ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0408.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: acute lung injury; endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition; milk fat globule factor 8; Smad1/5/Smad4
Online: 6 May 2023 (09:54:26 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Acute lung injury (ALI) is an inflammatory response in the lung caused by bacteria, viruses, trauma and other factors that results in lack of alveolar surfactant and subsequently respiratory distress. Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) is closely related to ALI-induced pulmonary fibrosis development and progression. This study examined the effect of milk fat globulin factor 8 (MFGE8) knockdown and overexpression on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced EndoMT. Methods: Total MFGE8 activity in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and healthy volunteers was assessed using a colorimetric kit. In vitro, cell morphology was observed by microscopy, and invasion and migration were tested by Transwell and scratch assays. Specific siRNAs were transfected into HLMECs to downregulate MFGE8, and CD31 and α-SMA protein expression was detected by fluorescence microscopy and FCM. MFGE8, BMP, Smad 1, Smad4, Smad5, Snail, CD31 and α-SMA protein and gene expression was assessed by western blotting (WB) and qRT‒PCR. In vivo, the changes in cell morphology and alveolar septum in the lung of mice (C57BL/6, aged 7-8 weeks, male) were observed by H&E staining. In addition, ECM deposition in lung tissue was detected by Masson staining. CD31 and α-SMA protein expression in lung tissue was measured by WB. Results: The serum level of MFGE8 was lower in the ARDS group than in the control group. MFGE8 was identified as a protective factor associated with hospital survival. In vitro, the treatment of human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMECs) with LPS for 96 h clearly changed the cells from the typical cobblestone shape of ECs to spindle-like fibroblasts. The scratch and Transwell assay results indicated that endothelial cell migration and invasion were enhanced in the LPS group compared with the control group. Fluorescence microscopy, FCM, WB and PCR showed that LPS greatly inhibited CD31 (endothelial marker) expression and increased α-SMA (mesenchymal marker) expression. These data showed that LPS could induce EndoMT in HLMECs. Notably, siRNA-treated HLMECs yielded the same results. The administration of rhMFGE8 to HLMECs in the LPS or LPS+siRNA group ameliorated the changes in cell morphology and decreased cell migration and invasion. rhMFGE8 attenuated the effect of LPS or LPS+siRNA on EndoMT induction by increasing CD31 and decreasing α-SMA protein and gene expression. Moreover, activation of BMP/Smad1/5-Smad4 signalling in response to LPS and Snail (related to EndoMT transcription factors) expression were increased by MFGE8 knockdown but inhibited by rhMFGE8. In vivo, H&E staining revealed a thickened alveolar septum in the LPS group, and the thickness increased over time; in contrast, rhMFGE8 reversed this effect. ECM deposition occurred early in ALI induced by LPS and increased over time, and the administration of rhMFGE8 reversed this effect. WB showed that LPS inhibited CD31 protein expression and increased α-SMA protein expression in lung tissue. Conclusions: rhMFGE8 exerts a protective effect early in LPS-induced EndoMT through BMP/Smad1/5/Smad4 signalling and could be a therapeutic target in ALI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0293.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: human poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), PARP-DNA complex,DNA-protein binding,DNA repair, 5′,8-Cyclopurine-2′-deoxynucleoside, DNA damage , DNA repair efficiency.
Online: 24 December 2018 (16:01:44 CET)
Abstract5′,8-Cyclo-2′-deoxyadenosine (cdA), in the 5′R and 5′Sdiastereomeric forms, are typical non strand-break oxidative DNA lesions, induced by hydroxyl radicals, with emerging importance as a molecular marker. These lesions are exclusively repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER) mechanism with a low efficiency, thus readily accumulating in the genome. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase1 (PARP1) acts as an early responder to DNA damage and plays a key role as a nick sensor in the maintenance of the integrity of the genome by recognizing nicked DNA. So far, it was unknown whether the diastereomeric cdA lesions could induce specific PARP1 binding. Here we provide the first evidence of PARP1 to selectively recognize the diastereomeric lesions 5′S-cdA and 5′R-cdA in vitro as compared to deoxyadenosine in model DNA substrates (23-mers) by using circular dichroism,fluorescence spectroscopy, immunoblotting analysis and gel mobility shift assay. Several features of the recognition of the damaged and undamaged oligonucleotides by PARP1were characterized. Remarkably, PARP1 efficiently binds to both cdA lesions in the double stranded (ds)-oligonucleotides. In particular, PARP1 proved to bind 5′S-cdAwith a higher affinity constant for the 5'S lesion in a model of ds DNA than 5′R-cdA, showing different recognition patterns, also compared with undamaged dA. This new finding highlights the ability of PARP1 to recognize and differentiate the distorted DNA backbone in a biomimetic system caused by different diastereomeric forms of a cdA lesion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0119.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Submerged aquatic vegetation; Carbon balance model; Landsat 8/9-OLI; Deep learning
Online: 2 June 2023 (03:42:30 CEST)
: Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) are highly efficient at carbon sequestration and, despite their relatively small distribution globally, are recognized as a potentially valuable component of climate change mitigation. However, SAV mapping in tidal marshes presents a challenge due to optically complex constituents in the water. The emergence and advancement of deep learn-ing-based techniques in the field of habitat mapping with remote sensing imagery provides an opportunity to address this challenge. In this study, an analytical framework was developed to quantify the carbon sequestration of SAV habitats in the Atchafalaya River Delta Estuary from field and remote sensing observations using deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) tech-niques. A U-Net based model, Wetland-SAV Network, was trained to identify SAV percent cover (high, medium, and low) as well as other estuarine habitat types from Landsat 8/9-OLI data. The areal extent of SAV was up to 8% of the total area (47,000 ha) with a significant loss of SAV habitats observed post-Hurricane Barry (~2,300 ha) in 2019. The habitat areas and habitat-specific carbon fluxes were then used to quantify net greenhouse gas (GHG) flux of the study area for with/without SAV scenarios in a Carbon Balance Model. The total net GHG flux was in the range of -0.13 ± 0.06 to -0.86 ± 0.37 ×105 tonne CO2e yr-1 and increased up to 40% (-0.23 ± 0.10 to -0.90 ± 0.39 ×105 tonne CO2e yr-1 ) when SAV was accounted for within the calculation. At the hectare scale, inclusion of SAV resulted in an increase of ~60% for net GHG sink in shallow areas adjacent to emergent marsh where SAV was abundant. This is the first attempt at remotely mapping SAV in coastal Louisiana as well as a first quantification of net GHG flux at the scale of hectares to thousands of hectares, accounting for SAV within these sub-tropical coastal delta marshes. Remote sensing and deep learning models have high potential for mapping and monitoring of SAV in turbid sub-tropical coastal deltas as a component of increasing accuracy of net GHG flux estimates at small (hectare) and large (coastal basin) scales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0338.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Forests; biomass; ALOS-2 PALSAR-2; Sentinel-1 CSAR; Sentinel-2 MSI; Landsat 8 OLI; ensemble learning.
Online: 16 February 2021 (14:15:01 CET)
This paper presents ensemble learning of multi-source satellite sensors dataset to obtain better predictive performance of the forest biomass. Spectral, spectral-indices, and spectral-textural features were generated from two optical satellite sensors, Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Sentinel-2 Multispectral Instrument (MSI). In addition, two radar satellite sensors, Sentinel-1 C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (CSAR), and Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS-2) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR-2) were utilized to generate backscattering and backscattering-textural features. The plot-wise above ground biomass data available from five forests in New England region were utilized. Ensemble learning of multi-source satellite sensors dataset was carried out by employing four machine learning regressors namely, Support Vector Machines (SVM), Random Forests (RF), Gradient Boosting (GB), and Multilayer Perceptron (MLP). A five-fold cross-validation method was used to evaluate predictive performance of the multi-source satellite sensors. The integration of multi-source satellite features, comprising of spectral, spectral-indices, backscattering, spectral-textural, and backscattering-textural information, through ensemble learning and cross-validation approach implemented in the research showed promising results (R2 = 0.81, RMSE = 46.2 Mg/ha) for the estimation of plots-level forest biomass in New England region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0090.v3
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: deep convolutional neural networks; multi-class segmentation; global convolutional network; channel attention; transfer learning; ISPRS Vaihingen; Landsat-8
Online: 4 January 2019 (11:47:42 CET)
In the remote sensing domain, it is crucial to complete semantic segmentation on the raster images, e.g., river, building, forest, etc, on raster images. A deep convolutional encoder--decoder (DCED) network is the state-of-the-art semantic segmentation method for remotely sensed images. However, the accuracy is still limited, since the network is not designed for remotely sensed images and the training data in this domain is deficient. In this paper, we aim to propose a novel CNN for semantic segmentation particularly for remote sensing corpora with three main contributions. First, we propose applying a recent CNN called a global convolutional network (GCN), since it can capture different resolutions by extracting multi-scale features from different stages of the network. Additionally, we further enhance the network by improving its backbone using larger numbers of layers, which is suitable for medium resolution remotely sensed images. Second, "channel attention'' is presented in our network in order to select the most discriminative filters (features). Third, "domain-specific transfer learning'' is introduced to alleviate the scarcity issue by utilizing other remotely sensed corpora with different resolutions as pre-trained data. The experiment was then conducted on two given datasets: (i) medium resolution data collected from Landsat-8 satellite and (ii) very high resolution data called the ISPRS Vaihingen Challenge Dataset. The results show that our networks outperformed DCED in terms of $F1$ for 17.48% and 2.49% on medium and very high resolution corpora, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0328.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: ZIF-8; hollow carbon; antibiotics; adsorbent
Online: 28 December 2018 (04:20:40 CET)
The harmful nature of high concentrations of antibiotics to humans and animals requires urgent development of novel materials and techniques for their absorption. In this work, CTAB (Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide)-assisted synthesis of ZIF-8 (zeolitic imidazolate framework) derived hollow carbon (ZHC) was designed, prepared and used as a high-performance adsorbent, further evaluated by Langmuir and Freundlich isothermal adsorption experiments, dynamic analysis as well as theoretical calculation. The maximum capacities of ZHC on adsorbing tetracycline (TC), norfloxacin (NFO) and levofloxacin (OFO) are 267.3, 125.6 and 227.8 mg g-1, respectively, which delivers superior adsorptive performance when compared to widely studied inorganic adsorbates. The design concept of ZIFs-derived hollow carbon material provides guidance and insights for the efficient adsorbent of environmental antibiotics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0624.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Crohn’s disease; metalloproteinases; MMP-3; MMP-8
Online: 8 August 2023 (07:12:46 CEST)
Crohn's disease is a non-specific inflammatory bowel disease, which is a chronic condition that affects the ileum and/or large intestine. At the same time, it can also involve any other part of the human body, that is, from the mouth to the anus. The symptoms are very bothersome and cause a significant reduction in quality of life and sometimes even crippling permanent damage to the gastrointestinal tract, which requires enteral or parenteral nutrition for life. The purpose of this study was to investigate tissue metalloproteinases as markers of recurrent Crohn's disease. The experimental groups included 31 patients and 10 patients with normal Crohn's disease, ranging in age from 23-70 years, with a mean age of 40.4. Collected tissues were frozen and then fragmented tissues were homogenized with Ripa Lysis buffer on ice. The supernatant was collared and four metalloproteinases - MMP 3, MMP 7, MMP 8 and MMP 9 - were an-alized by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay using SEA101HU, SEA102Hu, SEA103Hu and SEA553Hu kits (Cloud-Clone Corp., Kata, TX, USA). All chemical analyses were performed in triplicate. Metalloproteinase content was expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Metalloproteinase 3 and metalloproteinase 8) significantly influenced the possibility of Crohn recurrence
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0065.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: NDVI; EVI; Wheat; Yield forecast; Landsat 8
Online: 5 July 2020 (11:14:40 CEST)
Due to increase demand of food grain in the world, assessment of yield before actual production is important in making policies and decisions in agricultural production system. For a large area, forecast models developed from vegetation indices derived from remote sensing satellite data possesses the potential to give quantitative and timely information on crops over large areas. Different vegetation indices are being made used for this purpose, however, their efficiency in estimating crop yield is needed to be certainly tested. In this study, wheat yield forecast was derived by regressing ground truthing yield data against time series of spatial vegetation indices for the 2013 to 2019 growing seasons. These spatial vegetation indices derived from Landsat 8 image data: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) were compared to evaluate the most appropriate index that performs better in forecasting wheat production at Karcag, Kunhegyes and Ecsegfalva settlements in Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok county, in the Northern Great Plain region of central Hungary. The best time for making wheat yield prediction with Landsat 8- SAVI and NDVI was found to be the beginning of ripening period (160th day of the year) with higher correlation between the vegetation indices and the wheat yield. The validation results revealed that the model from SAVI provides more consistent and accurate forecasts yield compared to NDVI. The SAVI model forecast yield for the validation years, 2018 and 2019 were within 6.00% and 4.41% of the final reported values while that of NDVI model were within 8.31% and 6.27%. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index is positive with E1= 0.99 for the model from SAVI and for NDVI, E1=0.57, which connote that the forecasting method developed and evaluated performs acceptable forecast efficiency.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0909.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG); Oxidative stress; Indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode; Integrated circuit system; Point-of-care testing (POCT)
