ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1347.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: pleural mesothelioma; mesothelial hyperplasia; pleural effusions; subtyping; gene expression
Online: 20 September 2023 (04:42:15 CEST)
Cytological diagnosis of pleural mesothelioma (PM) is controversial even using ancillary markers (BAP1, MTAP and CDKN2A). Here, we aimed to prospectively validate a previously developed 117-gene expression panel for the differential cytological diagnosis of epithelioid, biphasic PM and mesothelial hyperplasia. Seventy-seven pleural effusions were classified using the 117-gene expression levels (NanoString system). Sixty-eight cases were also screened for ancillary markers. The performance of both gene panel and ancillary markers was evaluated using ROC metrics. A score using the top consistently deregulated genes between epithelioid and biphasic PM was built to subtype malignant effusions. The panel alone reached a diagnostic accuracy (0.89) comparable to the best marker combination (BAP1 plus MTAP: 0.88). Ancillary tests missed 8 PMs, seven of which were correctly classified by the panel. The score built by averaging the expression levels of MSLN, CLDN15 and CFB showed an accuracy of 0.80 in subtyping epithelioid and biphasic effusions. The 117-gene panel is effective for PM cytological diagnosis of epithelioid and biphasic PM. This tool can be complementary to ancillary markers, reducing invasive procedures and allowing an earlier diagnosis. Finally, the possibility to subtype PM on effusions strengthens the panel role in PM diagnosis and management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1034.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: papillary thyroid carcinoma; BRAF-like; RAS-like; BRAFV600E; RAS mutation; prediction model
Online: 15 September 2023 (10:54:29 CEST)
The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) has classified papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) into indolent RAS-like and aggressive BRAF-like based on its distinct driver gene mutations. This study aimed to assess clinicopathology and pERK1/2 expression variations between BRAF-like and RAS-like PTCs and establish predictive models for BRAFV600E and RAS-mutated PTCs. A total of 222 PTCs underwent immunohistochemistry staining to assess pERK1/2 expression and Sanger sequencing to analyze the BRAF and RAS genes. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to develop prediction model. Independent predictors for the BRAFV600E mutation include a nuclear score of 3, the absence of capsules, an aggressive histology variant, and pERK1/2 levels exceeding 10% (X2=0.128, P>0.05, AUC=0.734, P<0.001). RAS mutation predictive model includes follicular histology variant and pERK1/2 expression >10% (X2=0.174, P>0.05, AUC=0.8, P<0.001). We proposed using the prediction model concurrently with four potential combination group outcomes. PTC cases included in combination of low BRAFV600E-scoring group and high RAS-scoring group are categorized as RAS-like (adjOR=4.857, P=0.01, 95% CI=1.470-16.049). PTCs included in combination of high BRAFV600E-scoring group and low RAS-scoring group are categorized as BRAF-like PTCs (adjOR=3.091, P=0.001, 95% CI=1.594-5.995). The different prediction models indicate variations in biological behaviour between BRAF-like and RAS-like PTCs, necessitating adjustments in treatment approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0866.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: hydatidiform mole; histology; p57KIP2 immunohistochemistry; histomorphology; Rwanda
Online: 13 September 2023 (09:39:07 CEST)
Background: The hydatidiform moles remain prevalent in spectrum of gesta-tional trophoblastic diseases (GTDs). In resource-limited settings like Rwanda, the definitive diagnosis relies upon single of histomophological diagnosis. The histomorphology alone suffers from high interobserver and intra-observer vari-ability with poor diagnostic reproducibility. The present study aimed at deter-mining the role of p57 immunophenotyping in the validation of histomorpholog-ical diagnosis of hydatidiform moles. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study embarked for histological cases collected between January 2017 and June 2020. A review of Hematoxylin &Eosin(H&E) stained slides was performed with subsequent p57 immunohisto-chemical staining. Results: Recorded were 211 retrospective cases of hydatidiform moles and 96 (45.9%) cases were all subjected to p57 immunohistochemical staining consid-ered as gold standard diagnostic modality in the present study. As result, the sensitivity and specificity of the histomophological diagnosis of complete hyda-tidiform mole were estimated at 62.5% and 57.1% respectively with positive and negative likelihood ratio of 0.145 and of 0.54 respectively. PPV and NPV were 81.8% and 29.3%, respectively. Whereas of 57.1% and 79.2% with PPV and NPV of 42.9% and 83.8% respectively for partial hydatidiform moles. Per the Youden J statistics method, the accuracy estimation of histomophological diagnosis of hydatidiform mole (HM) was 0.196 (CHM) and 0.336(PHM). Conclusions: This study highlighted a need to integrate p57 immunostaining in routine histopathological diagnosis of hydatidiform moles refining the defini-tive diagnosis.
INTERESTING IMAGES | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0462.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: claudin-18; cytopathology; colloid carcinoma (CC) of the pancreas; intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm with high-grade dysplasia (IPMNHGD) of the pancreas; signet-ring cell; serial pancreatic juice aspiration cytological examination (SPACE)
Online: 7 September 2023 (10:45:29 CEST)
We report a case of colloid carcinoma (CC) arising from an intestinal-type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm with high-grade dysplasia (IPMNHGD) of the pancreas, diagnosed with serial pancreatic juice aspiration cytological examination (SPACE). A rapidly growing intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) in a 71-year-old Japanese man accelerated his hospitalization in our institute. Clinically, a large, ruptured pancreatic cyst was suspected. Cytologically, several mucin-positive signet-ring cells were scattered in the inflammatory, necrotic, or mucinous background. Signet-ring cells in cell block specimens were immunoreactive for MUC2, MUC5AC, maspin, S100P, and claudin-18. The final cytologic diagnosis was CC arising in an intestinal-type IPMNHGD with intraperitoneal penetration. The patient died two months postoperatively. The cytologic diagnosis was achieved through SPACE, and the presence of signet-ring cells was characteristic. Anti-claudin-18.2-specific monoclonal antibody therapy will likely be used to treat patients with IPMNHGD in the future. To our knowledge, this is the first report in English on mucin-positive signet-ring cells of CC arising in an intestinal-type IPMNHGD evaluated by SPACE cytology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0355.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: FALD; hepatocellular carcinoma; cholangiocarcinoma; NGS; FGFRs genes; GNAS and TMB
Online: 6 September 2023 (10:13:28 CEST)
Purpose: To analyze the genetic and molecular profile of liver nodules in the context of Fontan-associated liver disease (FALD) with the aim of identifying possible biomarkers for predictive outcome and personalized therapy. Methods: this retrospective monocentric study included 9 patients who developed FALD in the context of congestive cirrhosis:1 regenerative nodular hyperplasia, 2 hepatic adenomas (HA) and 4 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 1 fibrolamellar carcinoma (FLC) and 1 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). The lesions were analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry (b-catenin, glypican 3, glutamine synthetase and SOX9). To study the molecular profile of neoplastic FALD, targeted NGS was performed on DNA and RNA from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded neoplastic liver tissue of 1 HA, 2 HCCs, 1 FLC and 1 ICC. Results: Molecular analysis showed 3 patients with copy number alteration involving FGFR3, and one patient with a hotspot mutation on CTNNB1 and NRAS genes. All 5 patients showed a tumor mutational burden ranging from low to intermediate. Variants of unknown significance in GNAS were present in 2 HCC and 1 ICC. The single FLC had a DNAJB1-PRKACA fusion. Conclusions: The molecular results seem to be consistent with a peculiar molecular profile of the malignant FALD which may be useful for new target therapies for HCC/ICC in FALD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0257.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: clinical features; histopathologic features; retinoblastoma; survival; children
Online: 5 September 2023 (11:25:46 CEST)
BACKGROUND: Retinoblastoma is a malignant tumour that develops from the immature cells of the retina. It is the most frequent type of paediatric intraocular cancer and is curable. Clinical and histological findings after enucleation of the affected eye dictate not only the patient's secondary care but also their prognosis. We assessed the clinical and histopathologic predictors of survival among children with retinoblastoma from two tertiary health facilities in Uganda. METHODS: This retrospective research utilized archived formalin fixed & paraffin embedded blocks of eye specimens enucleated between 2014 to 2016 at Mbarara University, pathology department and Ruharo Eye Centre. The specimens were then processed and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The confirmation of retinoblastoma was made to include histologic stage and features of the tumor. Biographic data of the patients and the clinical features such as leukocoria, proptosis, phthisis, staphyloma, buphthalmos were retrieved from the records.RESULTS: Males (55.1%) dominated the study population (N=78). The median age was 31 months. The commonest clinical sign was leukocoria (69.2%) and the most abundant histopathological stage was stage 1 (41%). Optic nerve invasion 39.5%, choroidal invasion 29.5%, scleral invasion 7.7% and orbital extension 16.7% were seen. Flexner-Wintersteiner rosettes were seen in 24.6%. Necrosis was a prominent feature (71.2%). The two-year survival was estimated to be 62%. Leukocoria (RR 1.1), female gender (RR 1.4), intralaminar optic nerve invasion (RR 7.6) and a lack of orbital extension (RR- 7) were significant predictors of survival.CONCLUSION: Leukocoria and proptosis are noticeable clinical signs of retinoblastoma. Most patients present while in stage one although stage four presentation is also common. Leukocoria, optic nerve invasion, orbital extension, and gender are significant factors predictive of survival in patients with retinoblastoma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0255.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: oral squamous cell carcinoma; prognosis; overall survival; disease free survival; connexin 43; EMMPRIN; E-cadherin; vimentin; metastasis; epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition
Online: 5 September 2023 (07:54:11 CEST)
Background: Metastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is associated with poor patient prognosis. Metastasis is a complex process involving various proteins, tumor cell alterations including changes caused by the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, and interactions with the tumor microenvironment (TME). In this study, we investigate a combined protein marker system consisting of connexin 43 (Cx43), EMMPRIN (CD147), E-cadherin and vimentin during the invasive metastatic process of OSCC and the possibility of using this system for prognosis prediction. Methods: The protein expression profiles of Cx43, EMMPRIN, E-cadherin and vimentin were investigated by immunohistochemistry in tissue samples from 24 OSCC patients. The metastatic process was mapped through different regions of interest (ROI) of adjacent healthy oral mucosa (OM), center of primary OSCC, invasive front (IF), and local cervical lymph node metastases (LNM). Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were the primary clinical endpoints. Results: Significant changes in the expression profiles of the different marker proteins were detected between the different ROIs (all p values < 0.05). Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed a significant effect of increased EMMPRIN expression towards IF on DFS (p = 0.019) and OS (p = 0.023). The combined predictive analysis showed a significant predictive value of the marker system for DFS (p = 0.0017) and OS (p = 0.00044). Conclusions: The combined marker system was able to significantly predict patient prognosis. An increase in EMMPRIN expression towards IF showed the strongest effect and could be an interesting new antimetastatic therapy approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0117.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: p53 expression; TP53 mutation; myelodysplasia; myeloblast; bone marrow
Online: 4 September 2023 (07:23:19 CEST)
Background: TP53 alterations have a significant prognostic effect in myeloid neoplasms. Our objective was to investigate the TP53 gene mutation status, p53 protein expression, and their re-lationship in dysplasia-related myeloid neoplasms with varying levels of myeloblast counts. Methods: 76 bone marrow biopsy samples with different blast counts were analyzed. Total and strong (3+) p53 expression was determined. Dual immunohistochemical staining was performed to determine the cell population associated with p53 expression. NGS analysis was performed using the Accel-Amplicon Comprehensive TP53 panel. Results: Both p53 expression and TP53 VAF showed a significant correlation with the myeloblast ratio (p<0.0001), however, p53 expres-sion was present in other cell lineages as well. The VAF value exhibited a significant correlation with p53 expression. A high specificity (0.9800) was observed for TP53 mutation using the ≥10% strong (3+) p53 cut-off value, although the sensitivity (0.4231) was low. Conclusion: Strong (3+) p53 expression using a ≥10% cut-off value accurately predicts TP53 mutation but doesn't reveal the allelic state. The p53 expression is significantly influenced by myeloblast count, and histo-logical interpretation should consider the presence of intermixed non-neoplastic marrow cells with varying physiological p53 expression.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2023.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: brain metastasis; breast cancer; diagnosis; comedonecrosis; solid growth pattern
Online: 30 August 2023 (04:44:47 CEST)
Since there are no morphological clues capable of making a pathologist suspect a possible mammary origin of a metastatic lesion without adequate clinical information, the histologic diagnosis of brain metastasis from BC is still based on the immunohistochemical expression of mammary gland markers such as GATA-3, ERs, PgRs and HER-2. The present retrospective study aimed to select purely morphological features capable to suggest the mammary origin of a metastatic carcinoma to the brain. The following histological features were collected on a series of 30 cases of brain metastases from breast cancer:(i) solid growth pattern; (ii) presence of comedonecrosis; (iii) glandular differentiation. Our results showed that most cases histologically exhibited solid growth pattern with at least focal comedonecrosis, producing an overall morphology closely reminiscent of mammary high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ. Although the above-mentioned morphological parameters are not strictly specific to a mammary origin, they may have an important diagnostic utility in leading pathologists to suspect a possible breast primary tumor and to include GATA-3, ERs, PgRs and HER-2 to the immunohistochemical panel.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1990.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: ChatGPT; chatbot; Artificial Intelligence; AI; Pathology; Histology
Online: 29 August 2023 (13:15:21 CEST)
Abstract: The advent of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has in just a few years invested multiple areas of knowledge, also affecting the medical-scientific sector. An increasing number of AI-based applications have been developed, among which conversational AI has emerged. Among these, ChatGPT has risen to the headlines, scientific and otherwise, for its distinct propensity to simulate a 'real' discussion with its interlocutor, based on appropriate prompts. Although several clinical studies using ChatGPT have already been published in the literature, very little has yet been written about its potential application in human pathology. We conduct a systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Re-views and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, using PubMed and Scopus as databases, with the fol-lowing keywords: ChatGPT OR Chat GPT, in combination with each of the following: Pathology, di-ag-nostic pathology, anatomic pathology. A total of 90 records were initially identified in the literature search, of which 6 were duplicates. After screening for eligibility and inclusion criteria, only 5 publications were ultimately included. The majority of publications were original articles (n = 2), followed by case reports (n = 1), letter to the editor (n = 1) and review (n = 1). Although the premises are exciting and ChatGPT is able to co-advise the pathologist in providing large amounts of scientific data for use in routine microscopic diagnostic practice, there are many limitations that need to be addressed and resolved, with the caveat that an AI-driven system should always provide support and never a decision-making motive during the anatomo-pathological diagnostic process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0879.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: early-stage endometrial cancer; molecular classification; L1CAM; risk stratification; prognosis
Online: 11 August 2023 (08:38:07 CEST)
Aim: To improve risk stratification in early-stage endometrial cancer (EC), we performed mo-lecular classification, and L1CAM immunohistochemistry (IHC) for additional risk assessment. Method: We analyzed archival tumor tissue from 247 early-stage EC patients. POLE mutations were detected using a Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction assay and Sanger sequencing, while the mismatch repair (MMR) status was determined by MMR protein IHC and MSI test. Additionally, we conducted IHC of p53 and L1CAM. Results: The 247 ECs were categorized into four subgroups: POLE-mutated (13.0%), MMR-deficient (27.9%), p53-abnormal (8.5%), and non-specific molecular profile (NSMP, 50.6%). We further subcategorized NSMP subgroup into NSMP-L1CAMneg (44.9%) and NSMP-L1CAMpos (5.7%), which we refer to as the molecu-lar-L1CAM classification. The molecular-L1CAM classification was an independent prognostic factor for recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) (p <0.001, each). Similarly, the simplified L1CAM-p53 categorization, for practical use, remained an independent prognostic factor for RFS and OS (p <0.001, p =0.003, respectively). Conclusion: Integrating the molecu-lar-L1CAM classification or the simplified L1CAM/p53 categorization can enhance risk stratifi-cation in early-stage EC, providing valuable prognostic information to guide treatment deci-sions and improve patient outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0720.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: autopsy; body donation; surgical training; scientific research; law dissemination; Italian law no. 10/2020.
