REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0033.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Desalination; Multi Effect Distillation; Multi Stage Flash; Vapor Compression Distillation; Renewable Energies.
Online: 4 January 2021 (12:33:03 CET)
Abstract: Thermal desalination is yet a reliable technology in the treatment of brackish water and seawater; however, its demanding high energy requirements have lagged it compared to other non-thermal technologies such as reverse osmosis. This review provides an outline of the development and trends of the three most commercially used thermal or phase change technologies worldwide: Multi Effect Distillation (MED), Multi Stage Flash (MSF), and Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD). First, state of water stress suffered by regions with little fresh water availability and existing desalination technologies that could become an alternative solution are shown. The most recent studies published for each commercial thermal technology are presented, focusing on optimizing the desalination process, improving efficiencies, and reducing energy demands. Then, an overview of the use of renewable energy and its potential for integration into both commercial and non-commercial desalination systems is shown. Finally, research trends and their orientation towards hybridization of technologies and use of renewable energies as a relevant alternative to the current problems of brackish water desalination are discussed. This reflective and updated review will help researchers to have a detailed state of the art of the subject and to have a starting point for their research, since current advances and trends on thermal desalination are shown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0315.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Intrusion Detection Systems; Anomaly detection; Sequential analysis; Random Forest; Multi-Layer Perceptron; Long-Short Term Memory
Online: 14 December 2020 (09:36:58 CET)
With the latest advances in information and communication technologies, greater amounts of sensitive user and corporate information are constantly shared across the network making it susceptible to an attack that can compromise data confidentiality, integrity and availability. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) are important security mechanisms that can perform a timely detection of malicious events through the inspection of network traffic or host-based logs. Throughout the years, many machine learning techniques have proven to be successful at conducting anomaly detection but only a few considered the sequential nature of data. This work proposes a sequential approach and evaluates the performance of a Random Forest (RF), a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) and a Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM) on the CIDDS-001 dataset. The resulting performance measures of this particular approach are compared with the ones obtained from a more traditional one, that only considers individual flow information, in order to determine which methodology best suits the concerned scenario. The experimental outcomes lead to believe that anomaly detection can be better addressed from a sequential perspective and that the LSTM is a very reliable model for acquiring sequential patterns in network traffic data, achieving an accuracy of 99.94% and a f1-score of 91.66%.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1085.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Multi-stage attack; detection; Advanced Persistent Threats; cyberattack; defence mech- anisms
Online: 15 June 2023 (07:12:26 CEST)
The need for cohesive detection and defence methods against cyberattacks is significant now more than ever before to enforce security and privacy of user data and information. The inevitable increase in demand for home and flexible working from employees quite recently has meant there is a lack of awareness and training for cyberattacks. Hence, they have become prominent as attackers are aware of this and are benefitting from individuals’ lack of knowledge in how to better protect themselves and their confidential information. Employees are becoming more susceptible to such attacks and falling victim to these, resulting in economic losses for companies, data losses and decreased faith.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0354.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: multi-stage double-suction centrifugal pump; non-hierarchical RSM; MIGA; optimization
Online: 25 July 2022 (07:33:26 CEST)
In order to improve the operation performance of the multi-stage double-suction centrifugal pump and reduce the internal energy loss of the pump, this paper proposes a single-objective optimization design method based on non-hierarchical response surface model (RSM) and the multi-island genetic algorithm (MIGA). Nine parameters, such as the blade outlet width and blade wrap angle, were used as design variables, and the optimization objective was the efficiency under design conditions. In total, 149 sets of valid data were obtained under the latin hypercube sampling method (LHS), the corresponding thresholds were set for efficiency and head, and 99 sets of valid data were obtained. A cross-validation analysis of the sieved data was carried out based on non-hierarchical RSM, global optimization of the efficiency was carried out using MIGA, and numerical verification was carried out via CFD. The research results show that compared with hierarchical RSM, non-hierarchical RSM can approximate the nonlinear relationship between the objective function and the design variables with higher accuracy, and the model fitting R2 value was 0.919. The efficiency was improved by 3.717% after optimization. The overall prewhirl of the impeller inlet after optimization decreased, the internal speed of the volute significantly improved, the large-area vortex at the volute and the outlet pipe was eliminated, the impact loss at the volute separating tongue disappeared, and the overall hydraulic performance of the pump was improved. The total entropy output value of the optimized pump was reduced by 4.79 (W/K), mainly concentrated in the reduction in the entropy output value of the double volute, and the overall energy dissipation of the pump was reduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0396.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: biofuel; biobutanol; ABE-fermentation; Clostridium; continuous reactor; process model; multi stage process
Online: 20 January 2021 (10:59:00 CET)
The production of butanol, acetone and ethanol by Clostridium acetobutylicum is a biphasic fer-mentation process. In the first phase the carbohydrate substrate is metabolized to acetic and bu-tyric acid, in the following second phase the product spectrum is shifted towards the economi-cally interesting solvents. Here we present a cascade of six continuous stirred tank reactors (CCSTR), which allows performing the time dependent metabolic phases of an ace-tone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) batch fermentation in a spatial domain. Experimental data of steady states under four operating conditions - with variations of the pH in the first bioreactor between 4.3 and 5.6 as well as the total dilution rate between 0.042 1/h and 0.092 1/h - were used to optimize and validate a corresponding mathematical model. Beyond a residence time distribution representation and substrate, biomass and product kinetics this model also includes the differen-tiation of cells between the metabolic states. Model simulations predict a final butanol product concentration of 8.2 g/L and a butanol productivity of 0.75 g/(L h) in the CCSTR operated at a pH in bioreactor 1 of 4.3 and D = 0.092 1/h, while 31 % of the cells are differentiated to the solventogenic state. Aiming at an enrichment of solvent-producing cells, a feedback loop was introduced into the cascade - sending cells from a later state of the process (bioreactor 4) back to an early stage of the process (bioreactor 2). In agreement with the experimental observations, the model accurately predicted an increase of butanol formation rate in bioreactor stages 2 and 3, resulting in an overall butanol productivity of 0.76 g/(L h) for the feedback loop cascade. The here presented CCSTR and the validated model will serve to investigate further ABE fermentation strategies for a controlled metabolic switch.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1960.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: natural gas storage; bedded salt rock; multi-stage horizontal cavity leaching; nitrogen cushion
Online: 31 October 2023 (02:58:34 CET)
Based on the similarity theory, a large-size salt rock horizontal well cavity-leaching test platform was built, and horizontal-well cavity leaching tests with nitrogen cushion were carried out, and based on the cavity-leaching parameters, the extension characteristics of cavity morphology and the influence law of the cavity-leaching parameters were analysed; and through the establishment of numerical models reflecting the actual horizontal-well cavities morphology and characteristics, a long-term stability analysis of the horizontal well cavities was carried out, and in combination with the cavity morphology and characteristics, the distribution characteristics of the horizontal well cavity displacements and the plastic zones in the long-term operation were analysed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0251.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: early-stage; stage I; NSCLC; Lymphadenectomy; Micrometastases
Online: 5 July 2023 (08:40:07 CEST)
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The involvement of lymph nodes by the tumor has a strong impact on survival of patients. For this reason, lymphadenectomy plays a crucial role in the staging and prognosis of NSCLC, to define the most appropriate therapeutic strategies concerning the stage of the disease. To date, the benefit, in terms of survival, of the different extents of lymphadenectomy remains controversial in the scientific community. It is recognized that metastatic involvement of mediastinal lymph nodes in lung cancer is one of the most significant prognostic factors, in terms of survival, and it is therefore mandatory to identify patients with lymph node metastases who may benefit from adjuvant therapies, to prevent distant disease and local recurrences. The purpose of this review is to evaluate, the role of lymphadenectomy in early-stage NSCLC in terms of efficacy and accuracy, comparing systematic, sampling and lobe-specific lymph node dissection and analyzing the existing critical issue, through a search of the most relevant articles published in the last decades.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0092.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Anaea aidea; caterpillar demography; multi-state mark-recapture; state-space model; stage-structured matrix
Online: 18 December 2016 (09:33:13 CET)
Organisms in the wild have cryptic life stages that are sensitive to changing environmental conditions and can be difficult to survey. In this study, I used mark-recapture methods to repeatedly survey Anaea aidea (Nymphalidae) caterpillars in nature, then modeled caterpillar demography as a hidden Markov process to assess if temporal variability in temperature and density influence the survival and growth of A. aidea over time. Individual encounter histories result from the joint likelihood of being alive and observed in a particular stage, and I included hidden states by separating demography and observations into parallel and independent processes. I constructed a demographic matrix containing the probabilities of all possible fates for each stage, including hidden states, e.g., eggs and pupae. I observed both dead and live caterpillars with high probability. Peak caterpillar abundance attracted multiple predators, and survival of fifth instars declined as per capita predation rate increased through spring. A time lag between predator and prey abundance was likely the cause of improved fifth instar survival estimated at high density. Growth rates showed an increase with temperature, but the most likely model did not include temperature. This work illustrates how state-space models can include unobservable stages and hidden state processes to evaluate how environmental factors influence vital rates of cryptic life stages in the wild.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0025.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Brain segmentation; Coarse-to-fine; Gen- erative Adversarial Network; Semi-supervised learning; Multi-stage method