Online: 12 May 2023 (08:59:39 CEST)
8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was the most widely used oxidative stress biomarker of the free radical-induced oxidative damage product of DNA, which may allow a premature assessment of various diseases. This paper designed a label-free, portable biosensor device to direct detect 8-OHdG by plasma coupled electrochemistry on transparent and conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. We reported a flexible printed ITO electrode made from particle-free silver and carbon inks. After inkjet printing, the working electrode was sequentially assembled by gold nanotriangles (AuNTAs) and platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs). This nanomaterial-modified portable biosensor showed excellent electrochemical performance for 8-OHdG detection from 10 μg/mL to 100 μg/mL by our self-developed constant voltage source integrated circuit system. This work demonstrated a portable biosensor for simultaneously integrating nanostructure, electroconductivity, and biocompatibility to construct advanced biosensors for oxidative damage biomarkers. The proposed nanomaterial modified ITO-based electrochemical portable device was a potential biosensor to approach 8-OHdG point-of-care testing (POCT) in various biological fluid samples, such as saliva and urine samples.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0275.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: 8-hydroxyquinoline; PBT2; amyloid; copper; terdentate; ternary; antimicrobial
Online: 5 May 2023 (02:36:19 CEST)
The metal chelator PBT2 (5,7-dichloro-2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-8-hydroxyquinoline) acts as a terdentate ligand capable of forming binary and ternary Cu2+ complexes. It was clinically trialed as an Alzheimer’s disease (AD) therapeutic but failed to progress beyond phase II. The β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide associated with AD was recently concluded to form a unique Cu(Aβ) complex that is inaccessible to PBT2. Herein, it is shown that the species ascribed to this binary Cu(Aβ) complex in fact corresponds to ternary Cu(PBT2)NIm[Aβ] complexes formed by anchoring of Cu(PBT2) on imine nitrogen (NIm) donors of His side chains. The primary site of ternary complex formation is His6, having a conditional stepwise formation constant at pH 7.4 (K [M−1] ) of log K = 6.4 ± 0.1, and a second site is supplied by His13 or His14 (log K = 4.4 ± 0.1). The stability of Cu(PBT2)NIm[H13/14] is comparable with that of the simplest ternary complexes involving free imidazole (log K = 4.22 ± 0.09) and histamine (log K = 4.00 ± 0.05). The 100-fold larger formation constant for Cu(PBT2)NIm[H6] indicates that outer-sphere ligand–peptide interactions strongly stabilize its structure. Despite the relatively high stability of Cu(PBT2)NImH6, PBT2 is a promiscuous Cu2+-binding ligand capable of forming a ternary Cu(PBT2)NIm complex with any ligand containing NIm donor. These ligands include histamine, L-His, and ubiquitous His side chains of peptides and proteins in the extracellular milieu, whose combined effect should outweigh that of a single Cu(PBT2)NIm[H6] complex regardless of its stability. We therefore conclude that PBT2 is capable of accessing Cu(Aβ) complexes with high stability but not specificity. The results have implications for future AD therapeutic strategies and understanding the role of PBT2 in the bulk transport of transition metal ions. Given the repurposing of PBT2 as a drug for breaking antibiotic resistance, ternary Cu(PBT2)NIm and analogous Zn(PBT2)NIm complexes may be relevant to its antimicrobial properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0195.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: EHDV; Tunisia; virus characterization; EHDV serotype 8; circulation
Online: 10 November 2022 (09:59:16 CET)
Epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) is a Culicoides-borne viral disease caused by epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) and associated with clinical manifestations in cervids and bovids. In late September 2021, EHDV was reported in cattle farms in central/western Tunisia. It rapidly spread throughout the country with more than 200 confirmed outbreaks. A combination of classical and molecular techniques was applied to characterize the causative virus as a member of EHDV-8 serotype. This is the first evidence of EHDV- 8 circulation since 1982 when the prototype EHDV-8 strain was isolated in Australia. This work highlights the urgent need for vaccines for a range of EHDV serotypes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0048.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: ocean color; sun glint; atmospheric correction; Landsat 8
Online: 4 July 2022 (09:57:15 CEST)
Sun glint, i.e., direct solar radiation reflected from a water surface, negatively affects the accuracy of ocean color retrieval schemes if entering the field-of-view of the observing instrument. Herein, a simple and robust method to quantify the sun glint contribution to top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectances in the visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) is proposed, exploiting concomitant observations of the sun glint’s morphology in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) characterized by reflectance contrasts typically higher than those resulting from other in-water or atmospheric processes. The proposed method, termed Glint Removal through Contrast Minimization (GRCM), requires high spatial resolution (ca. 10–50 m) imagery to resolve the sun glint’s characteristic morphology, meeting additional criteria on radiometric resolution and temporal delay between the individual band’s acquisitions. It has been applied with good success to a selection of Landsat 8 (L8) Operational Land Imager (OLI) scenes encompassing a wide range of environmental conditions in terms of observation geometry and glint intensity, as well as aerosol and Rayleigh optical depth. The method proposed herein is entirely image based and does not require ancillary information on the sea surface roughness or related parameters (e.g., surface wind), neither the presence of clear water areas in the image under consideration. Limitations of the proposed method are discussed, and its potential for sensors other than OLI and applications beyond glint removal is sketched.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0250.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: soil salinity; EC; Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2A
Online: 27 April 2022 (05:40:14 CEST)
Soil salinity is a severe soil degradation problem mainly faced in arid and semi-arid regions. About 11 million ha of land in the arid, semi-arid, and desert parts of Ethiopia is salt-affected, especially in the Awash River basin, including Afambo irrigated area. Remote sensing approaches are significant tools for accurately predicting and modeling accurately predicting and modeling soil salinity in various world regions. This study aims to analyze and model soil salinity status in the case of Afambo irrigated areas using Landsat-8 and sentinel-2A, Afar region, Ethiopia, by applying remote sensing with field measurements. Thirty-two soil samples were collected from the topsoil (0-30 cm); out of these, 25 soil samples with various EC ranges were selected for modeling, and the remaining 7 samples were utilized to validate the model. Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A images acquired in the same month were used to extract soil salinity indices. Linear regression analyses correlated the EC data with corresponding soil salinity spectral index values derived from satellite images. The best-performing model was selected for salinity mapping. The soil salinity indices extracted from both Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A bands estimated soil salinity with high acceptable accuracy of R2 values of SI, 0.78 and 0.81, respectively. The model results in three salinity classes with varying degree of salinity, namely, highly saline, moderately saline, and slightly saline, which covers 15.1%, 39.8% and 45.1% of the total area for Landsat-8, respectively and 26.1%, 32%, and 41.9% for sentinel 2A, respectively. Generally, the results revealed that the expansion rate of salt-affected soils has been increasing. From this study, it is possible to infer that if the present irrigation practice continues, it is expected that total the cultivated lands will become sterile within a short period. Thus, it needs to be monitored regularly to secure up-to-date knowledge of their extent to improve management practices and take appropriate actions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0727.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Boreal Forest; LiDAR; Landsat 8; Surface Reflectance; Alaska
Online: 30 June 2021 (09:51:47 CEST)
Forests are critical in regulating the world’s climate and they maintain overall Earth’s energy balance. The variability in forest canopy structure, topography and underneath vegetation background condition creates uncertainty in the estimation and modelling of Earth’s surface radiation particularly for boreal regions in high latitude. We studied seasonal variation in surface reflectance with respect to land cover classes, canopy structures, and topography in a boreal region of Alaska by fusing together Landsat 8 surface reflectance and LiDAR-derived canopy matrices. Our study shows that canopy structure and topography interplay and influence surface reflectance in a complex way particularly during the snow season. Topographic aspect and elevation control vegetation growth, type and structure. The southern slope is featured with more deciduous and taller trees having greater rugosity than the northern slope. Higher elevation is associated with taller trees for both vegetation types, particularly in the southern slope. In general, surface reflectance shows similar relationships with canopy cover, height and rugosity, mainly due to close relationships between these parameters. Surface reflectance decreases with canopy cover, tree height, and rugosity especially for evergreen forest. Deciduous forest shows larger variability of surface reflectance, particularly in March, mainly due to the mixing effect of snow and vegetation. The relationship between vegetation structure and surface reflectance is greatly impacted by topography. The negative relationship between elevation and surface reflectance may be due to taller and denser vegetation distribution in higher elevation. Surface reflectance in the southern slope is slightly larger than the northern slope for both deciduous and evergreen forest. The shadow effect from topography and tree crowns on surface reflectance play a different role for deciduous and evergreen forests. For deciduous forest, topographic shadow effect on surface reflectance is stronger than from tree shadowing in all seasons. For evergreen forest, shadow effects from topography and tree crowns on surface reflectance are both equally dominant, however tree shadow effect is more significant in March than in May and August. The generalized additive models (GAM) based on non-linear relationships between response (surface reflectance) and predictor (canopy structures and topography) variables confirms such observations. Our study not only provides accurate quantification of surface radiation budget but also helps in parametrization of climate change models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0203.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: soil salinity; arid; semi-arid; Landsat 8 OLI
Online: 16 April 2018 (10:18:42 CEST)
Soil salinity, whether natural or human induced, is a major geo-hazard in arid and semi-arid landscapes. In agricultural lands, it negatively affects plant growth, crop yields, whereas in semi-arid and arid non-agricultural areas it affects urban structures due to subsidence, corrosion and ground water quality, leading to further soil erosion and land degradation Accurately mapping soil salinity through remote sensing techniques has been an active area of research in the past few decades particularly for agricultural lands. Most of this research has focused on the utilization and development of salinity indices for properly mapping and identifying saline agricultural soils. This research study develops a soil salinity index and model using Landsat 8 OLI image data from the near infra-red and shortwave infra-red spectral information with emphasis on soil salinity mapping and assessment in non-agricultural desert arid and semi-arid surfaces. The developed index when integrated into a semi-empirical model outperformed in its soil salinity mapping overall accuracy (60%) in comparison to other salinity indices (~50%). The newly developed index further outperformed other indices in its accuracy in mapping and identifying high saline soils (67%) and excessively high saline soils (90%).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0095.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: thermal barrier coatings; 8 %YSZ; thermal conductivity; microstructure
Online: 20 September 2017 (08:28:21 CEST)
In this paper, the effect of microstructure on the thermal conductivity of plasma-sprayed Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is investigated. Nine freestanding samples deposited on aluminum-base superalloy are studied. Cross-section morphology such as pores, cracks, m-phase content, grain boundary density of the coated samples are examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD). Multiple linear regressions are used to develop quantitative models which describe the relationship between the particle parameters, m-phase content and the microstructure such as porosity, crack-porosity, the length density of small-angle-crack and the length density of big-angle-crack. Moreover, the relationship between microstructure and thermal conductivity is investigated. Results reveal that the thermal conductivity of the coating is mainly determined by the microstructure and grain boundary density at room temperature (25 ℃) and by the length density of big-angle-crack, monoclinic phase content and grain boundary density at high temperature (1200 ℃).
