUC, 95% CI: 0.81, 0.75-0.87 versus 0.85, 0.80-0.89, p=0.68) and the ROC-derived cutoff value at presentation was 4 times higher compared to the conventional 99th percentile. Combining the ROC-derived cutoff levels for hs-cTnT at presentation and absolute 3-hour changes, sensitivity increased to 98%, PPV and NPV improved up to 93% and 86%, re-spectively. (4) Conclusions: In patients with severe CKD and suspected ACS the diagnostic accu-racy of hs-cTnT for the diagnosis of NSTE-ACS requiring revascularization is improved by using higher assay specific cutoff levels combined with early absolute changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0117.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: acute compartment syndrome; negative pressure wound therapy; vacuum assisted wound closure; fasciotomy
Online: 8 April 2020 (04:50:32 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is an emergency condition of the lower limb in which prophylactic fasciotomy is required to prevent complications. A negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) used to the treatment of fasciotomy wounds provide beneficial clinical results. This study aimed to exchange the authors’ experience of using the NPWT installation system on the lower limb wounds after fasciotomy in ACS. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study enrolled consecutive patients with ACS, who underwent fasciotomy and was treated with the NPWT installation system at Department of Vascular Surgery, Provincial Hospital in Kielce from April 2016 to July 2017. Results: The study enrolled 15 patients with a diagnosis of ACS (87% men, mean age 65 years old). An open four-compartment fasciotomy (87%) or two-compartment fasciotomy (13%) was performed. The NPWT was applied on the first day after fasciotomy in 87% of patients. Therapy was initiated by the negative pressure of 125 mm Hg, which maintained at this level until the therapy was finalized. In 80% of patients, the vacuum-assisted wound closure (VAC) dressing changes were performed every 3 days. The first approximation of fasciotomy wounds margins occurred on the 4th day after surgery among 67% of individuals. The average time of using VAC on fasciotomy wounds was 9 days. The average time to definitive closure edges of fasciotomy wounds was 12 days. The average time of hospital stay was 17 days. Conclusions: Our experience indicates the legitimacy of using NPWT in wound treatment after fasciotomy in ACS. The NPWT enables faster primary closure of wounds, reduces edema, as well as decreases hospitalization time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1455.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Acute respiratory illness; critical care; recombinant tissue plasminogen activator; nebulization, fibrinolytics, COVID-19 pandemic, inhaled medication, targeted therapy
Online: 20 June 2023 (14:59:12 CEST)
Nebulized thrombolysis offers locally targeted therapy with potentially lower bleeding risk than systemic administration for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) respiratory failure. In a proof-of-concept safety study, adult patients with COVID-19-induced respiratory failure and a <300mmHg PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) ratio, requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) or non-invasive respiratory support (NIRS) received nebulized rt-PA in two cohorts (C1 and C2), alongside standard of care during the first two UK COVID-19 waves. Matched historical controls (MHC; n=18) were used in C1. Safety co-primary endpoints were treatment-related bleeds and fibrinogen reduction to <1.0–1.5 g/L. A dose escalation strategy for improved efficacy with the least safety concerns was determined in C1 for use in C2; patients were stratified by ventilation type to receive 40–60 mg rt-PA per day for ≤14 days. Nine patients in C1 (IMV, 6/9; NIRS, 3/9) and 26 in C2 (IMV, 12/26; NIRS, 14/26) received nebulized rt-PA for a mean (SD) of 6.7 (4.6) and 9.1(4.6) days, respectively. Four bleeding events (one severe and three mild) in three patients were considered treatment-related. No significant fibrinogen reductions were reported. Greater improvement in mean P/F ratio from baseline to end of study was observed in C1 compared with MHC [C1; 154 to 299 vs MHC; 154 to 212). In C2, there was no difference in the baseline P/F ratio of NIRS and IMV patients. However, a larger improvement in P/F ratio was observed in NIRS patients [NIRS; 126 to 240 vs IMV; 120 to 188) and they required fewer treatment days (NIRS; 7.86 vs IMV; 10.5). Nebulized rt-PA appears to be well-tolerated, showing a trend of improved oxygenation and faster recovery in patients with acute COVID-19-induced respiratory failure requiring respiratory support; this effect was more pronounced in the NIRS group. Further investigation is required to study the potential of this novel treatment approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1420.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: acute coronary syndrome; peripheral perfusion index; arterial blood gas; lactate; diagnostic metrics; noninvasive techniques
Online: 23 October 2023 (10:30:37 CEST)
This study aimed to investigate the potential correlations and differences between patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) and controls. Emphasis was placed on examining the relationship between arterial blood gas PH value and arterial blood gas lactate value as well as assessing the utility of the Peripheral Perfusion Index (PI) in ACS management. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted between January 1, 2023, and July 1, 2023, involving 60 ACS patients and 30 control subjects in an emergency department. The diagnosis of ACS was confirmed by experienced emergency physicians, and various parameters, such as peripheral perfusion index, blood gas values, and cardiac biomarker values, were collected. The statistical analyses included Pearson’s chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, Student’s t-test, and others, using SPSS version 18.0. There were significant differences in the mean age, perfusion index, and lactate levels between the patient and control groups. A robust negative correlation was found between age and PI, and a moderate negative correlation was observed between pH and lactate levels (r = -0.301, p=0.004). The perfusion index in the patient group was significantly lower, indicating its potential diagnostic utility. The findings demonstrate the importance of arterial blood gas pH and lactate values in understanding ACS patient profiles, emphasizing the potential of PI as a noninvasive diagnostic method. The negative correlation between pH and lactate levels may offer valuable insights into risk stratification and treatment strategies for patients with ACS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0392.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoV-2 (SARS-CoV2), COVID-19, molecular diagnostics, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)
Online: 23 August 2022 (03:55:44 CEST)
Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2. In Colombia, many commercial methods are now available to perform the RT-qPCR assays, and the laboratories must evaluate its diagnostic accuracy to ensure reliable results to suspected COVID-19 patients. The purpose of the study was to compare four commercial RT-qPCR assays for detection of SARS-CoV2 virus, from nasopharyngeal swab samples referred to Laboratorio Carvajal IPS, SAS of Tunja, Boyacá - Colombia. Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 152 samples of respiratory tract samples (Nasopharyngeal Swab) from patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection. Diagnostic accuracy of GeneFinderTM COVID-19 Plus RealAmp (In Vitro diagnostic), One-Step Real-Time RT-PCR (Vitro Master diagnostica), Berlin modified protocol and gold standard Berlin protocol (Berlin Charite Probe One-Step RT-qPCR Kit, New England Biolabs) as reference was assessed. Operational characteristics were estimated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, agreement, and predictive values. Results: Using Berlin Charite Probe One-Step RT-qPCR Kit as reference, the sensitivity/specificity for the diagnostic tests were found to be GeneFinderTM COVID-19 Plus RealAmp Kit 100%/92.7%, One-Step Real-Time RT-PCR, One-Step Real-Time RT-PCR 92.75%/67.47%, and Berlin modified protocol 100%/96.39%. The results of four commercially available methods were found to be consistent with those obtained from Berlin Modified protocol analysis for % of the samples and showed good agreement (κ= 0.96). Concordant SARS-CoV2 negative and positive RT-qPCR results were reported for xxx and xxx samples, respectively. Summarize something about the Ct. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that all commercially available methods are rapid and reliable for the identification of SARS-CoV-2 virus associated with COVID-19. One-Step RT-qPCR Kit and GeneFinderTM COVID-19 Plus RealAmp assay show optimal sensitivity compared with Belin modified protocol. In addition, there is no significant correlation between xxxxx
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1647.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; stroke; acute coronary syndrome; myocardial infarction; mortality; readmission; Arabian Gulf
Online: 25 July 2023 (08:26:22 CEST)
Objectives: Studies on the association between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in the Arabian Gulf are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between NSAIDs use and MACE in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients in the Arabian Gulf region. Methods: Data was analyzed from 3,007 consecutive patients diagnosed with ACS admitted to 29 hospitals in four Arabian Gulf countries from January 2012 to January 2013 as well as being on prior NSAIDs use during the index admission. MACE included stroke/transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), myocardial infarction (MI), all-cause mortality and readmissions for cardiac reasons. Results: The overall mean age of the cohort was 62 ± 12 years and 9.6% (n = 290) of the patients were on prior NSAID use during the index admission. At 12-months follow-up, after adjusting for confounding factors, those on NSAIDs were significantly more likely to have had MACE (adjusted OR (aOR), 1.89; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44-2.48; p < 0.001). Specifically, the higher event rates observed were stroke/TIA (aOR, 2.50; 95% CI: 1.51-4.14; p < 0.001) and readmissions for cardiac reasons (aOR, 2.09; 95% CI: 1.59-2.74; p < 0.001) but not MI (aOR, 1.26; 95% CI: 0.80-1.99; p = 0.320) and all-cause mortality (aOR, 0.79; 95% CI: 0.46-1.34; p = 0.383). Conclusions: NSAIDs use was associated with significant stroke/TIA events as well as readmissions for cardiac reasons. However, NSAIDs were not associated with increased MI or all-cause mortality rates in ACS patients in the Arabian Gulf.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0094.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: acute cholecystitis; percutaneous cholecystectomy; cholecystectomy
Online: 4 July 2023 (03:39:16 CEST)
Background: This systematic review aims to investigate whether percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGDB), as definitive treatment, is superior to emergency cholecystectomy (EC) in high-risk patients with acute cholecystitis (AC). Material and methods: A systematic literature search was performed until December 2022 using Scopus, Medline/PubMed and Web of Science databases in order to compare PTGDB as definitive treatment vs EC in AC. Results: Seventeen studies (1 Randomized Control Trials and 16 observational studies) have been included with a total of 783,672 patients (32,634 treated with PTGDB vs 4,663 who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 343 who underwent open cholecystectomy and 746,032 who underwent cholecystectomy, but without laparoscopic or open approach being specified). The quality assessment (ROBINS-I) of the not randomized studies showed a serious risk, differently the evaluation of the randomized study (RoB 2) showed a low risk of bias. Analysis of the results shows that PTGDB, despite being minimally invasive, do not have different incidence of complications than EC (RR 0.77 95% CI [0.44 to 1.34]; I2 = 99%; P=0.36). A lower postoperative mortality was reported in patients who underwent EC (2.37%) than in PTGDB group (13.78 %) (RR 4.21; 95% CI [2.69 to 6.58]; P < 0.00001), furthermore the risk of hospital readmission for biliary complications (RR 2.19 95% CI [1.72 to 2.79]; I2 = 48 %; P<0.00001) and hospital stay (MD 4.29 95% CI [2.40 to 6.19]; P<0.00001) were lower in EC group. Conclusions: No advantage in using PTGDB as a definitive treatment over EC in the management of critically ill patients with AC has been demonstrated; the results of our systematic review and meta-analysis suggest using EC as the treatment of first choice, even for very high-surgical-risk patient in which PTGDB should be reserved. The major limitation of this systematic review and meta-analysis is associated to a low quality of evidence for the serious bias in the not randomized studies. For this reason, new high powered and well-designed clinical trials are needed to recommend PTGDB as definitive treatment in patients unfit for surgery or those who refuse to undergo surgery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0040.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: human bocaparvovirus; acute gastroenteritis; children
Online: 4 April 2023 (05:19:34 CEST)
Human bocavirus (HBoV) is an emerging virus that has been detected worldwide that could be associated with cases of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). However, its contribution to AGE has not been elucidated. This study aimed to describe the frequency, clinical features, and HBoV genotypes circulation in children up to 5 years with or without AGE symptoms in Acre, Northern Brazil. A total of 480 stool samples were collected between January and December 2012. Fecal samples were used for extraction, nested PCR amplification, and sequencing for genotyping. Statistical analysis was applied to verify the association between epidemiological and clinical characteristics. Overall HBoV-positivity was 10% (48/480), being HBoV-positivity rates of 8.4% (19/226) and 11.4% (29/254) recorded among diarrheic and non-diarrheic children, respectively. The most affected age group was between 7 and 24 months (50%). HBoV infection was more frequent in children living in urban areas (85.4%), using water from the public network (56.2%), and living with adequate sewage facilities (50%). Co-infection with other enteric viruses was 16.7% (8/48) and the most prevalent coinfection was RVA+ HBoV (50%, 4/8). HBoV‐1 was the most frequent species detected, responsible for 43.8% (21/48) of cases, followed by HBoV-3 (29.2%, 14/48) and HBoV-2 (25%, 12/48). In the present study, HBoV infections are not associated with AGE, as most HBoV cases belonged to the non-diarrheal group without AGE symptoms. Future studies are warranted to determine the role of HBoV in causing acute diarrhea disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0323.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: miRNA; IKZF1; Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Online: 17 August 2022 (11:29:02 CEST)
The hematopoietic transcription factor Ikaros (IKZF1) regulates normal B cell development and functions as a tumor suppressor in precursor B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that through post-transcriptional gene regulation play critical roles in intracellular processes including cell growth in cancer. However, the role of Ikaros in the regulation of miRNA expression in developing B cells is unknown. In this study, we examined the Ikaros-regulated miRNA targets using patient-derived IKZF1-mutated B-ALL xenograft-derived cell lines. Inducible expression of wild-type Ikaros (the Ik1 isoform) caused B-ALL growth arrest and exit from the cell cycle. Global miRNA expression analysis revealed a total of 31 miRNAs regulated by IK1, and ChIP-seq analysis showed that Ikaros bound to several Ik1-responsive miRNA genes. Examination of the prognostic significance of miRNA expression in B-ALL indicate that the IK1-regulated miRNAs hsa-miR-26b, hsa-miR-130b and hsa-miR-4649 are significantly associated with outcome in B-ALL. Our findings establish a potential regulatory circuit between the tumor-suppressor Ikaros and the oncogenic miRNA networks in IKZF1-mutated B-ALL. These results indicate that Ikaros regulates the expression of a subset of miRNAs, of which several may contribute to B-ALL growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0102.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: acute malnutrition; combined protocol; community-based management of acute malnutrition; ef-fectiveness; Mali; mid-upper-arm circumference; moderate acute malnutrition; ready-to-use ther-apeutic food; treatment; severe acute malnutrition; simplified protocol; wasting
Online: 7 September 2022 (05:21:16 CEST)
The simplified, combined protocol admits children with a mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) of <125 mm or edema to malnutrition treatment with ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) prescribing 2 daily RUTF sachets to children with MUAC <115 mm or edema and 1 daily sachet to those with MUAC ≥115 mm but <125 mm. This treatment has previously been shown to result in non-inferior programmatic outcomes compared to standard treatment. We aimed at observing its effectiveness in a routine setting at scale, including via delivery by community health workers (CHW). A total of 27 601 children were admitted to the simplified, combined treatment. Treatment resulted in 96% overall recovery with a mean LOS of 40 days and a mean RUTF consumption of 63 sachets per child treated. Among children admitted with MUAC <115 mm or edema 94% recovered with a mean LOS of 55 days and consuming an average of 97 RUTF sachets. Recovery in all sub-groups studied exceeded 90%.Treatment by CHWs resulted in similar (96%) recovery as treatment by formal health care workers (96%). The simplified, combined protocol results in high recovery and low RUTF consumption per child treated, and can safely be adopted by CHWs to provide treatment in the community-level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1574.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: acute pancreatitis; idiopathic acute pancreatitis; echoendoscopy; endosonography; endoscopic ultrasound; microlithiasis; biliary pancreatitis; bile duct stones
Online: 22 August 2023 (11:59:36 CEST)