Online: 6 December 2021 (14:33:23 CET)
Image segmentation is a new challenge prob- lem in medical application. The use of medical imaging has become an integral part of research, as it allows us to see inside the human body without surgical intervention. Many researcher have studied brain segmentation. One stage method is used to segment the brain tissues. In this paper, we proposed the multi-stage generative ad- versarial network to solve the problem of information loss in the one-stage. We utilize the coarse-to-fine to improve brain segmentation using multi-stage generative adversar- ial networks (GAN). In the first stage, our model generated a coarse outline for (i) background and (ii) brain tissues. Then, in the second stage, the model generated outline for (i) white matter (WM), (ii) gray matter (GM) and (iii) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A good result can be achieved by fusing the coarse outline and refine outline. We conclude that our model is more efficient and accu- rate in practice for both infant and adult brain segmenta- tion. Moreover, we observe that multi-stage model is faster than prior models. To be more specific, the main goal of multi-stage model is to see the performance of the model in a few shot learning case where a few labeled data are available. For medical image, this proposed model can work in a wide range of image segmentation where the convolution neural networks and one-stage methods have failed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0506.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: sleep stage classification; ECG, nested–cycle sleep pattern; stage transition
Online: 19 November 2020 (11:10:07 CET)
：Sleep stage on the whole night is not steady. Sleepers generally pass through three to five cycles. In each cycle, there are occur four typical sleep stages, such as wake stage (WS), light stage (LS), deep sleep (DS), rapid eye movement sleep stage (REM). According to the natural routine, in this paper, we investigate the stage transition and analyze the feature of stage transition using the local cluster Algorithm (LCA). Two-cycle sleep model (TCSM) is proposed to automatically classify sleep stages using over-night continuous heart rate variability (HRV) data. The generated model is based on the characteristics of the nested cycle's sleep stage distribution and the transition probabilities of sleep stages. Experiments were conducted using a public data set including 400 healthy subjects (female 239, male 161) and the model’s classification accuracy was evaluated for four sleep stages: WS, LS, DS, REM. The experimental results showed that based on the TCSM model, the segmentation classification of pure sleep is 5.2% higher than that of the traditional method, and the accuracy of segmentation classification is 11.2% higher than the traditional sleep staging accuracy. The experimental performance is promising in terms of the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity rates compared with the ones of the state-of-the-art methods. The study contributes to improve the quality of sleep monitoring in daily life using easy-to-wear HRV sensors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0192.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: malaria vaccine; patents; stage of development
Online: 11 January 2023 (03:08:51 CET)
Malaria is a parasitic infection that is a great public health concern and is responsible for high mortality rates worldwide. Different strategies have been employed to improve disease control, demonstrating the ineffectiveness of controlling vectors, and parasite resistance to antimalarial drugs requires the development of an effective preventive vaccine. There are countless challenges to the development of such a vaccine directly related to the parasite's complex life cycle. After more than four decades of basic research and clinical trials, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the pre-erythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum (RTS, S) malaria vaccine for widespread use among children living in malaria-endemic areas. However, there is a consensus that major improvements are needed to develop a vaccine with a greater epidemiological impact in endemic areas. This review discusses novel strategies for malaria vaccine design taking the target stages within the parasite cycle into account. The design of the multi-component vaccine shows considerable potential, especially as it involves transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) that eliminate the parasite's replication towards sporozoite stage parasites during a blood meal of female anopheline mosquitoes. Significant improvements have been made but additional efforts to achieve an efficient vaccine are required to improve control measures. Different strategies have been employed, thus demonstrating the ineffectiveness in controlling vectors, and parasite resistance to antimalarial drugs requires the development of a preventive vaccine. Despite having a vaccine in an advanced stage of development, such as the RTS, S malaria vaccine, the search for an effective vaccine against malaria is far from over. This review discusses novel strategies for malaria vaccine design taking into account the target stages within the parasite’s life cycle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0319.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: COVID-19; structural break; growth stage
Online: 20 May 2020 (04:24:15 CEST)
COVID-19 is an infectious disease, growth of which depends upon the linked stages of the epidemic, the average number of people one person can infect and the time it takes for those people to become infectious themselves. We have studied the COVID-19 time series to understand the growth behaviour of COVID-19 cases series. A structural break occurs in the COVID-19 series at the change time form one stage to another. We have performed the structural break analysis of data available for 207 countries till April 20, 2020. There are 42 countries which have recorded five breaks in COVID cases series. This means that these countries are in the sixth stage of growth transmission and show a downward pattern in reporting in the daily cases, whereas countries with two and three breaks, record the rapid growth pattern in the daily cases. From this study, we conclude that the more the breaks in the series, there is more possibility to determine the constant or decreasing rate of daily cases. It is well fitted using lognormal distribution as this distribution is archived at its highest peak after some period and then suddenly it decreases at a longer time period. This can be seen in various countries like China, Australia, New Zealand and so on.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2084.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Climate-smart Agriculture; quantitative data; qualitative data; multi-stage sampling; Key informant interviews; Focus group discussions; Elgeyo Marakwet County; cross-sectional survey
Online: 1 November 2023 (03:13:03 CET)
Enhanced food and nutrition security remains a primary goal for every community. Several interventions have been promoted in dry areas to improve issues on food and nutrition security. However, studies on the level of knowledge, cultural norms, perceptions and attitudes that are key drivers in adoption and uptake to highlight gaps and provide evidence for improvement are limited. This study investigated variables influencing the adoption and implementation of an integrated crop-dairy goat farming system in Elgeyo Marakwet. A descriptive cross-sectional survey entailing qualitative and quantitative approaches among farmers practicing integrated farming was undertaken. A thematic questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data, while key informant interviews and focus groups discussions were used in qualitative research. This study utilized the multi-stage sampling procedure to sample the farmers and sample size was calculated based on Krejcie and Morgan table. Data analysis for quantitative data was done using SPSS software while qualitative data utilized N-vivo software The findings show that farmers have knowledge on the integrated farming system. Age, level of education, land size, gender, perceptions and attitudes influence adoption. Small animals like dairy goats are associated to women in this community hence increasing their participation in access, control and decision making of agricultural resources. The key findings of this study provide baseline data that can form evidence to help inform policy on the indicators contributing to adoption of integrated crop-dairy goat systems to enhance food and nutrition security
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0869.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: Zea Mays; Urea; Ammonium sulfate; Phenological stage
Online: 14 November 2023 (10:37:34 CET)
The aims of study was to evaluate the effects of rates, sources and timing of nitrogen application under cover of transgenic corn yield cultivated in Amazon Biome. The experiments were conducted in Parauapebas city, State of Pará, Brazil, in two years (2016/2017 and 2017/2018). The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a 5x2x2 factorial scheme, consisting of five rates of N (0; 45; 90; 135; and 180 kg ha-1), two nitrogen sources (urea and ammonium sulfate) and two application times of N (phenological stages V4 and V8), with four replications. The factor N rates promoted adjustment of linear equation (leaf area index, mass of thousand grains, and yield) and quadratic equation (dry mass of leaf index). Nitrogen fertilization promoted significant increases in mass of thousand grains and yield, obtaining the best results with 180 kg ha-1 of N applied at V4 phenological stage. Based on results obtained in two years of corn cultivated under conditions of Amazon Biome, the application of N at V4 phenological stage at rates of 121 to 131.39 kg ha-1 of N showed the best results for vegetative growth, while 180 kg ha-1 of N, regardless of source used, urea or ammonium sulfate, promoted greater grain weight and greater yield.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0163.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: smoking; pathologic stage; pathologic grade; low risk
Online: 10 July 2018 (10:00:46 CEST)
Introduction: We investigated the potential effect of smoking on pathological staging in clinically low-risk patients. Material-Methods: Data of 59 patients who were diagnosed with a bladder tumor for the first time and had a single lesion radiologically and endoscopically smaller than 3 cm were investigated, retrospectively. A total of 33 patients who currently smoke or smoked were classified as ever smokers group and 26 patients who did not ever smoke were classified as never smokers group. Pathological diagnoses of the patients in both groups were compared. Results: A total of 9 patients (27.3%) in ever smokers group and 18 patients (69.2%) in never smokers group had Ta disease (p<0.05). Morover, 19 patients (57.6%) in ever smokers group and 5 patients (19.2%) in never smokers group had T1 disease (p<0.05). The number of patients with low grade (LG) tumor were 8 (24.2%) and 19 (73.1%) in ever smoking and never smoking groups, respectively (p<0.05). The number of patients with high grade (HG) tumor were 25 (75.8%) and 7 (26.9%) in ever smoking and never smoking groups, respectively (p<0.05). Ta HG was detected in 9 (27.3%) patients in ever smoking group. In contrast, no patients in never smoking group had Ta HG disease (p<0.05). The number of patients with T1 HG was 17 (51.5%) in ever smoking group and 2 (7.69%) in never smoking group (p<0.05). Conclusion:Smoking seems to associate with pathologically worse stage and grade in patients with primary, single, < 3cm bladder cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0115.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: physical education; goals orientations; stage of change.