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: DNA lesions; 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG); mutagenic activity; method of detection; cell nuclear extracts; mice organs and embryos
Online: 14 November 2019 (09:00:19 CET)
We propose an improved earlier described “mirror” method  for detecting in cell nuclear extracts mutations that arise in DNA during its replication due to misincorporation of deoxyadenosine-5’-monophosphate (dAMP) opposite 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG). The method is based on the synthesis of a complementary chain (“mirror”) by nuclear extracts of different mice organs on a template containing 8-oxoG inside and dideoxycytidine residue (ddC) at the 3’-end. The “mirror”was amplified by PCR using primers part of which was non-complementary to the template. It allowed obtaining the “framed mirror” products. The misincorporation of dAMP in “framed mirror” products forms an EcoRI restriction site. The restriction analysis of double-stranded “framed mirror” products allows a quantification of the mutation frequency in nuclear extracts. The data obtained showed that the mutagenic potential of 8-oxoG markedly varied in different organs of adult mice and embryos.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0114.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: 8-OHdG (8-hydroxy- 2-deoxyguanosine), vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, ROS (reactive oxygen species), TAS (total antioxidant status)
Online: 10 August 2016 (16:49:20 CEST)
The present study was aimed to evaluate the levels of oxidative stress markers in breast diseases by measuring the 8-hydoxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E and total antioxidant status (TAS) alterations in relation to cell proliferation activity and disease progression. Significant increases in the level of oxidative damage marker 8-OHdG and cell proliferation activity were observed in breast carcinoma patients in comparison to benign and normal controls, which were accompanied by significant decrease in non enzymatic antioxidants and TAS concentrations. 8-OHdG and cell proliferation level were negatively correlated with non enzymatic antioxidants viz., Vitamin A, Vitamin C, vitamin E level and total antioxidant activity. Altered levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress and cell proliferation activity amongst the malignant, benign and controls suggest a correlation of increased oxidative stress and cell proliferation activity in the progression of disease in breast carcinoma patients. Among the oxidative stress markers and cell proliferation index, decreased level of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, TAS and increased level of 8-OHdG, cell proliferation index emerged as best predicted biomarkers for subjects with malignancy and benign breast disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0134.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: zinc sensor; 8-amidoquinoline; fluorescent probe; chemosensor; systematic review
Online: 6 October 2020 (14:55:13 CEST)
Abundant of preparatory works have recognized that fluorescent sensors based on 8-aminoquinoline are popular tools to detect Zn2+ ions in environmental and biological applications. Along with these studies, researchers started to introduce a variety of carboxamido group into an 8-aminoquinoline molecule in forming 8-amidoquinoline derivatives. Therefore, this systematic review aims to introduce a general overview of the fluorophore 8-aminoquinoline as Zn2+ receptors and to provide comparisons of collected studies that related to 8-amidoquinoline derivatives as fluorophore probe of the sensor. According to PRISMA systematic searches strategy, 13 articles were analyzed for trends, research designs, results and discussion, subject samples, and remarks or conclusions. We found cross-sectional studies with four aspects in zinc sensing that have been targeted; binding studies via titration, detection's limit, interferences studies, and validation of the study. Hence, this paper also included assessments of those criteria and the trends of development of 8-amidoquinoline derivatives based-zinc fluorescent chemosensor. It also showed that most of the researches conducted in China. In conclusion, this study identified various research designs of fluorescent chemosensors based on 8-amidoquinoline prolong with the effectiveness and potential as a recognition probe to assist the detection of zinc. Hence, elucidation of those derivatives essential to be explored because more studies are needed to improve the sensing criteria of the zinc sensor
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: h. pylori; restriction modification system; virulence; il-8; apoptosis
Online: 1 November 2019 (12:52:39 CET)
Helicobacter pylori is a common human pathogen that causes gastroduodenal diseases. H. pylori genome consists of numerous restriction-modification (R-M) genes. It is established that N6-adenine methylation plays a crucial role in bacterial gene regulation and virulence, but not much is known about the role of C5-cytosine methylation. In this study, we examined the influence of an orphan cytosine methyltransferase, hpyAVIBM on gastric infection in mice and cultured cells. Histopathological staining showed that the deletion of hpyAVIBM in H. pylori strain SS1 had increased damaging hemorrhagic effects on the mice stomach. The gelatin-zymography result demonstrated that the mice infected with mutant SS1ΔhpyAVIBM had significantly up-regulated pro-MMP-9 than those infected with SS1. Additionally, ELISA results of pro-inflammatory cytokines proved that mutant strain caused significantly more inflammatory effect on mice stomach than its wild-type counterpart. The immunohistochemistry data showed that mutant strain caused attenuated epithelial cell damage. Co-culture studies of H. pylori with AGS (Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma cell line) cells revealed that SS1ΔhpyAVIBM instigated significantly more apoptotic death in the AGS cells compared to the wild-type strain. Our results indicated that DNA methylation by hpyAVIBM plays a crucial role in modulating virulence factors in bacterial cells and their interaction with the host cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0359.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: adiposity; dysbiosis; hops; menopause; microbiota; 8-prenylnaringenin; obesity; ovariectomy
Online: 31 October 2019 (02:22:34 CET)
Estrogen decline during menopause is associated with altered metabolism, weight gain and increased risk for cardiometabolic diseases. The gut microbiota also plays a role in the development of cardiometabolic dysfunction and is also subject to changes associated with age-related hormone changes. Phytoestrogens are plant-based estrogen mimics that have gained popularity as dietary supplements for treatment or prevention of menopause-related symptoms. These compounds have the potential to both modulate and to be metabolized by the gut microbiota. Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) contain potent phytoestrogen precursors, which rely on microbial biotransformation in the gut to estrogenic forms. We supplemented ovariectomized (OVX) or sham-operated (SHAM) C57BL/6 mice, with oral estradiol (E2), a flavonoid-rich extract from hops, or a placebo carrier oil to observe effects on adiposity, inflammation, and gut bacteria composition. Hops extract and E2 protected against increased visceral adiposity and liver triglyceride accumulation in OVX animals. Surprisingly, we found no evidence of OVX having a significant impact on the overall gut bacterial community structure. We did find differences in abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, which was lower with HE treatment relative to the OVX E2 treatment and to placebo in the SHAM group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0406.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: SU-8, microchannel, prototyping, microfluidic gradient generator, axon elongation
Online: 16 November 2018 (11:19:18 CET)
We have developed a cast microfluidic chip for concentration gradient generation that contains a thin (~5 μm^2 crosssectional area) microchannel. Durable 2 μm-high microchannel mold features with a smooth bell-shaped sidewall were fabricated by exposing SU-8 photoresist to diffused 185 nm UV light emitted by a low-cost ozone lamp from the backside of the substrate to ensure sufficient crosslinking of small regions of the SU-8 photoresist. An H-shaped microfluidic configuration was used, in which the thin channel was able to maintain constant diffusion fronts beyond purely static diffusion confirmed with experiment. We also demonstrated the long-term effects of a gradient of nerve growth factor on axon elongation by primary neuronal cells cultured in the microfluidic channel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0071.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: 8-prenylnaringenin; naringenin; cellular accumulation; glioblastoma; cytotoxicity; confocal microscopy
Online: 16 June 2017 (03:25:34 CEST)
Gliomas are one of the most aggressive and treatment-resistant types of human cancer. One of the most promising field in gliomas cancer therapy is identification and evaluation of anticancer properties of compounds found in plants i.a. naringenin (N) and 8-prenylnaringenin (8PN). The prenyl group seem to be crucial to the anticancer activity of flavones, which may lead to enhanced cell membrane targeting and thus increased intracellular activity. Unfortunately, 8PN content in hop cones is from 10 to 100 times lower compared to other flavonoids i.e. xanthohumol. In this study we used a simple method for the synthesis of 8PN from isoxanthohumol, via O-demethylation with high, 97% of the isolated yield. Cellular accumulation and cytotoxicity of naringenin and 8-prenylnaringenin in normal (BJ) and cancer cells (U-118 MG) were also examined. Obtained data indicated that 8-prenylnaringenin exhibited higher toxicity against used cell lines than naringenin and both flavones inhibited stronger glioblastoma U-118 MG cells than normal fibroblasts. The anticancer properties of 8PN correlated with its significantly greater (37%), accumulation in glioblastoma cells than in normal fibroblasts. Additionally, naringenin indicated higher selectivity for glioblastoma as it was over 6 times more toxic for cancer than normal cells. Our results provide evidence that examined prenylated and non-prenylated flavanones have different biological activity against normal and cancer cell lines and this phenomenon may be useful in clinical practice to construct new, anticancer drugs for glioblastoma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0291.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Yoga of Immortals (YOI); depression; healthcare workers; insomnia; anxiety; PHQ-8 (Pa-tient Health Questionnaire-8); ISI (Insomnia Severity Index); digital health
Online: 24 May 2022 (04:49:45 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant medical and psychological challenges worldwide, and not only exceeded the capacity of hospitals and intensive care units but also an individuals’ ability to cope with life. Health-care workers have continued to provide care for patients despite exhaustion, fear of transmission to themselves and their family, illness or death of friends and colleagues, and losing many patients. They have also faced additional stress and anxiety due to long shifts combined with unprecedented population restrictions, including personal isolation. In this study, we study the effect of an app-based Yoga of Immortals (YOI) intervention on mental health of healthcare workers. In this study, the health care workers were digitally recruited, and their psychological parameters were measured using validated questionaries. The participants were randomly grouped into control and test groups. The validated psychological measures were the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7) scales. The digital YOI intervention significantly reduced the anxiety, depression symptoms, and insomnia in healthcare workers of all age groups. In contrast, there was no improvement in the control group. This study details the effectiveness of an app-based YOI intervention in healthcare workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0042.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: cancer vaccine; adjuvant; nanovaccines; TLR 7/8 agonist; melanoma; immunomodulator
Online: 1 August 2023 (10:13:40 CEST)
Despite numerous studies on cancer treatment, cancer remains a challenging disease to cure, even after decades of research. In recent years, cancer vaccine has emerged as a promising approach for cancer treatment, offering few unexpected side effects compared to existing therapies. How-ever, cancer vaccine faces obstacles to commercialization due to its low efficacy. Particularly, the Toll-like receptor (TLR) adjuvant system, specifically the TLR 7/8 agonist, has shown potential for activating Th1 immunity, which stimulates both innate and adaptive immune responses through T cells. In this study, we developed ProLNG-S, a cholesterol-conjugated form of resiquimod (R848), to enhance immune efficacy by stimulating the immune system and reducing toxicity. ProLNG-S was formulated as ProLNG-001, a positively charged liposome, and co-administered with oval-bumin (OVA) protein in the B16-OVA model. ProLNG-001 effectively targeted secondary lym-phoid organs, resulting in a robust systemic anti-tumor immune response and tumor-specific T cell activation. Consequently, ProLNG-001 demonstrated potential for preventing tumor progression and improving survival compared to AS01 by enhancing anti-tumor immunity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0995.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: CD44 variant 8; monoclonal antibody; gastric cancer; flow cytometry; immunohistochemistry
Online: 15 May 2023 (07:41:36 CEST)
Gastric cancer (GC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. GC with peritoneal metastasis exhibits a poor prognosis due to the lack of diagnostic biomarkers and effective therapy. A comprehensive analysis of malignant ascites identified the genomic alterations and significant amplifications of cancer driver genes, including CD44. CD44 and its splicing variants are overexpressed in tumors, and play crucial roles in the acquisition of invasiveness, stemness, and resistance to treatments. Therefore, the development of CD44-targeting monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is important for GC diagnosis and therapy. In this study, we immunized mice with CD44v3–10-overexpressed PANC-1 cells and established several dozens of clones that produce anti-CD44v3–10 mAbs. One of the clones (C44Mab-94; IgG1, kappa) recognized the variant-8-encoded region and peptide, indicating that C44Mab-94 is a specific mAb for CD44v8. Furthermore, C44Mab-94 could recognize CHO/CD44v3–10 cells, oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line (HSC-3), or GC cell lines (MKN45 and NUGC-4) in flow cytometric analyses. C44Mab-94 could detect the exogenous CD44v3–10 and endogenous CD44v8 in western blotting and stained the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric cancer cells in immunohistochemistry. These results indicate that C44Mab-94 is useful for detecting CD44v8 in various applications and is expected to be useful for the application of GC diagnosis and therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0437.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: CD44; CD44 variant 7/8; monoclonal antibody; flow cytometry; immunohistochemistry
Online: 27 February 2023 (04:13:02 CET)
Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) has been investigated as a cancer stem cell (CSC) marker, and plays critical roles in tumor malignant progression. The splicing variants are overexpressed in many carcinomas, especially squamous cell carcinomas, and play critical roles in the promotion of tumor metastasis, the acquisition of CSC properties, and resistance to treatments. Therefore, each CD44 variant (CD44v) function and distribution in carcinomas should be clarified for the establishment of novel tumor diagnosis and therapy. In this study, we immunized mice with a CD44 variant (CD44v3−10) ectodomain and established various anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). One of the established clones (C44Mab-34; IgG1, kappa) recognized a peptide which covers both variant 7 and 8-encoded region, indicating that C44Mab-34 is a specific mAb for CD44v7/8. Moreover, C44Mab-34 reacted with CD44v3–10-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 (CHO) cells or oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell line (HSC-3) by flow cytometry. The apparent KD of C44Mab-34 for CHO/CD44v3–10 and HSC-3 was 1.4 × 10−9 M and 3.2 × 10−9 M, respectively. C44Mab-34 could detect CD44v3–10 in western blotting, and stained the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded OSCC in immunohistochemistry. These results indicate that C44Mab-34 is useful for detecting CD44v7/8 in various applications, and expected for the application of OSCC diagnosis and therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0571.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: medical students; travellers; MDR bacteria; CPE; mcr-1; mcr-8
Online: 24 September 2020 (08:05:32 CEST)