Idiopathic acute pancreatitis (IAP) presents a diagnostic challenge and refers to cases where the cause of acute pancreatitis remains uncertain despite a comprehensive diagnostic evalua-tion. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has emerged as a valuable tool in the diagnostic workup of IAP. This review explores the pivotal role of EUS in detecting the actual cause of IAP, as-sessing its accuracy, timing, safety, and future technological improvement. Following PRISMA guidelines, 60 pertinent studies were selected and analysed. EUS emerges as a cru-cial diagnostic tool, particularly when conventional imaging fails. It can offer intricate visu-alization of the pancreas, biliary system, and adjacent structures. High accuracy of EUS is evident in detecting the actual causes of IAP such as microlithiasis, small bile duct stones, pancreas divisum, and small pancreatic tumors. Optimal timing for EUS is post-resolution of the acute phase of the disease. EUS, when conducted by experienced endoscopists, it boasts minimal safety concerns, and is crucial to prevent complications. EUS-guided interventions, including fine-needle aspiration, collection drainage, and biopsies, aid in cytological analy-sis. With high diagnostic accuracy, safety, and therapeutic potential, EUS is able to improve patient outcomes when managing IAP. Further refinement of EUS techniques and cost-effectiveness assessment of EUS-guided approaches need to be explored in multicenter prospective studies. This review underscores EUS as a transformative tool in unraveling IAP's enigma and advancing diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0084.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Human Cytomegalovirus; miRNAs; Acute Aortic Syndrome
Online: 5 September 2023 (10:31:09 CEST)
Aortic dissection is a clinicopathological entity caused by rupture of the intima leading to a high mortality if not treated. Over time, diagnostic and investigative methods, antihypertensive therapy, and early referrals have resulted in improving outcomes according to registry data. Some data has also emerged from recent studies suggesting a link between Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection and aortic dissection. Furthermore, the use of microRNAs have also become increasingly widespread in the literature. These have been noted to play a role in aortic dissections with elevated levels noted in studies as early as 2017. This review aims to provide a broad and holistic overview of the role of miRNAs, while studying the role of HCMV infection in the context of aortic dissections. The role of long non-coding RNAs, circular RNAs and microRNAs are explored to identify changes in expression during aortic dissections. The use of such biomarkers may one day be translated into clinical practice to allow early detection and prognostication of outcomes and drive preventative and therapeutic options in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0067.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: acute lung injury; biomarkers; sepsis; bioinformatics
Online: 1 August 2023 (09:15:53 CEST)
Background： Sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by disruption of the epithelial barrier and activation of alveolar macrophages (AMs), which leads to uncontrolled pulmonary inflammation. However, effective treatments for ALI are unavailable. This study aimed to discover potential diagnostic molecular biomarkers based on bioinformatics, which will benefit the diagnosis and treatment of sepsis-induced ALI. Methods: GSE10474 was analyzed for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in sepsis patients with ALI (sepsis + ALI) compared with sepsis patients without ALI. Functional enrichment analysis and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network were performed. on the DEGs via R package “clusterProfiler”, and visualized via Cytoscape. Prediction analysis of microarrays (PAM) was performed to identify diagnostic biomarkers and the diagnostic ability of diagnostic biomarkers was accessed via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Moreover, interactions among diagnostic biomarkers were analyzed via GeneMANIA. We also analyzed the function of diagnostic biomarkers and predicted their corresponding drugs via Cytoscape plugin BiNGO and web tool DGIdb. At last, we analyzed the transcriptional regulation of the diagnostic biomarkers via the web tool miRNet. Results: 71 genes were found to be differentially expressed in the sepsis + ALI group, mainly involved in immune-related biological processes and pathways. STRING database indicated 31 DEGs have protein-protein interactions. In addition, the PAM identified 6 diagnostic biomarkers, including HIST1H4H, CDKN1A, HMOX1, NQO2, RHOB, and TREM1, from these 31 DEGs. Conclusion: In conclusion, through bioinformatics analyses, we identified 6 potential diagnostic biomarkers and targets for sepsis-induced ALI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0693.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: acute myocardial infarction; case fatality; registry
Online: 27 November 2020 (14:12:24 CET)
Background: This study aimed to present the development process and characteristics of the Korean Registry of Acute Myocardial Infarction for Regional Cardiocerebrovascular Centers (KRAMI-RCC). Methods: We developed KRAMI-RCC, a web-based registry for patients with AMI. Patients from 14 RCCs were registered for more than 3 years from July 2016. It includes an automatic error-checking system, and user training and on-site monitoring are performed to manage data quality. Results: A total of 11,700 AMI patients were registered in KRAMI-RCC over 3 years (73.9% men). The proportions of patients with ST-elevation and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction at discharge were 43.4% and 56.6%, respectively. Of the total 3-year patients, 5.6% died in the hospital and 4.4% died 12 months after discharge. The case fatality within 12 months was 9.7%. Prehospital care data showed delayed arrival time after onset of symptoms (median 153 min) and low transportation rate by public ambulance (25.2%). Post-hospital care data showed lower participation rate in the second rehabilitation program (16.8%). Conclusions: The recently developed KRAMI-RCC registry has been more focused on pre-hospital and post-hospital data, which will be helpful in understanding the current state of AMI disease management and in making policy decisions to reduce case fatality in Korea.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0177.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Cataract surgery, acute endophthalmitis, chronic endophthalmitis
Online: 14 May 2019 (15:28:30 CEST)
Background: The assessment of the incidence and characteristic of acute and chronic post-operative endophthalmitis (POE) after cataract surgery in Poland during 2010 - 2015. Patients and methods: All hospitalizations of patients, in the National Database of Hospitalizations, who underwent cataract surgery alone or in combined procedures in Poland between January 2010 and December 2015, with a billing code of endophthalmitis, were selected. Acute endophthalmitis was identified if symptoms occurred within 1 - 42 days from the cataract surgery and chronic endophthalmitis if symptoms occurred ≥ 43 days after cataract surgery, respectively. Results: In total, 1331 cases of POE after 1,218,777 cataract extractions were identified. The overall incidence of POE decreased from 0.125% in 2010 to 0.066% in 2015. In multiple logistic regression analyses, increasing age was significantly associated with acute POE, while type II diabetes mellitus, extracapsular cataract extraction and one-day surgery were significantly associated with chronic POE. The combined cataract surgery and male sex were significant risk factors for both acute and chronic POE. A total of 62.51% of all eyes affected by POE received antibiotic treatment and 37.49% had vitrectomy treatment. Conclusions: During the study period, the total incidence of post-operative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery decreased significantly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0045.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Geriatrics; Prehabilitation; Surgery; Acute Care Surgery
Online: 12 August 2017 (04:30:56 CEST)
INTRODUCTION Recently there has been a significant increase in age in the United States. It is necessary to better understand the physiological and surgical needs of these patients in order to optimize outcomes. The vast majority of procedures performed in adult patients are low-risk operations, such as laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Our aim is to investigate the outcomes, including length of stay, morbidity, mortality, re-admission and discharge disposition of the elderly population (>80) undergoing low-risk operations in our tertiary community hospital. METHODS A retrospective chart review was done at a tertiary community hospital. The time frame utilized was 2011-2015. Patients were excluded only on the basis of their age (< 80) at the time of operation. RESULTS There were a total of 30 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy from 2011 to 2015. 21 patients (70%) were female and 9 (30%) were male. No patients were converted to an open procedure. The average age was 86.4 years and average ASA classification prior to surgery was 2.88. Higher ASA class, specifically those that were class III/IV were more likely to have an increased length of stay that was statistically significant. Overall age greater than 80 was an independent risk factor for transfer to a higher level of care upon discharge (SNF, LTAC, etc.), a surrogate marker for physical decompensation following surgery. CONCLUSIONS Routine surgery, such as the laparoscopic cholecystectomy, effects the elderly population in a more substantial way, and early recognition coupled with increased education for physicians regarding geriatric patients can help to reduce length of stay, morbidity, and overall physical and mental deconditioning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0108.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: contrast induced nephropath; acute myocardial infarction
Online: 21 November 2016 (12:13:30 CET)
Background: The morbidity of myocardial infarction is keeping raise in this decade. Because of high safety and operability , percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI) has been used to conquer this disease for more than 20 years.An important complication of PCI is contrast induced nephropathy(CIN), which raises our attention. Previously, we started a study to explore the correlation between acute kidney injury and myonecrosis after scheduled percutaneous coronary intervention. Our study showed that the rate of CI-AKI in patients with post-procedural myocardial injury and undergoing elective PCI was higher than that in patients free of injury. Methods: In this study,forty male rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group (n=8), CM group (n=12), AMI group (n=8) and AMI+CM group (n=12), then velocity of renal artery blood flow (VRABF), computer tomography (CT), serum creatinine(Scr), reactive oxidative species (ROS), periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and TUNEL were used to estimate the injury of kidney. We analyzed 327 non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome subjects undertaking elective PCI. Serum levels of creatinine (SCr) and the eGFR before coronary angiography, and 24–72 h after contrast administration were recorded to assess the renal function. Results: The data showed that VRABF was lower in AMI+CM group than CM group from 0 minute to 24h and CT number in cortex was higher in AMI+CM group than CM group at 4-hour. As well as the level of Scr in AMI+CM group displayed a significantly increase at 24-hour compared with CM group. The histopathologic scores and percentage of tubular cell apoptosis were higher in AMI+CM group at 24-hour. In 327 patients, we found that CI-AKI occurred more often in subjects with post-procedural myonecrosis (PMN) than in those without PMN (20.8% versus 5.8%, respectively, P=0.001). Conclusion: Compared to the elective patient, the injury of CIN exhibited a higher severity in AMI patient.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0231.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: etiology; leukemia; acute lymphoblastic leukemia; acute myeloblastic leukemia; genetics; causes; occupations; hobbies; genetic; infections; mycovirus; aspergillus
Online: 9 February 2021 (10:09:21 CET)
Acute leukemias constitute some of the most common malignant disorders. Despite significant progress made in the treatment of these disorders, their etiology remains unknown. A large and diverse group of genetic and environmental variables have been proposed. The role of a variety of factors, including pre-existing and acquired genetic mutations, exposure to radiation and various chemicals during pre-conception, pregnancy and throughout life have been explored. The effects of inherited genetic variations and disorders, pre-existing diseases, infectious agents, hobbies, occupations, prior treatments and a host of other factors have been proposed, but none is universally applicable to all cases. Variation in the incidence and prognosis based on the age, sex, race, type of the disease, geographic area of residence and other factors are intriguing, but remains unexplained. Advances in genomic profiling, including genome‐wide gene expression, DNA copy number, and single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] genotype may shed some light on the role of genetics in these disparities. Separate two-hit hypothesis for the development of acute myeloblastic and lymphoblastic leukemia have been proposed. The latter combines genetics and infection factors resulting in leukemogenesis. A number of pre- and post-natal environmental conditions and exposure to infections, including a mycovirus infected Aspergillus flavus, have been suggested. The exact nature, timing, sequence of the events and mechanisms resulting in occurrence of leukemia requires further investigations. This review summarizes some of the above factors and the direction for future research on the etiology of acute leukemias.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1756.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: RNAseq; DSN; FST; acute stress; brainstem; Transcriptome
Online: 27 October 2023 (05:24:47 CEST)
In this work, we tried to emphasize whole transcriptome expression changes in the Wistar rats brainstem two hours after acute stress. Most of the genes were upregulated. We detected massive shift of neuropeptides Crh, Trh,Cga, Tshb, Uts2b, Tac4, Lep and neuropeptide receptors Hcrtr1, Sstr5, Bdkrb2, Crhr2 signaling, as well as Glutamate Grin3b, Grm2 and GABA Gpr156, Acetylcholine Chrm4,Chrne, Adreno- Adra2b receptors expression uprising. Intensive increase in expression of intermediate filaments Krt83/Krt86/Krt80/Krt84/Krt87/Krt4/Krt76 and motor proteins Myo7a, Klc3 was detected. Remarkably, at this time we also observed signs of microglia activation. Both expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines Il13, Ccl24 and proinflammatory cytokin’s receptors Il9r, Il12rb1, Tnfrsf14, Tnfrsf13c, Tnfrsf25, Tnfrsf1b were increased. In the Wnt signaling pathway, we have seen increased expression of ligands-receptors Wnt1, Wnt11, Ror2, and also negative regulators Notum, Sfrp5, Sost. Also we conducted cDNA libraries normalization with duplex specific nuclease and compared results. On the basis of our RNAseq data, we chose reference genes for RT-qPCR best suitable for experiments with acute stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0026.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Acute pancreatitis; Heparanase; Lipase; Amylase; Mitochondria; NSAIDs
Online: 2 October 2023 (03:22:52 CEST)
Abstract: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common gastrointestinal disease with high morbidity and mortality rate. Unfortunately, neither the etiology nor the pathophysiology of AP are fully un-derstood and causal treatment options are not available. Recently we demonstrated that Hepa-ranase (Hpa) is adversely involved in the pathogenesis of AP and inhibition of this enzyme ameliorates the manifestation of the disease. Moreover, a pioneer study demonstrated that As-pirin has inhibitory effect on Hpa. Another compound, which possesses a mild pan-creato-protective effect against AP, is Trehalose, a common disaccharide. We hypothesize that combination of Aspirin, Trehalose, PG545 (Pixatimod) and SST0001 (Roneparstat), specific inhib-itors of Hpa, may exert pancreato-protective effect better than each drug alone. Thus, the current study examines the pancreato-protective effects of Aspirin, Trehalose, PG545 and SST0001 in ex-perimental model of AP induced by Cerulein in wild-type (WT) and Hpa over-expressing (Hpa-Tg) mice. Cerulein-induced AP in WT mice was associated with significant rises in the se-rum levels of Lipase (X4) and amylase (X3) with enhancement of pancreatic edema index, inflammatory response, and autophagy. Responses to cerulein were all more profound in heparanase transgenic (Hpa-Tg) mice vs wild-type (WT) mice, evident by X7 and X5 folds increase in lipase and amylase levels, respectively. Treatment with Aspirin or Trehalose alone and even more so in combination with PG545 or SST0001 were highly effective, restoring the serum level of lipase back to the basal level. Importantly, a novel newly synthesized compound termed Aspirlose effectively ameliorated the pathogenesis of AP as a single agent. Collectively, the results strongly indicate that targeting Hpa by using anti-Hpa drug combinations constitute a novel therapy for this common orphan disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0770.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: acute cholecystitis; cholecystectomy; surgery; timing; complication; mortality
Online: 12 September 2023 (11:16:46 CEST)
The definition of Early Cholecystectomy (EC) is still debatable. This paper aims to find whether the timing of EC affects outcomes. This is a multicentric prospective observational study including patients with acute calculous cholecystitis (ACC) who had cholecystectomy within ten days from the onset of symptoms. Kruskall-Wallis test, Fisher’s Exact test and Spearman rank correlation were used for statistical analysis. The patients were divided into three groups depending on the timing of the operation: 0-3 days, 4-7 days, or 8-10 days from the onset of symptoms. 1117 patients were studied over a year. The time from the onset of symptoms to EC did not affect the postoperative complications and mortality, the conversion and the reintervention rate. It was a significant risk factor for intraoperative complications (0-3 days, 2.8%; 4-7 days, 5.6%; 8-10 days, 7.9%; p=0.01) and subtotal cholecystectomies (0-3 days, 2.7%; 4-7 days, 5.6%; 8-10 days, 10.9%; p<0.001). ACC is an evolutive inflammatory process and, as the days go by, the local and systemic inflammation increases which makes surgery more complex and difficult with higher risk of intraoperative complications. We recommend performing EC for ACC as soon as possible within the first ten days of the onset of symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1396.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Ticks; Rhipicephalus microplus; Babesia bovis; Acute death
Online: 20 June 2023 (07:14:47 CEST)