Online: 9 August 2023 (08:07:50 CEST)
The practice of teaching and scientific research on cadaveric material remains crucial for medical education, especially in surgical disciplines. However, in Italy, this practice has been neglected due to legislative insufficiency and financial constraints. Although innovative methods and tools like simulators and e-learning have been adopted, direct hands-on experience with human cadavers remains irreplaceable for medical and surgical education. The absence of clear legislation governing cadaveric dissection has limited availability for teaching and research, resulting in economic burdens for universities and individuals seeking proper surgical training. To address this issue, the Law No. 10/2020 and the recent implementing decree were introduced in Italy, providing detailed legislation on the donation of bodies for educational and research purposes. The law emphasizes the importance of respecting the donor's specific choices and aligns with constitutional principles promoting culture, research, and health protection. However, some critical issues related to consent procedures, duration of body availability, and preservation of anatomical parts remain. Additionally, the law's dissemination among the population needs improvement. Future optimization could include allowing donors to choose the timing of body donation and considering different timeframes for body availability. Furthermore, the implementation of consent procedures could be simplified to increase donations. The law should also address the need for appropriate reception centers and allocate resources for effective dissemination. Despite these challenges, Law No. 10/2020 represents a significant step forward in enhancing medical-surgical training, scientific research, and the overall quality of patient care in Italy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0452.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: EMPSGC; Skin neoplasm; Mucinous carcinoma; rare neoplasms
Online: 7 August 2023 (10:06:48 CEST)
(1) Background: Endocrine Mucin-Producing Sweat Gland Carcinoma (EMPSGC) is a rare low-grade, neuroendocrine-differentiated, cutaneous adnexal tumour, officially recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) Skin Tumours Classification in 2018 as a separate entity and homologue of endocrine ductal carcinoma in situ (eDCIS)/solid papillary carcinoma of the breast. Although it is more frequent in the female sex, between the sixth and seventh decade, in the peri-orbital region, EMPSGC has also been described in the male sex, in subjects under 60 and over 80, and in extra-eyelid localizations (cheek, temple, scalp), but also in extra-facial localizations (chest and scrotum). (2) Methods: We present the clinical case of a 71-year-old woman with an undated lesion of the scalp, which presented as a nodule, skin-coloured, 2.5 cm in maximum diameter. We also conduct a comprehensive literature review from 1997 to the end of 2022, consulting PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science (WoS), using the following keywords: "Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma" and/or "EMPSGC" and/or "skin" AND "cutaneous neoplasms", and following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 248 patients were recorded with the majority, 146 females (58,8%) and 102 males (41,1%). The vast majority of the lesions were in the elides (peri-ocular region) and only a minority of cases involved the cheeks, supra-auricular, retro-auricular and occipital region, with very rare cases in the scalp, to which the present is also added (4) Conclusions: The morphological and immunophenotypical features are essential both for the correct diagnosis and to be able to classify this lesion among the corresponding eDCIS/solid papillary carcinoma of the breast, with neuroendocrine differentiation. Recent papers have attempted to shed light on the molecular features of EMPSGC and much remains to be done in the attempt to subtype the molecular profiles of these entities. Future studies with large case series, and especially with molecular biology techniques, will be needed to further add information about EMPSGC and its relationship in the PCMC spectrum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0382.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: pleural mesothelioma; subtypes; immunohistochemistry; Mesothelin; Claudin-15; Complement Factor B (CFB); Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI1); p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4).
Online: 4 August 2023 (12:34:31 CEST)
Pleural mesothelioma (PM) comprises three main subtypes: epithelioid, biphasic and sarcomatoid, which have a different impact on prognosis and treatment definition. However, PM subtyping can be complex given the inter- and intra-tumour morphological heterogeneity. We aim to use immunohistochemistry (IHC) to evaluate five markers (Mesothelin, Claudin-15, Complement Factor B, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1, and p21-activated Kinase 4), whose encoding genes have been previously reported as deregulated among PM subtypes. Immunohistochemical expressions were determined in a case series of 73 PMs, and cut-offs for the epithelioid and non-epithelioid subtypes were selected. Further validation was performed on an independent cohort (30 PMs). For biphasic PM, the percentage of the epithelioid component was assessed, and IHC evaluation was also performed on the individual components separately. Mesothelin and Claudin-15 showed a good sensitivity (79% and 84%) and specificity (84% and 73%) for the epithelioid subtype. CFB and PAK4 had an inferior performance, with higher sensitivity (89% and 84%), but lower specificity (64% and 36%). In the biphasic group, all markers showed a different expression when comparing epithelioid with sarcomatoid areas. Mesothelin, Claudin-15 and CFB can be useful in subtype discrimination. PAI1 and PAK4 can improve component distinction in biphasic PM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0323.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: urothelial carcinoma in situ; immunohistochemistry; meta-analysis; diagnostic test accuracy review
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:03:19 CEST)
This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic roles of various immunohistochemical markers in urothelial carcinoma in situ (uCIS) through a meta-analysis and review of diagnostic test accuracy. Immunohistochemical markers CK20, CD44, AMACR, and p53 were evaluated in the present study. We analyzed the expression rates of immunohistochemical markers and compared their diagnostic accuracies. The estimated expression rates were 0.803 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.726–0.862), 0.142 (95% CI: 0.033–0.449), 0.824 (95% CI: 0.720–0.895), and 0.600 (95% CI: 0.510–0.683) for CK20, CD44, AMACR, and p53, respectively. In the comparison between uCIS and reactive/normal urothelium, the expression of CK20, AMACR, and p53 in uCIS was significantly higher than in reactive/normal urothelium. CD44 showed significantly lower expression in uCIS than in the reactive/normal urothelium. Among the markers, AMACR had the highest sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio. The AUC on SROC was the highest for CK20. In conclusion, immunohistochemical markers, such as CK20, CD44, AMACR, and p53, can be useful in differentiating uCIS from reactive/normal urothelium.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1254.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: urothelial carcinoma; GATA3; immunohistochemistry; overall survival; meta-analysis
Online: 19 July 2023 (12:44:52 CEST)
This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic roles of GATA3 immunohistochemistry in urothelial carcinoma (UC) through a meta-analysis. We investigated GATA3 immunohistochemical expression rates and performed a subgroup analysis based on tumor site, study location, and histological subtypes. The overall survival rates of patients with GATA3-positive and negative UC were compared. The estimated GATA3 expression rate was 0.748 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.704–0.787). GATA3 expression rates in the urinary bladder and urinary tract were 0.775 (95% CI: 0.727–0.818) and 0.614 (95% CI: 0.426–0.774), respectively. The GATA expression rates of noninvasive and invasive UCs were 0.965 (95% CI: 0.938–0.980) and 0.644 (95% CI: 0.581–0.702), respectively. In invasive UCs, there was a significant difference in GATA3 expression between non-muscular invasion and muscular invasion subgroups (0.937, 95% CI: 0.883–0.967 vs. 0.753, 95% CI: 0.645–0.836). GATA3 expression was the highest in the microcytic subtype among the histologic subtypes (0.952, 95% CI: 0.724–0.993). There was a significant correlation between GATA3 expression and better prognosis (hazard ratio: 0.402, 95% CI: 0.311–0.521). Taken together, GATA3 expression significantly correlated with low-stage and better prognosis in UC. GATA3 expression is highly variable across histological subtypes and it is careful interpreting GATA3 expression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1099.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Bone Tumour; hyperparathyroidism; giant cell; osteoclast
Online: 17 July 2023 (10:20:10 CEST)
Osteitis fibrosa cystica (OFC) and Brown Tumour are two related but distinct types of bone lesions that result from overactivity of osteoclasts most often associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Despite their potential consequences, these conditions are poorly understood because of their rare prevalence and variability in their clinical manifestation. Canonically, OFC and Brown Tumours are caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism in CKD. Recent literature showed that multiple factors such as hyperactivation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and chronic inflammation may also contribute to the occurrence of these diseases through osteoclast activation. Moreover, hotspot KRAS mutations were identified in these lesions placing them in the spectrum of RAS-MAPK-driven neoplasms, while until recently thought to be reactive lesions. Some risk factors contributed to the occurrence of OFC and Brown Tumour such as age, gender, comorbidities, and certain medications. The diagnosis of OFC and Brown Tumour includes clinical symptoms involving chronic bone pain and laboratory finding of hyperparathyroidism. In radiological imaging, the X-ray and Computed tomography (CT) scan could show lytic or multi-lobular cystic alterations. Histologically both lesions are characterized by clustered osteoclast in a fibrotic hemorrhagic background. Based on the latest understanding of the mechanism of OFC, this review elaborates on the manifestation, diagnosis, and available therapies that can be leveraged to prevent the occurrence of OFC and Brown Tumour.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1026.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: epithelial-mesenchymal transition; prostate cancer; tissue biomarkers; microRNA; EMT-related proteins; metastasis
Online: 14 July 2023 (16:12:32 CEST)
Prostate cancer is the most occurred malignant disease in the male population in over one-half of the countries and still constitutes the fifth leading cause of death in 2020, worldwide. Metastatic prostate cancer is a lethal malignancy that mostly is terminated within several years through the patient's death. Researchers should focus on the phenomenon which is rigorously appertaining to metastatic cascade and operating as an initiator of metastases to provide the knowledge needed to solve the problem of diagnostics and treatment of advanced prostate cancer patients. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition is one such phenomenon. The current review is based mainly on three papers published in 2021, which describe the most important tissue-specific factors managing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and are discussed with scientific papers published in acknowledged journals. The effect of the current review is the specification of profiles of precise tissue factors predicting the progression of the prostate neoplasm to its metastatic stage in a new edition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0828.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: methylation; prognosis; colon cancer; biomarkers
Online: 12 July 2023 (11:09:30 CEST)
Colon cancer (CC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Gene hypermethylation is a well-known alteration that contributes to tumour progression in CC. It is essential to analyse new molecular markers that can delineate more aggressive CC cases. The detection of new epigenetic alterations such as hypermethylation and hypomethylation of regulatory gene regions that participate in crucial mechanisms of cancer progression, such as epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), could be useful for identifying cases that might benefit from a closer follow-up by clinicians. In the present report we describe, for the first time, the hypermethylation of the ZEB1 gene, which is more frequent in cases without expression of hMLH1. More importantly, this epigenetic alteration is a good prognostic factor related to disease-free and overall survival in all cases and Consensus Molecular Subtypes (CMS2/3) independently of other clinical parameters such as patient age, stage, lymph node involvement, and blood vessel and perineural invasion.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0572.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: sarcina; bundles; tetrads; Micrococcus; Zymosarcina; Clostridia
Online: 10 July 2023 (09:59:16 CEST)
In infectious disease and clinical microbiology, rarely encountered species are often of special concern simply by virtue of their unfamiliarity, especially in settings of complicated underlying disease. This is all the more so when the infectious agent has an appearance that distinguishes it from most commonly encountered organisms, making it a mystery that must be explained. In this context, it is rare for histopathologists to be more familiar with a bacterial species than clinical microbiologists but Sarcina ventriculi is one such example. Infrequently seen in tissue and even less often in culture, we here report a case of Sarcina ventriculi in the GI tract of a geriatric patient with complex underlying history. A brief discussion of the history, clinical presentation, treatment, and culture conditions of this organism is provided, along with clarification of nomenclature, which has changed and could otherwise be a source of additional confusion in this rarely encountered bacterium.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2059.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: streptozotocin diabetes; ultrastructural diagnosis; insulin resistance.
Online: 28 June 2023 (20:40:06 CEST)
Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrinopathies, estimated to affect about 5.4% of the world's population around 2025. It is thought that nearly a third of diabetic patients have some type of skin condition. Frequently, the cutaneous effects of this heterogeneous syndrome are accurately detected late in the progressive form of the disease. Methods: Skin fragments were harvested from adult white Wistar rats of both sexes, with the weight of 200 g, 12 weeks after streptozotocin diabetes was induced. In parallel with histopathological diagnosis by using hematoxylin and eosine staining, samples were processed by transmission electron microscopy technique and examined with a Philips CM100 microscope. Results: In the apparently macroscopically unchanged tegument, photon microscopy revealed both progressive thinning of the epidermis in the early stages of diabetes and a significant process of fibrosis and collagen hyalinization in the dermis. In addition, in the early stages, the electron microscopic study provided ultrastructural details characteristic of a senescent phenotype with reduced cell proliferation. Conclusions: The morphological changes in the skin may be the first signs of disruption of carbohydrate metabolism and in the case of established diabetes may reflect its progression and the efficacy of therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1905.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes; tumor-stroma ratio; colorectal cancer; inter-observer
Online: 27 June 2023 (12:36:13 CEST)
Background: To implement the new marker in clinical practice, reliability assessment, validation, and standardization of utilization must be applied. This study evaluated the reliability of TILs and TSR assessment through conventional microscopy by comparing observers’ estimations. Methods: Intratumoral and tumor-front stromal TILs, and TSR were assessed by three pathologists using 86 HE slides CRC. TSR and TILs were categorized using one and four different proposed cut-off systems, respectively and agreement was assessed using the intraclass coefficient (ICC) and Cohen’s kappa statistics. Pairwise evaluation of agreement was performed using the Fliess Kappa statistic and the concordance rate and it was visualized by Bland-Altman plots. Results: For the evaluation of intratumoral stromal TILs, ICC of 0.505 (95% CI:0.35-0.64) was obtained, Kappa values were in the range of 0.21 to 0.38, and concordance rates in the range of 0.61 to 0.72. For the evaluation of tumor-front TILs, ICC was 0.52 (95% CI:0.32 - 0.67), the overall kappa value ranged from 0.24 to 0.30, and the concordance rate ranged from 0.66 to 0.72. For estimating the TSR, the ICC was 0.48 (95% CI:0.35 - 0.60), the kappa value was 0.49 and the concordance rate was 0.76. Conclusion: The agreement between pathologists in estimating these markers corresponds to poor to the moderate agreement, however, implementing immune scores in daily practice requires more concentration in inter-observer agreements.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1670.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: HER2 expression; Breast cancer; Neoadjuvant treatment; HER2-low carcinomas; HER2 ultra-low carcinomas
Online: 23 June 2023 (11:55:10 CEST)
HER2-low and ultra-low breast cancer (BC) have been recently proposed as new subcategories of HER2 BC, re-considering the immunohistochemical negative score of 0, 1+ or score of 2+/in situ hybridization (ISH) negative phenotype. In the present review we have outlined the needed criteria to exactly distinguish HER2 low and ultra-low BC. Recent clinical trials have demonstrated significant clinical benefits of novel HER2 directing antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) in treating these group sof tumors. In particular, Trastuzumab-deruxtecan (T-Dxd), a HER2-directing ADC has been recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as the first targeted therapy to treat HER2-low BC. Furthermore, ongoing trials, such as the DESTINY-Breast06, are currently evaluating ADCs in patients with HER2-ultra low BC. Finally we hope that new guidelines may help to codify HER2 low and ultra-low BC, increasing our knowledge of tumor biology and improving a targetable new therapeutical treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1487.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: cell-free nucleic acids; cell-free DNA; circular DNA; microvescicles; inflammatory bowel disease; cGAS-STING; TLR9; oligonucleotides; bioinformatics; molecular therapies.