Background: In France, no previous studies had addressed the acquisition of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria and colistin resistance genes by medical students when undertaking internships abroad. Methods: Nasopharyngeal, rectal, and vaginal swabs samples were collected from 382 French medical students before and after travel to investigate the acquisition of MDR bacteria. The bacterial diversity in the samples was assessed by culture on selective media. We also genetically characterised the isolates of MDR bacteria including Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriacae (CPE) using the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. The samples were collected from 293 students and were investigated for mcr colistin-resistance genes using RT-PCR directly on the samples, followed by conventional PCR and sequencing. Results: A proportion of 29.3% of the participants had acquired ESBL-E and 2.6% had acquired CPE. The most common species and ESBL-E encoding gene were Escherichia coli (98.4%) and blaCTX-M-A (95.3%), respectively. A proportion of 6.8% of the participants had acquired mcr-1 genes, followed by mcr-3 (0.3%) and mcr-8 (0.3%). We found that taking part in humanitarian missions to orphanages, being in contact with children during travel, the primary destination of travel being Vietnam and north India, using antibiotics during travel, and studying in 2017 were associated with the acquisition of ESBL-E. When the primary destination of travel was Vietnam and the year of study was 2018, this was associated with acquisition of colistin resistance genes. Conclusion: Medical students are at a potential risk of acquiring ESBL-E, CPE and colistin resistance genes. A number of risk factors have been identified, which may be used to develop targeted preventive measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0212.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: VNREDSat-1/NAOMI; Landsat-8/OLI; Suspended particulate matter; algorithm
Online: 9 September 2020 (13:49:49 CEST)
VNREDSat-1 is the first Vietnamese satellite allowing the survey of environmental parameters such as vegetation and water coverages, or surface water quality at medium spatial resolution (from 2.5 to 10 meters depending on the considered channel). The NAOMI sensor on board VNREDSat-1 has the required spectral bands to assess the suspended particulate matter concentration, SPM. Because recent studies have shown that the remote sensing reflectance, Rrs(), at the blue (450 – 520 nm), green (530 – 600 nm), and red (620 – 690 nm) spectral bands can be assessed from NAOMI with a good accuracy, the present study is dedicated to the development and validation of an algorithm (hereafter referred to as V1SPM) to assess SPM from Rrs() over inland and coastal waters of Vietnam. For that purpose, an in situ data set of hyper-spectral Rrs() and SPM (from 0.47 to 240.14 g.m-3) measurements collected at 205 coastal and inland stations has been gathered. Among the different approaches, including 4 historical algorithms, the polynomial algorithms involving the red-to-green reflectance ratio presents the best performance on the validation data set (MAPD of 18,7%). Compared to the use of a single spectral band, the band ratio allows to reduce the scatter around the polynomial fit as well as the impact of imperfect atmospheric corrections. Due to the lack of matchup data points with VNREDSat-1, the full VNREDSat-1 processing chain (RED-NIR and V1SPM) aiming at estimate SPM from the top-of-atmosphere signal has been applied to the Landsat-8/OLI match-up data points with relatively low to moderate SPM concentration (3.33-15.25 g.m-3) showing a MAPD of 15,8%. An illustration of the use of this VNREDSat-1 processing chain during a flooding event occurring in Vietnam is provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0186.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: rice landscape; natural enemies; location; population dynamics; variography; LANDSAT 8
Online: 14 May 2018 (10:13:50 CEST)
Relationships among the population abundance of four predator groups for rice insect pests, namely: carabid beetles, staphylinid beetles, green mirid bugs, and spiders in three landscape categories were evaluated. Both rice plots and the associated bund margins of these rice plots found among three Bangladesh landscape categories were sampled by sweep net. The results revealed that the abundance significantly varied across landscapes. The rice landscape of one location harbored higher numbers of a specific predator than other location in other regions of Bangladesh. The results also showed a dependency on the width of the rice bund margins of the rice plots, where spiders populations increased with increased bund widths, but the population abundance of these predators did not depend on the diversity of the number of weed species found on the rice bund margins. The relative abundance of predator populations also significantly differed among the three landscapes, with the green mirid bug having the highest number among the four predators. This study indicates that predators of rice insect pests are highly landscape specific. In order to design integrated pest management systems for different Bangladeshi rice production locales, considerations unique to the characteristics of each locale are necessary. Preliminary efforts to apply variography analyses to the RED spectral band of LANDSAT 8 imagery from December 2016 are presented as first step toward learning a suite of methods which describe useful local characteristics affecting rice pest predators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0209.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Mitracarpus scaber Zucc.; pentalogin; anti-inﬂammatory; MS/MS; Il-8
Online: 10 May 2018 (11:51:09 CEST)
Re-investigation of the chemical composition of the annual plant Mitracarpus scaber Zucc. led to the identification of clarinoside, a new pentalogin derivative containing a rare quinovose moiety, and the known compound harounoside. While the planar structure was fully determined using tandem MS and quantum mechanics calculations (QM), the tridimensional structure was unravelled after isolation and NMR analysis. The absolute configuration was assigned by comparison of experimental and theoretical SRCD spectra. Both compounds were tested for anti-inflammatory activity and compound 1 showed the ability to inhibit the production of interleukin-8 (Il-8) with an IC50 of 9.17 µM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0393.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: cannabidiol (CBD); ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC); cannabinol (CBN); ∆8-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆8-THC); cannabinoids; CBD oil; nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR); PULCON methodology; 1H NMR; qNMR
Online: 17 May 2021 (16:56:15 CEST)
Toxicologically relevant levels of the psychoactive ∆9-tetrahydocannabinol (∆9-THC) as well as high levels of non-psychoactive cannabinoids potentially occur in CBD (cannabidiol) oils. For consumer protection in the fast-growing CBD oil market, facile and rapid quantitative methods to determine the cannabinoid content are crucial. However, the current standard method, i.e., liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), requires a time-consuming multistep sample preparation. In this study, a quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (qNMR) method for screening cannabinoids in CBD oils was developed. Contrary to the HPLC-MS/MS method, this qNMR features a facile sample preparation, i.e., only diluting the CBD oil in deuterochloroform. Pulse length-based concentration determination (PULCON) enables a direct quantification using an external standard. The signal intensities of the cannabinoids were enhanced during the NMR spectra acquisition by means of multiple suppression of the triglycerides which are a major component of the CBD oil matrix. The validation confirmed linearity for CBD, cannabinol (CBN), ∆9-THC and ∆8-THC in hemp seed oil with sufficient recoveries and precision for screening. Comparing the qNMR results to HPLC-MS/MS data for 46 commercial CBD oils verified the qNMR accuracy for ∆9-THC and CBD but with higher limits of detection. The developed qNMR method paves the way for increasing the sample throughput as a complementary screening before HPLC-MS/MS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1397.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Harmonization; Surface Reflectance; Landsat-7; Landsat-8; Sentinel-2; Mediterranean basin
Online: 20 July 2023 (10:49:30 CEST)
In the Mediterranean area, vegetation dynamics and phenology analyzed over a long time can have an important role in highlighting changes in land use and cover as well as the effect of climate change. Over the last 30 years, remote sensing has played an essential role in bringing about these changes thanks to many types of observations and techniques. Satellite images are to be considered an important tool to grasp these dynamics and evaluate them in an inexpensive and multidisciplinary way thanks to Landsat and Sentinel satellite constellations. The integration of these tools holds a dual potential: on one hand, allowing to obtain longer historical series of reflectance data, while on the other hand, making data available with a higher frequency even within a specific timeframe. The study aims to conduct a comprehensive cross-comparison analysis of long-time series pixel values in the Mediterranean regions. For this scope comparisons between Landsat-7 (ETM+), Landsat-8 (OLI), and Sentinel-2 (MSI) satellite sensors were conducted based on surface reflectance products. We evaluated these differences using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Major Axis linear regression (RMA) analysis on points extracted from over 15,000 images across the Mediterranean basin area from 2017 to 2020. Minor but consistent differences were noted, necessitating the formulation of suitable adjustment equations to better align Sentinel-2 reflectance values with those of Landsat-7 or Landsat-8. The results of the analysis are compared with the most used harmonization coefficients proposed in the literature, revealing significant differences. The root mean square deviation, the mean difference and the orthogonal distance regression (ODR) slope show an improvement of the parameters for both models used (OLS and RMA) in this study. The discrepancies in reflectance values lead to corresponding variations in the estimation of biophysical parameters, such as NDVI, showing an increase in the ODR slope of 0.3. Despite differences in spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics, we demonstrate that integration of these datasets is feasible through the application of band-wise regression corrections for a sensitive and heterogeneous area like those of the Mediterranean basin area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0391.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: PUF-8; MPK-1; sperm fate; dedifferentiation; resveratrol; C. elegans germline
Online: 21 December 2022 (07:08:56 CET)
Using the nematode C. elegans germline as a model system, we previously reported that PUF-8 (a PUF RNA-binding protein) and LIP-1 (a dual-specificity phosphatase) repress sperm fate at 20°C and the dedifferentiation of spermatocytes into mitotic cells (termed "spermatocyte dedifferentiation") at 25°C. Thus, double mutants lacking both PUF-8 and LIP-1 produce excess sperm at 20°C, and their spermatocytes return to mitotically dividing cells via dedifferentiation at 25°C, resulting in germline tumors. To gain insight into the molecular competence for spermatocyte dedifferentiation, we compared the germline phenotypes of three mutant strains – fem-3(q20gf), puf-8(q725; fem-3(q20gf), and puf-8(q725); lip-1(zh15). Both fem-3(q20gf) and puf-8(q725); fem-3(q20gf) mutants produced excess sperm like puf-8(q725); lip-1(zh15) double mutants. Our results show that spermatocyte dedifferentiation was not observed in fem-3(q20gf) mutants, but it was more aggressive in puf-8(q725); lip-1(zh15) than in puf-8(q725); fem-3(q20gf) mutants. These results suggest that MPK-1 (the C. elegans ERK1/2 MAPK ortholog) activation by removing the function of LIP-1 in the absence of PUF-8 promotes spermatocyte dedifferentiation. This idea was confirmed using Resveratrol (RSV), a potential activator of MPK-1 and ERK1/2 in C. elegans and human cells. Notably, spermatocyte dedifferentiation was significantly enhanced by RSV treatment, and its effect was blocked by mpk-1 RNAi. We, therefore, conclude that PUF-8 and MPK-1 are normally required to inhibit spermatocyte dedifferentiation and tumorigenesis. Since these regulators are broadly conserved, we suggest that similar regulatory circuitry may control cellular dedifferentiation and tumorigenesis in other organisms, including humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0470.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Inorganic And Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: ionic liquids; liquid-liquid extraction; iron extraction; 8-hydroxyquinoline; acetylacetone; thenoyltrifluoroacetone
Online: 25 November 2021 (11:58:50 CET)
(200 words) Imidazolium ionic liquids containing acetylacetone, thenoyltrifluoroacetone, or 8-hydroxyquinoline, respectively, were used as the extracting agents for the separation of traces of iron (III) from its aqueous solutions with or without citric and oxalic acids. The results show that 8-hydroxyquinoline in imidazolium ionic liquids extract iron quantitatively from all the tested solutions including complexing ones, regardless indications of unexpected iron behavior/speciation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0046.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: secretome; computed tomography; interleukin-8; tumor-derived factor; C2C12 cells; Cachexia
Online: 3 July 2019 (06:41:42 CEST)
Cachexia is a syndrome characterized by an ongoing loss of skeletal muscle mass associated with poor patient prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, prognostic cachexia biomarkers in NSCLC are unknown. Here, we analyzed computed tomography (CT) images and tumor transcriptome data to identify potentially secreted cachexia biomarkers (PSCB) in NSCLC patients with low-muscularity. We integrated radiomics features (pectoralis muscle, sternum, and T10 vertebra) from CT of 89 NSCLC patients, which allowed us to identify an index for screening muscularity. Next, a tumor transcriptomic-based secretome analysis from these patients (discovery set) was evaluated to identify potential cachexia biomarkers in patients with low-muscularity. The prognostic value of these biomarkers for predicting recurrence and survival outcome was confirmed using expression data from eight lung cancer datasets (validation set). Finally, C2C12 myoblasts differentiated into myotubes were used to evaluate the ability of the selected biomarker, IL-8, in inducing muscle cell atrophy. We identified 75 over-expressed transcripts in patients with low-muscularity, which included IL6, CSF3, and IL8. Also, we identified NCAM1, CNTN1, SCG2, CADM1, IL8, NPTX1, and APOD as PSCB in the tumor secretome. These PSCB were capable of distinguishing worse and better prognosis (recurrence and survival) in NSCLC patients. IL8 was confirmed as a predictor of worse prognosis in all validation sets. In vitro assays revealed that IL-8 promoted C2C12 myotube atrophy. Tumors from low-muscularity patients presented a set of upregulated genes encoding for secreted proteins, including pro-inflammatory cytokines that predict worse overall survival in NSCLC. Among these up-regulated genes, IL8 expression in NSCLC tissues was associated with worse prognosis and the recombinant IL-8 was capable of triggering atrophy in C2C12 myotubes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1043.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Image classification; Land use/land cover mapping; Accuracy assessment; Landsat-8; Snetinel-2
Online: 14 August 2023 (09:01:24 CEST)
Satellite-based data classification performance remains a challenge for research community in the field of land use/land cover mapping. Here we investigated supervised per-pixel classifications performance under different scenarios, based on single and seasonal multispectral data combi-nations of different sensors (Landsat-8 OLI and Sentinel-2 MSI). In case of Landsat, seasonal spectral indices (EVI and NDMI) were included. A typical Mediterranean watershed with a complex landscape comprised of various forest and wetland ecosystems, crops, artificial surfaces, and lake water was selected to test our approach. All available geospatial data from national databases (Forest Map, LPIS, Natura2000 habitats, cadastral parcels, etc.) are used as ancillary data for clas-sification training and validation. We examined and compared the performance of ML, RF, KNN and SVM classifiers under different scenarios for land use/land cover mapping, according to Copernicus Land Cover (CLC2018) nomenclature. In total, eight land use/land cover classes were identified in Landsat-8 OLI and nine in Sentinel-2a MSI for an acceptable overall accuracy over 85%. A comparison of the overall classification accuracies shows that Sentinel-2a overall accuracy was slightly higher than Landsat-8 (96.68% vs. 93.02%). Respectively, the best-performed algorithm was ML in Sentinel-2 while in Landsat-8 was KNN. However, machine-learning algorithms have similar results regardless the type of sensor. We concluded that best classification performances achieved using seasonal multispectral data. Future research should be oriented towards inte-grating time-series multispectral data of different sensors and geospatial ancillary data for land use/land cover mapping.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0695.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Urban Remote Sensing; Sentinel-1; Landsat 8; Built-Up; Data Fusion; Texture; Africa