In this study, a case of acute cattle death was investigated. The pathogen was identified, and its molecular characteristics and vector were analysed. This study provides a reference for the prevention and control of babesiosis and the healthy breeding of cattle. In this study, unengorged and engorged Rhipicephalus microplus ticks were collected from the Chongqing area. The unengorged ticks were cultured on cattle under laboratory conditions, and the engorged ticks were cultured to lay eggs. In the process, the cattle suddenly died at 12 days from the bite of an unengorged R. microplus tick. In addition, the larvae hatched from R. microplus eggs, which were cultured on the other cattle, and the experimental cattle died in approximately 14 days. Blood was collected from a second dying and stored at 4 ℃ for one week. Two millilitres of anticoagulated blood was injected subcutaneously into the third cow without piriformis infection. On the fourth day, the body temperature rose to 41 ℃ with slight lymphadenopathy. On the fifth day, the cow suddenly fell and died approximately 4 hours later. DNA was extracted from the blood of all dead cattle and amplified by PCR with piriformis universal primers. The results showed that the cattle were infected with Babesia bovis. The phylogenetic tree based on 18S rRNA showed that the Chongqing strain of B. bovis, which caused the death of cattle, was closely related to the Yunnan strain in China and had the same taxonomic status as the Spanish strain. This case report will draw people's attention to B. bovis once again, and positive control measures should be taken to reduce the losses of farmers to achieve the goal of healthy breeding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0605.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: acute fluorosis; tetramethylpyrazine; liver; oxidative damage; Nrf2
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:34:59 CEST)
Excessive intake of fluoride, one of the trace elements to maintain health, leads to liver injury. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine monomer with good antioxidant and hepatoprotective function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TMP on liver injury induced by acute fluorosis. A total of 60 1-month-old male Institute of Cancer Research mice without carriage of pathogenic bacteria were selected. All mice were fed adaptively for one week, and then randomly divided into 5 groups: control (K) group, model (F) group, low-dose (LT) group, medium-dose (MT) group and high-dose (HT) group. The control and model group were given distilled water, while 40 mg/kg (LT), 80 mg/kg (MT) and 160 mg/kg (HT) TMP were fed by gavage for two weeks with the maximum gavage volume of mice is 0.2ml/10g/d. Except for the control group, all groups were given fluoride (35 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection on the last day of the experiment. The results of this study showed that compared with the model group, TMP alleviated the pathological changes of liver induced by fluoride and improved the ultrastructure of liver cells; TMP significantly decreased the levels of ALT, AST and MDA (P <0.05), and increased the levels of T-AOC, T-SOD and GSH (P <0.05). The results of mRNA detection showed that TMP significantly increased the mRNA expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1, CAT, GSH-Px and SOD in liver compared with model group (P <0.05). In conclusion, TMP can inhibit oxidative stress by activating Nrf2 pathway and alleviate liver injury induced by fluoride.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0277.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Long Covid; post Covid; Post-acute COVID
Online: 21 March 2022 (08:25:20 CET)
Abstract: COVID-19 Long Haulers, an estimated 3% to 12% of people infected globally with coronavirus having latter devasting symptoms 12 weeks after the initial infection is on the rise. We conducted a collaborative study with the long covid patient organization in Greece in order to estimate the prevalence, symptoms and problems that adult long haulers experience and then propose a management plan for these patients. Symptoms were obtained from 208 patients using unstructured qualitative free text entries in an anonymized online questionnaire. The majority of respondents (68.8%) were not hospitalized and had been diagnosed more than six months ago with lingering symptoms (66,8%). Eighteen different symptoms (fatigue, tachycardia, shortness of breath, parosmia etc) were mentioned in both hospitalized and community patients. Interestingly, patients with initial mild symptoms suffer from the same persistent symptoms as those who were hospitalized. Awareness of long covid sequelae seems to be low even among medical doctors. Treatment options incorporating targeted rehabilitation programs are either not available or still excluded from the management plan of long covid patients. Since long COVID is a multi-systemic entity, we propose a holistic interventional approach using a multidisciplinary medical team in order to securely and effectively diagnose and treat these specific patients. Academic and medical community must collaborate with long covid patients’ organizations so as to provide personalized medicine.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0193.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Epitranscriptomics, acute myeloid leukemia, microRNA, CISH, Immunotherapeutics.
Online: 10 May 2021 (13:53:12 CEST)
Epigenetic alterations have contributed greatly to human carcinogenesis. Conventional epigenetic studies have been predominantly focused on DNA methylation, histone modifications and chromatin remodelling. However, recently, RNA modification (m6A-methylation) also termed ‘epitranscriptomics’ has emerged as a new layer of epigenetic regulation due to its diverse role in various biological processes. In this review, we have summarized the therapeutic potential of m6A-modifiers in controlling haematological disorders especially acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It is a type of blood cancer affecting specific subsets of blood-forming hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) which proliferate rapidly and acquire self-renewable capacities with impaired terminal cell-differentiation and apoptosis leading to abnormal accumulation of white blood cells, and thus an alternative therapeutic approach is required urgently. Here, we have described how RNA m6A-modification machineries EEE (Editor/writer: Mettl3, Mettl14; Eraser/remover: FTO, ALKBH5 and Effector/reader: YTHDF-1/2) could be reformed into potential druggable candidate or as RNA modifying drug (RMD) to treat leukemia. Moreover, we have shed-light on the role of microRNA and suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS/CISH) in increasing anti-tumor immunity towards leukemia. We anticipate, our investigation will provide a fundamental knowledge in nurturing the potential of RNA modifiers in discovering novel therapeutics or immunotherapeutic procedures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0003.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Heart Failure; Acute Kidney Injury; Prognosis; Mortality.
Online: 2 November 2020 (08:09:49 CET)
Introduction: Decompensated heart failure (HF) is a complex and debilitating syndrome, which constitutes a severe emergency condition with high morbidity and mortality. The kidneys play fundamental roles in the pathophysiology of HF and, in the context of decompensations, acute kidney injury (AKI) has a bilateral cause-and-effect relationship, which can significantly worsen prognosis. However, the interaction between AKI and decompensated HF is poorly understood. Objective: This study aimed to assess the occurrence of AKI in patients hospitalized due to decompensated HF and to analyze its prognostic impact during hospitalization. Methods: Prospective single-center observational study that included patients hospitalized due to decompensated HF in a tertiary-level teaching hospital, conducted between July 2017 and January 2020. Patients who developed AKI during hospitalization were compared with those who did not develop it, until hospital discharge or death. AKI was defined as a serum creatinine increase greater than or equal to 0.3 mg/dl in 48 hours, a 1.5-fold increase in baseline creatinine in seven days or urinary volume <0.5 ml/kg/h during six hours, according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. The endpoints analyzed were death, need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and length of hospital stay. The Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney and unpaired student t tests were used. Results: Ninety-nine patients were included, with a mean age of 65.4 ± 14 years, of which 47 (47.5%) were male and 52 (52.5%) were female. Reduced ejection fraction was observed in 77.8% of patients, whilst 22.2% had a diagnosis of HF with preserved EF. The decompensation clinical classifications were: dry and warm = 7 (7.1%), wet and warm = 72 (72.7%), wet and cold = 15 (15.1%) and dry and cold = 5 (5.1%). The average left ventricular ejection fraction was 38.3% ± 15. AKI ocurred in 22 patients (22.2%). Comparison between patients who evolved with and without AKI showed higher mortality (36.4% vs 10.4%, p = 0.004) and the need for IMV (54.5% vs 13%, p = 0.0001) in the first group. There was no significant difference regarding the length of in-hospital stay (22.9 ± 19 vs 18.8 ± 16 days, p = 0.26). Conclusions: The occurrence of AKI was frequent in patients with decompensated HF requiring hospitalization, affecting approximately one out of five patients. This complication was significantly associated with increased mortality and the need for IMV during hospitalization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0212.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Geophila obvallata; toxicity; Sub-acute; Drug therapy
Online: 13 April 2020 (11:38:46 CEST)
The study evaluates the toxic effects of acute and sub-acute oral administration of methanol extracts of Geophila obvallata in rats. During acute study, a dose of 1600, 2900 and 5000 mg/kg bw of extract was orally administered to rats. Rats were observed for signs of toxicity for two weeks. During sub-acute study (28 days), the extract, at doses of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg bw were administered orally to rats while control rats were given only tap water. At the end of the study, samples were collected for analyses. In acute toxicity studies, the extract did not induce death after single dose administration. Hence, the LD50 was estimated above 5000mg/kg. The results of sub-acute toxicity study show that no significant changes were observed in the body weights, organ weights, kidney function and organ histology. There were significant changes in hematology and biochemical indices investigated at elevated doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg bw compared to the control. GOE may be considered non-toxic at a dose of 100 mg/kg with promising applications in drug therapy.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: aflatoxins; tumorigenicity; carcinogenicity; acute toxicity; immunogenicity; genotoxicity
Online: 25 December 2019 (03:07:58 CET)
There are presently more than 18 known aflatoxins (>18) most of which have been insufficiently studied for their incidence, health-risk, and mechanisms of toxicity to allow effective intervention and control means that would significantly and sustainably reduce their incidence and adverse effects on health and economy. Among these, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has by far been the most studied; and yet, many aspects of the range and mechanisms of the diseases it causes remain to be elucidated. Its mutagenicity, tumorigenicity, and carcinogenicity, which are the best known still suffer from many limitations regarding the relative contribution of the oxidative stress and the reactive epoxide derivative (Aflatoxin-exo 8,9-epoxide) in the induction of the diseases, as well as its metabolic and synthesis pathways. Additionally, despite the well-established additive effects for carcinogenicity between AFB1 and other risk factors, e.g., hepatitis viruses B and C, and the algal hepatotoxic microcystins, the mechanisms of this synergy remain unclear. This study reviews the most recent advances in the mechanisms of toxicity of aflatoxins and the adverse health effects that they cause in humans and animals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0017.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: childhood malnutrition; community-based management of acute malnutrition–CMAM; moderate acute malnutrition–MAM; supplementary feeding programs–SFP; Zambia
Online: 1 June 2018 (12:04:50 CEST)
Background: Evaluation of nutrition programs is essential to guarantee the effectiveness of community-based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM). Methods: The Rainbow Project Supplementary Feeding Programs (SFPs) in Zambia were evaluated between years 2015-17, following implementation of new recommendations based on previous evaluations (years 2012-14). Outcomes of the program were compared with International Standards and with those of 2012-14. Cox proportional risk regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of mortality and defaulting. Results: Data for 900 under age 5 years malnourished children (48.8% male; mean age 19.7months ±9.9) were analyzed. Rainbow 2015-17 program outcomes met International Standards, for general malnutrition or stratified moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) and severe acute malnutrition (SAM). When comparing with 2012-14 outcomes, better performance was noted: mortality rates were reduced by half (5.6% vs 3.1%, p = 0.01; for SAM: 12.4% vs 6.7%, p = 0.006), with significant improvement in average weight gain and mean length of stay (p<0.001), and increased awareness of HIV status (+30%; p < 0.001). HIV infection (5.5; 1.9–15.9), WAZ < −3 at baseline (4.6; 1.3–16.1) and kwashiorkor (3.5; 1.2–9.5) remained the major predictors of mortality. Conclusion: The effectiveness of the Rainbow SFPs for child malnutrition treatment and prevention in Zambia has significantly improved after evaluation and implementation activities, with impressive outcomes which resulted in a 50% reduction in mortality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1993.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: mesothelin; acute myeloid leukemia; glycolysis; oxygen consumption rate
Online: 30 November 2023 (13:38:57 CET)
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive malignancy characterized by rapid growth and uncontrolled proliferation of undifferentiated myeloid cells. Metabolic reprogramming is commonly observed in the bone marrow of AML patients, as leukemia cells require increased ATP supply to support disease progression. In this study, we examined the potential role of mesothelin as a metabolic modulator in myeloid cells in AML. Mesothelin is a well-known marker of solid tumors that promotes cancer cell proliferation and survival. We initially analyzed alterations in mesothelin expression in the myeloblast subpopulations, defined as SSC-Alow/CD45dim, obtained from bone marrow of AML patients using flow cytometry. Our results showed overexpression of mesothelin in 34.8% of AML patients. Subsequently, metabolic changes in leukemia cells were evaluated by comparing the oxygen consumption rates (OCR) of bone marrow samples derived from adult AML patients. Notably, higher OCR was observed in the mesothelin-positive compared to the mesothelin-low and non-expressing groups. Treatment with recombinant human mesothelin protein enhanced OCR and increased the mRNA expression of glycolytic enzymes and mitochondrial complex II in KG1α AML cells. Notably, siRNA targeting mesothelin in KG1α cells led to reduction of glycolysis-related gene expression but had no effect on the mitochondrial complex gene. The collective results demonstrate that mesothelin induces metabolic changes in leukemia cells, facilitating acquisition of a rapid supply of ATP for proliferation in AML. Therefore, targeting of mesothelin presents a potentially promising approach for mitigating the progression of AML through inhibition of glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration in myeloid cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0235.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: microRNAs; acute lymphoblastic leukemia; pediatric; methotrexate; toxicity; pharmacogenetics
Online: 9 October 2023 (03:02:35 CEST)
Methotrexate (MTX), a structurally related substance to folic acid, is an important chemotherapeutic agent used for decades in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and other types of cancer as non Hodgkin lymphomas and osteosarcomas. Despite the successful outcomes observed, the primary drawback is the variability in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics between patients. The main adverse events related to its use are mainly nephrotoxicity, mucositis and myelosuppression especially when used in high doses. The potential adverse reactions and toxicities associated with MTX are a cause for concern and may lead to dose reduction or treatment interruption. Genetic variants in MTX transport genes have been linked to toxicity. Pharmacogenetic studies conducted in the past focused on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding and 5′-regulatory regions of genes. Recent studies have demonstrated a significant role of miRNAs in the transport and metabolism of drugs, and in the regulation of target genes. The last few years, the number of annotated miRNAs is continually rising, as well as the studies of miRNA polymorphisms and MTX toxicity. Therefore, the objective of the present study is to investigate the role of miRNA variants related to MTX adverse effects.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1048.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: drug induced autoimmune hepatitis; AIH; DILI; acute hepatitis
Online: 15 September 2023 (10:56:37 CEST)
Idiosyncratic drug induced liver injury (DILI) is an unpredictable reaction of exposed individual on a certain drug, and the drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis (DIAIH) presents a DILI phenotype that mimics idiopathic autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) when considering the clinical, biochemical, serological and histological parameters. We present a case of a 48-year-old male that was hospitalized due to severe hepatocellular liver injury two months after the self-treatment with the muscle-building dietary supplement based on arginine-alpha-ketoglutarate, L-citrulline, L tyrosine, creatine malate and beet extract. His immunology panel was positive with increased IgG levels, and the radiologic methods showed no signs of chronic liver disease. He underwent corticosteroid treatment with adequate response. After the therapy withdrawal, a clinical relapse occurred. Seven months after the initial presentation liver MR suggested the initial cirrhotic changes of the right liver lobe. Liver biopsy revealed abundant lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with piecemeal necrosis and grade 2 fibrosis. He responded well on the corticosteroid treatment again, and was further treated with low dose prednisone without additional relapses. Several years later, further management confirmed presence of liver cirrhosis with no histological or biochemical signs of the disease activity. DIAIH is a DILI phenotype difficult to distinguish from idiopathic AIH despite a wide armamentarium of diagnostic methods. Regular patient monitoring and clinical open-mindedness with the adjustment of therapeutic approaches according to the disease course are more important than strict labelling of the disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1301.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: microRNA; acute kidney injury; biomarker; mesenchymal stem cell.