Online: 21 June 2023 (08:55:03 CEST)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn’s Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC) are chronic multifactorial disorders which affect the gastrointestinal tract with variable extent. Despite extensive research, their etiology and exact pathogenesis are still unknown. Cell-free DNAs (cfDNAs) are defined as any DNA fragments which are free from origin cell and able to circulate into bloodstream with or without microvescicles. CfDNAs are now being increasingly studied in different human diseases, like cancer or inflammatory diseases. However, to date it is unclear how IBD etiology is linked to cfDNAs in plasma. Extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA) are non-plasmidic, nuclear, circular and closed DNA molecules found in all eukaryotes tested. CfDNAs appear to play an important role in autoimmune diseases, inflammatory processes, and cancer; recently, interest has also grown in IBD, and their role in the pathogenesis of IBD has been suggested. We now suggest that eccDNAs also plays a role in IBD. In this review we have comprehensively collected available knowledge in literature regarding cfDNA, eccDNA, and structures involving them such as neutrophil extracellular traps and exosomes, and their role in IBD. Finally, we focused on old and novel potential molecular therapies and drug delivery systems, such as nanoparticles, for IBD treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1217.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: lung; giant cells; sarcomatoid; pleomorphic; carcinoma
Online: 16 June 2023 (10:27:35 CEST)
Primary carcinomas of the lung are vastly represented by the conventional types of adenocarcinomas or squamous cell carcinomas. However, there are other types of non-small cell carcinomas that although uncommon represent a meaningful group that often pose a problem not only in diagnosis but also in classification. Spindle and giant cell carcinomas although uncommon primary lung carcinomas are well known to occur. Important to highlight is that current criteria are rather ambiguous and likely not up to date, which renders the classification of these tumors somewhat more obscure. In addition, with the daily use of immunohistochemical stains, the classification of these tumors may also pose a different problem in the proper allocation of these tumors. Proper classification is highly important in the selection process that takes place using such material for molecular analysis. Current molecular characteristics of these tumors is limited and lacks more in-depth studies and analysis that can provide specific targets for the treatment of patients with these tumors. The current review attempts to highlight the shortcomings in the current classification and definitions of these neoplasms as well as the more current view regarding these tumors when the use of immunohistochemical stains is employed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1113.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Inflammatory bowel disease; Colitis-associated colorectal cancer; exogenous frees hemoglobin alpha chain; Fenton reaction; DNA damage; haptoglobin; deferoxamine; flavonoids; hydrogen peroxide; hygiene; iron; nanomedicine; oxidative stress; polyphenol; pharmaceutical therapy
Online: 16 June 2023 (07:11:38 CEST)
The aggregate aftermath of persistent inflammation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) places them at increased risk for the advancement to colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CACRC). CACRC is preceded by IBD, the highly heterogenous, pharmacologically incurable, pertinacious, reverting/worsening, and immune-mediated inflammatory pathologies of the colon and rectum. The molecular and immunological basis of CACRC is highly correlated with the length/duration and stringency/severity of colon inflammation predisposed by the exogenous/free hemoglobin alpha chain (HbαC) the byproduct of infiltrating immune cells, extravasated erythrocytes, and macrophage erythrophagocytosis. The exogenous free HbαC prompts oxygen-free radical-arbitrated DNA damage (DNAD) through increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) exacerbated by decreased tissue antioxidant defenses. Mitigation of Fenton reaction via pharmaceutical therapy would attenuate the ROS, promote apoptosis, DNAD repair, and subsequent prevent the incidence of CACRC. Three pharmaceutical options that attenuate hemoglobin toxicity include haptoglobin, deferoxamine, and flavonoids (vitamins C/E). Haptoglobin’s clearance rare from plasma is inversely correlated with its size; the smaller the size, the faster the clearance. Thus, the administration of Hp1-1 may prove to be beneficial. Furthermore, deferoxamine’s hydrophilic structure limits its ability to cross cell membranes. Thus, it may be beneficial if administered intracellularly to avoid the higher plasma concentrations and longer incubation periods associated with extracellular administration. Finally, the effectiveness of flavonoids and natural herb antioxidants is associated with high reactivity of hydroxyl substituents. Multiple analyses are currently underway to assess the clinical context of CACRC and outline the molecular basis of HbαC-induced ROS pathogenesis by exposing colonocytes and/or colonoids to HbαC. These cells are then treated with haptoglobin, deferoxamine (DFO), and flavonoids in order to separate free HbαC and measure their impact on hydroxyl radical formation therapies. The molecular pathogenesis of sporadic colorectal cancer (SCRC) i.e., “inflammation-dysplasia-carcinoma” progression sequence is well described, but the immunopathogenesis of CACRC herein reviewed is broadly still in prodromal stage/phase to be validated and understood. Therefore this timely review outlines the molecular and immunological basis of disease pathogenesis and the pharmaceutical intervention as a protective measure for CACRC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1178.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: gastric cancer; molecular classification; EBER; MMR; E-cadherin; beta-catenin; p53; Her2; PD-L1; Claudin18.2
Online: 16 June 2023 (05:46:59 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth cause of cancer death worldwide. Personalised treatment improves GC outcomes. A molecular classification is needed to choose the appropriate therapy. A classification that uses on-slide biomarkers and formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue is preferable to comprehensive genomic analysis. In 2016, Setia et al. proposed an on-slide classification, however this is not in widespread use. We propose a modification of this classification that has six subgroups: GC associated with Epstein-Barr virus (GC EBV+), GC with mismatch repair deficiency (GC dMMR), GC with epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (GC EMT), GC with functional loss of p53 due to mutation (GC p53m), CG with intact p53 (GC p53wt) and GC not otherwise specified (GC NOS). This classification also has provision for biomarkers for current or emerging targeted therapies (Her2, PD-L1 and Claudin18.2). Here we assess the implementation and feasibility of this inclusive working classification. Materials and Methods: We constructed a tissue microarray library from a cohort of 79 resection cases from FFPE tissue archives. We used a restricted panel of on-slide markers (EBER, MMR, E-cadherin, beta-catenin and p53), defined their interpretation algorithms, and assigned each case to a specific molecular subtype. Results: GC EBV(+) cases were 6%, GC dMMR cases were 20%, GC EMT cases were 14%, GC p53m cases were 23%, GC p53wt cases were 29% and GC NOS cases were 8%. Conclusions: This working classification uses markers that are widely available in Histopathology and are easy to interpret. A diagnostic subgroup is obtained for 92% of the cases. The proportion of cases in each subgroup is in keeping with other published series. Widescale implementation appears feasible. A study using endoscopic biopsies is warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1101.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: thyroid follicular adenoma; thyroid follicular carcinoma; mass spectrometry; tumor; diagnose; marker
Online: 15 June 2023 (08:13:52 CEST)
“Gray zone” category tumors in thyroid follicular tumors are difficult to diagnose, especially to distinguish between follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) and follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). This study aimed to assess the diagnostic performance of metabolite enzymes using imaging mass spectrometry to distinguish FTA from FTC and determine the association between metabolite enzyme expression with thyroid follicular borderline tumor diagnosis. Air flow-assisted desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (AFAIDESI-MSI) was used to develop a classification model for the characteristics of thyroid follicular tumors among 24 samples. We analyzed the expression of metabolic enzyme markers in an independent validation set of 133 cases and evaluated the potential biological behavior of 19 borderline thyroid lesions. Phospholipids and fatty acids (FAs) were more abundant in FTA than in FTC (P<0.001). The metabolic enzyme panel—including FA synthase and Ca2+-independent PLA2, which are closely associated with altered metabolic pathways—was further identified in follicular thyroid tumors. The marker combination showed optimal performance in the validation group (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity, and specificity: 73.6%, 82.1%, 60.6%, respectively). The diagnostic strategy suggested considering a putative role of AFAIDESI-MSI in routine clinical triage for strict follow-up, with low metabolic enzyme expression combined with diagnostic in patients with a thyroid follicular borderline tumor diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0975.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: BRAFV600E; colorectal cancer; microsatellite instability; mass spectrometry; N-glycosylation
Online: 14 June 2023 (04:02:04 CEST)
Aberrant glycosylation affects cancer progression and immune evasion. Approximately 15% of colorectal cancers (CRCs) demonstrate microsatellite instability (MSI) and display major differences in outcomes and therapeutic responses as compared to corresponding microsatellite stable (MSS) tumors. We compared the N-glycan profiles of stage II and IV MSI CRC tumors, further subdivided into BRAFV600E wild-type and mutated subgroups (n=10 in each subgroup), with each other and with those of paired non-neoplastic mucosal samples using mass spectrometry. Further, the N-glycans of BRAFV600E wild-type stage II MSI tumors were compared to corresponding MSS tumors (n=9). Multiple differences in N-glycan profiles were identified between MSI CRCs and control tissues, as well as between stage II MSI and MSS samples. MSI CRC tumors showed a lower relative abundance of high-mannose N-glycans than the control tissues or the MSS CRCs. Among MSI CRC subgroups, acidic N-glycans showed tumor stage and BRAF mutation status dependent variation. Especially large, sulfated/phosphorylated, and putative terminal N-acetylhexosamine containing acidic N-glycans differed between the MSI CRC subgroups, showing opposite changes in stage II and IV, when comparing BRAF mutated and wild-type tumors. Our results show that molecular subgroups of CRC have characteristic glycan profiles that may explain certain carcinogenic properties of MSI tumors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0480.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Breast; lung; cancer; microenvironment; pleural effusion; immunofluorescence
Online: 7 June 2023 (03:49:27 CEST)
Background:Malignant pleural effusion (MPE),a frequent complication of advanced malignancies. This pilot study characterized and compared the immune landscapes of breast carcinoma (BC) and lung adenocarcinoma (LADC) primary tumors(PTs) and their corresponding MPEs and tested the incorporation of multiplexed image technology for the study of malignant fluids. Methods: We studied the immune contexture of 6 BC and 5 LADC PT samples and their MPEs using 3 multiplex immunofluorescence panels. We explored associations between sample characteristics and pleural effusion–free survival. Results: Although we found 3 out of 11 PTs PD-L1 positive more than 1% by malignant cells, no MPE samples reached positive expression by malignant cells. In addition, CD3+ T cells and CD3+CD8+ cytotoxic T cells predominated (median percentages for MPEs vs. PTs: 45.5% vs. 40.7% and 4.7% vs. 6.6%, respectively). In the BC samples, CD68+ macrophages predominated (median percentages for MPEs vs. PTs:61% vs. 57.1%). Generally, CD3+CD8+FOXP3+ T cells in PTs and the distances from the malignant cells to CD3+CD8+Ki67+ and CD3+PD-1+ T cells were correlated in the first event of MPE after diagnosis. Conclusions: The immune cell phenotypes in the MPEs and PTs were similar within each cancer type but were different for LADC vs. BC.MPE analysis could be used as a substitute for PT analysis, but an expanded study on this topic is essential.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0039.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Renal cell carcinoma; Cystic renal neoplasm; differential diagnosis
Online: 1 June 2023 (07:03:38 CEST)
A wide variety of renal neoplasms can have cystic areas. It happens for different reasons: some tumors have an intrinsic cystic architecture, others have a pseudocystic degeneration of necrotic foci or they have cystically dilated renal tubules constrained by stromal neoplastic cells. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC), either solid or cystic, is the most frequent type of renal cancer. While pseudocysts are found in high-grade aggressive CCRCC, cystic growth is associated to low-grade indolent cases. The latter also form through a cyst-dependent molecular pathway and they are more frequent in patients suffering from VHL disease. The differential diagnosis with multilocular cystic renal neoplasm of low malignant potential and clear cell papillary renal cell tumor can be especially hard and it requires a focused macroscopical and microscopical pathological analysis. As every class of renal tumors include cystic forms, a knowledge of criteria for a differential diagnosis is mandatory.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2187.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: diabetes mellitus; blood-brain barrier disruption; dysglycemia; hyperglycemia; insulin resistance; neurodegenerative disease; diabetic complications; dementia, diabetic encephalopathy
Online: 31 May 2023 (10:05:10 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common metabolic diseases worldwide, and its long-term complications include neuropathy, referring both to the peripheral and to the central nervous system. Detrimental effects of dysglycemia, especially hyperglycemia, on the structure and function of blood-brain barrier (BBB) seem to be a significant backgrounds of diabetic neuropathy pertaining to the central nervous system (CNS). Effects of hyperglycemia, including excessive glucose influx to insulin independent cells, may induce oxidative stress and secondary innate immunity dependent inflammatory response which can damage cells within the CNS, thus promoting neurodegeneration and dementia. Advanced glycation end products (AGE) may exert similar, pro-inflammatory effects through activating receptors for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), as well as some pattern-recognition receptors (PRR). Moreover, long-term hyperglycemia can promote brain insulin resistance, which may in turn promote Aβ aggregate accumulation and tau hyperphosphorylation. This review is focused on a detailed analysis of the effects mentioned above towards the CNS, with special regard to mechanisms taking part in the pathogenesis of central long-term complications of diabetes mellitus initiated by the loss of BBB integrity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2189.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: chronic hepatitis C; nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; IL-23/IL-17 axis; immunohepatotoxicity
Online: 31 May 2023 (07:46:51 CEST)
Considering the relevance of the pathogenesis research of different liver diseases, in our study we investigated the possible activity of IL-23/IL-17 axis on the im-munohepatotoxicity of two etiologically different CLD. A total of patients with CHC infection, 19 with NASH and 20 healthy controls (CG) were recruited. After histological verification from liver tissue obtain by liver biopsy, patients with CHC were divided into two groups: CHC-NSF (F0/F1/F2)-non-significant fibrosis, 20 patients, and CHC-SF (F3/F4)-significant fibrosis/cirrhosis, 16 patients. All anthropometric, biochemical, immunological cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, IL-17 and IL-23) tests were performed accordance to standard procedure. The plasma levels of IL-6, Il-17A and IL-23 were significantly higher in CHC-SF and NASH in compared with CG. Also, plasma levels of IL-23/IL-17A were significantly higher in NASH in compared to CHC-SF. In CHC-SF we had significantly lowest IL-10 level in compared with all three groups. Liver tissue levels of IL-17A and IL-23 in CHC-NSF were significantly lower in compared with NASH. IN CHC-SF and NASH, IL17-A and IL-23 in liver tissue were significantly higher in compare to plasma levels. In conclusan, proinflammatory response of IL-23/17A axis is dominant in plasma and liver tissue in CHC with higher levels of liver fibrosis and in NASH patients.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1900.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Gout; Tophus; Perforating Dermatosis; Transepidermal Elimination; Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia; Granulomatous Dermatitis
Online: 26 May 2023 (09:36:26 CEST)
Perforating dermatoses are dermatologic disorders with transepidermal elimination (TE) of dermal substances. While TE is typically associated with collagen and elastin, it can also occur as a secondary event in other processes, and it is important to keep a broad differential. We present a case of perforating tophaceous gout, which underscores the need for a thoughtful approach to perforating disorders. An updated review of recent literature is also presented.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1344.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: mediastinal gray-zone lymphoma; classical Hodgkin lymphoma; primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; NOS; EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; NOS; morphology; phenotype; gene expression profile; mutational landscape
Online: 18 May 2023 (12:25:07 CEST)
The concept of gray-zone lymphoma (GZL) has been progressively refined since its in-troduction in the literature in 1998. For several years, it was applied to a rather broad spectrum of conditions, posing the problem of the differential diagnosis between any type of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, with special reference to primary mediasti-nal forms (PMBL). Officially recognized as a provisional entity in the 4th and revised 4th editions of the WHO Classification of Tumour of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues with the term “B-cell lymphoma unclassifiable with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lym-phoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma”, it was limited to tumours, which showed either morphologic features reminiscent of classical HL (CHL) but carrying a complete B-cell pheno-type or conversely provided with a PMBL morphology but revealing CHL phenotypic charac-teristics. The definition of GZL has been further revised in the recently published International Lymphoma Classification and 5th Edition of the WHO Classification of Haemato-lymphoid Tu-mours, which have limited it to mediastinal neoplasms based on emerging molecular evidences. The aim of this review is to critically discuss the issue of GZL, also in the light of the suboptimal response to current therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0526.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Colorectal cancer; mismatch repair; microsatellite instability; immune checkpoint; double negative T cells; tumor microenvironment; T-cell exhaustion; interferon-γ; PD-L1
Online: 8 May 2023 (10:53:18 CEST)
CRCMSS/pMMR contain a significantly increased fraction of TREM2+ macrophages (TAMs) and CD66+ neutrophils (TANs) together with decrease of CD4-CD8-CD3+ double negative T lymphocytes (DNTs); no differences were revealed by the analysis of myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cell populations. A fraction of tumor-infiltrating T-cells display an exhausted phenotype, co-expressing PD-1 and TIM-3. Remarkably, expression of PD-L1 on fresh tumor cells and TAMs was undetectable even after in vitro stimulation with interferon-γ. These findings confirm the immune suppressive microenvironment of CRCMSS/pMMR characterized by dense infiltration of TAMs, occurrence of TANs, lack of DNTs, T-cell exhaustion and interferon-γ unresponsiveness by host and tumor cells. Appropriate bypass strategies should consider these combinations of immune escape mechanisms in CRCMSS/pMMR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0879.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: renal cell tumours; renal cell carcinomas; immunohistochemistry; immunofluorescence; mito-chondria; electron microscopy
Online: 25 April 2023 (03:58:57 CEST)
The precise differentiation of renal cell tumours (RCTs) is sometimes hard to achieve using standard imaging and histopathological methods. This study investigated 43 cell renal cell car-cinomas (ccRCC), 15 papillary renal cell carcinomas (pRCC), 20 chromophobe renal cell carcino-mas (chRCC), and 18 renal oncocytomas (RO), stained with anti-mitochondria antibody (Thermo Scientific) by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence, and assessed by electron micros-copy, in order to define mitochondria distribution pattern (coarse scanty, moderate granular and diffuse granular). Thus, the majority of males had coarse granular staining in the tumours, while females were almost equally distributed among groups (p=0.005). An average patient age, tumour side and dimension, and tumour stage were similar in all staining pattern groups. However, pathohistological tumour types had significantly different expression patterns, with the lower amount of staining detected in majority of ccRCC, moderate expression in all chRCC, and diffuse expression in all RO, pRCC and two cases of ccRCC (p<0.001) presented with higher nuclear grade (p=0.005). Moreover, with increased distribution of mitochondria, the intensity of staining was higher (p<0.001). Here we present a strategy that utilizes mitochondria detection to differentiate RO from chRCC, as well as to distinguish other frequent RCTs, such as ccRCC and pRCC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0694.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Hashimoto’s thyroiditis; molecular biotechnologies; clinical trials studies; hygiene hypothesis; parvoviruses
Online: 21 April 2023 (08:48:10 CEST)
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) is a gender autoimmune disease that is manifested by chronic inflammation of thyroid. Clinical trial studies (CTSs) use molecular biotechnologies (MB) to approach HT appearance. Aims of this study was to analyze the applications of MB in CTSs carried out in HT populations (HT-CTSs). Further, to evaluate the role of MB in the context of hygiene hypothesis (HH). From 75 HT-CTSs found at https://beta.clinicaltrials.gov/ web place, forty-five were considered for this investigation. Finally, six HT-CTSs were reported as molecular HT-CTSs (mHT-CTSs) because of these were planning to utilize MB. Two of mHT-CTSs were settled on French population to isolate DNA viral sequences. Blood, urine, and thyroid tissues biospecimens were analyzed to pick out parvo and polyoma viruses. Two mHT-CTSs carried out in China, were aimed to identify oral and fecal microbiotas by measuring PCR sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. Two mHT-CTSs were programmed in USA and Greece, respectively, for interception of DNA polymorphisms to associate with genetic susceptibility to HT. In conclusion, MB are mainly employed in HT-CTSs for infective pathogenesis and genetic fingerprinting of HT. Besides, MB don't prove the evidence of HH; however, they are useful for direct evidence of the presence of viruses.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0225.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Inert Gas Asphyxiation; Autopsy Case Report
Online: 13 March 2023 (09:44:40 CET)
Inert gas asphyxiation is a rarely observed form of suffocation in which the decedent breathes in an inert chemical, such as helium or nitrogen, in the absence of oxygen. The ultimate cause of death is not a result of the chemical itself, but rather from the oxygen starvation as the inert gas displaces vital oxygen. In this case report, a 66-year-old Caucasian female with a history of gastroparesis, degenerative disc disease, and chronic pain was found deceased with a plastic bag secured around her head. Plastic tubing terminated inside the bag and connected to a nearby canister of nitrogen gas. This case study discusses the challenges in determining inert gas asphyxiation as the cause of death in a postmortem setting and emphasizes the importance of understanding the decedent’s history and context of the environment in which they were found.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0181.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: CCR6; monoclonal antibody; peptide immunization; flow cytometry; immunohistochemistry
Online: 9 March 2023 (13:45:12 CET)
CC chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family that is highly expressed in B lymphocytes, effector and memory T cells, regulatory T cells, and immature dendritic cells. CCR6 has been revealed to have important functions in many pathological conditions, such as cancer, intestinal bowel disease, psoriasis, and autoimmune diseases. The only CCR6 chemokine ligand, CC motif chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20), is also involved in pathogenesis by interacting with CCR6. The CCL20/CCR6 axis is drawing attention as an attractive therapeutic target for various diseases. In this study, we developed novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against human CCR6 (hCCR6) using the peptide immunization method, which are applicable to flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. The established anti-hCCR6 mAb, clone C6Mab-19 (mouse IgG1, kappa), reacted with hCCR6-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 (CHO/hCCR6), HepG2 (human liver carcinoma), and HuH-7 (human differentiated hepatoma) cells in flow cytometry. The dissociation constant (KD) of C6Mab-19 was determined as 3.0 × 10−10 M for CHO/hCCR6, 6.9 × 10−10 M for HepG2, and 1.8 × 10−10 M for HuH-7. Thus, C6Mab-19 could bind to exogenously and endogenously expressed hCCR6 with extremely high affinity. Furthermore, C6Mab-19 could stain formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lymph node tissues from a patient with non-Hodgkin lymphoma by immunohistochemistry. Therefore, C6Mab-19 is suitable for detecting hCCR6-expressing cells and tissues, and could be useful for pathological analysis and diagnosis.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0179.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Turner Syndrome; Autopsy Case Report
Online: 9 March 2023 (13:02:39 CET)
It is important to be familiar with the presentation of Turner syndrome and to understand the common causes of death associated with the disease. Using the autopsy case as an example, this case report will outline the classic presentation of Turner syndrome, go over its physiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and explain the cause of death in this particular case while also highlighting other common causes of death/risk factors within Turner syndrome. Differential diagnosis and mimicking disease processes will also be discussed. This report will also highlight the molecular tests used for the diagnosis of Turner syndrome, discuss developments using in situ hybridization, and discuss why this method is best for the determination of Turner syndrome over conventional karyotyping.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0126.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: sarcoidosis; Mycobacterium avium ss. paratuberculosis; MAP; non-caseating granuloma; caseating granuloma; Blau syndrome; early onset sarcoidosis; Crohn’s disease; cell wall deficient (CWD); L-form; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; acid-fast bacilli; SLC11a1 (NRAMP1); NOD2 (CARD15)
Online: 7 March 2023 (03:46:55 CET)
Clinical and histological similarities between sarcoidosis and tuberculosis have driven repeated investigations looking for a mycobacterial cause of sarcoidosis. Over 50 years ago “anonymous mycobacteria” were suggested to have a role in the etiology of sarcoidosis. Both tuberculosis and sarcoidosis have a predilection for lung involvement though each can be found in any area of the body. A key histopathologic feature of both sarcoidosis and tuberculosis is the granuloma – while the tuberculous caseating granuloma has an area of caseous necrosis with a cheesy consistency; the non-caseating granuloma of sarcoidosis does not have this feature. This article reviews and reiterates the complicity of the infectious agent, Mycobacterium avium ss. paratuberculosis (MAP) as a cause of sarcoidosis. MAP is involved in a parallel story as the putative cause of Crohn’s disease, another disease featuring noncaseating granulomas. MAP is a zoonotic agent infecting ruminant animals and is found in dairy products and in environmental contamination of water and air. Despite increasing evidence tying MAP to several human diseases, there is a continued resistance to embracing its pleiotropic roles. "Who Moved My Cheese" is a simple yet powerful book that explores the ways in which individuals react to change. Extending the metaphor, the “non-cheesy” granuloma of sarcoidosis actually contains the difficult-to-detect “cheese”, MAP; MAP did not move, it was there all along.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: FNDC5; Irisin; Degenerative disease; Regeneration; Tissue repair.