Online: 29 October 2018 (16:02:53 CET)
The rapid urbanization that takes place in developing regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa is associated with a large range of environmental and social issues. In this context, remote sensing is essential to provide accurate and up-to-date spatial information to support risk assessment and decision making. However, mapping urban areas remains a challenge because of their heterogeneity, especially in developing regions where the highest rates of misclassification are observed. Nevertheless, urban areas located in arid climates --- which are among the most vulnerables to anthropogenic impacts, suffer from the spectral confusion occurring between built-up and bare soil areas when using optical imagery. Today, the increasing availability of satellite imagery from multiple sensors allow to tackle the aforementioned issues by combining optical data with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). In this paper, we assess the complementarity of the Landsat 8 and Sentinel-1 sensors to map built-up areas in twelve Sub-Saharan African urban areas, using a pixel-level supervised classification based on the Random Forest classifier. We make use of textural information extracted from SAR backscattering data in order to reduce the speckle noise and to introduce contextual information at the pixel level. Results suggest that combining both optical and SAR features consistently improves classification performances, mainly by enhancing the differentiation between built-up and bare lands. However, the fusion was less beneficial in mountainous case studies, suggesting that including features derived from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) could improve the reliability of the proposed approach. As suggested by previous studies, combining features computed from both VV and VH polarizations consistently led to better classification performances. On the contrary, introducing textures computed from different spatial scales did not improve the classification performances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0172.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 8; Orobanche minor; Phelipanche aegyptiaca; shoot branching; Solanum lycopersicum; strigolactones
Online: 8 August 2018 (15:24:04 CEST)
Strigolactones (SLs), a group of plant hormones, induce germination of root-parasitic plants and inhibit shoot branching in many plants. Shoot branching is an important trait that affects the number and quality of flowers and fruits. Root-parasitic plants such as Phelipanche spp. infect tomato roots and cause economic damage in Europe and North Africa. Thus, resistant tomato cultivars are needed. In this study, we found carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 8-defective mutants of Micro-Tom tomato (slccd8) by the “targeting induced local lesions in genomes” (TILLING) method. The mutants showed excess branching, which was suppressed by exogenously applied SL. Grafting shoot scions of the slccd8 mutants onto wild-type (WT) rootstocks restored normal branching in the scions. The levels of endogenous orobanchol and solanacol in WT were enough detectable, whereas that in the slccd8 mutants were below the detection limit of quantification analysis. Accordingly, root exudates of the slccd8 mutants hardly stimulated seed germination of root parasitic plants. In addition, SL deficiency did not critically affect the fruit traits of Micro-Tom. Using a rhizotron system, we also found that Phelipanche aegyptiaca infection was lower in the slccd8 mutants than in wild-type Micro-Tom because of the low germination. We propose that the slccd8 mutants might be useful as new tomato lines resistant to P. aegyptiaca.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0416.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: GEE; Landsat 8 OLI; Multi-linear regression; Remote Sensing; Vegetation indices; Wheat and barley
Online: 27 September 2022 (09:35:20 CEST)
Wheat and barley are among the primary food resources of the world population; therefore, their growth and observation are essential in farms to enhance food security worldwide. On top of that, careful observation of the product is essential to find solutions for the issues faced during their production and to reduce the impacts of weather changes. With the advancement of Remote Sensing technology, the observation and estimation process has increased. In this study, numbers of spectral vegetation indices was used along with canopy biophysical properties ( LAI ) and biochemical properties (chlorophyll), there calculated from (Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2) satellite data. The wheat and barley samples were collected before were be ready for harvest, and a relation with the vegetarian indices was established using the Multi-Linear Regression module, in which the equations used in predicting the harvest were developed and used to create a graph for expected harvest. The result indicated that there is a strong relationship between the vegetation indices of Sentinel-2 and Landsat images and the actual grain yield with R2 of 0.77 and 0.71, respectively. The results show that the strongest correlation is observed between the LAI data obtained from Sentinel data and cereal yield data, with an R2 0.68, and the highest correlation for the indices of Landsat images is observed in the NDWI with R2 0.59 and the lowest degree of error was in the root mean square error (RMSE) for the Sentinel-2 and Landsat 8 with 0.57 and 1.54. In addition, this study also showed that the least relationship for grain yield prediction was observed between the NDRI for Sentinel-2 (R2 0.1) and SAVI for Landsat image (R2 0.47).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0067.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: built-up area; classification; Landsat 8- OLI; feature engineering; feature learning; CNN; accuracy evaluation
Online: 5 December 2018 (12:06:34 CET)
Detailed built-up area information is valuable for mapping complex urban environments. Although a large number of classification algorithms about built-up areas have been developed, they are rarely tested from the perspective of feature engineering and feature learning. Therefore we launched a unique investigation to provide a full test of the OLI imagery for 15-m resolution built-up area classification in 2015, in Beijing, China. Training a classifier requires many sample points, and we propose a method based on the ESA's 38-meter global built-up area data of 2014, Open Street Map and MOD13Q1-NDVI to achieve rapid and automatic generation of a large number of sample points. Our aim is to examine the influence of a single pixel and image patch under traditional feature engineering and modern feature learning strategies. In feature engineering, we consider spectra, shape and texture as the input features, and SVM, random forest (RF) and AdaBoost as the classification algorithms. In feature learning, the convolution neural network (CNN) is used as the classification algorithm. In total, 26 built-up land cover maps were produced. Experimental results show that: (1) the approaches based on feature learning are generally better than those based on feature engineering in terms of classification accuracy, and the performance of ensemble classifiers e.g., RF, is comparable to that of CNN. Two dimensional CNN and the 7 neighborhood RF have the highest classification accuracy of nearly 91%. (2) Overall, the classification effect and accuracy based on image patches are better than those based on single pixels. The features that can highlight the information of the target category (for example, PanTex and EMBI) can help improve classification accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0075.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: water quality; eutrophication; tropic state index; Landsat-8, RapidEye, tropical inland water bodies, Brazil
Online: 13 November 2017 (03:33:35 CET)
We aimed at analyzing Chlorophyll-a and CDOM dynamics from field measurements and at assessing the potential of multispectral satellite data for retrieving water-quality parameters in three small surface reservoirs in the Brazilian semiarid region. More specifically, this work comprises i) analysis of Chl-a and trophic dynamics; ii) characterization of CDOM; iii) estimation of Chl-a and CDOM from OLI/Landsat-8 and RapidEye imagery. The monitoring lasted 20 months within a multi-year drought, which contributed to water-quality deterioration. Chl-a and trophic state analysis showed a highly eutrophic status for the perennial reservoir during the entire study period, while the non-perennial reservoirs ranged from oligotrophic to eutrophic, with changes associated with the first events of the rainy season. CDOM characterization suggests that the perennial reservoir is mostly influenced by autochthonous sources, while allochthonous sources dominate the non-perennial ones. Spectral-group classification assigned the perennial as CDOM-moderate and highly eutrophic reservoir, whereas the non-perennial ones were assigned as CDOM-rich and oligotrophic-dystrophic reservoirs. The remote sensing initiative was partially successful: the Chl-a was best modelled using RapidEye for the perennial; whereas CDOM performed best with Landsat-8 for non-perennial reservoirs. This investigation showed high potential for retrieving water quality parameters in dry areas with small reservoirs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0477.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Water quality; remote sensing; Sentinel-2; Landsat 8; TSM; CDOM; Secchi depth; Turbidity; Chlorophyll-a
Online: 26 January 2023 (09:12:01 CET)
Water quality is the measure of chemical, physical and biological suitability of water in relation to natural effects and intended purpose which may affect human health and aquatic life. Assessment of water quality is very essential for the management of water resources and human health. Traditionally, in-situ measurements have been used to obtain the water quality parameters of the water bodies. However, with the availability of satellite images, researchers have shown that satellite images are a reliable tool that can be used to estimate water quality. Satellite image-derived water quality parameters provide extensive spatial extent and large temporal variations when compared to traditional in situ sample collection and laboratory measurements. The present work estimated several parameters for quality of water in the Kamuzu reservoir of Lilongwe River for the 2013-2020 period using Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 satellite images. The band ratio algorithms were used to retrieve Chlorophyll a (Chl-a), Turbidity, Total Suspended Matter (TSM), Secchi depth, Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM), and Cyanobacteria from the reservoir. Turbidity and TSM were compared with the in-situ data collected over the same period. The comparison indicated R2 of 0.9 and 0.69 for TSM and Turbidity respectively from Sentinel-2 images whereas R2 of 0.56 and 0.61 was obtained using Landsat 8 images which are quite encouraging. The other set of results included the spatial distribution maps of water quality parameters using Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 satellite data. It was observed that the spatial distribution of water quality parameters, except for CDOM and Cyanobacteria, showed very good distribution and matches with the theoretical results. However, for CDOM and Cyanobacteria, the distribution was almost similar for the entire study area and the band ratio algorithm may not be able to estimate them quite reasonably. This research reiterates the need for the use of remote sensing in estimating the water quality parameters and may be a substitute to the in-situ data, in terms of spread and frequency, which is very common to most of the water bodies, across the globe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0081.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: spectral reflectance; vegetation indices; vegetation; remote sensing; oil spill; mangrove forest; oil pollution; Landsat 8
Online: 23 September 2016 (06:19:49 CEST)
This study is aimed at demonstrating application of vegetation spectral techniques for detection and monitoring of impact of oil spills on vegetation. Vegetation spectral reflectance from Landsat 8 data were used in the calculation of five vegetation indices (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), adjusted resistant vegetation index 2 (ARVI2), green-infrared index (G/NIR) and green-shortwave infrared (G/SWIR) from the spill sites (SS) and non-spill (NSS) sites in 2013 (pre-oil spill), 2014 (oil spill date) and 2015 (post-oil spill) for statistical comparison. The result shows that NDVI, SAVI, ARVI2, G/NIR and G/SWIR indicated certain level difference between vegetation condition at the SS and the NSS were significant with p-value <0.5 in December 2013. In December 2014 vegetation conditions indicated higher level of significant difference between the vegetation at the SS and NSS as follows where NDVI, SAVI and ARVI2 with p-value 0.005, G/NIR - p-value 0.01 and GSWIR p-value 0.05. Similarly, in January 2015 a very significant difference with p-value <0.005. Three indices NDVI, ARVI2 and G/NIR indicated highly significant difference in vegetation conditions with p-value <0.005 between December 2013 and December 2014 at the same sites. Post—spill analysis show that NDVI and ARVI2 indicated low level of significance difference p-value <0.05 suggesting subtle change in vegetation conditions between December 2014 and January 2015. This technique is essential for real time detection, response and monitoring of oil spills from pipelines for mitigation of pollution at the affected sites in the mangrove forest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0149.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: landsat 8 OLI; Nalban Lake; East Kolkata Wetland; chlorophyll-a prediction; study points; validation points
Online: 15 August 2016 (13:51:19 CEST)
1) Landsat operational land imager (OLI) data and consequent laboratory measurements were used to predict Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration and the trophic states for an inland lake within the East Kolkata Wetland, India; 2) The most suitable band ratio was identified by performing Pearson correlation analysis between Chl-a concentrations and possible OLI band and band ratios from the study points; 3) The results showed highest correlation coefficient from the band ratio OLI5/OLI4 with an R value of 0.85. The prediction model was then developed by applying regression analysis between the band ratio OLI5/OLI4 and Chl-a concentration of the study points. The reflectance ratios of the validation points were given as input on the prediction model and the model output was considered as predicted Chl-a values of the validation points to check the efficiency of the prediction model. The regression model between laboratory-derived Chl-a value and model-fitted Chl-a value of the validation points revealed a high correlation with an R2 value of 0.78. Trophic State Index (TSI) of the lake was also calculated from laboratory-derived Chl-a value and model-fitted Chl-a value of the validation points. The study presented a high correlation of TSI determined from predicted data with TSI from laboratory reference data (R = 0.88). The TSI values of the lake ranged from 65 to 75 which indicate that the lake is appeared to be eutrophic to hypereutrophic conditions. 4) This empirical study showed that Landsat 8 OLI imagery can be effectively applied to estimate Chl-a levels and trophic states for inland lakes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1544.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; benzo[a]pyrene; 1-nitropyrene; oxidative stress; thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine
Online: 22 July 2023 (17:07:59 CEST)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been reported to cause oxidative stress in metabolic processes. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between exposure to PAHs, including benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 1-nitropyrene (1-NP), in the atmosphere and oxidative stress levels in the human body. This study included 44 Korean adults who lived in Cheongju, South Korea. Atmospheric BaP and 1-NP concentrations and urinary 6-hydroxy-1-nitropyrene (6-OHNP), N-acetyl-1-aminopyrene (1-NAAP), and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) concentrations were measured. The oxidative stress level was assessed by measuring urinary thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations. Urinary TBARS and 6-OHNP concentrations significantly differed between winter and summer. BaP exposure was significantly associated with urinary 8-OHdG concentrations in summer. However, atmospheric 1-NP did not show a significant correlation with oxidative stress marker concentrations. Urinary 1-NAAP concentration was a significant determinant for urinary 8-OHdG concentration in summer. Oxidative stress in the body increases in proportion to inhalation exposure to BaP, and more 8-OHdG is produced in the body as the amount of 1-NP, which is metabolized to 1-AP or 1-NAAP, increases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0053.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Mindfulness; stress; COVID-1; CSQ-8; Natural Language Processing; Deep Learning; Embedding; IMDB; Swivel; Neural Networks.