Online: 7 June 2018 (11:14:20 CEST)
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between levels of leisure-time sports and physical activity and the stages of change in high school students with goal orientations. Methods: The sample consisted of 2168 students randomly selected to participate in a longitudinal study in Costa Rica (423), Mexico (408) and Spain (1337), with 1052 being boys, 1037 girls and 79 who did not specify sex, aged between 11 and 16 years old (M = 12.49, SD = .81). We used a questionnaire to ask students about their leisure-time sports and physical activity, about stages of change and to measure achievement goals. Results: The results show that students are more active in Costa Rica, most of them being in the stage of active change. Conclusions: We found significant differences in achievement goals in all three countries, which shows that students in active stages have higher values than those in the inactive stage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0320.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: smoking; pathologic stage; pathologic grade; low risk
Online: 23 May 2018 (08:48:03 CEST)
AbstractWe investigated the effect of cigarette smoking on pathological staging in clinically low-risk patients. Data of 59 patients who were diagnosed with bladder tumor for the first time and had a single lesion radiologically and endoscopically smaller than 3 cm were investigated retrospectively. 33 patients who smoked were classified as Group I, and 26 patients who did not smoke were classified as Group II. Pathological diagnoses of the patients in both groups were compared. The mean age of the patients were 64.8 (20–86) years. In Group II, 5 (19.2%) were female and 21 (80.8%) were male (p < 0.05). Nine patients (27.3%) in Group I and 18 patients (69.2%) in Group II had Ta disease (p < 0.05). Nineteen patients (57.6%) in Group I and 5 patients (19.2%) in Group II had T1 disease (p < 0.05). The number of patients with low grade (LG) tumor were 8 (24.2%) and 19 (73.1%) in Group I and in Group II, respectively (p < 0.05). The number of patients with high grade(HG) tumor were 25 (75.8%) and 7 (26.9%) in Group I and in Group II, respectively (p < 0.05). TaHG was detected in 9 (27.3%) patients in Group I. In contrast, no patients in Group II had TaHG disease (p < 0.05). The number of patients with T1HG was 17(51.5%) patients in Group I and 2 (7.69%) patients in Group II (p < 0.05). Smoking is associated with pathologically HG and stage in patients with first time bladder tumor which is single and smaller than 3 cm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0266.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Lung neoplasm, early stage, epidermal growth factor receptor
Online: 6 November 2023 (09:26:40 CET)
Definitive surgical resection is the preferred treatment for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Research into genetic alterations, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, in early stage NSCLC remains insufficient. Here, we investigated the prevalence of genetic alterations in early-stage NSCLC and the association between EGFR mutation and recurrence after complete resection. Between January 2019 and December 2021, 659 patients with NSCLC who underwent curative surgical resection at a single regional cancer center were recruited. We compared the clinical and pathological data between the recurrence and non-recurrence groups. Multivariate logistic regression was used to predict the risk factors for recurrence. Among the 659 enrolled cases, the most common histology was adenocarcinoma (74.5%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (21.7%). The prevalence of EGFR mutation was 43% (194/451). Among them, L858R point mutation and exon 19 deletion was 52.3% and 42%, respectively. ALK rearrangement was found at 5.7% (26/453), and ROS1 fusion was found at 1.6% (7/441). The recurrence rate of the entire population was 19.7%. In multivariate analysis, the presence of EGFR mutation, stage II or III (vs. stage I), and pathologic subtype (presence of solid type) were associated with recurrence. Among the recurred group, 86.5% of the patients with EGFR mutation experienced distant recurrence compared to only 66.7% of wild-type (p = 0.016), with no significant difference in median disease-free survival (p = 0.983). In conclusion, the prevalence of EGFR mutation, ALK rearrangement, and ROS1 fusion was 43.0%, 5.7%, and 1.6%, respectively in patients with early-stage NSCLC who underwent curative resection. Along with stage II/III and solid pathologic subtype, EGFR mutation was an independent risk factor for recurrence. In the recurrence group, the rate of distant metastasis was higher in patients with EGFR mutation than in those with wild-type.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: endometriosis; endometrium; ErbB receptors; immunoprecipitation; implantation stage; infertility
Online: 11 October 2022 (03:30:29 CEST)
Several lines of evidence indicate that high proliferative bias in eutopic endometrium during secretory phase is a hallmark of endometriosis and that high occurrence of implantation failure in patients resulting in infertility is often associated with endometriosis. ErbB family of proteins, which regulate the proliferation capacity in mammalian cells, appear as potential group of proteins to cause higher proliferation and endometrial hostility to implantation process in endometriosis. However, we have no concrete knowledge regarding the involvement of ErbB family in human endometrium during the ‘implantation window’, i.e., days 20-24 of a typical ovulatory cycle in endometriosis associated infertility. In the present study, the cellular profiles of immunopositive ErbBs-1 to -4 in endometrium of endometriosis-free, infertile women (Group 1; n=11), and in eutopic endometrium of infertile women diagnosed with stage IV ovarian endometriosis (Group 2; n=13) during mid-secretory phase were examined and compared using standardized WERF EPHect guidelines. Computer-aided standardized combinative analysis of immunoprecipitation in different compartments revealed an overexpression of ErbB-1 in the epithelial, stromal and vascular compartments along with marginally higher ErbB-3 expressions (P< 0.06) in the vascular compartment and ErbB-4 expression (P< 0.05) in the glandular epithelium and stroma in endometrium during the window of implantation of women with primary infertility associated with stage IV ovarian endometriosis compared with disease-free endometrium from women. A global overexpression of ErbB-1 in the endometrium during implantation window may induce anomalous proliferative, inflammatory and angiogenic activities in it, which antagonizes endometrial preparation for embryo implantation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0627.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: pathfinding; algorithms; multi-criteria; multi-modal; multi-network; transportation
Online: 28 August 2020 (09:09:37 CEST)
In daily travel and activities, pathfinding is a significant process. They are often used in transportation routes calculation. They have now evolved to be able to solve most situations of the pathfinding and its related problems. This review describes previous and recent studies on the pathfinding algorithms. It reviews the development of pathfinding algorithms in a classification base on their usage. The aim is to summarize the application of the pathfinding algorithms for the readers interested in the subject that can be used as a supplement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0415.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Precision stage; Balanced platform; Balancing weight; Drive force offset; Yaw motion; Abbe er-ror; Error prediction; Low-cost stage; Open frame stage; Linear motion guide (LM Guide); Py-thon; GEKKO; ANSYS bushing joint
Online: 23 November 2021 (09:47:56 CET)
Recently, due to the miniaturization of electronic products, printed circuit boards (PCBs) have also become smaller. This trend has led to the need for high-precision electrical test equipment to check PCBs for disconnections and short circuits. The purpose of this study is to improve the position repeatability of the platform unit up to ±2.5 μm in a linear stage type test equipment. For this purpose, the causes of position errors of the platform unit are analyzed. The platform unit holding the PCB is driven by a single-axis linear ball screw drive system offset from its geometric center due to design constraints. The yaw rotation of the platform is found to have a dominant effect on position repeatability. To address this problem, the methods of adding balancing weights to the platform unit and adjusting the stiffness of LM Guides are proposed. This reduces the yaw rotation by moving the centers of mass and stiffness closer to the linear ball screw actuator. In the verification tests, the position repeatability was decreased to less than ±1.0 μm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0059.v2
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: multi-faith spaces; secularisation; multi-faith paradigm; unaffiliated; multi-belief
Online: 15 January 2018 (08:24:56 CET)
Multi-Faith Spaces (MFS) are a relatively recent invention that quickly gained in significance. On the one hand, they offer a convenient solution for satisfying needs of people with diverse beliefs in the institutional context of hospitals, schools, airports, etc. On the other hand, as Andrew Crompton pointed out, they are politically significant because the multi-faith paradigm “is replacing Christianity as the face of public religion in Europe” (2012, p. 493). Due to their ideological entanglement, MFS are often used as the means to promote either a more privatised version of religion, or a certain denominational preference. Two distinct designs are used to achieve these means: negative in the case of the former, and positive in the latter. Neither is without problems, and neither adequately fulfils its primary purpose of serving diverse groups of believers. Both, however, seem to follow the biases and main problems of secularism. In this paper, I analyse recent developments of MFS to detail their main problems and answer the question, whether the MFS, and the underlying Multi-Faith Paradigm, can be classified as a continuation of secularism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0312.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Bayesian Network; Root Cause Analysis; Failure Mode and Effect Analysis; Lithium-Ion 15 Battery Cell; Failure Propagation; Multi-Stage Production; Manufacturing Process; Process Optimization; Scrap Rate
Online: 14 December 2020 (09:31:30 CET)