Online: 6 March 2023 (06:06:09 CET)
Physical activity is well-established as an important protective factor against degenerative conditions and a promoter of tissue growth and renewal. The discovery of FNDC5 as the precursor of irisin in 2012 sparked significant interest in its potential as a diagnostic biomarker and a therapeutic agent for various diseases. Clinical studies have examined the correlation between plasma irisin levels and pathological conditions using a range of assays, but the lack of reliable measurements for endogenous irisin has led to uncertainty about its prognostic/diagnostic potential as an exercise surrogate. Animal and tissue-engineering models have shown the protective effects of irisin treatment in reversing functional impairment and potentially permanent damage, but dosage ambiguities remain unresolved. This review provides a comprehensive examination of the clinical and basic studies of irisin in the context of degenerative conditions and explores its potential as a therapeutic approach in the physiological processes involved in tissue repair/regeneration.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; Vaccination; Adverse event; Case report; Iran
Online: 3 March 2023 (08:30:15 CET)
Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 has significantly contributed to the recent pandemic control. COVID-19 vaccines are available with different platforms and the primary clinical trials results presented acceptable safety profile of the approved vaccines. Nevertheless, the long-term assessment of the adverse events or rare conditions need to be investigated. The present systematic review, aimed at classification of Iranian case reports following COVID-19 immunization. To achieve this goal, the related published case reports were explored via PubMed, Web of Science and Google scholar according to PRISMA guideline and available up to 14th Dec, 2022. Out of 437 explored studies, the relevant data were fully investigated which totally led to 40 studies including 64 case reports with a new onset of a problem. The cases were then classified according to the various items such as the type of adverse event manifestations and COVID-19 vaccine. The reported COVID-19 vaccines in the studied cases included Sinopharm, AstraZeneca, and COVAXIN. The results showed that the adverse events presented in 8 different categories from which cutaneous problems accounted as the most prevalent manifestations (43.7%) in which rare diseases were also screened such as Steven-Johnson syndrome, Morphea and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis. Notably, almost 60% of the cases had no comorbidities. Moreover, the obtained data revealed nearly half of the incidences occurred after the first dose of injection and the mean duration of improvement after the symptom onset was 18.72±24.69 days. 73% of all the cases were either significantly improved or fully recovered. Although the advantages of COVID-19 vaccination is undoubtedly significant, the high risk individuals including those with a history of serious disease or comorbidities immunodeficiency conditions should be vaccinated with the utmost caution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0178.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: HPV-DNA; primary screening; HPV-mRNA; biomarker; triage; liquid-based cytology; colposcopy; CIN2+
Online: 28 February 2023 (01:50:35 CET)
Background: A plethora of data supports HPV-based screening to be the preferred strategy for cervical cancer prevention. The shift to a more sensitive firstline test brings the need of effective triage up for discussion. Currently, most algorithms apply cytology as triage of HPV-DNA positive women. This study compared the performance of a 7-type HPV-mRNA test to cytology. Methods: From 2019-01-01, until 2021-12-31, cervical samples from 58,029 women were examined at the University Hospital of North Norway. 30.5% (17,684/58,029) fulfilled the criteria for HPV-DNA primary screening. All positive samples were triaged by cytology and followed-up according to national guidelines through 2022. Additionally, a 7-type HPV-mRNA test was applied. Study endpoint was histologically confirmed high grade lesion (CIN2+). Results: 5.6% (990/17,684) had positive HPV-DNA test, 97.2% (962/990) with valid HPV-mRNA results. 55.5% (534/962) had abnormal cytology (ASC-US+) and 35.1% (338/962) had positive HPV-mRNA test. 13.9% (134/962) had CIN2+. Sensitivity (CIN2+) of cytology versus the HPV-mRNA test was 76.1% (102/134)) versus 73.1% (98/134)), p=0.67. The specificity was 47.8% (396/828) versus 71.0% (588/624), p<0.001. PPV was 19.1% (102/534) and 29.0% (98/338), p<0.001 respectively. The number of colposcopies per CIN2+ detected by cytology and HPV-mRNA test was 5.2 and 3.1. Conclusion: The 7-type HPV mRNA test was significant more specific than cervical cytology in triage of HPV-DNA positive women. Using this biomarker as threshold for colposcopy may better balance the benefits and harms of screening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0437.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: CD44; CD44 variant 7/8; monoclonal antibody; flow cytometry; immunohistochemistry
Online: 27 February 2023 (04:13:02 CET)
Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) has been investigated as a cancer stem cell (CSC) marker, and plays critical roles in tumor malignant progression. The splicing variants are overexpressed in many carcinomas, especially squamous cell carcinomas, and play critical roles in the promotion of tumor metastasis, the acquisition of CSC properties, and resistance to treatments. Therefore, each CD44 variant (CD44v) function and distribution in carcinomas should be clarified for the establishment of novel tumor diagnosis and therapy. In this study, we immunized mice with a CD44 variant (CD44v3−10) ectodomain and established various anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). One of the established clones (C44Mab-34; IgG1, kappa) recognized a peptide which covers both variant 7 and 8-encoded region, indicating that C44Mab-34 is a specific mAb for CD44v7/8. Moreover, C44Mab-34 reacted with CD44v3–10-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 (CHO) cells or oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell line (HSC-3) by flow cytometry. The apparent KD of C44Mab-34 for CHO/CD44v3–10 and HSC-3 was 1.4 × 10−9 M and 3.2 × 10−9 M, respectively. C44Mab-34 could detect CD44v3–10 in western blotting, and stained the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded OSCC in immunohistochemistry. These results indicate that C44Mab-34 is useful for detecting CD44v7/8 in various applications, and expected for the application of OSCC diagnosis and therapy.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0260.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; atherosclerosis
Online: 16 February 2023 (02:18:09 CET)
Patients with COVID-19 demonstrate higher rates of cardiovascular complications, including thromboses and thromboembolism. One may suppose that the action of SARS-CoV-2 transforms stable atherosclerotic plaques into unstable status. Cardiovascular complications in COVID-19 may be caused by progressive viral alteration the blood vessels, including vasa vasorum. A lethal case of ischemic brain disease caused by cerebral atherosclerosis and exacerbated with a stroke during COVID-19 infection is briefly described. The results of autopsy showed perivascular lymphocytic infiltration and signs of vasa vasorum vasculitis with thrombi of adventitial microvasculature. The data discussed in the article are interpreted in context of the concept giving the important role in atherogenesis to vasa vasorum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0207.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Chronic kidney disease; bone remodeling; static bone histomorphometry; inorganic phosphate transporters; intracellular signaling
Online: 13 February 2023 (08:46:13 CET)
Background: Initial phases of molecular and cellular maladaptive bone response at early CKD remain mostly unknown. Methods: We induced mild CKD in SHRs by either arterial hypertension lasting six months (sham-operated rats, SO6) or in its’ combination with 3/4 nephrectomy lasting two and six months (Nx2 and Nx6, correspondently). Sham operated SHRs (SO2) and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY2) with two-month follow-up served as controls. Animals were fed standard chow containing 0.6% phosphate. We measured creatinine clearance, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, renal interstitial fibrosis, inorganic phosphate (Pi) exchange, intact PTH and FGF23, Klotho, dickkopf-1, sclerostin. And assessed bone response by static histomorphometric indices and gene expression profiles. Results: Mild CKD groups had no increase in renal Pi excretion, FGF23 and PTH levels. Serum Pi, dickkopf-1, and sclerostin were higher in Nx6. Decrease in trabecular bone area and osteocyte number was obvious in SO6. Nx2 and Nx6 had additionally lower osteoblast number. The decline in eroded perimeter was only apparent in Nx6. Significant downregulation of genes related to Pi transport, MAPK, WNT, and BMP signaling accompanied histological alterations in Nx2 and Nx6. Conclusions: We found an association of mild CKD with histological and molecular features suggesting lower bone turnover, which occurred at normal levels of systemic Pi-regulating factors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0177.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Sickle cell disease; cardiopulmonary complications; inflammation; acute chest syndrome; cardiac hypertrophy; cardiac fibrosis; diastolic dysfunction; pulmonary hypertension
Online: 10 February 2023 (03:13:42 CET)
Cardiopulmonary complications remain the major cause of mortality despite newer therapies and improvements in lifespan of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Inflammation has been identified as a major risk modifier in the pathogenesis of SCD associated cardiopulmonary complications in recent mechanistic and observational studies. In this review, we discuss recent cellular and molecular mechanisms of cardiopulmonary complications in SCD and summarize the most recent evidence from clinical and laboratory studies. We emphasize the role of inflammation in the onset and progression of these complications to better understand the underlying pathobiological processes. We also discuss future basic and translational research in addressing questions about the complex role of inflammation in the development of SCD cardiopulmonary complications, which may lead to promising therapies and reduce morbidity and mortality in this vulnerable population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0148.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Neuropeptide; Inflammation; Immunity; Mast cell: Pro-inflammatory cytokines; Anti-inflammatory cytokines
Online: 8 February 2023 (11:33:15 CET)
Mass cells (MCs) are tissue cells that are derived from bone marrow stem cells that contribute to allergic reactions, inflammatory diseases, innate and adaptive immunity, autoimmunity, and mental disorders. MCs located near the meninges communicate with microglia through the production of mediators such as histamine and tryptase, but also through the secretion of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF, which can create pathological effects in the brain. Preformed chemical mediators of inflammation and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) are rapidly released from the granules of MCs, the only immune cells capable of storing the cytokine TNF, although it can also be produced later through mRNA. The role of MCs in nervous system diseases has been extensively studied and reported in scientific literature and is of great clinical interest. However, many of the published articles concern studies on animals (mainly rats or mice) and not on humans. MCs are known to interact with neuropeptides that mediate endothelial cell activation, resulting in central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory disorders. In the brain, MCs interact with neurons causing neuronal excitation with the production of neuropeptides and the release of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and chemokines. This article explores the current understanding of MC activation by neuropeptides and the role of pro-inflammatory cytokines, suggesting a therapeutic effect of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-37 and IL-38.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0115.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Endothelial dysfunction; Exosomes; Hyperinsulinemia; Hyperglycemia; Hyperlipidemia; Hypertension; Insulin Resistance; Leptin Resistance; Metainflammation; miRNAs
Online: 7 February 2023 (03:07:09 CET)
Abstract Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is considered a metabolic disorder that has been steadily increasing globally and seems to parallel the increasing prevalence of obesity. It consists of a cluster of risk factors, which traditionally includes obesity and hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. These four core risk factors are associated with insulin resistance (IR) and importantly, the MetS is known to increase the risk for developing cerebrocardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The MetS had its early origins in IR and syndrome X. It has undergone numerous name changes with additional risk factors and variables being added over the years; however, it still remains the MetS worldwide for the past three decades. This overview continues to add novel insights to the MetS and suggests that leptin resistance with hyperleptinemia, aberrant mitochondrial stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS), impaired folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism with hyperhomocysteinemia, vascular stiffening, microalbuminuria, and visceral adipose tissues extracellular vesicle exosomes be added to the list of associated variables. Notably, the role of a dysfunctional and activated endothelium and deficient nitric oxide bioavailability along with a dysfunctional and attenuated endothelial glycocalyx, vascular inflammation, systemic metainflammation, and the important role ROS and reactive species interactome are discussed. With new insights and knowledge regarding the MetS, comes the possibility of new findings through further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0583.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: factor XIII; foam cells; macrophages; vascular smooth muscle cells; oxidized LDL; enzyme-modified LDL; transglutaminase; atherosclerotic plaque; cross-linking
Online: 2 February 2023 (11:52:20 CET)
The potentially active A subunit of coagulation factor XIII (FXIII-A) is an intracellular transglutaminase expressed in various cell types including platelets and monocytes/macrophages. It is involved in stabilizing protein structures by cross-linking through Nε-(?-L-glutamyl)-L-lysyl iso-peptide bonds. Macrophages are major cellular constituents of the atherosclerotic plaque and are important in determining its structural/functional features. Two of their important functions are the accumulation of oxidized LDL in the lipid core, and by cross-linking structural proteins they may stabilize the plaque and protect the thrombi of atherogenic origin against fibrinolytic degradation. It is important to know whether these functions operate in parallel utilizing the same cellular compartments. First, we showed that monocyte-derived human macrophages significantly increase their FXIII-A content when up-taking oxidized LDL. This phenomenon is very likely independent of the process of transformation into foam cells, as the transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells into foam cells fails to result in the expression of FXIII-A. FXIII containing macrophage-like cells are abundant in the plaque and FXIII-A is also present in the extracellular core. Several cells co-stained for FXIII-A and for Oil Red O suggest that expression of FXIII-A and lipid up-take are common features of macrophages present in the atherosclerotic plaque.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0033.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Neuromuscular disorder; NCALD; SMA; SMN2; Antisense oligonucleotide; Genetic modifier; Therapy; hiPSCs;
Online: 2 February 2023 (07:54:05 CET)
Here we investigated the longer-term effect of Ncald-ASOs by additional i.c.v. bolus injection at PND28. Two weeks after injection of 500 µg Ncald-ASO in wild-type mice, NCALD was significantly reduced in brain and spinal cord and well tolerated. Next, we performed a double-blinded preclinical study combining low-dose SMN-ASO (PND1) with 2x i.c.v. Ncald-ASO or CTRL-ASO (100 µg at PND2, 500 µg at PND28). Ncald-ASO re-injection significantly ameliorated electrophysiological defects and NMJ denervation at 2 months. Moreover, we developed and identified a nontoxic and highly efficient human NCALD-ASO that significantly reduced NCALD in hiPSCs-derived MNs. This improved both neuronal activity and growth cone maturation of SMA MNs, emphasizing the additional protective effect of NCALD-ASO treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0066.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; endothelial dysfunction; glycocalyx degradation; sydencan-1; and mortality
Online: 9 January 2023 (03:21:59 CET)
Background: Endotheliopathy is common pathologic findings in patients with acute and long COVID-19. It may be associated with disease severity and predispose to long-term complications. Plasma levels of a proteoglycan syndecan-1 are found to be significantly elevated in patients with COVID-19, but its roles in assessing the disease severity and predicting long-term outcome are not fully understood. Methods: 124 consecutive hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV2 infection were prospectively enrolled and blood samples were collected on admission (T1), 3-4 days following treatment (T2), and 1-2 days prior to discharge or death (T3). Plasma levels of syndecan-1 were determined using an immunosorbent assay; various statistical analyses were performed to determine the association between plasma syndecan-1 levels and disease severity or the 60-day mortality rate. Results: Compared with those in the healthy controls, plasma levels of syndecan-1 in patients with critical COVID-19 were significantly higher (p<0.0001). However, there was no statistically significant difference among patients with different disease severity (p>0.05), resulting from large individual variability. Longitudinal analysis demonstrated that while the levels fluctuated during hospitalization in all patients, plasma syndecan-1 levels were persistently elevated from baseline in critical COVID19 patients. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses revealed that elevated plasma levels of syndecan-1 (>260 ng/mL at T1, >1018 ng/mL at T2, and >461 ng/mL at T3) were significantly associated with the 60-day mortality rate. Conclusions: Endotheliopathy, marked by glycocalyx degradation and elevated plasma syndecan-1, occurs in nearly all hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV2 infection; the elevated plasma syndecan-1 is associated with increased mortality in COVID-19 patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0131.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: BCG; bladder cancer; non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer; prospective validation; pT1 high-grade bladder cancer; risk stratification; ROL; substaging; TURBT; urothelial carcinoma.