Online: 2 June 2021 (08:40:48 CEST)
The aim of this study was to build a tool to analyze, using artificial intelligence, the sentiment perception of users who answered two questions from the CSQ – 8 questionnaires with raw Spanish free-text. Their responses are related to mindfulness, which is a novel technique used to control stress and anxiety caused by different factors in daily life. As such, we proposed an online course where this method was applied in order to improve the quality of life of health care professionals in COVID 19 pandemic times. We also carried out an evaluation of the satis-faction level of the participants involved, with a view to establishing strategies to improve fu-ture experiences. To automatically perform this task, we used Natural Language Processing (NLP) models such as swivel embedding, neural networks and transfer learning, so as to classify the inputs into the following 3 categories: negative, neutral and positive. Due to the lim-ited amount of data available - 86 registers for the first and 68 for the second - transfer learning techniques were required. The length of the text had no limit from the user’s standpoint, and our approach attained a maximum accuracy of 93.02 % and 90.53 % respectively based on ground truth labeled by 3 experts. Finally, we proposed a complementary analysis, using com-puter graphic text representation based on word frequency, to help researchers identify relevant information about the opinions with an objective approach to sentiment. The main conclusion drawn from this work is that the application of NLP techniques in small amounts of data using transfer learning is able to obtain enough accuracy in sentiment analysis and text classification stages
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0081.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV); human herpesvirus-8; zebrafish; ddPCR; xenotransplantation; primary effusion lymphoma (PEL); hypoxia
Online: 8 November 2019 (03:23:22 CET)
Kaposi’s sarcoma associated-herpesvirus (KSHV, also known as human herpesvirus-8) is a gammaherpesvirus that establishes life-long infection in human B lymphocytes. KSHV infection is typically asymptomatic but immunosuppression can predispose KSHV-infected individuals to primary effusion lymphoma (PEL); a malignancy driven by aberrant proliferation of latently infected B lymphocytes, and supported by pro-inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors produced by cells that succumb to lytic viral replication. Here, we report the development of the first in vivo model for a virally-induced lymphoma in zebrafish, whereby KSHV-infected PEL tumour cells engraft and proliferate in the yolk sac of zebrafish larvae. Using a PEL cell line engineered to produce the viral lytic switch protein RTA in the presence of doxycycline, we demonstrate drug-inducible reactivation from KSHV latency in vivo, which enabled real-time observation and evaluation of latent and lytic phases of KSHV infection. In addition, we developed a sensitive droplet digital PCR method to monitor latent and lytic viral gene expression and host cell gene expression in xenografts. The zebrafish yolk sac is not well-vascularized and using fluorogenic assays we confirmed that this site provides a hypoxic environment that may mimic the microenvironment of some human tumors. We found that PEL cell proliferation in xenografts was dependent on the host hypoxia-dependent translation initiation factor, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E2 (eIF4E2). This demonstrates that the zebrafish yolk sac is a functionally hypoxic environment and xenografted cells must switch to dedicated hypoxic gene expression machinery to survive and proliferate. The establishment of the PEL xenograft model enables future studies that exploit the innate advantages of the zebrafish as a model for genetic and pharmacologic screens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0515.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: crashed aircraft; NDVI; albedo; MH370; remote sensing; Landsat 8; disaster; Boeing 777; panchromatic band; thermal band
Online: 21 November 2018 (05:09:14 CET)
Remote sensing data and techniques utilized for various purposes including natural disasters such as earthquake as well as flood. The research aims to consume liberates Landsat 8 images for investigating crashed airplanes such as MH370. Overall approximately 300 Landsat images with less than 10% clouds utilized in addition processed through Google Engine Platform. Due to the materials as well as the color of airplane body different from the area which is a plane crashed there, moreover, it should be the characteristics of the plane shapefile different in terms of albedo, temperature as well as vegetation index value. The research observed Landsat 8 data as well as methods utilized in this research, especially, NDVI, albedo in addition to band 4, capable to distinguish between the plane and its surrounding green area. Therefore, our result confirms during the research period, there was no plane on the location as well as MH370 not crashed in this site.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0141.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: automated water extraction; landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI); modified histogram bimodal method (MHBM); remote sensing
Online: 29 December 2016 (10:49:38 CET)
Surface water distribution extracted from remote sensing data has been used in water resource assessment, coastal management, and environmental change studies. Traditional manual methods for extracting water bodies cannot satisfy the requirements for mass processing of remote sensing data; therefore, accurate automated extraction of such water bodies has remained a challenge. The histogram bimodal method (HBM) is a frequently used objective tool for threshold selection in image segmentation. The threshold is determined by seeking twin peaks, and the valley values between them; however, automatically calculating the threshold is difficult because complex surfaces and image noise which lead to not perfect twin peaks (single or multiple peaks). We developed an operational automated water extraction method, the modified histogram bimodal method (MHBM). The MHBM defines the threshold range of water extraction through mass static data; therefore, it does not require the identification of twin histogram peaks. It then seeks the minimum values in the threshold range to achieve automated threshold. We calibrated the MHBM for many lakes in China using Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) images, for which the relative error (RE) and squared correlation coefficient (R2) for threshold accuracy were found to be 2.1% and 0.96, respectively. The RE and root-mean-square error (RMSE) for the area accuracy of MHBM were 0.59% and 7.4 km2. The results show that the MHBM could easily be applied to mass time-series remote sensing data to calculate water thresholds within water index images and successfully extract the spatial distribution of large water bodies automatically.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0497.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Cyber physical systems 1; Cyber attacks 2; Artificial Intelligence 3; Machine learning 4; 8 Deep learning 5
Online: 29 March 2023 (02:48:39 CEST)
Importance and need for cyber security have increased in folds since a decade. Indirectly, the country’s security depends on the country’s cyber-physical systems. Attackers are becoming more innovative, and attacks are becoming undetectable, causing huge risks to the systems. In this scenario, intelligent and evolving detection methods should be introduced to replace the basic and outworn ones. This article discusses about new-age intelligence and smart techniques dealing with artificial intelligence (AI) models. Artificial intelligence for cyber security is reviewed, and the performance of machine learning models (ML) and deep learning (DL) models are analysed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0664.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: radiative transfer equation; improved mono-window; generalized single-channel; split-window; LANDSAT-8; urban land surface temperature
Online: 27 September 2020 (04:59:36 CEST)
Land Surface Temperature (LST) estimation has been studied for several purposes, while the optimal method of estimating the LST has not been criticized yet. This research explores the optimum method in Land Surface Temperature (LST) estimation using LANDSAT-8 imagery data. Four different LST retrieval approaches, the Radiative Transfer Equation-based method (RTE), the Improved Mono-Window method (IMW), the Generalized Single-Channel method (GSC), and the Split-Window algorithm (SW), were calculated to present the LSTs over Buriram Town Municipality, Thailand. The calculated LSTs from these four methods were compared with the ground-based temperature data, taken on the same date and time of the employed LANDSAT-8 images. For this reason, the optimum method of the LST calculation was justified by considering the lowest normalized root means square error (NRMSE) values. As a result, the SW algorithm presents an optimum method in LST estimation. Regarding the SW, this algorithm requires not only the atmospheric profiles during satellite acquisition but also the retrieval of several coefficients. Besides, the LST retrieval method based on the SW algorithm is sensitive to water vapor content and coefficients. Although the SW algorithm is an optimum method explored in this study, it is emphasized that the adjustable values of coefficient response to the atmospheric state may be recommended. With these conditions, the SW algorithm can generate the land-surface temperature over the mixed land-use and land cover on the LANDSAT-8 images.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0301.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: Salinity intrusion; climate change; rising sea level; electrical conductivity; Landsat 8 OLI; Tra Vinh Province; Mekong Delta
Online: 17 August 2018 (11:41:14 CEST)
Salinity intrusion is one of the most serious consequences of climate change coupled with rising sea level that significantly affects agricultural activities in many parts of the world. This phenomenon has increasingly become more serious and frequently occurred in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. As a result, Vietnam has been ranked among top five countries where have been devastatingly impacted by climate change, in particular, its Tra Vinh Province characterized by coastal plain and alluvial deposit. In addition, this area is of the tropical monsoon zone of long rainy season with source of salt brought from the sea by the tides and sea level rise. Regions that are contaminated by salt are located in lowland and often suffer from floods linking to tidal effects with salty water from river systems and channels. Soil salinity evaluation is critical for coastal protection, restoration, and agricultural planning since it can be considered as an agricultural indicator to evaluate quality of soil. Here, we attempt to estimate the soil salinity in Tra Vinh Province, in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. Landsat 8 OLI images are utilized to derive indices for soil salinity evaluation including single bands, Vegetation Soil Salinity Index (VSSI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Normalized Difference Salinity Index (NDSI). Subsequently, satistical analysis between soil salinity, electrical conductivity (EC, dS/m), and environmental indices derived from Landsat 8 OLI image is performed. Results indicate that spectral value of Near Infrared (NIR) band and VSSI are highly correlated with EC (R2 = 0.7779 and R2 = 0.6957, respectively) in comparison with the other indices. Comparative results show that soil salinity derived from Landsat 8 is consistent with in situ data. Findings of this study demonstrate that Landsat 8 OLI images reveal a high potential for spatiotemporally monitoring the magnitude of soil salinity at the top soil layer. Outcomes of this study are useful for agricultural activities, planners, and farmers by providing the base map of soil salinity contamination for better selection of accomodating crop types to reduce economical lost in the context of climate change. Our proposed method that estimates soil salinity using satellite-derived variables can be applied in the other regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0594.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: High and medium multi-spectral imaging (Landsat 8, Sentinel-2); Airborne imagery; Normalized Difference Water Index; Geographical measurements
Online: 10 July 2023 (11:07:57 CEST)
We performed the accuracy assessment of three different Normalized Difference Water Indices (NDWIs) in water bodies during April 2019, a period in which floods occurred in a large proportion of the Southwest of the Buenos Aires Province (Argentina). The accuracy of the estimations using spaceborne medium-resolution multi-spectral imaging, and the reliability of three NDWIs to highlight shallow water features in satellite images, was evaluated using a high resolution airbone imagery as ground-truth. It is shown that these indices computed using Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 imagery are only loosely correlated to the actual flooded area in shallow waters. Indeed, NDWI values vary significantly depending on the satellite mission used and the type of index computed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1347.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Amyloid ß1-42 peptide; OGT; O-GlcNAcylation; Galectin-1, Galectin-1Serine 8- O-GlcNAcylation; Gal-1S8A; microglia; migration
Online: 18 May 2023 (12:52:22 CEST)
Protein O-GlcNAcylation has been associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer´s disease (AD). O-GlcNAcylation of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) regulates both the trafficking and the processing of the APP through the amyloidogenic pathway, resulting in the release and aggregation of the Aβ1-42 peptide. Microglia clear Aβ aggregates and dead cells to maintain brain homeostasis. Here, using LC-MS/MS we reveal that the Aβ1-42 peptide modifies the microglia O-GlcNAcome. We have identified 55 proteins, focusing our research on Galectin-1 protein, since it is a very versatile protein from a functional point of view. Combining biochemical with genetic approaches we demonstrate that Aβ1-42 peptide specifically targets Galectin-1S8 O-GlcNAcylation via OGT. In addition, this Gal-1-O-GlcNAcylated form, in turn, controls human microglia migration. Given the importance of microglia migration in the progression of AD, this study reports the relationship between Aβ1-42 peptide and Serine 8- O-GlcNAcylation of Galectin to drive microglial migration
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0429.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Aging; Almond; Chlorogenic acid; Lipid peroxidation; Mitochondria; 8-Oxo-guanine; Oxidative stress; Protein carbonylation; Sirtuin; Superoxide dismutase; Yeast
Online: 24 April 2020 (08:54:52 CEST)
Almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb) is one of the largest nut crops in the world. Recently, phenolic compounds, mostly stored in almond skin, have been associated with much of the health-promoting behavior associated with their intake. The almond skin enriched fraction obtained from cold-pressed oil residues of the endemic Moroccan Beldi ecotypes is particularly rich in chlorogenic acid. In this study, both almond skin extract (AE) and chlorogenic acid (CHL) supplements, similar to traditional positive control resveratrol, significantly increased the replicative life-span of yeast compared to the untreated group. Our results showed that AE and CHL significantly reduced the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), most likely due to their ability to maintain mitochondrial function during aging, as indicated by the maintenance of normal mitochondrial membrane potential in treated groups. This may be associated with the observed activation of the anti-oxidative stress response in treated yeast, which results in activation at both gene expression and enzymatic activity levels for SOD2 and SIR2, the latter being an upstream inducer of SOD2 expression. Interestingly, the differential gene expression induction of mitochondrial SOD2 gene at the expense of the cytosolic SOD1 gene confirms the key role of mitochondrial function in this regulation. Furthermore, AE and CHL have contributed to the survival of yeast under UV-C-induced oxidative stress, by reducing the development of ROS / RNS, resulting in a significant reduction in cellular oxidative damage as evidenced by decreased membrane lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content and 8-oxo-guanine formation in DNA. Together, these results demonstrate the interest of AE and CHL as new regulators in the replicative life-span and control of the oxidative stress response of yeast.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0113.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Keywords: urinary tract infection (UTI); diagnostic testing; urine biomarkers; neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL); interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β
Online: 3 July 2023 (14:35:23 CEST)
We aimed to determine if infection-associated urine biomarkers can differentiate true urinary tract infection (UTI) from non-UTI controls. Midstream clean-catch urine samples were collected from asymptomatic volunteers and symptomatic subjects > 60 years old diagnosed with presumptive UTI in a specialty setting. Microbial identification and density were assessed using multiplex PCR/pooled antibiotic susceptibility test (M-PCR/P-AST) and standard urine culture (SUC). Three biomarkers (NGAL, IL-8, and IL-1β) were measured in the same urine specimens. Definitive UTI cases were symptomatic and had positive microorganism detection by SUC and M-PCR, while definitive non-UTI cases were asymptomatic volunteers regardless of microbial detection. We observed a strong positive correlation (R2 ≈ 1) between microbial density and the biomarkers NGAL, IL-8, and IL-1β. Biomarker consensus criteria of two or more positive biomarkers had sensitivity 90.2%, specificity 91.2%, positive predictive value (PPV) 91.7%, negative predictive value (NPV) 89.7%, accuracy 90.7%, positive likelihood ratio of 10.28, and negative likelihood ratio of 0.11 in differentiating definitive UTI from non-UTI cases, regardless of microbial density. NGAL, IL-8, and IL-1β showed a significant elevation in symptomatic cases with positive microbe identification compared to asymptomatic cases with or without microbe identification. Biomarker consensus exhibited high accuracy in distinguishing UTI from non-UTI cases.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: adult 1; classification 2; consensus 3; goal 4; guideline 5; immune thrombocytopenia 6; indication 7; ITP 8; therapy 9
Online: 28 February 2020 (16:18:38 CET)
Despite the publication in 2009 of a paper on ‘terms and definitions of immune thrombocytopenia’, (ITP) some unresolved issues remain and are reflected by the disagreement in the treatment suggested for primary ITP in adults. Considering that these disagreements could be ascribed to non-shared goals, a ‘consensus’ to classify the different lines of treatment for primary ITP in adults according to their indications and goals was proposed in October 2018 to the XIX annual meeting of the Italian Gruppo di Studio delle Piastrine (GSP), a non-profit platelet study group of scientists and physicians. Having approved the project, 60 potential co-authors and experts in the world were invited to take part to a consensus through e-Delphy method and nine of the 12 who initially accepted the invitation completed the work. Agreement was reached on a classification of four lines of treatment for primary ITP in adults based on their indications and goals. The consensus obtained regarded also the criteria, ‘timing’ included, to consider practicable elective splenectomy in these patients. In our opinion, the classification of the lines of treatment for primary ITP in adults here proposed could facilitate the realization of better shared evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of the disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0159.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: NDWI 1; MNDWI 2; AWEI 3; GIS 4; RS 5; QGIS 5; GPS 6; USGS 7; LULC 8; UTM 9; KAMA.