Online: 18 August 2023 (10:57:53 CEST)
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a clinical syndrome where a rapid decrease in kidney function and/or urine output is observed, which may result in the imbalance of water, electrolyte and acid base, and is associated with poor prognosis and prolonged hospitalization. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment to avoid the severe AKI stage is important. While several biomarkers, such as urinary L-FABP and NGAL, can be clinically useful, there is still no gold standard for early detection of AKI and there are limited therapeutic options against AKI. miRNAs are non-coding and single-stranded RNAs that silence their target genes in the post-transcriptional process and are involved in a wide range of biological processes. Recent accumulated evidence has revealed that miRNAs may be potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for AKI. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge about miRNAs as promising biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for AKI, as well as the challenges in their clinical use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0976.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: crush-related acute kidney injury; fasciotomy; morbidity; earthquake
Online: 14 August 2023 (04:41:27 CEST)
Background and Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the impact of fasciotomy on mortality and morbidity in children and adults with crush-related AKI following the 2023 Kahramanmaraş earthquakes. Materials and Methods: The study included individuals who had suffered crush injuries after the 2023 Kahramanmaraş earthquakes and were identified as having acute kidney injury (AKI). Patients with AKI were divided into two groups based on age: those under 18 years and those over 18 years. A comparative analysis was conducted between the mortality and morbidity rates of patients who underwent fasciotomy and those who did not. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), sepsis, and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have all been identified as contributors to morbidity. Results: The study was conducted with a total of 40 patients (21 males and 19 females) aged between four and 83 years. A total of 21 patients underwent fasciotomy and the patients underwent varying numbers of fasciotomy, ranging from zero to 11. The mortality rate was 12.5%, corresponding to five adult patients. No instances of mortality were reported in the paediatric cohort. The application of fasciotomy in instances of crush-induced AKI did not result in elevated levels of mortality in either the paediatric or adult demographic. Within the adult population, a substantial difference in the duration of dialysis was observed between individuals who underwent fasciotomy and those who did not. A statistically significant increase in the number of fasciotomy incisions was observed in patients diagnosed with sepsis compared with those without sepsis. The study found a significant positive correlation between the number of fasciotomy incisions and dialysis days. Conclusions: Neither adult nor paediatric patients with crush-induced AKI showed an increased risk of death after fasciotomy. The number of fasciotomy incisions significantly correlated with the development of sepsis. Despite experiencing delays in hospital admission for paediatric patients, the incidence of both crush syndrome and mortality rates among children remained relatively low.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1091.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: acute promyelocytic leukemia; relapse; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Online: 17 July 2023 (10:10:56 CEST)
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) currently represents one of the malignant hemopathies with the best therapeutic responses following the introduction of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and later of arsenic trioxide (ATO) treatment. As a result, patients with APL achieve long-term responses in a large proportion after first-line therapy, so that performing hematopoietic stem cell transplant as consolidation of first complete remission is no longer necessary. Even in the case of relapses, most patients obtain a new remission thanks to the therapy with ATO and ATRA, but to maintain it, a consolidation treatment as effective as possible is necessary. The experience accumulated from studies published in the last two decades shows the effectiveness of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in improving the evolution of patients who achieve a new complete re-mission. Thus, the recommendations of expert groups indicate transplantation as consolidation therapy in patients with a second complete remission with the mention of the use of autologous HSCT in cases with complete molecular remission and allogeneic HSCT for patients with the persistence of minimal residual disease or early relapse. However, there is a variety of contro-versial aspects related to the role of HSCT in APL, from obtaining outcome data almost exclusively from retrospective studies and historical analyzes to questions related to the type of transplanta-tion, the impact of minimal residual disease, conditioning regimens, or the role of other thera-peutic options. All these questions justify the performance of controlled prospective studies in the following years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1877.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: autophagy; acute laminitis; dairy cows; laminar tissue; oligofructose
Online: 27 June 2023 (09:53:38 CEST)
Laminitis is considered as an important underlying cause of lameness diseases, yet its specific pathogenesis remains unclear. Autophagy is an intracellular degradation mechanism that controls recycling of membrane-associated integrin and may aid in the progression of metabolic diseases. But the significance of autophagy for initiation and development of laminitis is unknown. The present study aimed to explore autophagy activity in the laminar tissue of dairy cows with oligofructose-induced laminitis. Twelve healthy non-pregnant Holstein cows were randomly divided to 2 groups of 6 cows each, entitled the control group and the oligofructose overload group (OF group), respectively. At 0 h, cows in OF group were gavaged with oligofructose (17 g/kg BW) dissolved in warm deionized water (20 mL/kg BW) through oral rumen tube, and dairy cows in control group were gavaged with the same volume of deionized water by the same method. At -72 h before perfusion as well as 0 h, 6 h, 12 h, 18 h, 24 h, 36 h, 48 h, 60 h, and 72 h after perfusion, clinical evaluations in both groups were monitored. After 72 h, laminar tissues of dairy cows in both groups were collected to examine genes and proteins. We found the significantly higher (P<0.05) levels of mRNA ATG5, ATG12, and Becilin1, but P62 and mTOR were extensively lower (P<0.01) in the laminar tissue of the OF group than the control group. Protein expression level of Becilin-1 was higher significantly (P<0.05), and the protein expression level of LC3II was lower significantly (P<0.05) in OF group than control group. However, the expression of P62 reduced (P>0.05) non-significantly in OF group than control group. The distribution of Beclin1 protein in laminar tissue increased (P<0.01) significantly, and distribution of P62 protein decreased (P<0.05) significantly in OF group than control group. In conclusion, laminar tissue damage occurred during the onset of laminitis, which promoted the occurrence of autophagy, and confirmed that autophagy was involved in the regulation and pathogenesis of laminitis in dairy cows.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1137.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: antioxidant; anticancer; glucosidase, physic-chemistry characteristics; acute toxicity
Online: 16 May 2023 (09:31:46 CEST)
Alginate extraction is from seaweed, and lignin separation is from by-product corn (stalks and leaves). Alginate/lignin is a synthetic polymer rich in biological activity of great interest. Antioxidant activities of alginate/lignin were evaluated, such as total antioxidant activity, reducing power activity, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, and α – glucosidase inhibition activity. The test of anticancer activity was on four cell lines (Hep G2, fibroblast, MCF-7, and NCI H460). Determination of physical-chemistry characteristics of alginate/lignin was through FTIR, DSC, SEM_EDS, SEM_EDS mapping, XRD, XRF, and 1H-NMR. A study of acute toxicity of alginate/lignin was on Swiss albino mice. The results showed alginate/lignin possessed antioxidant activity such as total antioxidant activity, reducing power activity, especially, α – glucosidase inhibition activity, and no free radical scavenging activity. Alginate/lignin did not be typical in cancer cell lines. Alginate/lignin existed in a thermally stable regular spherical shape in the investigated thermal region. Some specific functional groups of alginate and lignin did not exist in alginate/lignin crystal. Elements such as C, O, Na, and S were popular in the alginate/lignin structure. LD0 and LD100 of alginate/lignin in mice were 3.91 g/kg and 9.77 g/kg, respectively. Alginate/lignin is the potential for application as pharmaceutical materials, functional foods, and supporting diabetes treatment.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0719.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Epstein-Barr virus; acute infectious diseases; salivary shedding
Online: 10 May 2023 (09:07:35 CEST)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a widely disseminated herpesvirus for which antibodies have been demonstrated in over 90% of adults worldwide. After subclinical primary EBV infections, as well as after infectious mononucleosis, the virus can be shed in saliva for a prolonged period of time. Diseases and disorders that can induce EBV salivary shedding include mental disorders and sex, connective tissue disease, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, malaria and HIV infection. As the occurrence of EBV in saliva during acute infectious diseases has not been systematically researched so far, this pilot cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the possible relationship between acute infectious diseases and salivary shedding of EBV. A total of 40 patients with acute infectious diseases was enrolled, along with 41 adults free of acute infections. Peripheral venous blood samples for serodiagnosis and saliva samples for EBV PCR testing were collected from both groups. The most common acute infectious disease was COVID-19 pneumonia, followed by haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Crude proportions of people with positive serological test results and those with saliva viral shedding were similar in the two groups. The presented preliminary data does not indicate acute infectious conditions as a marked “contributor” in increasing salivary EBV shedding.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0643.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Acute Wounds; Cellular Infiltrate; Chronic Wounds; Keloids; Scars
Online: 9 May 2023 (11:06:05 CEST)
Abstract: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent knowledge on the main processes that occur during wound healing, including the responses of various cell types and the molecular mechanisms involved. Particular attention is also dedicated to new therapies often involved in the resolution of wounds, whether acute or chronic. Awareness of these dynamics is important for the various professional figures who are confronted with these kinds of problem daily. However, the study of the healing mechanisms has yet to be defined in detail, in fact there are alterations of variously coordinated events which lead to a delayed resolution or, as in the case of keloids, to pathological states consisting in the excessive formation of scars with consequences yet to be seen. to define. Therefore, it is necessary to know the most feasible approaches and the most effective therapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0149.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Acute liver failure; viral hepatitis; sub-Saharan Africa
Online: 3 May 2023 (12:40:38 CEST)
Though there has been a decline in the number of new cases of viral hepatitis-induced acute liver failure in Europe and the United States of America, viral hepatitis still remains the leading cause of acute liver failure in Asia-Pacific and South America. However, the epidemiology of viral-hepatitis-induced acute liver failure in sub-Saharan Africa-the world epicenter of viral hepatitis-is unclear. The aim of this review was to collate data on the incidence, prevalence, specific etiologic agents, features/diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of viral-induced acute liver failure in sub-Saharan Africa. One hundred and forty-seven cases of viral-induced acute liver failure were recorded in 11 studies conducted in six countries between 1981-2020. Etiological agents were: Hepatitis viruses A, B, C, and E, as well as Adenovirus, Enterovirus, Parvovirus, Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and EBV. HAV was the most frequent in paediatric subjects: (11/16) 69% and (19/30) 63%. HBV was the only etiological agent in the study that only included adults. HEV (genotype 2 in one study) contracted amidst hepatitis E outbreaks was the most commonly reported cause of ALF in pregnant women. Treatment was mainly supportive, and liver transplantation reported only in South Africa. Where reported, case fatality rates were high. In conclusion, viral-hepatitis induced acute liver failure is largely understudied in sub-Saharan Africa. The few available data are consistent with literature from the other parts of the world regarding aetiologic agents. Liver transplantation is not available in most sub-Saharan African countries, and short-term case fatality rates of individuals with acute liver failure could outstrip current rates from the other world regions.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Genomics; Epigenetics; Targeted Therapy
Online: 1 October 2021 (12:23:33 CEST)
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common malignancy in children and is characterized by numerous genetic and epigenetic abnormalities. Epigenetic mechanisms, which involve DNA methylations and histone modifications, result in the heritable silencing of genes without a change in their coding sequence. Emerging studies are increasing our understanding of the epigenetic role of leukemogenesis and have demonstrated the potential of DNA methylations and histone modifications as a biomarker for lineage and subtypes classification, predicting relapse, and disease progression in ALL. Epigenetic abnormalities are relatively reversible when treated with some small molecule-based agents compared to genetic alterations. In this review, we conclude the genetic and epigenetic characteristics in ALL and discuss the future role of DNA methylation and histone modifications in predicting relapse, finally focus on the individual and precision therapy targeting epigenetic alterations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0490.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: miRNAs; stroke; acute ischemic stroke; biomarkers; meta-analysis.