Online: 9 January 2023 (01:17:29 CET)
Patients with pT1 high-grade (HG) bladder cancer (BC) and a very high risk of progression might benefit from immediate radical cystectomy (RC), but this option remains controversial. Validation of a standardized method to evaluate the extent of lamina propria (LP) invasion (with recognized prognostic value) in transurethral resections (TURBT) specimens is still needed. The Rete Oncologica Lombarda (ROL) system showed a high predictive value for progression after TURBT in recent retrospective studies. Our aim was to validate ROL system on a large mono-institutional prospective series of primary urothelial carcinomas. From 2016 to 2020, we adopted ROL for all patients with pT1 HG BC on TURBT. We employed a 1.0-mm threshold to stratify tumors in ROL1 and ROL2. A total of 222 pT1HGBC were analyzed. Median age was 74 years, with male predominance (73.8%). ROL was feasible in all cases: 91 cases were ROL1 (41%) and 131 ROL2 (59%). At a median follow up of 26.9 months (IQR 13.8-40.6), we registered 80 recurrences and 40 progressions. ROL was a significant predictor of tumor progression at both univariable (HR 3.53; CI 95% 1.56 – 7.99; p<0.01) and multivariable (HR 2.90; CI 95% 1.25 – 6.75; p=0.01) Cox regression analyses. At Kaplan-Meier estimates, ROL showed correlation with both PFS (p=0.0012) and RFS (p=0.0167). Our results confirmed the strong predictive value of ROL for progression on a large prospective series. We encourage the application of ROL for reporting the extent of LP invasion, substaging T1 HG BC, and improving risk tables for urological decision making.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0065.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: ART; Biomarkers; Inflammation; IRIS; Tuberculosis
Online: 4 January 2023 (04:18:55 CET)
The lethal combination involving TB and HIV, known as 'syndemic’ diseases synergistically act upon one another to magnify the disease burden. Individuals on ART are at risk of developing TB-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS). The underlying inflammatory complication includes the rapid restoration of immune responses following ART eventually leading to exaggerated inflammatory responses to MTB antigens. TB-IRIS continues to be a cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV/TB coinfected patients initiating ART, and although significant quantum of knowledge has been acquired on the pathogenesis of IRIS, the underlying pathomechanisms and identification of a sensitive and specific diagnostic markers still remain a grey area of investigation. Here, we reviewed the latest research developments in IRIS immunopathogenesis, and outlined the modalities to prevent and manage strategies for better clinical and diagnostic outcomes for IRIS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Neural Network; Machine Learning; Natural Language Processing (NLP); Text Mining; Sentence Classification; Colorectal Cancer; Clinical Information.
Online: 4 January 2023 (03:48:26 CET)
Colonoscopy is used for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Extracting details of the colonoscopy findings from free text in electronic health records (EHRs) can be used to determine patient risk for CRC and colorectal screening strategies. In this study, we developed and evaluated the accuracy of a deep learning model framework to extract information for the clinical decision support system to analyze relevant free-text colonoscopy reports, including indications, pathology, and findings notes. The Bio-Bi-LSTM-CRF framework was developed using Bidirectional Long Short-term Memory (Bi-LSTM) and Conditional Random Fields (CRF) to extract several clinical features from these free-text reports, including indications for the colonoscopy, findings during the colonoscopy, and pathology of the resected material. We then trained the Bio-Bi-LSTM-CRF and existing Bi-LSTM-CRF models on 80% of 4,000 manually annotated notes obtained from the colonoscopy reports of 3,867 patients. The clinical notes were from a group of patients aged over 40 years old enrolled in four Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. A total of 10% of the remaining annotated notes were used to train hyperparameter, while the remaining 10% were used to evaluate the accuracy of our model (Bio-Bi-LSTM-CRF) and to compare the results with the outcomes obtained using Bi-LSTM-CRF. The results of our experiments showed that the bidirectional encoder representations by integrating dictionary function vector from Bio-Bi-LSTM-CRF and strategies character sequence embedding approach is an effective way to identify colonoscopy features from EHR-extracted clinical notes. Therefore, the Bio-Bi-LSTM-CRF model is concluded to be capable of creating new opportunities to identify patients at risk for colon cancer and to study their health outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0457.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: fixed tissue; nucleic acid quality; next-generation sequencing,
Online: 23 December 2022 (09:04:08 CET)
Molecular diagnostics in healthcare relies increasingly on genomic and transcriptomic method-ologies and requires appropriate tissue specimens from which nucleic acids (NA) of sufficiently high quality can be obtained. Besides suration of ischemia and fixation type, NA quality depends on a variety of other pre-analytical parameters, like storage conditions and duration. It has been discussed that improper dehydration of tissue during processing influences quality of NAs and shelf-life of fixed tissue. Here we report on establishing a method to determine the amount of residual water in fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue (fixed by neutral buffered formalin, or a non-crosslinking fixative) and its correlation to the performance of NAs in qRT-PCR analyses. The amount of residual water depended primarily on the fixative type and the dehydration pro-tocol and, to a lesser extent on storage conditions and time. Moreover, we found that these pa-rameters were associated with the qRT-PCR performance of extracted NAs. Besides cross-linking of NAs and modification of nucleobases by formalin, hydrolysis of NAs by residual water was found to contribute to reduced qRT-PCR performance. The negative effects of residual water on NA stability are not only important for the design and interpretation of research, but must also be taken into account in clinical diagnostics where reanalysis of archived tissue from a primary tumour may be required, e.g., after disease recurrence. We conclude that improving shelf-life of fixed tissue requires meticulous dehydration and dry storage to minimize the degradative in-fluence of residual water on NAs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0422.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Infections; Human Adenovirus; Social Determinants of Health; Adenovirus Vaccine; Genotype; Molecular Diagnostic Testing
Online: 22 December 2022 (07:05:34 CET)
Human adenoviruses are one of the most important pathogens detected in acute respiratory diseases in pediatrics and immunocompromised patients. In 1953, Wallace Rowe described it for the first time in oropharyngeal lymphatic tissue. To date, more than 85 types of HAdV have been described, with different cellular tropisms. They can cause respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms, even urinary tract inflammation, although most infections are asymptomatic. However, there is a population at risk that can develop serious and even lethal conditions. These viruses have a double-stranded DNA genome, 25-48 kbp, 90 nm in diameter, without a mantle, stable in the environment, and resistant to fat-soluble detergents. Currently the diagnosis is made with lateral flow immunochromatography or molecular biology through a polymerase chain reaction. The objective of this review is to recognize the variability of HAdV, the pandemic potential that a recombinant could present between HAdV-3 and 7 viral types, known to produce aggressive outbreaks in health facilities. The review determined the characteristics of HAdV, from the infection to treatment, vaccine development and the evaluation of the social determinants of health associated with HAdV, guiding the necessary measures for future sanitary control, and preventing disasters such as the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0401.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: small RNA; HTLV-1; HAM/ TSP; massive parallel sequencing
Online: 21 December 2022 (11:46:09 CET)
Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)–associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a slowly progressive spinal cord disorder with no effective treatment. There is much of interest in developing potential biomarkers for predicting the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP disorder. This study used Illumina massive parallel sequencing (MPS) technology to assess the cellular global noncoding RNAome expression profile in HAM/TSP patients (n = 10), asymptomatic HTLV-1 infected carriers (ASP, n = 8), and a second group of healthy controls (n = 5). Using various bioinformatics tools, the sRNA MPS reads were aligned, annotated, and profiled. There were 251 known and 50 potential novel sRNAs among the 402 detected sRNAs in the HAM and ASP groups versus the HC group. Sixty-eight known sRNAs were found to be significantly different between the ASP and HAM groups. In HAM vs ASP subjects, 88 mature miRNAs were downregulated. Three of these miRs (hsa-miR-185-5p, 32-5p, and 192-5p) have the potential to be used as biomarkers for predicting the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP. The top seven deregulated miRS target genes were linked to a variety of biological processes and molecular functions. Relevant reactome pathways to our findings provide a rich source of data and an opportunity to further understand sRNA regulation and function in HTLV-1 pathophysiology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0392.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: CD44; CD44 variant 4; monoclonal antibody; flow cytometry; immunohistochemistry
Online: 21 December 2022 (07:40:21 CET)
CD44 has been known as a marker of tumor initiating cells, and plays pro-tumorigenic functions in many cancers. The splicing variants play critical roles in malignant progression of cancers by promoting the stemness, cancer cell invasion or metastasis, and resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. To understand each CD44 variant (CD44v) function is essential to know the property of cancers and establishment of the therapy. However, the function of the variant 4-encoded region has not to be elucidated. Therefore, specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the variant 4 are indispensable for basic research, tumor diagnosis, and therapy. In this study, we established anti-CD44 variant 4 (CD44v4) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) by immunizing mice with a peptide containing the variant 4-encoded region. We next performed flow cytometry, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry to characterized them. One of the established clones (C44Mab-108; IgG1, kappa) reacted with CD44v3-10-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells (CHO/CD44v3-10). The KD of C44Mab-108 for CHO/CD44 v3-10 was 3.4 × 10−7 M. In western blot analysis, C44Mab-108 detected CD44v3-10 in the lysate of CHO/CD44v3-10 cells. Furthermore, C44Mab-108 stained formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded oral squamous carcinoma tissues in immunohistochemistry. These results indicated that C44Mab-108 is useful to detect CD44v4 in various applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0359.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: tuberculosis; spatial analysis; mutations; spoligotypes; heteroresistance; cluster
Online: 20 December 2022 (08:10:25 CET)
Tuberculosis (TB), an infectious airborne disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is a serious public health threat reported as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. South Africa is a high TB burden country with TB being the highest infectious disease killer. The study investigated the distribution and clustering of Mtb mutations and spoligotypes in rural Eastern Cape Province. The Mtb isolates included were 1,157 from DR-TB patients and analysed by LPA followed by spoligotyping of 441 isolates, of these, 36 were whole genome sequenced. Distribution of mutations and spoligotypes was done by spatial analysis and clustering analysis was done by Bayesian model-based clustering of allele frequencies at heterozygous sites, using Mclust package in R. The rpoB gene had highest number of mutations. The distribution of rpoB and katG mutations was more prevalent in four health care facilities, inhA mutations were more prevalent in three healthcare facilities and heteroresistant isolates were more prevalent in five healthcare facilities. The Mtb was genetically diverse with Beijing more prevalent and largely distributed. Spatial analysis and mapping of gene mutations and spoligotypes revealed better picture of distribution. Clustering of isolates indicates that there is transmission of mixed infection in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0275.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Hashimoto’s thyroiditis; bioinformatics; viral infection; mRNA splicing; GSEA; autoimmune disease; CMap
Online: 15 December 2022 (07:44:33 CET)
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) is a common autoimmune disease, with its prevalence rapidly increasing. Both genetic and environmental risk factors contribute to the development of HT. Recently, viral infection has been suggested to act as a trigger of HT by eliciting the host immune response and subsequent autoreactivity. We analyzed features of HT through bioinformatics analysis so as to identify markers of HT development. We accessed public microarray data of HT patients from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and obtained differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under HT. Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses were performed for functional clustering of our protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Utilizing ranked gene lists, we performed Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) using the clusterprofiler R package. By comparing the expression signatures of the huge perturbation database with the queried rank-ordered gene list, connectivity map (CMap) analysis was performed to screen potential therapeutic targets and agents. The gene expression profile of the HT group was in line with general characteristics of HT. Biological processes related to the immune response and viral infection pathways were obtained for the upregulated DEGs. GSEA results revealed activation of autoimmune disease-related pathways and several viral infection pathways. Autoimmune disease and viral infection pathways were highly interconnected by common genes, while the HLA genes which are shared by both were significantly upregulated. CMap analysis suggested that perturbagens, including SRRM1, NLK, and CCDC92, have the potential to reverse the HT expression profile. Several lines of evidence suggested that viral infection and the host immune response are activated during HT. Viral infection is suspected to act as a key trigger of HT by causing autoimmunity. SRRM1, an alternative splicing factor, which responds to viral activity, might serve as potential marker of HT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0073.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: SARS-COV-2; respiratory tests; Xpert® Xpress COV-2 plus; Xpert(2) Xpress COV-2/Flu/RSV plus; diagnostic evaluation; novel target
Online: 5 December 2022 (10:17:58 CET)
The Xpert® Xpress SARS-CoV-2 and Xpert® Xpress SARS-CoV-2/Flu/RSV tests were rapidly developed and widely used during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. In response to emerging genetic variability, a new SARS-CoV-2 target (RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase) has been added to both tests: Xpert® Xpress CoV-2 plus and Xpert® Xpress CoV-2/Flu/RSV plus test. A rapid evaluation of both tests was performed in South Africa, using residual respiratory specimens. Residual respiratory specimens (n=125) were used to evaluate the Xpert® Xpress CoV-2 plus test and included 50 genotyped specimens. The Xpert® Xpress CoV-2/Flu/RSV plus test was assessed using 45 genotyped SARS-CoV-2 specimens, ten influenza A, ten Influenza B and twenty respiratory syncytial virus specimens. Results were com-pared to in-country standard of care tests. Genotyped specimens tested the performance of the test under pressure from circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Reference material was included to assess the test limits and linearity. The Xpert® Xpress CoV-2 plus test performance compared to reference results across residual respiratory specimens was good (positive per-centage agreement (PPA)=95.2%, negative percentage agreement (NPA)=95.0%) The Xpert® Xpress CoV-2/Flu/RSV plus test showed good performance across all residual respiratory specimens (PPA=100%, NPA=98.3%). All genotyped variants of concern were detected by both tests. The Xpert® Xpress CoV-2 plus and Xpert® Xpress CoV-2/Flu/RSV plus tests can be used to diagnose SARS-CoV-2, and to diagnose and differentiate SARS-CoV-2, influenza A, influenza B and respiratory syncytial virus respectively. The NPA was lower than the recommended 99%, but was influenced by the low number of negative specimens tested. The variants of concern assessed did not affect test performance. It is recommended that sites perform their own assessments compared to in-country standard of care tests.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0066.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Sickle Cell Disease; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Vaso-occlusive Crisis; Pain; Thromboxane; Prostaglandin D2; Thrombo-inflammation; Acute Chest Syndrome; Ramatroban
Online: 5 December 2022 (08:00:45 CET)
People with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at greater risk of severe illness and death from respiratory infections, including COVID-19 than people without SCD (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA). Vaso-occlusive crises (VOC) in SCD and severe SARS-CoV-2 infection are both characterized by thrombo-inflammation mediated by endothelial injury, complement activation, inflammatory lipid storm, platelet activation, platelet-leukocyte adhesion, and activation of the coagulation cascade. Notably, lipid mediators, including thromboxane A2, significantly increase in severe COVID-19 and SCD. In addition, the release of thromboxane A2 from endothelial cells and macrophages stimulates platelets to release microvesicles which are harbingers of multicellular adhesion and thrombo-inflammation. Currently, there are limited therapeutic strategies targeting platelet-neutrophil activation and thrombo-inflammation in either SCD or COVID-19 during acute crisis. However, due to many similarities between the pathobiology of thrombo-inflammation in SCD and COVID-19, therapies targeting one disease may likely be effective in the other. Therefore, the preclinical and clinical research spurred by the COVID-19 pandemic, including clinical trials of anti-thrombotic agents, are potentially applicable to VOC. Here, we first outline the parallels between SCD and COVID-19; second, review the role of lipid mediators in the pathogenesis of these diseases and lastly, examine the therapeutic targets and potential treatments for the two diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0560.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: airways obstruction; biomass smoke; COPD; cytokines; eosinophils; impulse oscillome-try; tobacco smoking
Online: 30 November 2022 (03:40:46 CET)