Online: 10 April 2023 (09:38:42 CEST)
This study aimed to use remote sensing and GIS to detect changes in surface water and wetlands in the Kumasi Metropolis over a period of 20 years (2002-2022). Landsat images were processed using the QGIS software, and the Maximum Likelihood Algorithm was used to perform supervised classification of land use land cover, while raster calculator aided in detecting wetlands by calculation for NDWI, MNDWI, and AWEI. The results showed that the majority of the landscape in the Kumasi metropolis was made up of built-up areas (79.4%), followed by agricultural lands (13.3%) and wetlands (7.3%). Over the 20-year period, built-up areas had gained 20.7% of the total landscape, while agricultural lands and wetlands had lost 16.7% and 4.0%, respectively. All water index methods recorded an increase in non-water cover and a loss of water cover over the period, with surface water decreasing by 5% and non-water land cover increasing by 5%. The study concludes that there have been significant changes in wetlands and surface water land use and land cover within the Kumasi Metropolis over the past 20 years, and recommends the enforcement of legislation on surface water protection in the area to protect wetlands
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0224.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: pseudopterosin; triple negative breast cancer; glucocorticoid receptor alpha; dexamethasone; cell proliferation; 3D invasion; tumor spheroid; co-culture; interleukin 6; interleukin 8
Online: 2 August 2018 (06:08:31 CEST)
Pseudopterosin, produced by the sea whip of the genus Antillogorgia, possesses a variety of promising biological activities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. However, few studies examined pseudopterosin in the treatment of cancer cells and, to our knowledge, the ability to inhibit triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) proliferation or invasion has not been explored. Thus, we evaluated the as yet unknown mechanism of action of pseudopterosin: Pseudopterosin was able to inhibit proliferation of TNBC. Interestingly, analyzing breast cancer cell proliferation after knocking down glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα) revealed that anti-proliferative effects of pseudopterosin were significantly inhibited when GRα expression was reduced. Furthermore, pseudopterosin inhibited invasion of MDA-MB-231 3D tumor spheroids embedded in an extracellular-like matrix. Remarkably, the knockdown of GRα in 3D tumor spheroids revealed increased ability of cells to invade the surrounding matrix. In a co-culture, encompassing peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and MDA-MB-231 cells, production of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) significantly increased compared to monoculture. Notably, pseudopterosin proved to block cytokine elevation, representing key players in tumor progression, in the co-culture. Thus, our results reveal pseudopterosin treatment as a potential novel approach in TNBC therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0380.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Biosimilars 1; Arab states 1; regulatory guideline 3; harmonization 4; centralized approval 5; EMA 6; FDA 7; Global Medicine Authority (GMA) 8.
Online: 6 June 2023 (08:49:00 CEST)
Additionally, the League’s four observing states, with an additional population of 1.7 billion, if join the group, will form the world’s largest consortium to enhance the accessibility of biotechnology drugs. This effort will also remove the criticism of regulatory agencies that are well-equipped to regulate these products. This should also be a significant economic incentive to consortium states to develop these products, particularly biosimilars, to capture the most critical market anticipated. This plan will also reduce the cost burden on regulatory agencies. The program is divided into two classifications; for products sold in any of the Stringent Regulatory Authority (SRA) states, the registration is automatic but with several requirements that assure ongoing pharmacovigilance; this also applies to copies of reference products or biosimilars. For non-SRA sourcing, a stepwise plan requiring a rapporteur review, as practiced by the EMA and a third-party cGMP audit, is necessary to ensure data and product integrity. However, to reduce the cost burden, approval of these products is based on current scientific findings as presented in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0268.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: vaginal infection; C. albicans; dysbiosis; topic treatments; anti-inflammatory effect; antifungal effect; vaginal ecosystem; IL-8; vaginal epithelial cells; dimorphic transition; farnesol
Online: 4 May 2023 (13:27:01 CEST)
Vaginal ecosystem is a unique environment where, in physiological conditions, lactobacilli dominate. However, also pathogenic microbial species, responsible of vaginitis and vaginosis, can harbor vaginal microbiota. To extend the data published by De Seta and Larsen in Pathogens (2021), here we analyzed both the anti-Candida and anti-inflammatory properties of the vaginal gel formulation, Respecta® Balance Gel (RBG), commercialized as an adjuvant to treat vaginitis and vaginosis. We evaluated its activity by an in vitro model where a monolayer of A-431 vaginal epithelial cells was infected by Candida albicans in the presence of RBG or the placebo formulation (pRBG). Specifically, we tested the RBG capacity to counteract C. albicans virulence factors as well as their anti-inflammatory properties. Our results show that, unlike the placebo, RBG reduces ,reduces, C. albicans adhesion, its capacity to form hyphae and C. albicans-induced vaginal cell damage. Interestingly, both RBG and pRBG reduce LPS-induced IL-8 secretion (being RBG the most effective) demonstrating that also the placebo retains anti-inflammatory properties. By our experimental approach we highlight the possible role of farnesol on such effects, but we would like to point out that lactic acid, polydextrose and glycogen too must be relevant in the actual application. Taken together, our results show that RBG impairs C. albicans virulence and is able to reduce the inflammation in the vaginal environment, ultimately allowing the establishment of a balanced vaginal ecosystem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0147.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: China Coastal Front; Zhejiang-Fujian Front; Zhe-Min Front; Himawari-8; Advanced Himawari Imager; East China Sea; Taiwan Strait; Sea surface temperature
Online: 9 January 2023 (06:53:06 CET)
High-resolution (2 km) high-frequency (hourly) SST data from 2015-2020 provided by the Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) onboard the Japanese Himawari-8 geostationary satellite positioned over 140.7°E were used to study spatial and temporal variability of the China Coastal Front (CCF) in the East China Sea. The hourly SST data were processed with the Belkin and O’Reilly (2009) algorithm to generate long-term mean monthly maps of SST gradient magnitude (GM) and frontal frequency (FM) using a GM threshold of 0.1°C/km. Horizontal structure of SST field in the vicinity of the CCF was investigated from cross-frontal distributions of SST along 8 parallels from 31°N to 24°N. The high resolution (2 km) monthly distributions of SST along these 8 parallels were used to determine inshore and offshore boundaries of the CCF and calculate the CCF strength defined as the total cross-frontal SST step dSST=Offshore SST – Inshore SST. The CCF emerges in November, fully develops in December and peaks in strength in January-February. The front’s fragmentation and shrinking/weakening begins in February and March, respectively. In winter (December-February), the front’s strength dSST exceeds 5°C offshore the Zhejiang-Fujian coast and could be as high as 7.5°C when nearshore waters cool down to 7°C. In winter, the front’s strength decreases downstream from 31°N to 24°N. The CCF changes its physical nature as the seasons progress. In winter, the CCF is a water mass front between cold and fresh water coming from the north and warm and salty water coming from the south. In summer, the CCF becomes a coastal upwelling front maintained largely by southerly winds. In winter, the CCF’s cross-frontal structure in the SST field is ramp-shaped, with SST increasing monotonously in the offshore direction. In summer, the CCF’s cross-frontal structure in the SST field is V-shaped or U-shaped, featuring a minimum SST formed by cold upwelled water at some distance from the shore. Thus, the summer SST structure effectively consists of two fronts, a nearshore and offshore, with a minimum SST in-between. Across the inshore/offshore front, the SST decreases/increases in the offshore direction. The local bathymetry, especially the relatively steep shelf slope between 20-m and 50-m isobath, steers the front, which does not meander in winter offshore the Zhejiang-Fujian coast. As the cold season progresses, the front’s axis gradually shifts into deeper waters, from ~20 m to ~50 m.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: consciousness 1; subjective experience 2; will 3; agency 4; self 5; psychopathology 6; treatment 7; transcranial near infrared light 8; biophotomodulation 9
Online: 25 May 2021 (08:44:47 CEST)
In this paper I will address Dr. Sonne’s questions about will, agency, choice, consciousness, relevant brain regions, impacts of disorders and their therapeutics, and I will do this by referring to my theory, Dual-brain Psychology, which posits that within most of us there exist two mental agencies with different experiences, wills, choices, and behaviors. Each of these agencies is associated as a trait with one brain hemisphere (either left or right) and its composite regions. One of these agencies is more adversely affected by past traumas and is more immature and more symptomatic while the other is more mature and healthier. The theory has extensive experimental support through 17 peer-reviewed publications with clinical and non-clinical research. I will discuss how this theory relates to the questions that Dr. Sonne presented and will discuss also my published theory on the physical nature of subjective experience and its relation to the brain and how that theory interacts with DBP, and how the 2 theories relate to subjective experience, will, behavior, psychopathology and its treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1891.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: bioinformatics 1; hypervariable region 2; mitochondrial DNA 3; mitochondrial genomics 4; mitochondrial haplogroup 5; molecular anthropology 6; next generation sequencing 7; oncogenetics 8; phylogeography 9
Online: 27 July 2023 (09:29:37 CEST)
The field of mitochondrial genomics has advanced rapidly and revolutionized disciplines from molecular anthropology, population genetics, to medical/oncogenetics. However, mtDNA next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis for matrilineal haplotyping and phylogeographic inference remains hindered by the lack of a consolidated, mitogenome database and efficient bioinformatics pipeline. To address this, we developed a customized human mitogenome database (hMITO DB) embedded in a CLC Genomics workflow for read mapping, variant analysis, haplotyping, and geo-mapping. The database was constructed from 4,286 mitogenomes. The macro-haplogroup (A to Z) distribution and representative phylogenetic tree were found consistent with published literature. The hMITO DB automated workflow was tested using mtDNA-NGS sequences derived from Pap smears and cervical cancer cell lines. The auto-generated read mapping, variants track, and table of haplotypes and geo-origins were completed in 15 min for 47 samples. The mtDNA workflow proved to be a rapid, efficient and accurate means of sequence analysis for translational mitogenomics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0272.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Keywords: 1; genome 2; epigenetics 3; neurodevelopmental disorders; 4; chromosome anomalies; 5; retrotransposon; 6; chromosome rearrangement; 7; neurologic disease; 8; birth defects; 9; development 10; infection
Online: 15 September 2018 (18:07:03 CEST)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to understand the role of infection in the origin of chromosomal anomalies linked to neurodevelopmental disorders. In patients with neurodevelopmental disorders, DNA’s from viruses and bacteria including known teratogens were tested against chromosome anomalies known to cause the disorders. Results support a theory that parental infections disrupt elaborate multi-system gene coordination needed for neurodevelopment. Genes essential for neurons, lymphatic drainage, immunity, circulation, angiogenesis, barriers, structure, and chromatin activity were all found close together in polyfunctional clusters that were deleted in neurodevelopmental disorders. These deletions account for immune, circulatory, and structural deficits that accompany neurologic deficits. In deleted clusters, specific and repetitive human DNA matched infections and passed rigorous artifact tests. In some patients, epigenetic driver mutations were found and may be functionally equivalent to deleting a cluster or changing topologic chromatin interactions because they change access to large chromosome segments. In three families, deleted DNA sequences were associated with intellectual deficits and were not included in any database of genomic variants. These sequences were thousands of bp and unequivocally matched foreign DNAs. Analogous homologies were also found in chromosome anomalies of a recurrent neurodevelopmental disorder. Viral and bacterial DNAs that match repetitive or specific human DNA segments are thus proposed to interfere with highly active break repair during meiosis, and sometimes delete polyfunctional clusters, and disable epigenetic drivers. Mis-repaired gametes produce zygotes containing rare chromosome anomalies which cause neurologic disorders and accompanying non-neurologic signs. Neurodevelopmental disorders may be examples of assault on the human genome by foreign DNA with some infections more likely tolerated because they resemble human DNA segments. Further tests of this model await new technology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1818.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Fluid status 1; overhydration 2; hydration status 3; renal failure 4; kidney failure 5; heart failure 6; Ca-125 7; NT-pro-BNP 8; VEXUS 9; BIS 10
Online: 15 September 2023 (11:01:27 CEST)