The production of lithium-ion battery cells is characterized by a high degree of complexit due to numerous cause-effect relationships between process characteristics. Knowledge about the multi-stage production is spread among several experts, rendering tasks such as failure analysis challenging. In this paper, a method is presented, which includes expert knowledge acquisition in production ramp-up by combining Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) with a Bayesian Network. We show the effectiveness of this holistic method by building up a large scale, cross-process Bayesian Failure Network in lithium-ion battery production. Using this model, we are able to conduct root cause analyses as well as analyses of failure propagation. The former support operators in identifying root causes once a cell possesses a specific failure by calculating most-probable explanations matched to the individual battery cell data. The latter enable us to analyze propagation of failures and deviations in the production chain and thus provide support for placement of quality gates, leading to a significant reduction in scrap rate. Moreover, it gives an insight into which process steps are key drivers for which final product characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1255.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: Massive sulfide; Mineralization stage; Jade hydrothermal field; Okinawa Trough
Online: 19 July 2023 (09:14:57 CEST)
In this paper, mineralogical and elemental geochemical characteristics of massive sulfide samples collected from Jade hydrothermal field, located in the Izena depression in the central graben of Okinawa Trough, were analyzed by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe. The results show that the sulfide in Jade hydrothermal area can be divided into Zn-Cu-Pb rich massive sulfide and Zn-Fe rich massive sulfide. The former is composed of sphalerite, galena, anglesite, chalcopyrite and pyrite, and its formation stage can be divided into pyrite stage, sphalerite-chalcopyrite stage, anglesite stage and colloidal pyrite stage. The latter is mainly composed of sphalerite, pyrite, marcasite and a small amount of galena, which can be divided into galena stage, pyrite stage, sphalerite stage, pyrite and marcasite stage. Cu and Zn in pyrite may exist in the form of microinclusions, while Ag and Pb may exist in pyrite in the form of fine galena inclusions containing Ag. Fe and Cu may enter sphalerite in the form of ion replacement. Zn may enter chalcopyrite in the form of ion replacement, and As and Pb may be inclusions in chalcopyrite as As-bearing galena inclusions. Consistent with the previous understanding, the metal elements in the hydrothermal liquid system in Jade hydrothermal field mostly migrate with the hydrothermal fluid as sulfur complexes, and when the hydrothermal fluid mixes with seawater, the physical and chemical conditions of the fluid change, resulting in sulfide mineral precipitation. However, the chemical structure of chalcopyrite is still controversial, which restricts the understanding of the substitution mechanism of trace elements during chalcopyrite precipitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0064.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Paleontology Keywords: Abadiella; South China; Gondwana; stratigraphic correlation; Cambrian Stage 3
Online: 2 August 2022 (11:13:00 CEST)
The taxonomy of trilobites Abadiella Hupé, 1953 and Parabadiella Zhang, 1966 from the lower Cambrian of Gondwana has long been a controversy. Based on newly-collected and formerly-reported materials, 94 trilobite cranidia within 21 species are selected for morphometric analyses: principal components analysis (PCA) and canonical variates analysis (CVA). The integrated morphological characters are successfully accounted for by two principal components in PCA. The further validations for the presupposed qualitative groupings are indispensable to detect and calibrate the ultimate taxonomic results in CVA. By this way, all specimens distributed in a consistent morphospace in PCA and the short distances between them demonstrate their close morphological affinity, supporting their congeneric status within Abadiella. Additionally, three morphotypes were recognized from all selected specimens and they were eventually revised and incorporated into A. bourgini Hupé, 1953, A. huoi Zhang, 1966, and A. yunnanensis Luo, 1981, through stepwise test-calibration to get a high correct rate as far as possible in CVA. From this, it is certain that A. huoi is conspecific in South Australia and South China. Its occurrence allows to correlate the Australian A. huoi Range Zone to the identical zone in South China (in platform), having an approximately consistent stratigraphic range in the two regions. In comparison with A. huoi, A. bourgini was reported from fewer localities in South China. Nevertheless, its presence in the Daguinaspis Zone of Issendalenian Stage in Morocco permits a correlation with Chinese and Australian A. huoi Zone. As an auxiliary marker for A. huoi, the occurrence of A. bourgini in Morocco, South Australia and South China reinforce the correlation potential and resolution in species-level for the Cambrian Stage 3 in Gondwana region.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0140.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: breast cancer; stage-wise costs; direct medical costs; modeling
Online: 8 July 2022 (10:50:29 CEST)
Breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous disease representing a substantial economic burden. In order to develop policies that successfully decrease this burden, the factors affecting costs need to be fully understood. Evidence suggests that early detection in Stage I has a lower cost than late detection. We aim to provide conservative estimates of BC's stage-wise medical costs from German healthcare and the payer's perspective. To this end, we conducted a literature review of articles evaluating stage-wise costs of BC in Germany through PubMed, Web of Science, and Econ Lit databases supplemented by Google Scholar. We developed a decision tree model to estimate BC related medical costs in Germany using available treatment and cost information. The review generated seven studies; none estimated the stage-wise costs of BC. The studies were classified into two groups: (1) case scenarios (five studies) and two studies based on administrative data. The first sickness funds data study (Gruber, Stock, et al. 2012) used 1999 information to approach BC attributable cost; their results suggest a range between €3,929 and €11,787 depending on age. The second study (Kreis, Plöthner, et al. 2020) used 2011-2014 data and suggested an initial phase incremental cost of €21,499, an intermediate phase cost of €2,620, and a terminal phase cost of €34,513 per incident case. Our decision tree model based BC stage-wise cost estimates were €21,523 for Stage I, €25,679 for Stage II, €30,156 for Stage III, €42,086 for Stage IV. Alternatively, the modeled cost estimates are €20,284 for the initial phase of care, €851 for the intermediate phase of care, and €34,963 for the terminal phase of care. Our estimates for phases of care are consistent with recent German estimates provided by Kreis and Plöthner et al. Furthermore, the data collected by sickness funds are collected primarily for reimbursement purposes, where the German ICD-10 classification system defines a cancer diagnosis. As a result, claims data lack the clinical information necessary to understand stage-wise BC costs. Our model-based estimates fill the gap and inform future economic evaluations of BC interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0170.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Marine Isotope Stage 3; sea level; tectonics; GIA; Calabria
Online: 7 July 2021 (08:42:48 CEST)
Investigation of sea-level positions during the highly-dynamic Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3: 29-61 kyrs BP) proves difficult because: i) in stable and subsiding areas, coeval coastal sediments are currently submerged at depths of few to several tens of meters below present sea level; ii) in uplifting areas, the preservation of geomorphic features and sedimentary records is limited due to the erosion occurred during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) with sea level at depth of -130 m, followed by marine transgression that determined the development of ravinement surfaces. This study discusses previous research in the Mediterranean and elsewhere, and describes new fossiliferous marine deposits laying on metamorphic bedrock of Cannitello (Calabria, Italy). Radiocarbon ages of marine shells (about 43 kyrs cal BP) indicate that these deposits, presently between 28 and 30 meters above sea level, formed during MIS 3.1. Elevation correction of the Cannitello outcrops (considered in an intermediate-to-far-field position with respect to the ice sheet) with the local vertical tectonic rate and Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) rate allows to propose a revision of the eustatic depth for this highstand. Our results are consistent with recently proposed estimates based on a novel ice sheet modelling technique.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0720.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: High Gain, Single Stage, Switched Inductor Buck Boost Converter
Online: 27 April 2021 (12:51:21 CEST)
In this research paper, a high gain transformer less inverter modeling which is used for the smart grid technology or as the stand alone for home appliances is proposed. The proposed transformer less topology provides a higher voltage gain, low cost, small size and simple control stand alone transformer less inverter for home appliances. The above inverter is modeled by using software which is known as MATLAB/ Simulimk.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0340.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: functional connectivity; structural connectivity; multihabitat; barrier; nursery; life stage
Online: 18 January 2021 (13:49:20 CET)
Many marine species use different habitats at different stages of their life cycle. Functional connectivity, the degree to which the seascape facilitates or impedes movement between habitat patches, is poorly studied in marine systems. We reviewed the scientific literature to explore the various barriers preventing functional connectivity between marine habitats and how the removal of these barriers may restore connectivity. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic review to investigate functional connectivity between life cycle habitats for a range of marine species. A total of 4,499 records were identified and screened, leaving 69 publications eligible for review. The results highlighted a range of distances between nursery and adult habitats that limited functional connectivity for a number of species, predominantly reef fishes. For some species, adults were absent on reefs >9km from the closest nursery habitat, suggesting a threshold for connectivity. Similarly, increased distance between spawning and settlement habitats decreased settling success of larvae of various taxa. Pelagic larval duration, seascape topography and climate change were also shown to impact functional connectivity during the larval phase. The removal and mitigation of barriers preventing functional connectivity, including dams and habitat fragmentation, restored connectivity between disconnected life cycle habitats, but the efficacy of these approaches differed between species and studies. The results of this review deepen our understanding of marine functional connectivity between life cycle habitats via larval, juvenile, and adult dispersal. These findings have implications for the design and management of marine reserve networks.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0361.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; asymptomaticspread; early-stage COVID-19 mitigation