COPD is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by progressive airflow obstruction. Tobacco smoking is the main cause of COPD (COPD-TS), but chronic exposure to biomass smoke (COPD-BS), mainly wood smoke, is the second risk factor; both are considered to cause different phenotypes of COPD. COPD-BS is more eosinophilic than COPD-TS. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the serum level of interleukins involved in eosinophil maturation, recruitment, and survival, and their association with small airway obstruction, measuring cytokines by multiplex test (Bio-Plex) and evaluating the central airway resistance with impulse oscillometry (IOS), comparatively in patients with COPD due to biomass and smoking. The results showed that IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-9, IL-13, IL-17, and eotaxin were increased in COPD-BS related to COPD-TS. Resistance parameters showed that R5, X5, AX (area reactance), and R5-R20 were significantly higher in COPD-BS than in the COPD-TS group (p < 0.05). R20 was not different between the groups. These data suggest that the cytokines involved in the effect of eosinophils on airway inflammation in COPD-BS were increased compared with COPD-TS, which appears to be related to a predominance of peripheral airway obstruction in patients with COPD-BS more than in COPD-TS
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0529.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: tuberculosis; BCG vaccine; aerosol vaccination; non-human primate; macaque; bubble model; computed tomography scanner
Online: 29 November 2022 (03:29:53 CET)
Tuberculosis (TB) is still a worldwide major health problem and models using non-human primates (NHP) provide the most relevant approach for vaccine testing. In this study we have analysed CT images collected from cynomolgus and rhesus macaques, following exposure to ultra-low dose Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) aerosols, and monitored them for 16 weeks to evaluate the impact of prior intradermal or inhaled BCG-vaccination on the progression of lung disease. All lesions found (2553) have been classified according to their size and we have subclassified small micronodules (<4.4 mm) as ‘isolated’, or as ‘daughter’ when they are in contact with consolidation (described as lesions ≥ 4.5 mm). Our data links the higher capacity to contain Mtb infection in cynomolgus with the reduced incidence of daughter micronodules, thus avoiding the development of consolidated lesions and their consequent enlargement and evolution to cavitation. In the case of rhesus, intradermal vaccination has a higher capacity to reduce the formation of daughter. This study supports the ‘Bubble Model’ defined with the C3HBe/FeJ mice and proposes a new method to evaluate outcome in experimental models of TB in NHP based on CT images, which would fit a future machine learning approach to evaluate new vaccines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0498.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Virus-Like Particle (VLP); SARS-CoV-2; in vitro diagnostic device (IVD); Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA); Immune reaction; Antibodies
Online: 28 November 2022 (07:06:50 CET)
A key in controlling the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is the assessment of the immune status of the population. We explored the utility of SARS-CoV-2 virus-like particles (VLPs) as antigens to detect specific humoral immune reactions in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For this purpose, SARS-CoV-2 VLPs were produced from an engineered cell line and characterized by western blot, ELISA and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Subsequently, we collected 42 serum samples from before the pandemic (2014), 89 samples from healthy-, and 38 samples from vaccinated subjects. Seventeen samples were collected less than three weeks after infection, and 44 samples more than three weeks after infection. All serum samples were characterized for their reactivity with VLPs and the SARS-CoV-2 N- and S-protein. Finally, we compared the performance of the VLP-based ELISA with a certified in vitro diagnostic device (IVD). In the applied set of samples, we determined a sensitivity of 95.5 % and a specificity of 100 % for the certified IVD. There were 7 samples with an uncertain outcome. Our VLP-ELISA showed superior performance with a sensitivity of 97.5 %, a specificity of 100 %, and only 3 uncertain outcomes. This result warrants further research to develop a certified IVD based on SARS-CoV-2 VLPs as an antigen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0086.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: automated immunoassays; COVID-19; lateral flow immunoassay; performance; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 4 November 2022 (01:59:01 CET)
Background: The duration of the vaccine's protective efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 is unknown. Evaluation of the clinical performance of available tests is required. Objectives: To evaluate the clinical performance of three immunoassays for the detection of IgG antibodies generated by mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Two automated immunoassays (Euroimmun Anti-SARS-CoV-2 ELISA IgG and Abbott SARS-CoV-2 CLIA IgG) and one lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA Test Livzon IgG) were tested. 300 samples distributed in 3 groups were analyzed: 100 subjects over 18 years old and under 45 years old, 100 subjects between 45-65 years old and another 100 over 65 years old. collected before vaccination, at 21 days, 1, 2, 3 and 6 months post-vaccination. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and agreement (I. Kappa) were calculated for each serological test. Results: Maximum sensitivity for IgG was 98.7%, 98.1%, and 97.8% for the ELISA Euroimmun, CLIA Abbott, and Livzon LFIA assays and maximum specificity for IgG was 99.4%, 99.9%. % and 98.4% ELISA, CLIA and LFIA respectively at 3 months after vaccination with a decrease in antibody levels from the sixth month. The best agreement was observed between ELISA and CLIA 100%; (k = 1.00). The agreement between ELIA, CLIA and LIFIA was 99% (k = 0964) at the second and third month after vaccination. Seroconversion was faster and longer lasting in the younger age groups. Conclusion: Our study showed an equivalent and homogeneous clinical performance for IgG of three immunoassays after vaccination and that the LIFIA assay is the most cost-effective, reliable and accurate for routine use in population studies of seroconversion and seroprevalence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0421.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Postoperative atrial fibrillation; cardiac surgery; conventional extracorporeal circulation; circulating ferritin levels; POAF onset biomarker
Online: 27 October 2022 (05:53:09 CEST)
Background: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is the most common arrhythmia after cardiac surgery in conventional extracorporeal circulation (CECC), with an incidence of 15-50%. The POAF pathophysiology is not known, and no blood biomarkers exist. However, an association between increased ferritin levels and increased AF risk, has been demonstrated. Based on such evidence, here, we evaluated the effectiveness of ferritin and other haemato-chemical parameters as a POAF onset biomarker in subjected to cardiac surgery. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 90 patients (mean age= 66.9±2.8 years; 40 men and 20 females) with diverse heart pathologies and subjected to cardiothoracic surgery. Their blood samples were collected and used to determine haemato-chemical parameters. The tree test approach was used to detect the best data-driven ferritin cuff-off value (=141 ng/ml) to predict POAF risk. Results: The data obtained demonstrated significant higher concentrations, absolute values, and percentages, of ferritin, RDW, PLTs, in POAF patients. However, the ferritin resulted to be the independent factor associated with the onset POAF risk. Thus, we detected the ferritin cut-off value, which, when ≥ 141 ng/ml identifies the subjects at the highest POAF risk. Conclusions: Ferritin values≥ 141 ng/ml might be used as predictive POAF biomarker.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0306.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Parkinson´s disease; proteomics; cerebral cortex; palmitoylation; interactome.; fibrinogen; cytoskeleton
Online: 20 October 2022 (11:14:12 CEST)
The relationship between Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease, and palmitoylation, a post-translational lipid modification, is not well understood. In this study, we have analyzed the differential palmitome present in the cerebral cortex of PD patients compared to controls (n=4 per group) to better understand the role of protein palmitoylation in PD and the pathways altered in this disease. Data-mining of the cortical palmitome from PD patients and controls has allowed to: i) detect a set of 150 proteins with altered palmitoylation in PD subjects in comparison with controls, ii) describe the biological pathways and targets predicted to be altered by these palmitoylation changes, and iii) depict the overlap between the differential palmitome identified in our study with protein interactomes of the PD-linked proteins α-synuclein, LRRK2, DJ-1, PINK1, GBA and UCHL1. In summary, we have partially characterized the altered palmitome in the cortex of PD patients which is predicted to impact cytoskeleton, mitochondrial and fibrinogen functions, as well as cell survival. Our study points out that protein palmitoylation could have a role in the pathophysiology of PD, and that comprehensive palmitoyl-proteomics offers a powerful approach for elucidating novel cellular pathways modulated in this neurodegenerative disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0195.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Warburg effect, oxidative stress, magnesuria, inflammasome, butyrate
Online: 14 October 2022 (12:56:34 CEST)
Long Covid has many symptoms that overlap with ME(myalgic encephalomyelitis)/CFS(chronic fatigue syndrome), FM(fibromyalgia), EBV(Epstein-Barr virus), CMV(cytomegalovirus), CIRS (chronic inflammatory response syndrome), MCAS(mast cell activation syndrome), POTS(postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome), and post viral fatigue syndrome. They all portend a “long haul” with an antioxidant shortfall and elevated Ca:Mg. Oxidative stress is the root cause. Linkage between TGF(transforming growth factor)-β, IFN(interferon)-γ, the RAS(renin angiotensin system), and the KKS(kallikrein kinin system) is discussed. Technical explanations for the renin aldosterone paradox in POTS, the betrayal of TGF-β, and the commonality of markers for the Warburg effect are offered. The etiology of the common Long Covid symptoms of post exertional malaise, fatigue, and brain fog as well as anosmia, hair loss, and GI symptoms is technically discussed. Ca:Mg is critical to the glutamate/GABA balance. The role of GABA and butyrates from the “good” intestinal bacteria in the gut-brain axis and its correlation with chronic fatigue diseases are explored. The crosstalk between the ENS(enteric nervous system) and the ANS(autonomic nervous system) and the role of the vagus in both are emphasized. HRV(heart rate variability), the fifth vital sign, points to an expanded gut-brain-heart/lung axis. A suggested approach to all of these - Long Covid, chronic fatigue diseases, post viral fatigue syndrome, and general health - is presented.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0083.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: epigenetics; TRP channels; TRPA1; pain transmission; neuropathic pain; neurogenic inflammation; migraine; DNA methylation; histone modification; micro RNA
Online: 7 October 2022 (15:21:34 CEST)
Background: Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily A member 1 (TRPA1) is expressed in trigeminal neurons and brain regions important in migraine pathogenesis and is activated by many migraine triggers. Epigenetic regulation of TRPA1 expression is important in pain transmission and neurogenic inflammation.Findings: TRPA1 channels change noxious stimuli into pain signals with the involvement of epigenetic regulation, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and effects of micro RNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs. TRPA1 may change epigenetic profile of many pain-related genes as it may modify enzymes establishing the epigenetic profile and expression of non-coding RNAs. TRPA1 may induce the release of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), from trigeminal neurons and dural tissue. Therefore, epigenetic regulation of TRPA1 may play a role in efficacy and safety of anti-migraine therapies targeting TRP channels and CGRP. TRPA1 is also involved in neurogenic inflammation, important in migraine. The fundamental role of TRPA1 in inflammatory pain transmission may be epigenetically regulated. Conclusions: Epigenetic connections of TRPA1 may play a role in efficacy and safety of anti-migraine therapy targeting TRP channels or CGRP and they should be further explored for efficient and safe antimigraine treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0439.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID19; SARS-CoV-2 virus; Oro-nasopharyngeal; fecal; vaccination; asym-symptomatic; rapid diagnostic test
Online: 28 September 2022 (11:51:21 CEST)
Coronavirus is a disease caused by a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which emerged as a global pandemic in 2019 from Wuhan, China. Since its emergence, it has caused immense suffering to human life, 6.27 million lives have been lost, movement curtailed and social dynamics disrupted. The golden standard for getting samples for SARS-CoV-2 detection is through oral- nasopharyngeal swab, this method of sample collection is invasive and uncomfortable, thus stigmatized the general population, and thereby impeded the progress of controlling the spread through mass testing. Being a contact disease, mechanisms to encourage mass testing is key to reduce the spread. This study thus developed a complimentary sample type to test for SARS-CoV-2, the use of human feces. Fecal samples were collected from 100 asym-symptomatic individuals suspected to be infected with COVID-19, virus RNA was then extracted and profiled through Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR). The antigen rapid diagnostic test revealed high positivity rate of 44%, but the real time polymerase chain reaction results on nasopharyngeal and fecal samples revealed a significant variation, high number of the patients tested positive with stool samples compared to the nasopharyngeal swabs, with 43 and 37%, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 virus was detected in both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals; however, the symptomatic registered a higher positivity of 25% compared to 20% among the asymptomatic patients. Vaccination only lowered the risk of infection, fully and partially vaccinated lowered the infection level to 10% compared to 20% among the unvaccinated. Finally, gender parity in relation to COVID19 was evaluated, more females (56%) compared to males were recruited in this study, out of which (20; 43.4%) were positive, and 26 (56.6%) were negative based on fecal RT-qPCR outcomes. Based on the outcome of this study, rapid diagnostic test (Ag-RDT) however cheap and or fast does not provide accurate information, moreover, the virus does not stay longer within the Oro-nasopharyngeal region, thus the invalid or negative results, thus use of feces should be adopted as a confirmatory test to ascertain the COVID19 status of an individual.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0253.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Abdominal aortic aneurysm; Type I interferon receptor, Leukocytes; Angiogenesis
Online: 19 September 2022 (02:08:07 CEST)
Objective: Type I interferon receptor (IFNAR) signaling contributes to several autoimmune and vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and stroke. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of IFNAR1 deficiency on the formation and progression of experimental abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Methods: AAAs were induced in type I interferon receptor subunit 1 (IFNAR1) deficient and wild type control male mice via intra-infrarenal aortic infusion of porcine pancreatic elastase. Immunostaining for IFNAR1 was evaluated in experimental and clinical aneurysms. The initiation and progression of experimental AAAs was assessed via ultrasound imaging prior to (day 0) and 3-, 7-, and 14-days following elastase infusion. Aneurysmal histopathology was analyzed at sacrifice. Results: Increased aortic medial and adventitial IFNAR1 expression was present in both clinical AAAs harvested at surgery and experimental AAAs. Following AAA initiation, wild type mice experienced progressive, time-dependent infrarenal aortic enlargement. This progression was substantially attenuated in IFNAR1 deficient mice. On histological analyses, medial elastin degradation, smooth muscle cell depletion, leukocyte accumulation and neoangiogenesis were markedly diminished in IFNAR1 deficient as compared to wild type mice. Conclusion: IFNAR1 deficiency limited experimental AAA progression in response to intra-aortic elastase infusion. Combined with clinical observations, these results suggest a regulatory role for IFNAR1 activity in AAA pathogenesis.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0161.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Antibody-mediated rejection; Crossmatch; Daratumumab; End-stage renal disease; Flow cytometry; HLA; Multiple myeloma; Transplantation
Online: 13 September 2022 (05:48:27 CEST)
We report the first case of Daratumumab interference of allogeneic crossmatch tests repeatedly causing aberrant false-positive results, which inadvertently delayed transplant for a waitlisted renal patient with multiple myeloma. Daratumumab is an IgG1κ human monoclonal antibody commonly used to treat multiple myeloma, characterized by cancerous plasma cells and often leads to renal failure requiring kidney transplant, by depleting CD38-expressing plasma cells. In this case study, the patient had end-stage renal disease secondary to multiple myeloma and was continuously receiving Daratumumab infusions. The patient did not have any detectable antibodies to human leukocyte antigens but repeatedly had unexpected positive crossmatch by the flow cytometry-based method with 26 of the 27 potential deceased organ donors, implying donor-recipient immunological incompatibility. However, further review and analysis suggested that the positive crossmatches were likely false-positive as a result of interference from Daratumumab binding to donor cell surface CD38 as opposed to the presence of donor-specific antibodies. The observed intensity of the false-positive crossmatches was also highly variable, potentially due to donor- and/or cell-dependent expression of CD38. The variability of CD38 expression was, therefore, for the first time, characterized on the T and B cells isolated from various tissues and peripheral blood of 78 individuals. Overall, T cells were found to have a lower CD38 expression profile than the B cells, and no significant difference was observed between deceased and living individuals. Finally, we show that a simple cell treatment by dithiothreitol can effectively mitigate Daratumumab interference thus preserving the utility of pre-transplant crossmatch in multiple myeloma patients awaiting kidney transplant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0137.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Chronic geriatric inflammation; machine learning C4.5 classification; brain ventricular volumes; recent fall; subconcussive brain trauma