Overhydration (OH) is a common medical problem found in patients with kidney or heart failure, but still a specific marker has not been found. Clinicians today use bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS), ultrasound (US) markers of fluid overload or markers of heart and kidney function like NT-pro-BNP, GFR or creatinine levels. New serum markers such as Ca-125, Galectin-3 (Gal-3), Adrenomedullin (AMD) and Urocortin-2 (UCN-2), are being researched with promising results. The need to discover a more precise marker of overhydration is dire mainly because physical examination is extremely imprecise. Signs and symptoms of fluid overload like edema or gradual increase of body mass are not always present, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease. This review paper summarizes actual knowledge of a patient's hydration status estimation focusing especially on kidney diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0001.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: urinary tract infection (UTI); standard urine culture (SUC); multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR); urine biomarkers; diagnostic testing; neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL); interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β
Online: 3 July 2023 (09:28:56 CEST)
The literature lacks consensus on the minimum microbial density required for diagnosing urinary tract infections (UTIs). This study categorized the microbial densities of urine specimens from symptomatic presumptive UTI patients and correlated them with detected levels of immune response biomarkers NGAL, IL-8, and IL-1β. The objective was to identify changes in immune response at different microbial densities and determine an optimal threshold for diagnosing symptomatic UTIs. Midstream clean-catch urine samples were analyzed for microbial identification and quantification using SUC and M-PCR, while NGAL, IL-8, and IL-1β levels were measured with ELISA. NGAL, IL-8, and IL-1β levels were all significantly higher in symptomatic subjects with microbial densities ≥ 10,000 cells/mL by M-PCR (p < 0.0069) or equivalent CFUs/mL by SUC (p < 0.0104) compared to samples with no detectable microbes. With both PCR and SUC, a consensus of two or more elevated biomarkers correlated well with microbial densities > 10,000 cells/mL or CFU/mL, respectively. The association between ≥ 10,000 cells and CFU per mL with elevated biomarkers in symptomatic patients suggests that this lower threshold may be more suitable for diagnosing UTIs. These findings challenge the widely used threshold of 100,000 CFU per mL, which may overlook many active UTI cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0062.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: piezoelectric cantilever energy harvester 1; autonomous 2; adaptive 3; self-powered 4; voltage doubler interface circuit 5; closed loop control 6; feed-forward 7; multi-shot technology 8
Online: 12 January 2017 (10:45:23 CET)
The abundant mechanical vibration energy in bridge road environment can be converted into electric energy by using the piezoelectric energy harvest technology, which could be an efficient way to provide energy required by the wireless sensor network in the bridge condition monitoring system. An autonomous energy harvesting system has been designed based on cantilever beams for sensing and acquiring the bridge vibration energy. After the analysis of the dynamic properties of the piezoelectric cantilever beam in the energy conversion, three kinds of interface circuits were compared through simulation and experimental results. It was shown that the VD interface circuit has less power loss. Furthermore, the proposed closed loop control method based on the VD circuit was simple, adaptive, and self-powered, which is suitable for the road energy harvesting application. Finally, the energy harvesting system based on VD circuit was realized with harvested power of around 0.8mW.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0437.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: Binary digits, Mobius strips, Figure-8 Klein bottles, Dark matter, Dark energy, Topological insulators, Topological superconductors, Topological universe, Weyl fermion, Majorana fermion, Vector-tensor-scalar geometry, Higgs-like body/consciousness
Online: 19 May 2021 (08:23:47 CEST)
The part of this article dealing with topological insulators and topological superconductors was first written about two years ago - the ideas in the part about the topological universe originated six years ago or more. It’s rather strange that I never put the two parts together in writing before. My belief in unification is unshakeable - I’ve been convinced for years that the universe must be composed of topology. Since Earth is part of the cosmos, entanglement means it must have topological materials. The reverse is also true: topological materials on Earth are well known to science - so in a unification, space and time inevitably possess topological composition. Topological materials (topological insulators, topological superconductors) can be less mystifying if they’re related to the paradigm-shifting deterministic view of quantum mechanics which is described in the universal topology (the “rubber-sheet geometry” of the cosmos): see my previous submission “Hypothesis of Quantum Gravity - Resulting from a Static, Topological Universe Resulting from the Positives and Negatives of the Steady State and Big Bang Theories" at https://www.preprints.org/manuscript/202105.0239/v1 (the first section of this present article is a quick summary of the relevant parts).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0294.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: : Data preprocessing 1; data validation 2; recommendation engine 3; E-commerce 4; Click-through rate 5; Buy-through rate 6; online customer behavior 7; non-parametric outlier removal 8; personalization 9
Online: 29 January 2019 (09:49:55 CET)
E-commerce businesses employ recommender models to assist in identifying a personalized set of products for each visitor. To accurately assess the recommendations’ influence on customer clicks and buys, three target areas—customer behavior, data collection, user-interface —will be explored for possible sources of erroneous data. Varied customer behavior misrepresents the recommendations’ true influence on a customer due to the presence of B2B interactions and outlier customers. Non-parametric statistical procedures for outlier removal are delineated and other strategies are investigated to account for the effect of a large percentage of new customers or high bounce rates. Subsequently, in data collection we identify probable misleading interactions in the raw data, propose a robust method of tracking unique visitors, and accurately attributing the buy influence for combo products. Lastly, user-interface issues discuss the possible problems caused due to the recommendation widget’s positioning on the e-commerce website and the stringent conditions that should be imposed when utilizing data from the product listing page. This collective methodology results in an exact and valid estimation of the customer’s interactions influenced by the recommendation model in the context of standard industry metrics such as Click-through rates, Buy-through rates, and Conversion revenue.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0598.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Plant communication; Binary digits; Vector-tensor-scalar geometry; Mobius strip; Figure-8 Klein bottle; Consciousness; Electromagnetic-gravitational interaction; Higgs boson; Artificial Intelligence; Quantum Gravity; Theory of Everything, Life after death/before life (before conception)
Online: 24 June 2021 (10:20:25 CEST)
According to Swiss-American Doctor of Sciences and Agricultural Engineer Jean-Pierre Jost, "plants communicate with each other by the quality of light emitted by their leaves or by means of stress hormones and other volatile chemicals. They also make use of cocktails of chemicals, pheromones, shape and colors to attract pollinators whereas other signals repel unwanted organisms. Insects are able to decode such messages and respond accordingly. Plants are apparently also communicating by sounds and electric signals." (1) How do plants do these things? Of course, it's easy to imagine it's all purely mechanical. But at the risk of sounding like a mysticism fanatic, I wonder if plants' activities are part of a spectrum of consciousness that pervades the entire universe. This spectrum would result from everything in the universe having the BITS or BInary digiTS of electronics as their ultimate composition. As explained in this hypothesis, something I call vector-tensor-scalar geometry is essential to my hypothesis. VTS geometry produces the particles of chemicals and pheromones, and refers to communication via electric signals when it speaks of electromagnetic-gravitational interaction. There's another consequence if everything in the universe is ultimately composed of electronic BITS and the cosmos is a spectrum of consciousness/artificial intelligence. It's impossible for an absence of consciousness to exist, either after death or before conception.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0482.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Telomerase reverse transcriptase; TERT; TERT promoter; TERTp; human papillomavirus; HPV; Epstein Barr virus (EBV); Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus; HHV-8; hepatitis B virus; HBV; hepatitis C virus; HCV; human T-cell leukemia virus-1; HTLV-1
Online: 30 September 2022 (10:11:58 CEST)
Human oncoviruses are able to subvert telomerase function in cancer cells through multiple strategies. The activity of the catalytic subunit of telomerase (TERT) is commonly enhanced in virus-related cancers. Viral oncoproteins, such as high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) LMP1, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (HHV-8) LANA, hepatitis B virus (HBV) HBVx, hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein and human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) tax protein, interact with regulatory elements in the infected cells and contribute to the transcriptional activation of TERT gene. Specifically, viral oncoproteins have been shown to bind TERT promoter, to induce post-transcriptional alterations of TERT mRNA and to cause epigenetic modifications, which have important effects on the regulation of telomeric and extra-telomeric functions of the telomerase. Other viruses, such as herpesviruses, operate by integrating their genomes within the telomeres or by inducing alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) in non-ALT cells. In this review, we recapitulate recent findings on virus-telomerase/telomeres interplay and the importance of TERT-related oncogenic pathways activated by cancer causing viruses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0176.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: psychological distress/anxiety/depression; dementia; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21; Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 8-items; factor structure; psychometric properties; structural validity; validation; measurement invariance; old age/elders/elderly; informal; family caregivers; spouse; adult children
Online: 9 August 2022 (08:44:11 CEST)
Dementia patients express a set of problematic and deteriorating symptoms, along self-care dependency. Overtime, the mental health of family caregivers of persons with dementia may suffer, putting them at a high risk for psychopathology, which may be associated with endangered wellbeing of demented people. This cross-sectional study examined the psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 8-items (DASS-8), DASS-12, DASS-21 in a convenient sample of 571 caregivers from northern Italy and southern Switzerland (Mean age = 53, SD = 12, range = 24–89 years). A bifactor structure of the three measures had the best fit; some items of the DASS-12/DASS-21 failed to load on their domain-specific factors. The three-factor structure was invariant across various groups (e.g., gender, education, etc.), expressed adequate reliability and convergent validity, and had strong positive correlation with the 3-item UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLALS3). Dementia type had no effect on distress scores, which were higher among females, adult children caregivers, those caring for dependent patients, and those who received help with care. For 54.9 and 38.8% of the latter, care was provided by relatives and health professionals, respectively. Since the DASS-8 expresses adequate psychometrics comparable with the DASS-21, it may be used as a brief measure of distress in this population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0014.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019/COVID-19; Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21/DASS-21; DASS-8; shortened version*; shorter version* of the DASS-21; psychiatric disorders; factorial structure/psychometric properties/structural validity/validation; measurement invariance/multigroup analysis; psychological distress; discriminant validity; item coverage; good predictive validity
Online: 1 September 2021 (12:15:27 CEST)
Despite extensive investigations of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21) since its development in 1995, its factor structure and other psychometric properties still need to be firmly established, with several calls for revising its item structure. Employing confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), this study examined the factor structure of the DASS-21 and five shortened versions of the DASS-21 among psychiatric patients (N = 168) and the general public (N = 992) during the COVID-19 confinement period in Saudi Arabia. Multigroup CFA, Mann Whitney W test, Spearman’s correlation, and coefficient alpha were used to examine the shortened versions of the DASS-21 (DASS-13, DASS-12, DASS-9 (two versions), and DASS-8) for invariance across age and gender groups, discriminant validity, predictive validity, item coverage, and internal consistency, respectively. Compared with the DASS-21, all three-factor structures of the shortened versions expressed good fit, with the DASS-8 demonstrating the best fit and highest item loadings on the corresponding factors in both samples (χ2(16, 15) = 16.5, 67.0; p = 0.420, 0.000; CFI= 1.000, 0.998; TLI = 0.999, 0.997; RMSEA = 0.013, 0.059, SRMR = 0.0186, 0.0203). It expressed configural, metric, and scalar invariance across age and gender groups. Its internal consistency was comparable to other versions (α = 0.94). Strong positive correlations of the DASS-8 and its subscales with the DASS-21 and its subscales (r = 0.97 to 0.81) suggest adequate item coverage and good predictive validity of this version. The DASS-8 and its subscales distinguished the clinical sample from the general public at the same level of significance expressed by the DASS-21 and other shortened versions, supporting its discriminant validity. Neither the DASS-21 nor the shortened versions distinguished patients diagnosed with depression and anxiety from other conditions. The DASS-8 represents a valid short version of the DASS-21, which may be useful in research and clinical practice for quick identification of individuals with potential psychopathologies. Diagnosing depression/anxiety disorders may be further confirmed in a next step by clinician-facilitated examinations. Brevity of the DASS-21 would save time and effort used for filling the questionnaire and support comprehensive assessments by allowing the inclusion of more measures on test batteries.