Online: 20 April 2020 (06:18:33 CEST)
Background: Early-stage interventions in a potential pandemic are important tounderstand as they can make the difference between runaway exponential growththat is hard to turn back and stopping the spread before it gets that far. COVID-19 is an interesting case study because there have been very different outcomesin different localities. These variations are best studied after the fact if precisionis the goal; while a pandemic is still unfolding less precise analysis is of value inattempting to guide localities in the early stages to learn lessons of those that pre-ceded them. Methods: I examine three factors that could differentiate strategy: asymptomaticspread, differences in use of the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) tuberculosis vac-cine and cloth face masks.Results:Differences in disease progression as well as the possibility of alternativestrategies to prevent COVID-19 from entering the runaway phase or damping itdown later can be elucidated by a study of asymptomatic infection. A study todemonstrate not only what fraction are asymptomatic but how contagious they arewill also inform policy on universal mask wearing. Conclusions: While a COVID-19 outbreak is at a level that makes accurate trace-and test possible, investigation of asymptomatic transmission is viable and shouldbe attempted to enhance understanding of spread and variability in the disease aswell as policy options for slowing the spread.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0215.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: downed deadwood; decay stage; decomposition; wood density; wood moisture
Online: 30 May 2017 (09:04:25 CEST)
Deadwood represents a source of nutrients, carbon and water for metabolism within forest ecosystem. Nutrients are mobilized due to the decomposition of wood, which is a long-term process that can be best studied by analysing environmental data on a temporary scale. Our study provides physico-temporal data on the downed logs of three major tree species in European temperate forests: Abies alba Mill., Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies (L.) Karst. Time since death was obtained using tree censuses (repeated for 40 years) and dendrochronology for each single downed log, the oldest being 75 years old. Standard laboratory methods were used for the determination of wood density and moisture changes. F. sylvatica was decomposed rapidly in the initial phase – mass loss was 50% during the 5 years after death, while A. alba and P. abies lost 13% and 16%, respectively. Downed logs of F. sylvatica contained 391 kg of water per m3, while these of P. abies 279 kg. A log-transformed linear model was created that shows the dependence of time since death on mass loss. According to the model, F. sylvatica had the shortest total decomposition time (39 years), followed by A. alba (58 years) and P. abies (86 years).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0312.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Access control; Blockchain; Multi-Blockchain; Multi-Authority; Multi-Domain; Attribute-Based Encryption
Online: 19 December 2022 (03:19:23 CET)
Although there are several access control systems in the literature for flexible policy management in multi-authority and multi-domain environments, achieving interoperability & scalability, without relying on strong trust assumptions, is still an open challenge. We present HMBAC, a distributed fine-grained access control model for shared and dynamic multi-authority and multi-domain environments, along with Janus, a practical system for HMBAC policy enforcement. The proposed HMBAC model supports: (a) dynamic trust management between different authorities; (b) flexible access control policy enforcement, defined at domain and cross-domain level; (c) a global source of truth for all entities, supported by an immutable, audit-friendly mechanism. Janus implements the HMBAC model and relies on the effective fusion of two core components. First, a Hierarchical Multi-Blockchain architecture that acts as a single access point that cannot be bypassed by users or authorities. Second, a Multi-Authority Attribute Based Encryption protocol that supports flexible shared multi-owner encryption, where attribute keys from different authorities are combined to decrypt data distributedly stored in different authorities. Our approach was implemented using Hyperledger Fabric as the underlying blockchain, with the system components placed in Kubernetes Docker container pods. We experimentally validated the effectiveness and efficiency of Janus, while fully reproducible artifacts of both our implementation and our measurements are provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0538.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Chronic kidney disease; End-stage kidney disease; amino acids; metabolites
Online: 7 September 2023 (11:24:56 CEST)
There is a pressing need for more precise biomarkers of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Plasma samples from 820 subjects [231 with CKD, 325 with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and 264 controls] were analyzed by LC-MS/MS to determine a metabolic profile of 28 aminoacids (AA) and biogenic amines to test their value as markers of CKD risk and progression. The Kynurenine/Tryptophan ratio showed the strongest correlation with estimated glomerular filtration rate values (coefficient=-0.731, P<0.0001). Models created with Orthogonal Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) containing the metabolic signature showed high goodness of fit and predictability for controls/CKD (R2X:0.73;R2Y:0.92;Q2:0.92) and lower for CDK/ESKD (R2X:0.56;R2Y:0.59;Q2:0.55). Based on generated VIP scores, the most relevant markers for segregating samples into control/CKD or CKD/ESKD groups were citrulline (1.67) and tryptophan (1.59), respectively. ROC analysis showed that the addition of the metabolic profile to a model including CKD classic risk factors improved AUC from 86.7% (83.6-89.9) to 100% (100-100) for CKD risk (P<0.0001), and from 63.0% (58.2-67.8) to 96.5% (95.3-97.8) for the risk of progression from CKD to ESKD (P<0.0001). Plasma concentrations of AA and related amines may be useful as diagnostic biomarkers of kidney disease, both for CKD risk and for progression of CKD patients to ESKD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1700.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: early-stage cancer; precancerous lesion; endoscopic submucosal dissection; liver cirrhosis
Online: 24 August 2023 (03:46:04 CEST)
(1) Background: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been widely accepted as the standard method for treating early-stage cancer or precancerous lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract, however it may be difficult in patients with liver cirrhosis due to coagulation dysfunction or presence of gastroesophageal varices. We aimed to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of ESD in these population. (2) Methods: We retrospectively collected the clinical data and analyzed. Patients inclusion criteria: 1) patients with liver cirrhosis; 2) patients who underwent ESD; 3) patients diagnosed of early-stage cancer or precancerous lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract. (3) Results: Eight patients were enrolled from April 2019 to April 2023, of whom 3 were male and 5 female, with age ranging from 43 to 70 years old. Seven lesions were located in the stomach, and the other one lesion in the esophagus. ESD was performed successfully in all patients, and the resected lesion size ranged from 2 to 6 cm. Only one patient encountered postoperative complication, chest pain and fever. No recurrence of noticed during a follow-up of 6 to 36 months. (4) Conclusions: ESD is safe and effective for treating upper gastrointestinal early-stage cancer or precancerous lesions in patients with liver cirrhosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0879.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: early-stage endometrial cancer; molecular classification; L1CAM; risk stratification; prognosis
Online: 11 August 2023 (08:38:07 CEST)
Aim: To improve risk stratification in early-stage endometrial cancer (EC), we performed mo-lecular classification, and L1CAM immunohistochemistry (IHC) for additional risk assessment. Method: We analyzed archival tumor tissue from 247 early-stage EC patients. POLE mutations were detected using a Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction assay and Sanger sequencing, while the mismatch repair (MMR) status was determined by MMR protein IHC and MSI test. Additionally, we conducted IHC of p53 and L1CAM. Results: The 247 ECs were categorized into four subgroups: POLE-mutated (13.0%), MMR-deficient (27.9%), p53-abnormal (8.5%), and non-specific molecular profile (NSMP, 50.6%). We further subcategorized NSMP subgroup into NSMP-L1CAMneg (44.9%) and NSMP-L1CAMpos (5.7%), which we refer to as the molecu-lar-L1CAM classification. The molecular-L1CAM classification was an independent prognostic factor for recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) (p <0.001, each). Similarly, the simplified L1CAM-p53 categorization, for practical use, remained an independent prognostic factor for RFS and OS (p <0.001, p =0.003, respectively). Conclusion: Integrating the molecu-lar-L1CAM classification or the simplified L1CAM/p53 categorization can enhance risk stratifi-cation in early-stage EC, providing valuable prognostic information to guide treatment deci-sions and improve patient outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0282.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Supply chain; Network design; Two-Stage; Fixed cost; Sensitivity analysis
Online: 3 August 2023 (09:57:29 CEST)
Most of the literature on the optimization problem of transportation in supply chain networks (SCN) considered fixed costs (FC). However, in the practical applications of this problem it is important to study the effect of FC. This paper examines the impact of fixed cost increase as well as the variable cost on the optimization of a Two-Stage SCN. To do so, two mathematical models for mixed-integer nonlinear programming are developed. The first model optimizes fixed and variable costs in addition to the opening cost, whereas the second model only optimizes variable and opening costs. To evaluate the effect of considering FC on the optimization supply chain problem, four groups of instances are randomly generated, and solved using Lingo. The results of the two models are compared utilizing the average percentage deviation. In addition, sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the impact of changes in opening and variable costs on the considered optimization problem. The computational results and the sensitivity analysis show that the first model with minimized FC outperforms the second model, which does not consider the FC in minimization and FC affect the optimization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2195.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: amplifier stage; dynamic regime parameters; Bode characteristics; gain and phase