Online: 9 September 2022 (13:05:28 CEST)
A chronic activated pro-inflammatory cytokine network (“inflamm-aging”) may amplify the neurodegenerative effects of a fall induced brain trauma in geriatric subjects. Our research aimed to evaluate how a trained machine learning algorithm may predict recent antecedent falls based only on specific serologic cytokines network analysis and how the consequences of these falls can be substantiated on standard head MRIs. All 279 subjects included in our study were selected from the ADNI1 dataset and all had a mild cognitive impairment diagnostic at the ADNI1 study baseline. A “train group” was built and included 14 subjects with a history of a recent, simple, standing-level fall. These were carefully matched with 14 similar subjects without any antecedent trauma. The “test group” included 251 subjects, all without any history of recent fall. The machine learning algorithm (classic C4.5 decision tree) was trained to detect a pattern of variation in 23 clinically relevant cytokines in relation with an antecedent fall. Changes in five cytokines (matrix metalloproteinase-7, eotaxin-1, interleukin-3, interleukin-8 and matrix metalloproteinase-9) were used for fall prediction in the “test” group. Once trained, the algorithm predicted a recent fall in 119 cases from the test group. The mean brain ventricular volume that was significantly different between fall/non-fall subgroups (41645.5±10337.2 vs 27127.3±6749.4 mm3, p=0.005) remained significant in the test group, after prediction between (41544.24±17343.4 vs 34553.5±10543.2 mm3, p=0.042). The hippocampus mean volume was also significantly different between in the test group (6297.3±1080.1 vs 6745.9±1123.7, p=0.0015). A significant brain ventricular difference was observed in the “65<y.o.” subgroup (p=0.04). If confirmed by larger prospective studies, our findings may increase the precision of the neuro-cognitive assessments in geriatric subjects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0123.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; COPD; fall risk factor; gait; balance; cognition; daily activity; muscle dysfunction
Online: 8 September 2022 (10:35:01 CEST)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasingly being recognized as a systemic disease rather than a mere disorder of the lungs. Central (respiratory) and peripheral (limb) muscle weakness are among the main pronounced systemic effects of COPD. While the disease primarily affects the lower limb muscles and contributes to gait impairment, COPD is also associated with an increasing risk of falls in patients (COPDp). Previous studies have reported higher rates of falls among COPDp (1.17 to 1.20 falls/person-year), amounting to four times higher than an age-matched healthy group. Potential fall risk factors include muscle weakness, impaired daily activities, cognitive dysfunction, and gait and balance impairment. Although COPDp often manifest many of these risk factors, there remains a gap in literature regarding falls during walking in this population. This study aimed to 1. analyze the literature to identify the risk factors of falling in COPDp, and 2. investigate the underlying mechanisms by which these risk factors can lead to increased prevalence of falling. The results suggest that in addition to the known risk factors of falling, low back pain and mental fatigue should also be considered as relevant risk factors in the treatment process of these patients. Moreover, respiratory problems, which are common in this population, have demonstrated pronounced effects on energy expenditure, gait, and other types of activities of daily living (ADLs), leading to reduced intensity, disrupted coordination of the trunk-pelvic structure with the lower limbs during gait, and altered motor control performance due to activation of muscles in an inefficient synergic manner. These problems potentially lead to the increased vulnerability of these patients to external disturbances and higher incidence risk of falls and injuries. Cognitive problems, which are typically due to reduced oxygen received by the brain, as well as general inflammation caused by COPD, also play a significant role in gait disruption and balance. Future research is warranted to determine the prevalence of falls in COPDp by examining the response of these patients to Medio-Lateral (ML) and Anterior-Posterior (AP) disturbances during gait in association with traditional and recommended fall risk factors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0115.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: : N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase; Arylsulfatase B; chondroitin 4-sulfate; dermatan sulfate; sulfated glycosaminoglycans; mucopolysaccharidosis; cystic fibrosis; malignancy; proteoglycans; Warburg effect
Online: 8 September 2022 (03:07:30 CEST)
The enzyme N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase (Arylsulfatase B; ARSB) was originally identified as a lysosomal enzyme which was deficient in Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI; Maroteaux-Lamy Syndrome). Newly directed attention to the impact of ARSB in human pathobiology indicates a broader, more pervasive effect, encompassing roles as a tumor suppressor, transcriptional mediator, redox switch, and regulator of intracellular and extracellular-cell signaling. By controlling the degradation of chondroitin 4-sulfate and dermatan sulfate by removal or failure to remove the 4-sulfate residue at the non-reducing end of the sulfated glycosaminoglycan chain, ARSB modifies the binding or release of critical molecules into the cell milieu. These molecules, such as galectin-3 and SHP-2, in turn, influence crucial cellular processes and events which determine cell fate. Identification of ARSB at the cell membrane and in the nucleus expands perception of the potential impact of decline in ARSB activity. Regulation of availability of sulfate from chondroitin 4-sulfate and dermatan sulfate may also affect sulfate assimilation and production of vital molecules, including glutathione and cysteine. Increased attention to ARSB in mammalian cells may help to integrate and deepen our understanding of diverse biological phenomenon and to approach human diseases with new insights.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0079.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Hepatitis C virus; core protein; TNFα
Online: 6 September 2022 (03:38:14 CEST)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein is a multifunctional protein that is involved in proliferation, inflammation and apoptosis mechanism of hepatocytes. HCV core protein genetic variability has been implicated in various outcomes of HCV pathology and treatment. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the role of HCV core protein in tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-induced death under the viewpoint of HCV genetic variability. Immortalized hepatocytes (IHH), and not the Huh7.5 hepatoma cell line, stably expressing HCV subtype 4a and HCV subtype 4f core proteins showed that only HCV 4a core protein could increase sensitivity to TNFα-induced death. Development of two transgenic mice expressing the two different core proteins under the liver-specific promoter of transthyretin (TTR) allowed for the in vivo assessment of the role of core in TNFα-induced death. Using the TNFα-dependent model of lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine (LPS/Dgal) we were able to recapitulate the in vitro results in IHH cells in vivo. Transgenic mice expressing HCV 4a core protein were more susceptible to the LPS/Dgal model while mice expressing HCV 4f core protein had the same susceptibility as their littermate controls. Transcriptome analysis in liver biopsies from these transgenic mice gave insights into HCV core molecular pathogenesis, while linking HCV core protein genetic variability to differential pathology in vivo.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0051.v1
Online: 5 September 2022 (08:14:56 CEST)
This is a case study of a 55-year-old patient who died four months after receiving the mRNA-vaccine BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) against COVID-19 as a second dose, following an initial vaccination with the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vector vaccine (AstraZeneca) two months earlier. The autopsy diagnosis revealed general atherosclerosis. The histopathologic analyses of cardiac tissue demonstrated the presence of a thrombus occluding the right coronary artery (RCA) without evidence of plaque rupture. As a substitute trigger of clotting, the RCA presented with characteristics of acute lymphocytic vasculitis that extended to vasa vasorum in the adventitia and vessels in adjacent adipose tissue. Microthrombi were occasionally detected in these small vessels. It was obvious that lymphocytic myocarditis had been a chronic ongoing process temporally distinct from acute myocardial infarction. The myocardium contained patchworks of fibrotic areas alongside foci of displaying acute inflammation and fresh myocyte damage. SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein, but not nucleocapsid protein was sporadically detected in vessel walls by immunohistochemical assay. The cause of death was determined to be acute myocardial infarction and lymphocytic myocarditis. These findings indicate that myocarditis, as well as thrombo-embolic events following injection of spike-inducing gene-based vaccines, are causally associated with a injurious immunological response to the encoded agent. Because of the fact that the immune response to a first gene-based vaccination is very low in comparison with the immune response to the second vaccination, the found adverse events has rather to be attributed to the mRNA-based second vaccination as to the initial vector-based one.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0308.v2
Online: 25 August 2022 (03:54:58 CEST)
The current report represents a case of a 77-year-old man with Parkinson’s disease who died three weeks after receiving his third COVID-19 vaccination in January 2022. The patient was first vaccinated in May 2021 with the ChAdOx1 nCov- 19 vector vaccine, followed by two more doses with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in July and December 2021. The family of the deceased requested an autopsy due to the ambivalent clinical features noted before death. The underlying illness (Parkinson’s disease) was confirmed by autopsy. However, no sign of a florid COVID-19 was discovered. Meanwhile, the immunohistochemical staining of the brain and heart revealed previously undiagnosed conditions. The brain, in distinctive, revealed multifocal necrotizing encephalitis with massive inflammatory lymphocyte infiltrates. In addition, the heart showed signs of serious myocarditis. Finally, immunohistochemical staining revealed that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was evident in the tissues investigated. Based on these immunohistochemical findings, it appears that the inflammatory changes in the patient's brain tissues are most likely the result of immunological processes. Concurrently, the absence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid-protein was evidenced, indicating that the detected spike-protein is unrelated to a SARS-CoV-2 infection. If such an infection was the cause of the spike protein, the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein would also be detectable. As a consequence, the confirmed presence of the spike protein had to be attributed to the previous vaccination with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine that the deceased patient had received.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0378.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Antibiotic resistance; Colonization; Prevalence; GBS; Resistance phenotype
Online: 22 August 2022 (08:04:16 CEST)
Group B Streptococcus (GBS), a commensal in the body, causes a wide range of infectious diseases. The colonisation levels of GBS and its resistance profile to antibiotics provide important information useful for orienting prevention strategies. There is little data available on the subject with determination of resistance phenotypes in Cameroon. We therefore aimed to determine the prevalence of colonization, antibiotic resistance, including patterns of inducible resistance to clindamycin of GBS in Yaounde. To achieve this goal, a prospective cross-sectional study with an analytical component was carried out from the 28th June to the 29th August 2020 at the BIOSANTE laboratory and the Yaounde Gynaeco-Obstetrics and Paediatrics hospital. Vaginal swabs and urine were collected on 163 women. This samples were analysed using 5% defibrinated sheep blood agar and chocolate plus polyvitex agar. The isolates were identified using the morphology of the colony, Gram staining, haemolysis, catalase test and latex grouping test. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by disk diffusion method following the recommendations of the ACFSM 2019. The double disk diffusion method was used to identify isolates with clindamycin inducible resistance. Our data was analysed by the software SPSS version 2.1. The results obtained showed that the global prevalence of colonization by GBS was 37% (57/163), 40.35% in non-pregnant women and 59.65% in pregnant women. Pregnancy (P-value = 0.019) and gestational age (P-value = 0.025) constituted the risk factors of maternal colonization by GBS. In addition, the strains of GBS were resistant to all antibiotics tested. A D test showcased that 64.7% of GBS were resistant in a constitutive manner to clindamycin. We also note the presence of M phenotypes. As a whole, our results demonstrate that the rate of GBS colonization in this study was similar or higher than those in the previous report in Cameroon. All this indicates that attention should be paid to this bacterium in the monitoring of antimicrobial resistance and in the care of pregnant women and newborns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0244.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Traumatic brain injury; buprenorphine; Bup-SR-Lab; microglia; astrocyte; myelin, membrane disruption; somatosensory sensitivity
Online: 12 August 2022 (13:52:14 CEST)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major leading cause of death and disability. While previous studies regarding focal pathologies following TBI have been done, there is a lack of information concerning the role of analgesics and their influences on injury pathology. Buprenorphine (Bup), an opioid analgesic, is a commonly used analgesic in experimental TBI models. Our previous studies investigated the acute effects of Buprenorphine-sustained release-Lab (Bup-SR-Lab) on diffuse neuronal/glial pathology, neuroinflammation, cell damage, and systemic physiology. The current study investigated the longer-term chronic outcomes of Bup-SR-Lab treatment at 4 weeks following TBI utilizing a central fluid percussion injury (cFPI) model in adult male rats. Histological assessments of physiological changes, neuronal damage, cortical and thalamic cytokine expression, microglial and astrocyte morphological changes, and myelin alterations were done, as we had done in our acute study. In the current study the Whisker Nuisance Task (WNT) was also performed pre- and 4w post-injury to assess changes in somatosensory sensitivity following saline or Bup-SR-Lab treatment. Bup-SR-Lab treatment had no impact on overall physiology or neuronal damage at 4w post-injury regardless of region or injury, nor did it have any significant effects on somatosensory sensitivity. However, greater IL-4 cytokine expression with Bup-SR-Lab treatment was observed compared to saline treated animals. Microglia and astrocytes also demonstrated region-specific morphological alterations associated with Bup-SR-Lab treatment, in which cortical microglia and thalamic astrocytes were particularly vulnerable to Bup-mediated changes. There were discernable injury-specific and region-specific differences regarding myelin integrity and changes in specific myelin basic protein (MBP) isoform expression following Bup-SR-Lab treatment. This study indicates that use of Bup-SR-Lab could impact TBI-induced glial alterations in a region-specific manor 4w following diffuse brain injury.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0400.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: asbestos; chrysotile; mesothelioma; lung cancer
Online: 26 July 2022 (09:43:02 CEST)
Asbestos-related risks have been estimated on the basis of data from the past, when professional exposures were higher. Fibers are present in the environment due to erosion of surface deposits and human activities unrelated to asbestos industry. If searched for, asbestos fibers are frequently found at autopsies. Bias can be encountered in asbestos research e.g. attributing of mesothelioma and lung cancer to asbestos when fibers are present, although cause-effect relationships remain unproven. Some studies rely on work or residence histories of questionable reliability. Asbestos is banned in some countries while others are increasing production and exports. Asbestos is a low-cost material and an excellent reinforcing fiber. Different asbestos types have their technical advantages and preferred application areas. The traffic is safer with asbestos-containing brake linings. Asbestos cement constructions are sturdy and inexpensive. The fireproofing properties of asbestos are well known. It can be reasonably assumed that the non-use of asbestos-containing brakes, fireproofing and insulation lagging has increased the damage and numbers of victims of traffic accidents, fires and armed conflicts. Nowadays, when a probability of conflicts seems to be enhanced, the attitude to asbestos should be changed. Most importantly, asbestos-related science must be separated from economical and political interests. Reliable information can be obtained in lifelong bioassays.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0380.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; autoantibodies; autoimmune endocrinopathies; long-COVID syndrome; molecular mimicry; thyroid gland; adrenals; pituitary; Langerhans’ islets
Online: 26 July 2022 (03:42:01 CEST)
Molecular mimicry between human and microbial/viral/parasite peptides is common and for a long time is associated with the etiology of autoimmune disorders provoked by exogenous pathogens. Increasing evidence accumulated from the past years suggests a strong correlation between the SARS-CoV-2 infection and autoimmunity. The article analyzes the immunogenic potential of the peptides shared between SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (S-protein and antigens of human endocrinocytes involved in most common autoimmune endocrinopathies. Totally the study revealed 14 pentapeptides shared by S-protein of SARS-CoV-2 and autoantigens of thyroid, pituitary, adrenal cortex and Langerhans’ islets beta-cells, 12 of them belong to immunoreactive epitopes of SARS-CoV-2. The discussion of the data links the results with clinical correlates of COVID-associated autoimmune endocrinopathies. Most common of them is an autoimmune thyroid disease, so the majority of shared pentapeptides belong to marker autoantigens of this disease. Most important in pathogenesis of severe COVID-19, according authors’ opinion, can be autoimmunity against adrenals, because their adequate response prevents from excessive systemic action of inflammatory mediators which cause cytokine storm and hemodynamic shock. The criticism of antigen mimicry concept is given with a statement that peptide sharing is not a guarantee, but just a prerequisite of autoimmunity excess provocation. The last event occurs in carriers of certain HLA haplotypes and in case when shared peptide is used in antigen processing only [1 figure, 5 tables, bibliography 38 references].