Online: 21 July 2021 (11:57:02 CEST)
Background: Acute ischemic stroke is among the main causes of mortality worldwide; a rapid and opportune diagnosis is crucial to improve a patient's outcome. MicroRNAs are quite useful for a rapid and accurate diagnosis.Methods: We perform both structural networks approach and a meta-analysis (using a random-effect model to evaluate the heterogeneity and risk bias, according to the PRISMA statement) to analyze the feasibility to develop a microRNA-based biomarker panel for an opportune AIS diagnosis. Results: Structural networks identify a set of eight miRNAs (miR-16, miR-124-3p, miR-484, miR-15a, miR-4454, miR-107, miR-125b-5p and miR-320b) as preliminary microRNA-based biomarker panel, from these only three microRNAs are significantly associated with the main risk factors of AIS, (miR-107: hypertension, 95% CI 9.74-53.24 p<0.0001, type 2 Diabetes mellitus, 95% CI 2.18-19.26); p=0.0008; miR-16 hypertension, 95% CI 1.26-3.56 p=0.0046, smoking, 95% CI 1.07-3.54 p=0.0277; and miR-15a hypertension, 95% CI 1.26-3.56 p=0.0046; smoking, 95% CI 1.07-3.54 p=0.0277). However, the meta-analysis reveals that data is highly heterogeneous and biased; and only microRNAs isolated from plasma samples and further processed in microarrays are the most reliable to distinguish AIS patients.Conclusions: Together our results show that although there are some miRNAs that seem to be associated with AIS, we are still far to develop a miRNA-based biomarker for AIS diagnosis and it is necessary to harmonize the protocols, results and include more populations for further studies otherwise we will remain throwing punches in the dark.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0601.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: MLL-SEPT6; TRAF3; FGFR3; Acute Myelogenous Leukemia; Child.
Online: 24 March 2021 (16:20:43 CET)
The MLL gene is a site of frequent rearrangement in acute leukemia with multiple fusion partners, but MLL-SEPT6 rearrangement is rare in clinical leukemia practice, and only 13 cases have been reported. We describe the case of an acute myelogenous leukemia child with MLL-SEPT6 rearrangement whose age of onset and accompanying gene mutations differs from previous reports. Considering the poor prognosis of leukemia children with MLL-SEPT6 rearrangement and the unsatisfactory results of existing treatments, the study of this case may provide new theories for diagnosis and treatment of MLL-SEPT6-associated childhood acute leukemia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0310.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: physical activity; Alzheimer’s disease; 5xFAD; acute, wheel running
Online: 12 February 2021 (15:03:25 CET)
Physical activity is considered a promising preventive intervention to reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the positive effect of exercise therapy has not been proven conclusively yet, likely due to confounding factors such as varying activity regimens and life or disease stages. To examine the impact of different routines of physical exercise in the early disease stages, we subjected young 5xFAD and wild-type mice to 1-day (acute) and 30-day (chronic) voluntary wheel running and compared them with age-matched sedentary controls. We observed a significant increase in brain lactate levels in acutely trained 5xFAD mice relative to all other experimental groups. Subsequent brain RNA-seq analysis did not reveal major differences in transcriptomic regulation between training durations in 5xFAD mice. In contrast, acute training yielded substantial gene expression changes in wild-type animals relative to their chronically trained and sedentary counterparts. The comparison of 5xFAD and wild-type mice showed the highest transcriptional differences in the chronic and sedentary groups, whereas acute training was associated with much fewer differentially expressed genes. In conclusion, our results suggest that different training durations did not affect the global transcriptome of 3-month-old 5xFAD mice, whereas acute running seemed to induce a similar transcriptional stress state in wild-type animals as already known for 5xFAD mice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0449.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: retrospective cohort; predictors; recovery; severe acute malnutrition; Jimma
Online: 27 May 2020 (08:59:02 CEST)
Background: Treatment at stabilization center is an important intervention to avert the huge burden of mortality for children with complicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Recent reviews indicated a wide range in recovery rate (34-88%) due to several context-specific factors. This study aimed to estimate time to recovery and to determine predictors of time to recovery among children aged 6-59 month with severe acute malnutrition. Method: Retrospective cohort study was used among 375 children aged 6-59 months admitted in Jimma university medical center, from September 2015 to September 2017. Kaplan Meir estimate and survival curve was used to compare the time to recovery using log-rank test among different characteristics. Cox Proportional Hazard Model was used to identify significant predictors of time to recovery. Results: Median time of recovery for cohort of SAM children’s was 19 days (95%CI: 17.95-20.05). Independent predictors of time to recovery were: Play stimulation, vaccination status, Tuberculosis, malaria, use of amoxicillin, deworming and shock. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the average length of stay on treatment and median time for recovery are within the sphere standard. Psychosocial stimulation, appropriate provision of routine medication and management of medical co-morbidity are needed to promote fast recovery.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: novel coronavirus infection; renal transplant; acute kidney injury
Online: 12 March 2020 (03:02:03 CET)
Novel coronavirus infection is a recent infective agent that causes severe potentially fatal pneumonia. The clinical presentation includes asymptomatic infection, severe pneumonia, and acute respiratory failure. Data pertaining to the clinical presentation of solid organ transplant recipients are scarce. Two cases of novel coronavirus infection in two recipients of renal transplant with variable clinical presentations and outcomes are reported. The first patient presented with progressive respiratory symptoms, acute renal failure, and passed away, whereas the second one, although presented with respiratory tract symptoms and hypoxemia remained stable and exhibited an excellent clinical recovery despite recent reception of thymoglobulin induction. This paper reports rare cases of novel coronavirus infection in renal transplant recipients. For an enhanced insight of the novel coronavirus infection and acute kidney injury on the clinical presentation, severity, and outcome in solid organ transplant recipients, further investigations are required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0311.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: mini nutritional assessment; acute myocardial infarction; mortality; elderly
Online: 13 November 2018 (10:56:25 CET)
Background: Malnutrition is a frequent condition in the elderly and is associated with prolonged hospitalization and increased mortality. However, the impact of malnutrition among elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction has not been clarified yet. Methods and Results: We have enrolled 174 patients aged 65 years and over, admitted with the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who underwent to the evaluation of nutritional status by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and of mortality risk by Grace score 2.0. All-cause mortality was the outcome considered for this study. Over a mean follow-up of 24.5 ± 18.2 months, 43 deaths have been registered (24.3%). Non-survivors were more likely to be older, with worse GFR, lower SBP, lower albumin and MNA score, higher prevalence of Killip classification III-IV grade, and higher Troponin I levels. Multivariate Cox proportional analysis revealed that Grace score and MNA showed a significant and independent impact on mortality, (HR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.34–2.32 and HR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.42–0.73, respectively). Moreover, the clinical decision curve revealed a higher clinical net benefit when the MNA was included compared to the partial models without MNA. Conclusions: Nutritional status is an independent predictor of long-term mortality among elderly patients with AMI. MNA score in elderly patients with AMI may help prognostic stratification and identification of patients with/at risk of malnutrition in order to apply interventions to improve nutritional status and maybe survival in this population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0590.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: acute appendicitis; complicated appendicitis; laparoscopic appendectomy; intraabdominal abscess
Online: 29 September 2018 (10:51:00 CEST)
Background: To investigate the preoperative clinical and radiological factors that predict the development of a postoperative intraabdominal abscess (IAA) in patients with acute appendicitis who were treated by laparoscopic appendectomy (LA). Methods: Two hundred sixteen patients with pathologically proven acute appendicitis underwent LA between January 2013 and March 2018 in our department. Of these, 147 patients were diagnosed with complicated appendicitis (CA) (CA group), while the other 69 patients were diagnosed with simple appendicitis (SA) (SA group). We compared the perioperative clinical and radiographic factors between the two groups and investigated the predictive factors of postoperative IAA. Results: Sixteen patients developed postoperative IAA in the CA group, while no patients did in the SA group. The univariate analysis revealed that time from onset to surgery more than 3 days (p = 0.011), the preoperative CT finding of periappendiceal fluid (p = 0.003), abscess (p < 0.001), and free air (p <0.001), operation time more than 120 minutes (p = 0.023) and placement of a drainage tube (p <0.001) were significantly associated with the development of IAA. Multivariate analysis revealed that the preoperative CT finding of free air was independently associated with the development of IAA (p = 0.007, odds ratio = 5.427). Conclusions: IAA was developed predominantly in the patients with CA. Preoperative CT findings of free air was found to be an independent predictor for the development of IAA. Surgeons should be meticulous in managing the postoperative course of patients with this finding.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0435.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Acute Myeloid Leukemia; FLT3; Tyrosine kinase inhibitors; resistance
Online: 21 September 2018 (10:28:34 CEST)
Identification of recurrent driver mutations in genes encoding tyrosine kinases has resulted in the development of molecularly targeted strategies designed to improve the outcomes for patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3, is the most commonly mutated gene in AML, with internal tandem duplications within the juxtamembrane domain (FLT3-ITD) or missense mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain (FLT3-TKD), present in 30%-35% of AML patients at diagnosis. An established driver mutation and marker of poor prognosis, the FLT3 tyrosine kinase has emerged as an attractive therapeutic target, and thus has encouraged the development of FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, the therapeutic benefit of FLT3 inhibition, particularly as monotherapy, frequently results in the development of treatment resistance and disease relapse. Commonly, FLT3 inhibitor resistance is induced by the emergence of secondary lesions in the FLT3 gene, particularly in the second tyrosine kinase domain at residue Asp835 (D835) to form a ‘dual mutation’ (ITD-D835). Individual FLT3-ITD and FLT3-TKD mutations influence independent signaling cascades however, currently little is known which divergent signaling pathways are controlled by each of these FLT3 specific mutations, particularly in the context of patients harboring dual ITD-D835 mutations. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the known discrete and cooperative signaling pathways regulated by each of the FLT3 specific mutations, as well as the therapeutic approaches that hold the most promise for development of more durable and personalized therapeutic approaches targeting mutant FLT3, to improve the treatment of AML.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0084.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: dual anti platelet therapy; acute coronary syndrome; stents
Online: 12 February 2018 (05:13:18 CET)
Percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI) with stenting for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome(ACS) is the contemporary standard of care. Such treatment is followed by Dual anti-platelet therapy(DAPT) comprising of aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor. The efficacy of this therapy has been well established but the optimal duration of DAPT remains elusive, and has thus far attracted a prodigious deal of scientific attention. Decision regarding DAPT duration can be challenging clinically in the modern era with the evolution of newer stents, more potent antiplatelet agents and novel anticoagulant drugs in addition to an older patient population with multiple comorbidities. Major societal guidelines have emphasized comprehensive assessment of ischemic and bleeding risk, in turn recommending individualization of DAPT duration, thus encouraging "shared decision making". The following review is aimed at critically evaluating the available evidence to help make these crucial clinical decisions regarding duration of DAPT and triple therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: acute pharyngitis; rational use of drugs; incidence; prevalence
Online: 30 December 2016 (07:37:07 CET)
According to Indonesia’s result of Basic Health Research of 2013, prevalence of acute respiratory infection in 2007 and 2013 were not different (25.5% and 25.0%, respectively). Identifying the cause of acute pharyngitis is a key point in determining the optimal treatment. The main purpose is to evaluate the rational use of drugs and its irrational impact as well as the correlation of the drug use with the incidence and prevalence of acute pharyngitis. This study was a descriptive and observational study, carried out retrospectively and concurrently at two community health centers located in Bandung and Cimahi, Indonesia. There were 80.01% over prescription of antibiotics, with a total of 8.98% is non-treatment option, and 62.43% irrational used of corticosteroids. The incidence and prevalence of acute pharyngitis at one health center in Bandung were 2.45% and 2.31%, respectively, with irrationality rate of 83.82%. Those recorded at one health center in Cimahi were 2.11% of incidence and 2.00% of prevalence with irrational rate of 91.29%. It can be concluded that there were still irrational use of medicines in the treatment of acute pharyngitis in community health center. The higher incidence and prevalence might indicate the declining health services quality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0451.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML); childhood; Core-binding factor (CBF); KMT2A/11q23 rearrangement; acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL); hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)
Online: 6 September 2023 (15:38:49 CEST)
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the second common hematologic malignancy in children. The incidence of childhood AML is much lower than acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which makes the childhood AML a rare disease in children. The role of genetic abnormalities in AML classification, management and prognosis prediction is much more important than before. The WHO classification of myeloid neoplasms and the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) classification were both revised in 2022. The application of the new information in childhood AML will be upcoming in the next few years. The frequency of each genetic abnormality in adult and childhood AML is different, therefore, in this review we emphasize in well-known genetic subtypes in childhood AML, including Core-binding factor AML (CBF AML), KMT2Ar (KMT2A/11q23 rearrangement) AML, normal karyotypes AML with somatic mutations, unbalanced cytogenetic abnormalities AML, NUP98 11p15/NUP09 rearrangement AML and acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Current risk group classification, management algorithm in childhood AML and novel treatment modalities, such as targeted therapy, immune therapy, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy are reviewed. Finally, the indications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in AML are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1046.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Metronomic Breathing (MB); Cardiac rehabilitation; acute myocardial infarction; efficacy.