Online: 30 June 2023 (09:30:24 CEST)
Because of the large number of parameters that interact in their function, determining dynamic regime parameters as well as the mode of function of amplifying stages is an extremely complex problem. This paper describes a LabVIEW application for studying the functioning of an ampli-fier in various connections. The user selects the generator's parameters, the type of connection and its parameters, as well as the electric charge characteristics. The application can determine both the stage characteristics and the Bode characteristics. The amplifier's stability zone, as well as its gain and phase, are determined based on these characteristics. An important advantage of this application is that the design of the amplifier stage can be made starting from some param-eters that the amplifier can establish, from which the values of components can be determined. In order to validate the simulation results using the LabVIEW application, a specialized program Multisim was used, as well as experimental measurements using the Electronics Explorer Board. Both Multisim and Electronics Explorer Board can determine Bode characteristics. In both simu-lations and experimental amplifiers, the same schemes with the same transistor was used. The application can be used for educational purposes as well as to design the amplifier's stage to achieve specific parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0379.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: skeletal muscle; transcriptome; gene expression; Fujian white rabbit; growth stage
Online: 6 June 2023 (04:45:16 CEST)
In China, the demand for rabbit meat is also increasing, and the production for rabbit meat is important. However, the underlying mechanisms of regulate skeletal muscle growth and development in rabbits remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify candidate genes related to skeletal muscle growth in rabbits and explore their potential regulatory mechanisms. RNA-seq technique was used to compare the differences of skeletal muscle transcriptome in Fujian white rabbits at different developmental stages (day 20 and 26 of embryos and birth 1, 30 and 60-day-olds) with a total of 25 individual selected. A total of 9737 DEGs that were acquired from the five groups were annotated into three ontologies of the GO database: biological process (BP), cell component (CC), and molecular function (MF). For KEGG analysis, there are 8249 genes were enriched in 1148 pathways, of which 67 pathways were significantly enriched, mainly in Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the PPAR signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway. Among all comparison groups, SE was the most abundant AS event. Real-time PCR verified that the expression patterns of differential genes were consistent with the transcriptome sequencing results. These results will provide a molecular regulation mechanism of muscle growth and development in Fujian white rabbits, and should serve an important theoretical basis for improving meat performance and growth rate of Chinese local meat rabbit breeds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0107.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cost analysis; early stage; health economics; lung cancer; screening programme
Online: 5 January 2023 (11:30:30 CET)
BACKGROUND: The National Lung Screening Trial (ILST) and the NELSON study showed that lung cancer-specific mortality can be reduced by 20-24% using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening in high-risk populations, due to an increase in early-stage diagnoses. RESEARCH QUESTION: How much lung cancer-related direct costs may be reduced using a LDCT screening programme based on the ILST protocol in a public healthcare system?STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Cost analysis of lung cancer screening (LCS) vs. usual care in the framework of the retail price of the Catalan public healthcare system. The LCS group included costs of screening (ILST protocol), treatment cost according to weighted average distribution of TNM staging in the NLST and NELSON trials, lung cancer detection rate (CDR) and smoking cessation intervention. The usual care group included treatment costs based on distribution of TNM staging registered in the Spanish index hospital. RESULTS: In the usual care group, treatment costs were €91,959. In the 5-year duration of the LCS programme, the average expected costs per subject were €1,342 (range €1,054-1,832 depending on malignancy in detected nodules) for screening and €32,431 for treatment, with an expected reduction of €952 based on an average CDR of 1.6%. The decrease in cost resulting from stage shift offsets 70.6% of the costs of the screening programme. INTERPRETATION: Baseline 5-year LCS costs are low according to the ILST protocol. In the Catalan public healthcare system, the expense reduction from the stage shift due to the LCS programme compensates a substantial part of its costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0291.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: end-stage renal disease; peritoneal dialysis; far-infrared therapy (FIR)
Online: 20 January 2022 (09:05:44 CET)
Introduction: The treatment of peritoneal dialysis in end-stage renal disease is increasing in clinical practice. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of far-infrared radiation therapy on inflammation and the cellular immunity of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Materials and Methods: We recruited 56 patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, and we included 32 patients from the experimental group and 24 patients from the control group in the final analysis. The experimental evaluation in our study was as follows: (1) We used abdominal computed tomography to measure the diameter and degree of hardening of the abdominal veins and large blood vessels to explore the changes in abdominal blood vessels. (2) The study compared the effects of peritoneal dialysis using albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, white blood cell, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Hs-CRP clearance rate, and HBAlC. (3) We compared the cytokine concentration of blood between the two groups while controlling for GM-CSF, IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-18, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-12p70, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Results and Discussion: (1) There was no significant difference in the abdominal blood vessels of the experimental group relative to the control group according to abdominal CT measured over 6 months. (2) Our study demonstrates the statistically significant effect of FIR therapy on the following parameters: albumin (p = 0.048*), creatinine (p = 0.039*), and Hs-CRP (p < 0.001**) decreased significantly, and glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, p = 0.043*) and glucose (p < 0.001**) increased significantly. Our study found that, in the experimental group, albumin and creatinine decreased significantly due to FIR therapy for 6 months. However, our study also found that, in the experimental group, glucose (p < 0.001**) increased significantly due to FIR therapy for 6 months. Peritoneal dialysis combined with FIR can reduce the side effects of glucose in dialysis buffer, which interferes with peritoneal inflammation and peritoneal mesothelial cell fibrosis. In addition, we also found that, in the experimental group, Hs-CRP (p < 0.001**) decreased significantly due to FIR therapy for 6 months. (3) No statistical significance in the inflammatory cytokines related to FIR therapy differences was observed in our study. IFN-γ (p = 0.124), IL-12p70 (p = 0.093), IL-18 (p = 0.213), and TNF-α (p = 0.254) did not exhibit significant improvements in peritoneal dialysis with FIR treatment over 6 months. IFN-γ and IL-18 in the plasma of patients in the experimental group and the control group were higher in the third month than in the first month. Conclusion: We found that the effect of peritoneal dialysis improved significantly with FIR therapy, and significant improvements in the peritoneal permeability and inflammatory response were observed. end-stage renal disease; peritoneal dialysis; far-infrared therapy (FIR)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0213.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: short stature; type 2 diabetes; end-stage renal disease; mortality
Online: 16 December 2019 (11:12:15 CET)
Short stature has been associated with increased various disease and all-cause death, but no reliable data exist the association between height and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in diabetic patients. We investigated the relationship between short stature, development of ESRD, and mortality in type 2 diabetes. This study analyzed clinical data using the National Health Insurance Database in Korea. Height was stratified by five groups according to age and sex. Risk of ESRD and all-cause mortality was analyzed with Cox proportional hazards models. During a 6.9-year follow-up period, 220,457 subjects (8.4%) died and 28,704 subjects (1.1%) started dialysis. Short stature significantly increased the incidence of ESRD and all-cause mortality in the overall cohort analysis. In multivariable analysis, hazard ratios (HR) for development of ESRD comparing the highest versus lowest quartiles of adult height were 0.86 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.83–0.89). All-cause mortality also decreased with highest height compared to patients with lowest height after fully adjusting for confounding variables (HR 0.79, 95% CI, 0.78–0.81). Adult height had an inverse relationship with newly diagnosed ESRD and all-cause in both males and females. Short stature is strongly associated with an increased risk of ESRD and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0378.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: stellar evolution; late stage stellar evolution; binarity; transients; planetary nebulae
Online: 25 June 2018 (10:30:21 CEST)
Intermediate-luminosity-optical-transients (ILOTs) are stellar outbursts with luminosity between those of classical novae and supernovae. They are divided into a number of sub-groups depending on the erupting progenitor and the properties of the eruption. Many of the ILOTs sit on the slanted Optical Transient Stripe (OTS) in the Energy-Time Diagram (ETD) that shows their total energy vs. duration of their eruption. We describe the different kinds of ILOTs that populate the OTS and other parts of the ETD. We also stand on similarities between Planetary Nebulae (PN) to ILOTs, and suggest that some PNe were formed in an ILOT event. The high energy part of the OTS is reserved to the supernova impostors -- giant eruption of very massive stars. We show results of 3D hydrodynamical simulations of supernova impostors that expose the mechanism behind these giant eruptions, and present new models for recent ILOTs. We stand on the connection between different kinds of ILOTs, and suggest that they are powered by a similar source of energy -- gravitational energy released by mass transfer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0031.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Breast milk; Carotenoids; Tocopherols; Colostrum; Lactation stage; Cross-sectional study