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0078.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: digitalization; clinical chemistry; artificial intelligence; interoperability; FAIRification
Online: 15 July 2022 (05:00:44 CEST)
Laboratory medicine is a digital science. Every large hospital produces a wealth of data each day - from simple numerical results from e.g. sodium measurements to highly complex output of “-omics” analyses, as well as quality control results and meta-data. Processing, connecting, storing, and ordering extensive parts of these individual data requires Big Data techniques. Whereas novel technologies such as artificial intelligence and machine learning have exciting application for the augmentation of laboratory medicine, the Big Data concept remains fundamental for any sophisticated data analysis in large databases. To make laboratory medicine data optimally usable for clinical and research purposes, they need to be FAIR: findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable. This can be achieved for example by automated recording, connection of devices, efficient ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) processes, careful data governance, and modern data security solutions. Enriched with clinical data, laboratory medicine data allow a gain in pathophysiological insights, can improve patient care, or they can be used to develop reference intervals for diagnostic purposes. Nevertheless, Big Data in laboratory medicine do not come without challenges: The growing number of analyses and data derived from them is a demanding task to be taken care of. Laboratory medicine experts are and will be needed to drive this development, take an active role in the ongoing digitalization, and provide guidance for their clinical colleagues engaging with the laboratory data in research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: clinical S.aureus; skin carriage; geriatric-MRSA pneumonia; endogenous-S.aureus
Online: 11 July 2022 (04:33:22 CEST)
The changing epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus has created several gaps in its population structure and emergence of strains. Two global shifts in the aftermath of the past methicil-lin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) pandemic are: a rise in healthcare-associated infections and evolu-tion of cutaneous and soft tissue infections with high morbidities and mortalities. Furthermore, bitter lessons from COVID-19 showed S. aureus necrotizing-pneumonia and skin conditions ag-gravating Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Monkeypox manifestations. Limited data and paucity of high-quality evidence exist for many key clinical questions. Using clinical microbiology, molecular characterization, hospital data on age and in-fection sites, and antibiograms, we have investigated S. aureus infection patterns. We showed that age-specific distribution in both intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU revealed highest infection rates (94.7%) in senior-patients >50 years; most were MRSA (81.99%). However, specific distribu-tions of geriatric MRSA and MSSA rates were 46.5% and 4.6% in ICU and 35.48% and 8.065% in non-ICU, respectively. Intriguingly, age groups 0-20 years showed uniquely similar MRSA pat-terns in ICU and non-ICU patients (13.9%, 9.7%, respectively) and MSSA in ICU (11.6%). In age groups 20-50 years, MRSA were 2-fold in non-ICU (35%) than ICU (18.6%). Interestingly, highly significant association was found between infection-site and age-groups (P-value .000). Skin in-fections remained higher in all ages; pediatrics 32.14%, adults 56%, and seniors 25% while res-piratory infections were lower in pediatrics (14.3%) and adult 17%), and highest in seniors (38%). Blood and “other” sites in pediatrics recorded (28.6%; 25%, respectively), slightly lower in adults (18.6%; 8.6%) and seniors (14%); 22.8%), respectively. Further, significant association existed between infection-site and MRSA (Chi-Square Test, P-value .002). The common cutaneous infec-tions across all age-groups and the significant association of MRSA to geriatric-respiratory infec-tions have a high potential for skin-carriage as reservoir for endogenous infection. The similar frequencies of both lineages in youth in all settings imply MSSA-carriage as potential evolutionary origins for MRSA. These findings have important clinical implications for strategic planning in patient management and S. aureus control particularly in age-specific infections and vigilance for potential viral coinfections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0359.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated virus (KSHV); Viral pre-initiation complex (vPIC); Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC); Artificial intelligence (AI) structure prediction; AlphaFold2
Online: 27 June 2022 (10:15:34 CEST)
Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman’s disease. During KSHV lytic infection, lytic-related genes, categorized as immediate-early, early, and late genes, are expressed in a temporal manner. The transcription of late genes requires the virus-specific pre-initiation complex (vPIC), which consists of viral transcription factors. However, the characterization of the protein-protein interactions of the vPIC factors has not been completely elucidated. KSHV ORF18 is one of the vPIC factors, and its interaction with other viral factors has not been sufficiently revealed. Here, we analyzed the interaction between ORF18 and another vPIC factor, ORF30, in living cells using the bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay. We identified four amino-acid residues (Leu29, Gln36, His41 and Trp170) on ORF18 that were responsible for its interaction with ORF30. The artificial intelligence (AI) system AlphaFold2 predicted that identified four residues are exposed to the surface of ORF18 and located in proximity to each other in the surface of ORF18. Thus, AI-predicted model supports the importance of four residues for binding of ORF18 to ORF30. Our results indicated that wet experiments in combination with AI may enhance the structural characterization of vPIC protein-protein interactions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0302.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Neuroproteomics; Alzheimer’s disease biomarker; neurodegeneration
Online: 22 June 2022 (03:44:49 CEST)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an irreversible neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive cognitive decline. The two cardinal neuropathological hallmarks of AD include buildup of cerebral β amyloid (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles of hyperphosphorylated tau. The current disease-modifying treatments are still not effective enough to lower the rate of cognitive decline. The paucity of early detection and disease progression biomarkers also seems to present a major obstacle to AD drug development. The current established readouts based on expression levels of amyloid beta, tau and phospho tau have shown many discrepancies in patient samples when linked to disease progression. There is an urgent need to identify diagnostic and disease progression biomarkers from blood, CSF or other biofluids that can facilitate early detection of the disease and provide pharmacodynamic readouts for new drugs being tested in clinical trials. Advances in proteomic approaches using state-of-the-art mass spectrometry, are now being increasingly applied to study AD disease mechanisms, identify drug targets and novel disease biomarkers. In this report, we describe applications of the quantitative proteomic approaches for understanding AD pathophysiology, summarize the current knowledge gained from proteomic investigations of AD and discuss development and validation of new predictive and diagnostic disease biomarkers.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0266.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: PARP inhibitor; angiogenesis; immune suppression; recurrent ovarian cancer
Online: 20 June 2022 (10:02:09 CEST)
In the post-PARP inhibitor era, potential changes in tumor biology after maintenance therapy have not been well investigated in recurrent ovarian cancer. We reported a case with alterations in the clinical and histological features of multiple relapsed disease associated with PARP inhibitor maintenance therapy. The patient with high-grade serous carcinoma exhibited BRCA wildtype and homologous recombination proficiency status, and suffered from three recurrences and surgeries accordingly. Olaparib maintenance had been used during the second-line therapy. We compared the differences in clinics and pathology among three recurrences and relapsed lesions. Disease-free survivals were dramatically decreased after the exposure to olaparib. At exploration of quaternary cytoreduction, the relapsed tumor was characterized by a carcinomatosis-like metastasis pattern and an easy tendency of bleeding. Tumor cytopathological changes and alterations were observed in both the tumoral and non-tumoral stroma, among relapsed tumor tissues derived from secondary, tertiary and quaternary cytoreduction. Histopathology indicated hemorrhage, necrosis, atypical tumor cells, massive angiogenesis, and decreased CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, particularly in the third relapsed disease. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show a unique metastatic pattern of angiogenic burst after PARP inhibitor maintenance therapy in ovarian cancer, which seemed to trigger invasive tumor growth and immune suppression. Further prospective studies and translational research focusing cytoreductive surgery after PARP inhibitor could progressively lead to an understanding of the biological behavior and metastatic patterns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0063.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Blood Brain Barrier; pH; Proteome; Phospho-Proteome; Endothelial
Online: 6 June 2022 (05:51:59 CEST)
Pathologies of the blood brain barrier (BBB) have been linked to a multitude of CNS disorders whose pathology is poorly understood. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) has long been postulated to be involved in the underlying mechanisms of these disease states, yet full understanding remains elusive. This study utilized an in vitro model of the BBB with b.End3 murine endothelial cells to investigate the role of CSD in BBB pathology by characterizing effects of the release of major pronociceptive substances on BBB functional integrity using TEER screening, transcellular uptake, and immunoreactive methods in concert with global proteome and phospho-proteomic approaches. Findings demonstrated relocalization and functional alteration to proteins associated with the cytoskeleton and endothelial tight junctions. Pathologic mechanisms induced by individual substances released during CSD were found to have unique phosphorylation signatures in phospho-proteome analysis, identifying Zona Occludens 1 as a possible pathologic “checkpoint” of the BBB. Utilizing these phosphorylation signatures, possible novel diagnostic methods may be developed for neurological diseases and warrants further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0010.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; ARDS; Cytokine Storm; Spike S1 protein; SARS-CoV-2, Long COVID; ACE2; A549 cells; Caco-2 cells
Online: 1 June 2022 (09:49:27 CEST)
The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic began in Jan. 2020 in Wuhan, China with a new coronavirus designated SARS-CoV-2. The principle cause of death from COVID-19 disease quickly emerged as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). A key ARDS pathogenic mechanism is the “Cytokine Storm”. This is a dramatic increase in the blood of inflammatory cytokines. In the last 2 years of the pandemic new pathology has emerged in COVID-19 survivors in which a variety of long-term symptoms emerge. This condition is called “Long COVID”. The spike protein on the surface of the virus (target for the new mRNA/DNA vaccines) is composed of joined S1-S2 subunits. Upon S1 bind-ing to the human ACE2 receptor on cells, the S1 subunit is cleaved and the S2 subunit me-diates entry of the virus. The S1 protein is then released into the blood, which might be one of the pivotal triggers for initiation and/or perpetuation of the cytokine storm. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the spike S1 protein may activate inflammatory sig-naling and cytokine production independent of the virus. Our data support a potential role for spike S1 activation of inflammatory signaling and cytokine production in human lung and intestinal epithelial cells in culture. These data support a potential role for the SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 protein in COVID-19 pathogenesis.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0330.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: ALDH2; rs671; COVID-19; vaccine; immunogenicity
Online: 24 May 2022 (10:08:35 CEST)
Uncovering the predictors of vaccine immunogenicity is essential for infection control. We have reported that the most prevalent polymorphism of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene, rs671, may be associated with an attenuated immune system. To test the inverse relation between rs671 and antibody production after COVID-19 vaccination, the levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein S1 subunit (S1) IgG were repeatedly measured for four months before and after vaccination with BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273, in 88 Japanese workers and students (including 45 females, aged 21–56 years, with an rs671 variant allele frequency of 0.3). The mixed model including fixed effects of the vaccine type, weeks post vaccination (categorical variable), sex, age, body height, smoking status, ethanol intake, exercise habit, perceived stress, steroid use, allergic diseases, and dyslipidemia, indicated an inverse association between log-transformed anti-S1 IgG levels and the number of rs671 variant alleles (partial regression coefficient = -0.15, p = 0.002). Our study indicated for the first time that the variant allele of ALDH2, rs671, is associated with the attenuated immunogenicity of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. Our finding may provide a basis for personalized disease prevention based on a genetic polymorphism that is prevalent among East Asians.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0216.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Bioimpedance; COVID-19; E-health; Health Care Personnel; Pathophysiology; Post-COVID syndrome; Rheography
Online: 23 May 2022 (05:26:58 CEST)
At present, there are no hardware or biochemical systems allow to assess the severity of post-COVID syndrome in vivo. The hardware of the proposed biotechnical system is based on routine transthoracic electrical impedance rheography, which makes it possible to register the frequency characteristics of the patient's bioimpedance response to controlled stress stimulation, thereby simultaneously fixing the characteristics of his productive heart, the state of the hemomicrocirculatory bed, the efficiency of the gas transport function of his blood, and also reliably assess personal reactivity and adaptive potential. Subsequent mathematical approximation of the obtained biometric data by an original neural network makes it possible to rank the results obtained and automatically generate a program of medical rehabilitation for a particular patient, depending on the severity of his post-COVID syndrome. The study results proved two reliable physiological signs confirming the presence of latent post-COVID complications: a decrease in the base impedance value for light exercise and an increase in the length of the systolic arc of the rheocardiogram.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0189.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Raman Spectroscopy; Medical application; Disease screening and diagnosis; Machine learning analyses
Online: 13 May 2022 (10:17:00 CEST)
Raman Spectroscopy has long been anticipated to augment clinical decision making, such as classifying oncological samples. Unfortunately, the complexity of Raman data has thus far inhibited its routine use in clinical settings. Traditional machine learning models have been used to help exploit this information, but recent advances in deep learning have the potential to improve the field. However, there are a number of potential pitfalls with both traditional and deep learning models. We conduct a literature review to ascertain the recent machine learning methods used to classify cancers using Raman spectral data. We find that while deep learning models are popular, and ostensibly outperform traditional learning models, there are many methodological considerations which may be leading to an over-estimation of performance: primarily, small sample sizes which compound upon sub-optimal choices regarding sampling and validation strategies. Amongst several recommendations is a call to collate large benchmark Raman datasets, similar to those that have helped transform digital pathology, which researchers can use to develop and refine deep learning models.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0158.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; Epigenetic targets; Histone deacetylases; Inhibitors; PROTACs
Online: 12 May 2022 (05:41:21 CEST)
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disease that increasingly become a global threat for the elder people's health and life. Although there are some drugs in clinic for treating PD, these treatments only can alleviate the symptoms of PD patients but fail in curative therapies. Therefore, seeking other potential mechanisms to develop more effective treatments that can modify the course of PD is still highly desirable. In the last two decades, histone deacetylases as an important group of epigenetic targets in drug discovery have attracted much attention. This review is focused on the current knowledge about histone deacetylases involved in PD pathophysiology and their inhibitors used in PD study. Further perspectives related to small molecules that can inhibit or degrade histone deacetylases to treat PD are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0127.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: hypertension; obesity; body composition; intra-abdominal fat; sleep apnea; obstructive
Online: 10 May 2022 (04:45:21 CEST)
Background: Elevated fasting plasma glucose and visceral fat area (VFA) is highly prevalent in obese adults. This study investigated the associations between systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) and laboratory, anthropometric, heart rate variability (HRV), and obstructive sleep apnea markers. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 95 obese patients treated at Obesity Treatment and Surgery Center, located in Salvador, BA, Brazil. SAH data were obtained from electronic medical records of patients. To evaluate the association of SAH with the predictor variables, the sample was stratified in Normotense Group (NG) and Hypertensive Group (HG), and laboratory markers, body composition, polysomnography data, and HRV were measured. Results: The average age of the NG was 36.3 ± 10.1 and HG 40.4 ± 10.6 years, 73.7% were women in the NG and 57.9% in HG; 82.4% in HG had insulin resistance. In the multivarious logistics regression model with adjustments age, sex, height, and oxyhemoglobin saturation, SAH was inversely associated with fasting plasma glucose mg/dL (odds ratio [OR] = 0.96; 95% interval confidence [CI] = 0.92 - 0.99) and VFA cm2 (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.97 - 0.99). The area under curve the VFA was 0.728; CI 95% (0.620 - 0.836) and fasting plasma glucose 0.693; CI 95% (0.582 - 0.804). Conclusions: Lower VFA and fasting plasma glucose concentrations were inversely associated with SAH. These results indicate opportunities to improve the outcome in obese patients through counseling and clinical interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0082.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19, vaccine/vaccination; stress; anxiety; hesitancy; preparedness; Jordan/Arab
Online: 6 May 2022 (14:06:14 CEST)
Although vaccinating the world is adopted by the WHO to limit COVID-19 transmission, people’s worries about vaccines may suppress their desire for vaccination despite vaccine availability. This study aimed to evaluate the levels of stress and anxiety among 250 Jordanians who received their first vaccine dose at a local community health center. The respondents completed the stress and anxiety subscales of the Depression Anxiety and Stress scale 21 (DASS-21) pre- and post-vaccination. The respondents expressed more moderate-severe levels of stress pre than post vaccination (20.8% and 13.2%, respectively). Meanwhile, 37.2% and 45.2% of the respondents expressed moderate-severe anxiety pre and post vaccination, respectively. Wilcoxon signed-rank test revealed that the drop in the level of stress from pre (median (IQR) = 5 (1-8)) to post vaccination (median (IQR) = 3 (1-7)) was statistically significant (z = -3.81, p = 0.001, r = 0.17) while the increase in anxiety was not. Anxiety median significantly dropped among individuals experiencing mild to severe anxiety pre vaccination. Similarly, stress and anxiety significantly increased among individuals expressing normal anxiety pre vaccination (z = -3.57 and -8.24, p values = 0.001, r = 0.16 and 0.37, respectively). Age positively correlated with post vaccination anxiety among respondents with mild pre vaccination anxiety, and it negatively correlated with pre vaccination level of stress in the normal anxiety group. Gender, marital status, respondents’ level of education, and history of COVID-19 infection had no significant correlation with anxiety or stress at either point of measurement. Overcoming their hesitancy to receive COVID-19 vaccine, individuals with normal levels of anxiety experienced a rise in their distress symptoms following immunization. On the contrary, vaccination seemed to desensitize anxious individuals. Policymakers need to formulate a population-specific plan to increase vaccine preparedness and promote psychological well-being over all during the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0314.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Emergency Use Authorization; endemic; false omission; false omission rate; home testing; point-of-care testing (POCT); positive predictive value geometric mean-squared; prevalence boundary; recursive protocol; tier; visual logistics
Online: 30 April 2022 (08:42:08 CEST)
Goals: To use visual logistics for interpreting COVID-19 molecular and rapid antigen test (RAgT) performance, determine prevalence boundaries where risk exceeds expectations, and evaluate benefits of recursive testing along home, community, and emergency spatial care paths. Methods: Mathematica/open access software helped graph relationships, compare performance patterns, and perform recursive computations. Results: Tiered sensitivity/specificity comprise: T1) 90%/95%; T2) 95%/97.5%; and T3) 100%/≥99%, respectively. In emergency medicine, median RAgT performance peaks at 13.2% prevalence, then falls below T1, generating risky prevalence boundaries. RAgTs in pediatric ERs/EDs parallel this pattern with asymptomatic worse than symptomatic performance. In communities, RAgTs display large uncertainty with median prevalence boundary of 14.8% for 1/20 missed diagnoses, and at prevalence >33.3-36.9% risk 10% false omissions for symptomatic subjects. Recursive testing improves home RAgT performance. Home molecular tests elevate performance above T1, but lack adequate validation. Conclusions: Widespread RAgT availability encourages self-testing. Asymptomatic RAgT and PCR-based saliva testing present the highest chance of missed diagnoses. Home testing twice, once just before mingling, and molecular-based self-testing help avoid false omissions. Community and ER/ED RAgTs can identify contagiousness in low prevalence (<22%). Real-world trials of performance, cost-effectiveness, and public health impact could identify home molecular diagnostics as the optimal diagnostic portal.