Online: 16 November 2023 (11:18:02 CET)
Background: Respiratory rehabilitation is a crucial component of cardiac recovery. This study primarily investigates the effectiveness of a novel respiratory rehabilitation technique known as Metronomic Breathing (MB) on cardiac recovery in post-PCI acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients and compliance with home-based rehabilitation compared to traditional respiratory rehabilitation methods. Methods: From June 2022 to March 2023, 55 AMI patients admitted to the Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital Cardiovascular Department were consecutively enrolled. They were randomly divided into the MB and control groups, which underwent conventional abdominal breathing training. Afterwards, hemodynamic indicators and compliance with home-based rehabilitation were compared between the two groups. Results: After the intervention in the MB group, several cardiac functional parameters (SV, SVI, CO, CI, LCW, LCWI), myocardial contractility parameter (VI), and systemic vascular resistance parameters (SVR, SVRI) were significantly higher compared to the pre-intervention levels, with a significant difference (P < 0.05). Furthermore, post-treatment, the MB group exhibited higher values for SV, SVI, CO, CI, and VI, lower SVR, SVRI, and SBP and a lower readmission rate three months later than the control group. Moreover, the MB group displayed higher compliance with home-based cardiac rehabilitation (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Compared to conventional respiratory rehabilitation training methods, Metronomic respiratory therapy is more effective in the short term for reducing systemic vascular resistance, enhancing left ventricular ejection function, and increasing home-based rehabilitation compliance in patients following AMI with PCI.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1004.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: Dengue fever; Rectus sheath hematoma; surgical emergency; acute appendicitis
Online: 17 October 2023 (05:49:39 CEST)
Introduction: Dengue is a mosquito transmitted arboviral infection. In dengue fever spontaneous bleeding in different parts of body occurs; but spontaneous bleeding into rectus muscle leading to haematoma formation is rare. Case Presentation: A 72-year-old hypertensive female presented with high grade intermittent fever with chills and rigors for last four days. She was diagnosed to have dengue fever (NS1Ag -Reactive) on the day before admission. At admission, on examination she was found to be have dehydration. Immediately she was put on IV fluids, antiemetics and other supportive therapy. At admission she had low platelets, low haemoglobin, total leucocyte counts, with raised liver enzymes. On day 3 of illness, she had significant drop of haematocrit with low blood pressure and subsequently she managed with packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion. But on 9th day of illness, she has severe right iliac fossa pain mimicking acute appendicitis. CECT of abdomen showed soft tissue lesion in right lower abdomen (Inflammatory/ hematoma along rectus sheath) which was managed conservatively as per surgical opinion. 10 days past discharge she had no pain in right iliac fossa and size of hematoma was significantly reduced. Discussion: In dengue fever, hematoma can be formed any vulnerable part in the but there are only a few cases reported to be having rectus sheath hematoma. Rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) has been mistaken for many acute abdominal diseases like- acute appendicitis. Our case mimicked acute appendicitis and managed conservatively with IV fluids, analgesics, Blood transfusion as it fits into RSH type II. Conclusion: It is important to be vigilant in the patients who presents with abdominal pain in severe dengue cases. Prompt imaging in relevant areas could make the diagnosis and father treatment possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1597.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Galectin-3, acute myocardial infarction, major adverse cardiovascular events
Online: 25 September 2023 (12:58:57 CEST)
Background: Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a biomarker involved in a wide range of diseases including cardiac remodeling following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Identification of prognostic markers in patients with AMI can guide strategies towards improved survival and the quality of life. Methods: Our study included 59 patients with AMI and preserved ejection fraction. We determined the Gal-3 plasma concentration within 24 hours of chest pain onset from aortic root, femoral/radial artery, coronary sinus and cubital vein. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were evaluated at six months follow-up. Results: MACE at six months post-AMI was recorded in 20 patients (34%). The Gal-3 plasma concentration from aortic root and the femoral/radial artery were independent predictors of MACE at six months follow-up after the first AMI (OR 1.228; 95%CI: 1.011-1.491; p=0.038; OR 3.438; 95%CI: 1.275-9.265; p=0.015). ROC analysis identifies the Gal-3 plasma concentration from aortic root as a better predictor of MACE or death (cut-off >10.86 ng/ml; AUC 0.858; 95%CI: 0.744-0.973; p<0.001) than Gal-3 plasma concentration from femoral/radial artery (cut-off >10.18 ng/ml; AUC 0.742; 95%CI: 0.596-0.888; p=0.006). Conclusion: The Gal-3 plasma concentration in patients with AMI determined during coronary angiography, especially from the aortic root, within 24 hours after chest pain onset is a valuable biomarker of prognosis at six months follow-up.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0229.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia; immunotherapy; checkpoint inhibitors; new therapeutic landscapes
Online: 6 September 2023 (14:36:13 CEST)
In the last years, molecularly targeted agents and immune based treatments (ITs) have deeply changed the landscape of anti-cancer therapy. Indeed, ITs proved to be very effective in metastatic solid tumors, where outcomes were extremely poor with standard approaches. Such a scenario has been only partially reproduced in hematologic malignancies. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), as innovative drugs are eagerly awaited in relapsed/refractory setting, different ITs have been explored, but the results are still unsatisfactory. In this work, we will discuss the most important clinical studies to date adopting ITs in AML, providing the bases to understand how this approach, although still in its infancy, may represent a promising therapeutic tool for the next future treatment of AML patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0032.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: quantum dots; semiconductor nanocrystals; acute toxicity; immunotoxicity; cytokine profile
Online: 1 August 2023 (11:56:40 CEST)
Fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals called quantum dots (QDs) have gained attention in biomedical applications, including imaging, molecular tracking, and drug delivery, due to their unique optical properties. However, their use is limited because of safety issues. This study was aimed at assessment the acute toxicity of QDs with different core chemical compositions and surface charges in mice. In addition, the immunotoxicity of CdSe/ZnS QDs was estimated. CdSe/ZnS, PbS/CdS/ZnS, and CuInS2/ZnS QDs were synthesized and modified with PEG derivatives. The hydrodynamic diameters and surface charges of solubilized QDs were characterized. The QD acute toxicity has been shown to depend on both surface charge and core composition. The immunotoxicity of CdSe/ZnS-PEG-OH QDs in mice was assessed after a single intravenous administration of 0.2 LD100 of the QDs. The QDs have been found to increase the spleen weight and cause spleen, thymus, and bone marrow cell depletion. However, these changes are reversible. A transient increase in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines (MCP1 and IL-6) indicates an acute inflammatory response to a single low dose of QDs. Thus, systemic comparative analysis of QD toxicity has shown how the QD core composition and surface properties affect living organisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1307.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: acute kidney Injury; TIMP2xIGBP7; mid-regional-pro-adrenomedullin; sepsis
Online: 19 July 2023 (08:15:18 CEST)
Identifying a panel of markers detecting kidney injury before the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) reduction is the challenge to improve the diagnosis and the management of acute kidney injury (AKI) in septic patients. This study evaluated the roles of tissue inhibitor metal proteinase, insulin growth factor binding protein (TIMP2*IGFBP7), and mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) in AKI patients. Patients and Methods: This study was prospectively conducted in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) enrolling 230 patients who underwent cardiac surgery. Biomarkers were evaluated before and after 4 hours of the cardiac surgery. Results: Whereas urine and creatinine alterations appeared at 23.2 (12.7 – 36.5) hours, after cardiac surgery, urinary TIMP2*IGBP7 levels were higher at 4 hours in AKI patients (1.1±0.4 mg/l vs 0.08±0.02 mg/l; p < 0.001). Its concentration >2 mg/l increases the AKI risk within the following 24 hours, clearly identifying the population at high risk of renal replacement therapy (RRT). In patients with sepsis, MR-proADM levels were 2.3 nmol/l (0.7–7.8 nmol/l), with the highest values observed in septic shock [5.6 nmol/l (3.2–18 nmol/l)] and a better diagnostic profile than procalcitonin and C-reactive protein to identify septic patients. MR-proADM values >5.1 nmol/l and urine TIMP2*IGBP7 levels > 2 mg/l showed a significantly faster progression to RRT, with a mean follow-up time of 1.1 days. Conclusions: TIMP2*IGBP7 and MR-proADM precociously diagnose AKI in septic patients after cardiac surgery, giving prognostic information for RRT requirement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2168.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Acute respiratory distress syndrome; PEEP; Mechanical ventilation; Oleic acid
Online: 30 June 2023 (07:11:12 CEST)
Abstract: To compare the use of variable mechanical ventilation with conventional mechanical ventilation in porcine model of ARDS. Methods: Animals were divided into two groups (n = 6), conventional ventilation and variable ventilation with bi-oscillatory PEEP. For induction of ARDS, intravenous oleic acid was used until a P/F ratio of 200 to 300 mmHg. The animals were ventilated with pressure control, FiO2 1.0, inspiration-expiration ratio = 1:2, tidal volume 6 ml/kg with the initial respiratory rate adjusted to maintain an end tidal CO2 tension of 35 to 45 mmHg. Variable ventilation was characterized by the oscillation of PEEP from 5 to 10 cmH2O every 4 respiratory cycles, in convencional ventilation group PEEP was set from 5 cmH2O. Ventilatory, hemodynamic parameters, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes, Interleukin 8 (IL8) and 17-a (IL17a) and histological analyzes were evaluated; Results: The use of BiPEEP demonstrated improvement in lung compliance and PaO2 in relation to control. The levels of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes showed no significant difference. There was no difference in IL17a between groups. In IL8 there was a significant increase in the lung base of control in relation to BiPEEP, and a reduction in the apex of BiPEEP in relation to control. The control group showed changes in lung morphology characterized by cellular infiltrates, a thickening of the alveolar septae and atelectasis, which were attenuated in BiPEEP group; (4) Conclusions: The use of variable ventilation with bi-oscillatory level of PEEP demonstrates a potential ventilatory strategy in an experimental model of ARDS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0658.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: acute pancreatitis; coumarins; warfarin; inflammation; coagulation; pancreatic blood flow.
Online: 21 April 2023 (02:38:22 CEST)
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is the most common gastrointestinal disease leading to hospitalizations. The development of AP leads to damage of the pancreatic microcirculation with a cascade of subsequent events resulting, among others, in coagulopathy. Previous research showed that anticoagulants can be an important therapeutic agent. Heparin and acenocoumarol can alleviate the course of AP, as well as accelerate healing and post-inflammatory regeneration of the pancreas. The aim of this study was to check whether warfarin, a drug with more stable effects than acenocoumarol, affects the healing and regeneration of the pancreas in the cerulein-induced AP. AP was evoked in Wistar male rats by intraperitoneal administration of cerulein. The first dose of warfarin (45, 90 or 180 µg/kg/dose) was administered 24 hours after the first dose of cerulein and the doses of warfarin were repeated once a day in subsequent 10 days. The severity of acute pancreatitis was assessed immediately after the last dose of cerulein, as well as 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 days after AP induction. Treatment with warfarin dose-dependently increased interna-tional normalized ratio (INR) and attenuated the severity of pancreatitis in histological ex-amination and accelerated pancreatic recovery. Those effects were accompanied with a faster reduction in the pancreatitis-evoked increase in serum activity of amylase and lipase, serum concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β, and plasma level of D-Dimer. In addition, treatment with warfarin decreased pancreatic weight and improved pancreatic blood flow in rats with AP. The therapeutic effect was particularly pronounced after the administration of warfarin at a dose of 90 µg/kg/dose. Conclusion: Administration of warfarin accelerates re-generation of the pancreas and recovery in the course of cerulein-induced mild-edematous acute pancreatitis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0537.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: L-asparaginase; chimeric; in silico; immunogenicity; acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Online: 30 January 2023 (03:21:51 CET)
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer among children worldwide, characterized by an overproduction of undifferentiated lymphoblasts in the bone marrow. The treatment of choice for this disease is the enzyme L-asparaginase (ASNase) from bacterial sources. ASNase hydrolyzes circulating L-asparagine in plasma, leading to starvation of leukemic cells. The ASNase formulations of E. coli and E. chrysanthemi present notorious adverse effects, especially the immunogenicity they generate, which undermines both their effectiveness as drugs and patient safety. In this study, we developed a humanized chimeric enzyme from E. coli L-asparaginase, which would reduce the immunological problems associated with current L-asparaginase therapy. For these, the immunogenic epitopes of E. coli L-asparaginase (PDB: 3ECA) were determined and replaced with those of the less immunogenic Homo sapiens asparaginase (PDB:4O0H). The structures were modeled using the Pymol software and the chimeric enzyme was modeled using the SWISS MODEL service. A humanized chimeric enzyme with four subunits similar to the template structure was obtained, and the presence of asparaginase enzymatic activity was predicted by protein-ligand docking.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: acute pulmonary embolism; dilemmas; therapeutic treatment; recommendations; clinical application
Online: 2 August 2022 (03:12:56 CEST)
Pulmonary thromboembolism is a very common cardiovascular disease, with a still high mortality rate. Despite the clear guidelines, this disease still represents a great challenge both in diagnosis and treatment. Heterogeneous clinical picture, often without pathognomonic signs and symptoms, represents a huge differential diagnostic problem even for experienced doctors. The decision on the therapeutic regimen also represents a major dilemma in the group of patients who are hemodynamically stable at initial presentation and have signs of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction proven by echocardiography and positive biomarker values (pulmonary embolism of intermediate-high risk). Studies have shown conflicting results about the benefit of using fibrinolytic therapy in this group of patients until hemodynamic decompensation, due to the risk of major bleeding. The latest recommendations give preference to new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) compared to vitamin K antagonists (VKA), except for certain categories of patients (patients with antiphospholipid syndrome, mechanical valves, pregnancy). When using oral anticoagulant therapy, special attention should be paid to drug-drug interactions, which can lead to many complications, even to the death of the patient. Special population groups such as pregnant women, obese patients, patients with antiphospholipid syndrome and cancer represent a great therapeutic challenge in the application of anticoagulant therapy. In these patients, not only the effectiveness of the drugs must be taken into account, but great attention must be paid to their safety and possible side effects, which is why a multidisciplinary approach is emphasized in order to provide the best therapeutic option.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0304.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: PCNSL; high-dose methotrexate; acute uric acid nephropathy; rasburicase
Online: 20 July 2022 (11:52:03 CEST)