Online: 6 October 2017 (08:39:21 CEST)
This study aims to quantify carotenoids and tocopherols in human milk from healthy Chinese women, and to explore their associations with region, lactation stage, and maternal socio-economic and obstetric factors. Human milk was obtained from 509 healthy mothers and the compounds of carotenoids and tocopherols were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography after mild saponification and solvent extraction. Socio-economic and obstetric characteristics of the mothers and their dietary intakes through a single 24-hour dietary recall were evaluated. The median content of each component [μg/100mL, median (interquartile range)] in colostrum and mature milk was, respectively, β-carotene 8.0 (4.7-15.2) and 1.8 (1.4-2.7), β-cryptoxanthin 6.2 (2.4-12.9) and 1.8 (1.1-3.4), lutein 5.7 (2.9-10.2) and 3.4 (1.5-6.0), lycopene 6.3 (4.0-9.9) and 1.4 (1.1-2.0), zeaxanthin 1.0 (0.6-1.5) and 1.0 (0.6-1.4), α-tocopherol 645 (388-1176) and 211 (131-321), γ-tocopherol 68 (48-121) and 77 (45-120). The levels of all those vitamins presented regional differences, and decreased as lactation stage increased except for zeaxanthin and γ-tocopherol. Associations of carotenoid contents with maternal education, delivery mode, and present body mass index were found in multivariate analyses. These results suggest that some region, lactation stage, obstetric and socio-economic factors are associated with human milk concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols in healthy Chinese mothers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: river confluence; stage-discharge relationship; hydrodynamic influence; backwater; flow separation
Online: 19 October 2016 (12:31:32 CEST)
An accurate assessment of the stage-discharge relationship in open channel flows is necessary and important to the design and management of hydraulic structures and engineering in practical hydrosystems such as rivers and streams. While the flow structures and patterns at open channel junctions are interesting and have been widely studied in the literature, this paper focuses further on the effect of flow junctions on stage-discharge relationship at mountain river confluences. In this study, both the flume and physical model experiments are designed and performed carefully to test and analyze the complex flow structures and characteristics at river confluences with different configurations and hydraulic conditions. The impacts of the flow junctions on the traditional stage-discharge relationship are analyzed in this study. The results of this study are discussed in the paper for the understanding of flow structures at flow junctions and the design and management of hydraulic structures in river engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1025.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: end-stage kidney disease; hemodialysis; endothelial glycocalix; syndecan; endothelin; arterial stiffness
Online: 15 November 2023 (14:16:03 CET)
Chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients have very high cardiovascular risk. Acute vascular changes during dialysis mediated by factors of the endothelium may have a crucial role in this. Aim: To study acute vascular changes during HD. In 29 consecutive chronic HD patients (age: 65.6±10.4 years) pre-, mid-, and post-HD plasma syndecan-1 (SDC-1) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels were measured. Applanation tonometry was performed before HD. SDC-1 levels increased during HD (p=0.004). Males had higher ET-1 levels. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on pulse wave velocity (PWV): PWV≥12 m/s and PWV<12 m/s. Pre-HD and mid-HD SDC-1 levels were higher in the group with PWV≥12 m/s (10.174±2.568 vs. 7.928±1.794 ng/ml, p=0.013, and 10.319±3.482 vs. 8.248±1.793 ng/ml, p=0.044, respectively). Post-HD ET-1 levels were higher in the patient group having PWV≥12 m/s (10.88±3.00 vs. 8.05±3.48 pg/l, p=0.027). Patients having PWV≥12 m/s had higher pre-HD peripheral and aortic systolic blood pressure (p<0.05). Total cholesterol correlated with the SDC-1 decrease during HD (r=0.539; p=0.008). Pre-, mid-, and post-HD SDC-1 correlated with the ultrafiltration (r=0.432, p=0.019; r=0.377, p=0.044; and r=0.401, p=0.012, respectively). SDC-1 and ET-1 contribute to vascular changes observed during HD, and they have correlations with some cardiovascular risk factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1214.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: renal dysfunction; chronic kidney disease; CKD-stage; eGFR; creatinine; cystatin C
Online: 18 September 2023 (16:13:29 CEST)
Background: Recommended CKD first-line diagnostics is based on GFR-determination by Creatinine. Cystatin C-use may provide better assessment. Methods: We compared creatinine- and cystatin C-derived eGFR determination in first-line di-agnostic of 112 hospital patients aged >60 years (median=76 years). Patients were judged kid-ney-sane according to first-line diagnostic recommendations (N=61, eGFR (CKD-EPI) ≥60ml/min/m2, total urine protein <150mg/g creatinine, urinary red and white blood cells not increased) or classified at-risk for kidney insufficiency due to aortic valve dysfunction (N=51). Plausibility of eGFR-values was evaluated retrospectively by final case diagnoses. Results: eGFR (CAPA) was found linearly correlated to eGFR (CKD-EPI) (R2=0.5, slope=0.69, p<0.0001). In 93/112 (>80%) cases, eGFR (CAPA) yielded lower values (on average ≈20%). In 55/112 (49%) cases CKD-stage decreased. CKD-reclassification from kidney-sane to kid-ney-insufficient state (i.e. CKD1/2 to CKD3a/b or 4) or reclassification to more severe kidney in-sufficiency (i.e. CKD3a3b/4 or 3b4) was found in 41/112 (37%) cases. Worsening of CKD-classification (kidney-sanekidney-insufficient) based on eGFR (CAPA) was in 30% of cases plausible in the light of final case-diagnoses. Conclusion: In elderly patients (>60 years), renal function appears systematically overestimated by creatinine-based eGFR (CKD-EPI) heralding for this group employment of cystatin C-based eGFR (CAPA) as first-line diagnostic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1346.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: malaria; hypnozoite; Plasmodium vivax; Plasmodium cynomolgi; transfection; genetic modification; liver-stage
Online: 20 July 2023 (05:03:11 CEST)
Plasmodium vivax causes the second highest number of malaria morbidity and mortality cases in humans. Several biological traits of this parasite species, including the formation of dormant stages (hypnozoites) that persist inside the liver for prolonged periods of time, present an obstacle for intervention measures and create a barrier for the elimination of malaria. Research into the biology of hypnozoites requires efficient systems for parasite transmission, liver stage cultivation and genetic modification. However, P. vivax research is hampered by the lack of an in vitro blood stage culture system, rendering it reliant on in vivo derived, mainly patient material, for transmission and liver stage culture. This has also resulted in a limited capability for genetic modification, creating a bottleneck in investigations into the mechanisms underlying the persistence of the parasite inside the liver. This bottleneck can be overcome through optimal use of the closely related and experimentally more amenable nonhuman primate (NHP) parasite Plasmodium cynomolgi as model system. In this review we discuss the genetic modification tools and liver stage cultivation platforms available for studying P. vivax persistent stages and highlight how their combined use may advance our understanding of hypnozoite biology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1970.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Diabetic nephropathy; Hyperglycemia; Phytocompounds; End stage renal disease; Oxidative stress; Inflammation
Online: 29 May 2023 (05:03:27 CEST)
Diabetic nephropathy (DN), one of the primary consequences of diabetes mellitus, affecting many people worldwide. Diabetes affects yearly 463 million adults globally between the ages of 20 and 79, and is the main cause of death under the age of 60. ROS production rises during hyperglycemia and is crucial to the development of diabetic complications. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are produced excessively in a diabetic state and accumulate in the kidney, where they change renal architecture and impair renal function. Another important targeted pathway for the formation of DN includes NF-B, Nrf2, NLRP3, Akt/mTOR, and autophagy. About 40% of individuals with diabetes eventually acquire diabetic kidney disease and end stage renal disease that needs hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or kidney transplantation, to survive. The current state of acceptable therapy for this kidney ailment is limited. The studies revealed that some naturally occurring bioactive substances might shield the kidney by controlling oxidative stress, renal fibrosis, inflammation, and autophagy. In order to provide new potential therapeutic lead bioactive compounds for contemporary drug discovery and clinical management of DN, this review was designed to examine the various mechanistic pathways by which current conventional plants derive phytocompounds that are effective for the control and treatment of DN.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0190.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; neurotoxic model; early stage; biologically active substances from insects
Online: 14 May 2021 (10:58:45 CEST)
The effect of aqueous extracts of the biomass of the adult Ulomoides dermestoides beetle on the delayed effects of the defoliant paraquat causing parkinsonism in experimental mice was evaluated. The motor activity of the animals was analyzed in behavioral tests using a rotarod and a vertical pole. The number of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunopositive neurons in the ventral part of the substantia nigra of the midbrains of experimental and control mice was studied by immunohistochemistry. In the model in vitro system with SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma, the effect of the extracts on cell proliferation was examined in the absence and presence of the neurotoxin MPP+. The isolation of biologically active substances from raw biomass using cavitation effects made it possible to obtain extracts with protective properties in the model of an early stage of Parkinson's disease used in this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0272.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Exergame; depression; hemodialysis; end-stage renal disease; wearable technology; digital health
Online: 23 January 2020 (16:29:53 CET)