Background: Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) are sensitive to chemotherapy. Standard treatment is high-dose methotrexate (MTX)-based chemotherapy. There are no reports of successful treatment of acute uric acid nephropathy with rasburicase after MTX administration in PCNSL. Case presentation: A 54-year-old man with a history of gout presented with character change and memory loss. MRI showed a large, enhancing mass spanning the bilateral frontal lobes and right temporal lobe. After endoscopic biopsy, MTX, procarbazine and vincristine (MPV) regimen was initiated for treatment of PCNSL. After initiation of chemotherapy, the patient suffered from a gout attack and blood examination revealed acute renal failure (ARF) and hyperuricemia. The considered causes of ARF included MTX toxicity and acute urid acid nephropathy. Since a good response to chemotherapy was observed, the latter was assumed. After improvement of renal function, MTX was resumed, initiating rasburicase for control of hyperuricemia. A complete response was obtained after induction chemotherapy. Hyperuricemia was controlled with rasburicase and renal function was preserved. Conclusions: Acute uric acid nephropathy should be considered when ARF occurs after initiation of MTX in PCNSL. For newly diagnosed PCNSL patients with large tumors or hyperuricemia, upfront usage of rasburicase should be considered to prevent it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0115.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: intracranial compliance; intracranial pressure; intracranial hypertension; acute brain injury
Online: 7 October 2021 (10:54:26 CEST)
We validated a new noninvasive tool (B4C) to assess intracranial pressure waveform (ICPW) morphology in a set of neurocritical patients, correlating the data with ICPW obtained from invasive catheter monitoring. Materials and Methods: Patients undergoing invasive intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring were consecutively evaluated using the B4C sensor. Ultrasound-guided manual internal jugular vein (IJV) compression was performed to elevate ICP from the baseline. ICP values, amplitudes, and time intervals (P2/P1 ratio and time-to-peak [TTP]) between the ICP and B4C waveform peaks were analyzed. Results: Among 41 patients, the main causes for ICP monitoring included traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and stroke. Bland-Altman’s plot indicated agreement between the ICPW parameters obtained using both techniques. The strongest Pearson’s correlation for P2/P1 and TTP was observed among patients with no cranial damage (r = 0.72 and 0.85, respectively) in detriment of those who have undergone craniotomies or craniectomies. P2/P1 values of 1 were equivalent between the two techniques (area under the receiver operator curve [AUROC], 0.9) whereas B4C cut-off 1.2 was predictive of intracranial hypertension (AUROC 0.9, p < 000.1 for ICP > 20 mmHg). Conclusion: B4C provided biometric amplitude ratios correlated with ICPW variation morphology and is useful for noninvasive critical care monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0043.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: aphasia; acute ischemic stroke; length of stay; mRS; NIHSS
Online: 2 September 2021 (14:39:03 CEST)
We aimed to reveal the disease burden of aphasia after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) at the national level and investigate the impact of aphasia on tertiary care resources and patient outcomes. The local database from the Cluj-Napoca Emergency County Hospital (CNECH), the second largest stroke center in Romania was used to export demographics, baseline clinical and laboratory data, inpatient length of stay (LOS), NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS), and discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score data for all AIS patients admitted during March 2019. Of 92 patients included in the study, 30 (32.6 %) had aphasia on admission. In a marginally significant unadjusted hierarchical multiple regression model, individuals with aphasia had a LOS of 1.86 days longer than stroke survivors without aphasia. In an adjusted version of the model, the NIHSS score at baseline was a significant predictor for LOS. In addition, the presence of aphasia was associated with a 1.49 increase in the mean mRS score. Aphasia was a marginally significant predictor for increased LOS. Presence of aphasia was more likely to produce a poor functional outcome. Considering an estimated impact of approximately EUR 3 million on direct medical expenditure annually, future policymaking efforts should improve prevention of stroke and improved access to post-stroke aphasia care in Romania.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0642.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; RAS; acute kidney injury; immune response
Online: 29 July 2021 (10:20:36 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To contain the virus, numerous preventive measures have been taken including isolation of patients, careful infection control, social distancing, and taking vaccine. So far, new confirmed and death cases are still increasing. SARS-CoV-2 invades cells by using the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 is an essential enzyme of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) which converts angiotensin II (Ang II) to angiotensin (1-7). ACE2 is expressed in different organs, including lung, heart, and kidney. A high number of COVID-19 patients developed kidney injury has been reported. Renal impairment and acute injury are associated with mortality of COVID-19, which is 14-16 times higher than other general patients. Acute Kidney Injury has been occured in 2.9 up to 43% of intensive care unit patients. The increasing evidence show that the components of RAS can activate the complement cascade, and cytokines production. Kidney injury caused by SARS-CoV-2 is related mainly to systemic and local inflammation. Moreover, the uncontrolled immune responses mediated by SARS-CoV-2 including hypercytokinaemia, secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, antibody dependent enhancement, complement system, and phagocytic cells activation can contribute in the virus pathogenesis leading to associated renal dysfunction. However, the role and crosstalk between of RAS components and immune response in mediating kidney injury remain undefined. In this review, we focus on the recent studies to provide the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 interacting with RAS and immune responses to mediate kidney injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0716.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: intracranial compliance; intracranial pressure; decompressive craniectomy; acute brain damage
Online: 29 June 2021 (23:58:09 CEST)
Background: Morphological alterations in intracranial pressure pulse waveform (ICPPW) secondary to intracranial hypertension (ICP >20 mmHg) and reduction in intracranial compliance (ICC) are well known indicators of neurological severity. To date, no studies have documented the ICPPW modifications after intracranial hypertension resolution with decompressive craniectomy (DC). The present study aimed to assess the morphological alterations in ICPPW among neurocritical care patients with and without DC, by comparing the variations of ICPPW features according to elevations in mean ICP values. Methods: Patients requiring ICP monitoring because of severe traumatic or spontaneous conditions were included. Mean ICP values were compared with ICPPW features (P2/P1 ratio, TTP and pulse amplitude). Elevation in ICP was produced by means of ultrasound-guided manual internal jugular veins compression. Results were distributed for three groups: intact skull (exclusive burr hole for ICP monitoring), craniotomy/large fractures (group 2) or DC (group 3). Results: 57 patients were analyzed. 21 (36%) presented no skull defects, whereas 15 (26%) had DC. ICP was not significantly different between groups: ±13.59 for intact and ±17.66 mmHg for DC, with ICP induced elevation also similar between groups (p= 0.56). Significant elevation was observed for P2/P1 ratio for groups 1 and 2, whereas reduction was observed in group 3 (elevation of ±0.09 for groups 1 and 2, whereas reduction of 0.03 for group 3, p=0.01). Conclusion: In the present study, intracranial pressure pulse waveform analysis indicated that intracranial compliance was significantly more impaired among decompressive craniectomy patients, although ICPPW indicated DC to be protective for further influences of ICP elevations over the brain. Analysis of ICPPW seems to be an alternative to real time ICC assessment.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0337.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: coronary artery disease, acute coronary syndrome, inflammation, case report
Online: 13 April 2021 (13:14:55 CEST)
Background: Although persistent systemic inflammation is considered to be predictive for future cardiovascular events, it remains unclear whether or not C-reactive protein (CrP) plays an active role in coronary-plaque instability. Here, we report a case of a patient with failed and super-infected renal allograft as a source for systemic inflammation presenting with repeat acute coronary syndromes. Case presentation: A 52-years-old male type-2 diabetic with a failed kidney transplant who was hospitalized for acute urinary-tract infection. In the presence of other, classic cardiovascular risk factors, peak values of CrP coincided with episodes of unstable angina treated by percutaneous coronary interventions. Besides pyelonephritis, the histological examination of the kidney transplant revealed signs of chronic rejection and the presence of a renal cell carcinoma in situ. Once the renal allograft has been removed, systemic inflammation was attenuated, the patient was not re-hospitalized for acute-coronary syndrome within the next 12 months. Conclusion: In this case, systemic inflammation was paralleled by instability of coronary plaques as documented by repeat percutaneous coronary interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0350.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: hyperglycemia; inflammation; infarct size; MINOCA; obstructive acute myocardial infarction
Online: 16 October 2020 (12:35:44 CEST)
Hyperglycemia has been associated with increased inflammatory indexes and larger infarct sizes in patients with obstructive acute myocardial infarction (obs-AMI). In contrast, no studies have explored these correlations in non-obstructive acute myocardial infarction (MINOCA). We investigated the relationship between hyperglycemia, inflammation and infarct size in a cohort of AMI patients that included MINOCA. Patients with AMI undergoing coronary angiography between 2016 and 2020 were enrolled. The following inflammatory markers were evaluated: C-reactive protein, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and neutrophil-to-platelet ratio (NPR). Myocardial infarct size was measured by peak high sensitivity troponin I (Hs-TnI) levels, left-ventricular-end-diastolic-volume (LVEDV) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The final study population consisted of 2450 patients with obs-AMI and 239 with MINOCA. Hyperglycemia was more prevalent among obs-AMI cases. In all hyperglycemic patients - obs-AMI and MINOCA - NLR, NPR, and LPR were markedly altered. Hyperglycemic obs-AMI subjects exhibited a higher Hs-TnI, a larger LVEDV and a lower LVEF compared to normoglycemic ones. Conversely, MINOCA patients showed similar myocardial damage, irrespective of glycemia. Our data confirm the association of hyperglycemic obs-AMI with elevated inflammatory markers and larger infarct sizes. MINOCA patients exhibited modest myocardial damage, regardless of admission glucose levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0306.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: acute kidney injury; HPB surgery; perioperative care; critical care
Online: 18 May 2020 (17:29:02 CEST)
Aim: Aim of our study was to evaluate incidence and causative factors for acute kidney injury in hepatopancreaticobiliary (HPB) surgeries. Material and Methods: All the HPB surgeries performed between April 2018 to March 2020, in our institution have been analysed for acute kidney injury. Acute kidney injury defined according to acute kidney injury network classification. Categorical variables were evaluated by chi square test and fisher t test wherever approptiate and continuous variables by Mann Whitney U test. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 23. P< 0.05 was considered significant. Results: We performed 195 HPB surgeries between April 2018 to March 2020, Which included 114 biliary surgeries, 57 liver surgeries and 23 pancreas surgeries. 10 patients developed Acute Kidney Injuries. (AKI) On Univariate analysis AKI was associated with open surgeries, intra operative hypotension and liver surgeries, higher ASA grade, increase operative time, more blood products used, higher CDC grade of surgery and more hospital stay before diagnosis of AKI. However on multivariate analysis only higher ASA score independently predicted Acute Kidney Injury. (p=0.003, odds ratio 15.659, 95% confidence interval 2.54-93.36). AKI was also significantly associated with mortality. (p <0.0001). Conclusion: Pre operative higher ASA grade independently predicted post operative acute kidney injury. Post operative AKI is significantly associated with mortality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0291.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: respiratory acidosis; CO2 narcosis; acute respiratory distress syndrome; hyperoxia
Online: 17 April 2020 (01:59:51 CEST)
Since 1991, there has been an alarming increase in the number of unexplained physiological events (UPEs) reported and experienced by pilots of jet fighters across different fleets. The UPEs have resulted in grounding some airframes, loss of aircraft, and even loss of life. There is no single agreed-upon root cause of UPEs that has been identified, and therefore there is no reliable corrective action. This author analyzed the literature related to other industries where artificial hyperoxic gas mixes are employed and where similar adverse reports have been reported. I hypothesize that UPEs are caused by high-dose oxygen delivery in excess of officially approved oxygen schedules while airflow rates are often inadequate, at a time when the positive pressure breathing feature of their oxygen regulator is not used. In a setting where pulmonary vital capacity is adversely affected by G-maneuvers and oxygen- and G-induced atelectasis, tidal volume is reduced by flight gear, and effective gas exchange is not supported by adequate ventilation, these factors combine to produce respiratory acidosis, followed by acute respiratory distress syndrome, CO2 narcosis, and coma. Reports from field data related to incidents in F-18S/H, showing that emergency oxygen did not correct the hypoxia-like symptoms including long-lasting periods of incapacitation and prolonged headaches, lend support to our hypothesis.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0020.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia; patients with organ dysfunction; gemtuzumab ozogamicin
Online: 2 October 2019 (06:19:36 CEST)
Objectives: To demonstrate the efficacy of Gemtuzumab ozogamicin in refractory AML patients with organ dysfunctions and poor performance status. Three refractory AML patients with are described. One of them was pretreated by intensive chemotherapy, two other patients progressed during Azacitidine treatment. WHO performance status III . Two patients had respiratory failure grade 2, the other one suffered from acute kidney insufficiency. Two patients were highly febrile with elevated CRP level. Gemtuzumab ozogamicin administration was performed in three patients followed by further switch to Gemtuzumab ozogamicin + Azacitidine or “7+3” treatment. Results: Gemtuzumab ozogamicin administration resulted in abrupt fever cessation in two febrile patients simultaneously with CRP level decrease and fast gradual resolution of respiratory failure. Recovery of kidney function was noticed in patient with renal insufficiency. WHO performance status have elevated in all three patients. No adverse effects grade II-III were noticed. Further treatment made two patients eligible for intensive chemotherapy, one patient was transplanted, patient with kidney failure obtained complete remission. Conclusions: Gemtuzumab ozogamicin therapy appeared to be safe and highly efficacious in relapsed/refractory AML patients with organ dysfunctions and poor performance status.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0055.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: emergency department; pediatric acute appendicitis; perforatio; fetuin-A level
Online: 5 August 2019 (08:00:41 CEST)
Background: Acute appendicitis (AA) is the most common cause of emergency surgery. Perforation is more common than adults. Early diagnosis and new markers are needed. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of plasma Fetuin-A (FA) levels in patients with the acute abdomen (AB). Material and Method: This prospective study included 107 patients younger than 16 years of age who were admitted to the emergency department for abdominal pain between January 2018 and December 2018. The patients who presented to abdominal pain were divided into two groups as AA and other causes (OC) of AB. T Patients with acute appendicitis; intraperitoneal, retrocolic / retrocecal and appendicitis were divided into three groups. Also, the AA group was divided into two groups as perforated appendicitis and non-perforated appendicitis. Serum FA levels of the patients were evaluated in the emergency department. Results: In the AA group, C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) levels were higher, and FA levels were significantly lower than in the AB group. Intraperitoneal localization was 95.2% and perforation was frequent. When significant values in the univariate regression analysis for acute abdomen and perforation were compared in the multivariate regression analysis, CRP, WBC, and FA levels were found to be prognostic. Also, decreased FA levels were associated with AA while too much decreased FA levels were associated with the risk of perforation. Conclusion: While trying to diagnose AA in children, the FA level, CRP and WBC may be predictive values to identify risk factors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0208.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: rhabdomyolysis; pigment nephropathy; haem; NLRP3 inflammasome; acute kidney injury
Online: 18 April 2019 (08:11:08 CEST)
Pigment nephropathy is an acute decline in renal function following the deposition of endogenous haem-containing proteins in the kidneys. Haem pigments such as myoglobin and haemoglobin are filtered by glomeruli and absorbed by the proximal tubules. They cause renal vasoconstriction, tubular obstruction, increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Haem is associated with inflammation in sterile and infectious conditions, contributing to the pathogenesis of many disorders such as rhabdomyolysis and haemolytic diseases. In fact, haem appears to be a signaling molecule that is able to activate the inflammasome pathway. Recent studies highlight a pathogenic function for haem in triggering inflammatory responses through the activation of the nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Among the inflammasome multiprotein complexes, the NLRP3 inflammasome has been the most widely characterized as a trigger of inflammatory caspases and the maturation of interleukin-18 and -1β. In the present review, we discuss the latest evidence on the importance of inflammasome-mediated inflammation in pigment nephropathy. Finally, we highlight the potential role of inflammasome inhibitors in the prophylaxis and treatment of pigment nephropathy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0220.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Acute pancreatitis; Etiology; Biliary pancreatitis; Systematic review; Meta-analysis
Online: 25 February 2019 (08:58:59 CET)
Introduction: Cholelithiasis and consumption of alcohol are the most frequent causes of acute pancreatitis (AP), accounting for about 30 to 40% of the cases, respectively. The frequency of acute biliary pancreatitis is high in a certain population in Brazil. Objective: To estimate the global frequencies of acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP), acute alcoholic pancreatitis (AAP) and the cases considered as acute idiopathic pancreatitis (AIP) in studies published from October 2006 to December 31, 2018. Methods: A systematic review of observational studies was performed from October 2006 to December 31, 2018. A meta-analysis by the random effects model was used to calculate the frequencies of global ABP, AIP and AAP and subgroups. Results: Forty-six studies representing 2,341,007 AP cases were included in 36 countries. The overall estimate for acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) was 41.6% (95% CI 39.2-44.1), followed by acute alcoholic pancreatitis (AAP) with 20.5% (95% CI) 16.6- 24.6) and acute idiopathic pancreatitis (AIP) in 18.3% (95% CI 15.1-27.7). Conclusion: ABP is the most prevalent etiology of AP, being two times more frequent than second-placed pancreatitis. Latin America has a frequency for ABP much higher than the rest of the world. The importance of the etiologic diagnosis is the treatment of the cause for prevention of recurrence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0426.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Ginsenoside Rh2; Lipopolysaccharide; Acute lung injury; MEK; Nrf-2;
Online: 23 July 2018 (13:05:06 CEST)
The anti-inflammatory effect of ginsenoside Rh2 (GRh2) is one of the most important ginsenosides. The purpose of this study is to identify the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of GRh2 after LPS challenge lung injury animal model. GRh2 reduced LPS-induced NO, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 productions in lung tissues. GRh2 treatment decreased the histological alterations in the lung tissues and BALF protein content and total cells number also diminished in LPS-induced lung injury mice. Moreover, GRh2 blocked iNOS, COX-2, the phosphorylation of IκB-α, ERK, JNK, p38, Raf-1 and MEK protein expression which is corresponded to the growth of HO-1, Nrf-2, catalase, SOD and GPx expressions in LPS-induce lung injury. An experimental study has suggested that GRh2 has provided with anti-inflammatory effects in vivo, and its potential therapeutic efficacy in major anterior segment lung diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0225.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: acute lung injury; fasudil, Rho kinase; endothelial function; inflammation
Online: 31 March 2017 (08:30:54 CEST)
Fasudil, a potent Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, can ameliorate LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice, but the mechanism remains obscure. In this study, a mice model of ALI was established by intra-tracheal instillation of LPS. Histological changes, cytokine levels, lung permeability, and endothelial apoptosis were determined to evaluate the effects of fasudil on lung injury. The cellular and molecular biological mechanisms were explored by culturing human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMECs). The results showed that fasudil reduced LPS-induced lung inflammation, pulmonary hyperpermeability, and endothelial apoptosis in mice. In cultured human PMECs, fasudil inhibited LPS-induced caspse-3 cleavage and cell apoptosis. It also decreased LPS-induced hyperpermeability of human PMECs monolayer by reversing the down-regulation of intercellular junctions. Moreover, fasudil inhibited LPS-induced overexpression of chemokines and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 in human PMECs, which in turn suppressed neutrophil chemotaxis and neutrophil-endothelial adhesion. Further molecular researches showed fasudil inhibited LPS-induced activation of ROCK, NF-κB, and p38 in human PMECs. Our findings demonstrated that fasudil alleviated LPS-induced ALI by protecting endothelial function via inhibiting endothelial apoptosis, maintaining endothelial barrier integrity, and reducing endothelial inflammation. These effects of fasudil could be attributed to the inhibition of ROCK and its downstream NF-κB and p38 signaling pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0999.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: emergency department; ED time targets; acute ischemic stroke; rt-PA
Online: 16 November 2023 (02:32:20 CET)
Background and objectives: Although intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) only a small proportion of stroke patients receive this drug. Low administration rate is mainly due to delayed presentation of patients to the emergency department (ED) or lack of a stroke team/unit in most of the hospitals. So, the aim of this study is to analyze ED time targets and the rate of rt-PA intravenous administration after the initial admission of patients with AIS in an ED from a traditional healthcare center (without a neurologist or stroke team/unit). Methods: To analyze which factors, influence administration of rt-PA we split the general sample (n=202) in two groups: group No rt-PA (n=137) and group rt-PA (n=65) based on performing or no intravenous thrombolysis. Results: Analyzing ED time targets for all sample we found that the median onset-to-ED door time was 180 minutes (IQR, 120-217.5 minutes), door-to-physician time was 4 minutes (IQR, 3-7 minutes), door-to-CT time was 52 minutes (IQR, 48-55 minutes), and door-in-door-out time was 61 minutes (IQR, 59-65 minutes). ED time targets such as door-to physician time (p=0.245), door-to-CT time (p=0.219), door-to-door-out time (p=0.24), or NIHSS at admission to Neurology department (p=0.405), or NIHSS after 24 h (p=0.9) did not have a statistically significant effect on administration or no rt-PA treatment in patients included in our study. Only highest Door-to-CT time was statistically significantly correlated with death outcome. Conclusion: In our study, rt-PA administration rate was higher than expected. Statistically significant correlation between ED time targets was found between lower Onset-to-ED door time with administration of rt-PA treatment (p<0.001) and between highest Door-to-CT time and death outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0602.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease; Vibrio parahaemolyticus; Vibrio campbellii; Litopenaeus vannamei
Online: 9 November 2023 (07:29:12 CET)
The global shrimp farming industry is impacted by various infectious diseases, leading to marked production losses. Virulent Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains (VPAHPND) and other Vibrio species cause acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimp. We isolated a binary toxin PirA/B-bearing V. campbellii strain (HJ-2023) from a Korean shrimp farm. The biochemical characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of HJ-2023 were analyzed and compared to those of PirA/B-bearing VPAHPND. Non-AHPND-causing V. campbellii was the control. The pathogenicity of each strain was analyzed in white-leg shrimp. Phylogenetic analysis classified the isolated HJ-2023 strain as V. campbellii. Biochemical tests confirmed distinct properties of HJ-2023, compared to the genetically similar V. harveyi group. The AHPND-causing toxin gene of HJ-2023 showed 100% similarity to the rpoD gene of VCAHPND. An antibiotic disc susceptibility test indicated that HJ-2023 showed resistance to ampicillin, clindamycin, lincomycin, and erythromycin, which is effective against gram-positive bacteria, and showed weak sensitivity to gentamycin. Furthermore, HJ-2023 was 25% less toxic than VPAHPND but could be lethal during aquaculture-related outbreaks. These results highlight the complexity and virulence of AHPND-causing strains through multiple pathways and confirm the pathogenicity of V. campbellii, which increases the risk posed by AHPND to shrimp aquaculture. Our findings could help prevent AHPND.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0270.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: adenoid hypertrophy; breastfeeding; snoring; open mouth breathing, acute otitis media
Online: 5 November 2023 (17:28:39 CET)
Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between breastfeeding duration and adenoid size, snoring and acute otitis media (AOM). Methods: We analyzed the medical history, reported symptoms, ear, nose and throat (ENT) examination, and flexible nasopharyngoscopy examination of 145 children aged 3-5 years. Results: Breastfeeding duration of 3 and 6 months or more had a significant effect on the reduction of snoring (p = 0.021; p = 0.039). However, it had no effect on the adenoid size, mucus coverage and sleeping with an open mouth. Snoring was correlated with open mouth sleeping (p < 0.001), adenoid size with a 75% A/C ratio or more (p < 0.001), and adenoid mucus coverage in the Mucus of Adenoid Scale by Nasopharyngoscopy Assessment - MASNA scale (p = 0.009). Children who were breastfed for less than 3 months had more than a 4-fold greater risk of snoring. There was a statistically significant correlation between AOM and gender (p = 0.033), breastfeeding duration in groups fed 1, 3 or 6 months or more (p = 0.018; p = 0.004; p = 0.004) and those fed with mother’s breast milk 3 or 6 months or more (p = 0.009; p = 0.010). Moreover, a correlation was found between adenoid size and mucus coverage, tympanogram, and open-mouth sleeping (p < 0.001). Independent factors of snoring in 3- to 5-year-old children were breastfeeding duration of less than 3 months (p = 0.032), adenoid size with an A/C ratio of 75% or more (p = 0.023) and open mouth sleeping (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Children breastfed for 3 and 6 months or more exhibited reduced rates of snoring. There was no effect of breastfeeding duration on adenoid size in children aged 3 to 5 years, suggesting that the link between breastfeeding duration and snoring is primarily associated with craniofacial development and muscle tone stimulation. A breastfeeding duration of 1 month or more plays a key role in reducing the rate of AOM. The mother’s milk plays a protective role against AOM. The presence of mucus might be responsible for snoring in preschool children. A medical history of breastfeeding should be taken into consideration when snoring children are suspected of adenoid hypertrophy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1234.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: acute emotional stress; sympathetic activity; vagal activity; endothelin; bradyarrhythmias; tachyarrhythmias
Online: 19 September 2023 (11:25:02 CEST)
The ubiquitous peptide endothelin is currently under investigation as a modulatory factor of autonomic responses to acute emotional stress. Baseline plasma levels of endothelin alter blood pressor responses, but it remains unclear whether autonomic activity and arrhythmogenesis are affected. We recorded sympathetic and vagal indices (derived from heart rate variability analysis), rhythm disturbances, voluntary motion, and blood pressure after acute emotional stress in conscious rats with implanted telemetry devices. Two strains were compared, namely wild-type and ETB-deficient rats, the latter displaying elevated plasma endothelin. No differences in heart rate or blood pressure were evident, but sympathetic responses were blunted in ETB-deficient rats, contrasting prompt activation in wild-type rats. Vagal withdrawal was observed in both strains at the onset of stress, but vagal activity was subsequently restored in ETB-deficient rats, accompanied by low voluntary motion during recovery. Reflecting such distinct autonomic patterns, frequent premature ventricular contractions were recorded in wild-type rats, as opposed to sinus pauses in ETB-deficient rats. Thus, chronically elevated plasma endothelin levels blunt autonomic responses to acute emotional stress, resulting in vagal dominance and bradyarrhythmias. Our findings provide further insights into the pathophysiology of stress-induced tachyarrhythmias and syncope.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1402.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: acute lymphoblastic leukemia; methotrexate; NF-κB; TNF-α; drug resistance
Online: 19 August 2023 (12:13:09 CEST)
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood cancer. Although prognosis continually improved along years, a significant proportion of patients still relapse from the disease due to leukemia resistance to therapy. Methotrexate (MTX), a folic acid antagonist, is a chemotherapy agent commonly used against ALL and a immune-system suppressant for rheumatoid arthritis, that presents multiple and complex mechanisms of action and resistance. Previous studies have shown that MTX modulates the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway, an important family of transcription factors involved in inflammation, immunity, cell survival, and proliferation, frequently hyperactivated in ALL. Using gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) on publicly available gene expression data from 161 newly diagnosed pediatric ALL patients, we found “TNF-α signaling pathway” to be the most enriched Cancer Hallmark in MTX poor responder patients. Transcriptomic analysis in a panel of ALL cell lines (6 BCP-ALL and 7 T-ALL) also identified the same pathway as differentially enriched among MTX resistant cell lines, as well as in slowly dividing cells. To better understand the crosstalk between NF-κB activity and MTX resistance, we genetically modified the cell lines to express luciferase under a NF-κB biding site promoter. We observed that the fold change in NF-κB activity triggered by TNF-α (but not MTX) treatment correlated with MTX resistance and proliferation across the lines. At the individual gene level, NFKB1 expression was directly associated with a poorer clinical response to MTX, and with both an increased TNF-α-triggered NF-κB activation and MTX resistance in the cell lines. Despite these results, pharmacological inhibition (with BAY 11-7082 and parthenolide) or stimulation (with exogenous TNF-α supplementation) of the NF-κB pathway did not alter MTX resistance of the cell lines significantly, evidencing a complex interplay between MTX and NF-κB in ALL.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1243.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: thyroid; heart; thyroid abnormalities; cardioprotection; heart failure; acute myocardial infarction
Online: 17 August 2023 (05:23:31 CEST)
The thyroid-heart relationship has a long and articulated history of its own, a history that en-compasses physiological and pathophysiological knowledge, the latter particularly in the context of cardiac diseases such as heart failure, arrhythmias and ischaemic heart disease. In recent years, molecular biology studies, in an experimental context, have highlighted the extraordinary dialogue that exists among the two systems in the field of cardioprotection, being an extremely important area for the treatment of cardiac diseases in both acute and chronic phases. In addi-tion, in the last few years, several studies have been carried out on the prognostic impact of al-terations in thyroid function, including subclinical ones, in heart disease, in particular in heart failure and acute myocardial infarction, with evidence of a negative prognostic impact of these and therefore with the suggestion to treat these alterations in order to prevent cardiac events, such as death. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the heart-thyroid relation-ship.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0445.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Acute ischemic stroke; AIS; radiomics; artificial intelligence; AI; neuroradiology; neurology.
Online: 4 August 2023 (13:20:17 CEST)
Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is the loss of neurological function due to a sudden reduction in cerebral blood flow and is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. In recent years, the field of radiological imaging has experienced an explosion that may reach unprecedented heights with the advent of artificial intelligence. One of the latest innovations in artificial intelligence is radiomics, which is based on the fact that a large amount of quantitative data can be extracted from radiological images, from which patterns can be identified and associated with specific pathologies. Since its inception, radiomics has been particularly associated with the field of oncology, with promising results in a wide range of clinical situations. The performance of radiomics in non-tumour pathologies has been increasingly explored in recent years and the results continue to be promising. The aim of this review is to explore the potential applications of radiomics in AIS patients and to theorise how radiomics may change the paradigm for these patients in the coming years.