Regular exercise can reduce depression. However, the uptake of exercise is limited in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis. To address the gap, we designed a gamified non-weight-bearing exercise program (Exergame), which can be executed during hemodialysis treatment. The Exergame is virtually supervised based on its interactive feedback via wearable sensors attached on lower extremities. We examined the effectiveness of this program to reduce depression symptom compared to supervised exercise in 73 hemodialysis patients (age=64.5±8.7years, BMI=31.6±7.6kg/m2). Participants were randomized into an Exergame group (EG) or a Supervised-exercise group (SG). Both groups received similar exercise tasks for 4-week, 3-session per week, 30-min per session, during hemodialysis treatment. Depression symptom was assessed at baseline and 4-week using Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D). Both groups showed significant reduction in depression score (37%, p<0.001, Cohen’s effect size d=0.69 in EG vs. 41%, p<0.001, d=0.65 in SG) with no between-group difference for the observed effect (p>0.050). The EG expressed a positive exercise experience including fun, safety, and helpfulness of sensor-feedback. Together, results suggested that the virtually-supervised low-intensity Exergame is feasible during routine hemodialysis treatment. It is as effective as supervised-exercise to reduce depression symptom, while reducing burden of administrating exercise in dialysis clinics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0230.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: interdisciplinary communication; early architectural design stage; procedural information; generative modeling; dashboard
Online: 14 June 2018 (10:33:18 CEST)
The purpose of interdisciplinary communication during the early architectural design stage is to achieve the early integration of knowledge in different professional fields, which can help architects to choose correct design development strategies during the early architectural design stage. However, because there is too little information at the early design stage, and design solutions are still rapidly changing and developing, the uncertainties at this stage make it difficult for consultants in other disciplines to provide their views and analysis. In spite of this situation, the emergence of generative modeling is changing design procedures and methods of communication and cooperation for architectural teams, and has brought about a shift in the way architects transmit design information from "what" (declarative information) to "how" (procedural information). Generative modeling is like an aircraft's dashboard: It can provide a basis for interdisciplinary communication, provide interdisciplinary knowledge packages, and bring about a shift in interdisciplinary communication that will reduce the architectural team's communication needs and cost. This study uses a real design case to show the feasibility of generative modeling. Employing generative modeling as a basis, architects can enhance the efficiency of design change and multi-disciplinary communication during the early design stage, integrate specialized knowledge in relevant fields, use this knowledge to formulate design criteria for the next stage, and effectively transmit design decisions. As a consequence, the changes to the cost structure of design revisions and communication between different disciplines has initiated a paradigm shift toward multi-disciplinary communication in architectural design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0105.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: multi-objective multi-level programming; fuzzy parameters; TOPSIS; fuzzy goal programming; multi-objective decision making
Online: 15 February 2018 (20:29:20 CET)
The paper proposes TOPSIS method for solving multi-objective multi-level programming problem (MO-MLPP) with fuzzy parameters via fuzzy goal programming (FGP). At first, - cut method is used to transform the fuzzily described MO-MLPP into deterministic MO-MLPP. Then, for specific , we construct the membership functions of distance functions from positive ideal solution (PIS) and negative ideal solution (NIS) of all level decision makers (DMs). Thereafter, FGP based multi-objective decision model is established for each level DM for obtaining individual optimal solution. A possible relaxation on decisions for all DMs is taken into account for satisfactory solution. Subsequently, two FGP models are developed and compromise optimal solutions are found by minimizing the sum of negative deviational variables. To recognize the better compromise optimal solution, the concept of distance functions is utilized. Finally, a novel algorithm for MO-MLPP involving fuzzy parameters is provided and an illustrative example is solved to verify the proposed procedure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0061.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: multi-target tracking; multi-Bernoulli filter; sequential Monte-Carlo
Online: 16 February 2017 (09:39:29 CET)
We develop an interactive likelihood (ILH) for sequential Monte-Carlo (SMC) methods for image-based multiple target tracking applications. The purpose of the ILH is to improve tracking accuracy by reducing the need for data association. In addition, we integrate a recently developed deep neural network for pedestrian detection along with the ILH with a multi-Bernoulli filter. We evaluate the performance of the multi-Bernoulli filter with the ILH and the pedestrian detector in a number of publicly available datasets (2003 PETS INMOVE, AFL, and TUD-Stadtmitte) using standard, well-known multi-target tracking metrics (OSPA and CLEAR MOT). In all datasets, the ILH term increases the tracking accuracy of the multi-Bernoulli filter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0411.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: hub covering location-routing; simultaneous delivery and pickup; Two-stage stochastic programming
Online: 9 October 2023 (09:26:45 CEST)
In this paper, a model of the hub covering the location-routing problem with simultaneous delivery and pickup should be designed in order to minimize the total costs, minimize the maximum vehicles travel time and minimize the amount of CO_2 gas emissions. Two-stage stochastic programming is used in this paper to control the uncertainty parameters of the problem. The mathematical model aims to decide the appropriate location of hubs and vehicle routing for simultaneous delivery and pickup of products. In this regard, the results obtained from the LP-Metric method show that there is a conflict between the objective functions, and with the reduction of the amount of CO_2 gas emissions and the reduction of the maximum vehicles travel time, the total costs have increased. On the other hand, by examining the economical factor, it was observed that by reducing this factor, the robustness factors are changed and the total costs of the network are reduced. MOIWO and MOALO were used to solve the problem in large scale, the result of which was the existence of a significant difference between the calculation time averages. Also, the efficiency of these methods was very high compared to the LP-Metric method and the maximum relative difference was less than 2.83%. The results of numerical examples show a higher efficiency of the MOALO than the MOIWO.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1011.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: remote sensing images; orientated object detection; one-stage; anchor-free; Gaussian kernal
Online: 14 August 2023 (10:39:48 CEST)
Oriented object detection is a challenging task in scene text detection and remote sensing image analysis, which has attracted extensive attention in recent years with the development of deep learning. Currently, mainstream oriented object detectors are based on preset anchor boxes. This method increases the computational load of the network and cause a large amount of anchor box redundancy. To solve this problem, we propose anchor-free oriented object detection based on the Gaussian centerness(AOGC), a single-stage anchor-free detection method. Our method uses contextual attention FPN(CAFPN) to obtain the contextual information of the target. Then we design a label assignment method for oriented objects. Finally, we develop a Gaussian kernel-based centerness branch, which can effectively determine the significance of different anchors. AOGC achieves mAP of 74.30% on the DOTA-1.0 datasets and 89.80% on the HRSC2016 datasets, respectively. AOGC exhibits superior performance to other methods in oriented anchor-free object detection methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2098.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: chronic kidney disease; end-stage renal disease; dialysis; diabetes; frailty; elderly; Vietnam
Online: 29 June 2023 (10:16:12 CEST)
Background. There is limited evidence on the relationship between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and frailty in older people in Vietnam. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of frailty and its impact on mortality in older patients with end-stage renal disease. Method. This is a prospective, observational study at two large Dialysis Centres in Vietnam from November 2020 to June 2021. Consecutive older patients diagnosed with end-stage renal disease and on dialysis were recruited. Participants’ frailty status was defined by the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). The study outcome was all-cause mortality at 6th month. Results. A total of 175 participants were recruited (mean age 72.4 years, 58.9% female). Using the cut-point of CFS ≥4, 87.4% of the participants were frail. Mortality at 6th month was 14.9%, 31.9% in participants with CFS ≥7, 12.8% in participants with CFS=6, 7.5% in participants with CFS from 4 to 5, and 4.5% in participants with CFS ≤3 (p=0.001). Cox regression analysis showed that compared to the non-frail participants, the probability of death over 6 months was nearly 2-fold higher in the mildly frail, 3-fold higher in the moderately frail, and 9-fold higher in the severely frail participants. Conclusion. This study demonstrated a very high prevalence of frailty in older patients with end-stage renal disease and dialysis and the significant impact of frailty severity on mortality. Healthcare providers should consider incorporating frailty screening into routine care for older patients with end-stage renal disease and dialysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0353.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: quality of life; COVID-19; pandemic; rectal cancer; radiochemotherapy; age; sex; stage
Online: 5 May 2023 (10:39:38 CEST)
Colorectal cancer remains one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers. Advanced rectal cancer patients receive neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy as well as surgery and suffer under reduced health-related quality of life due to various side effects. We were interested in the role of the COVID-19 pandemic and how it affected those patients’ quality of life. A total of 489 advanced rectal cancer patients from the University Hospital Erlangen in Germany were surveyed between May 2010 and March 2022 and asked to fill out the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR38 questionnaire over eight different time points: in the beginning, during and after radiochemotherapy, right before surgery and in yearly intervals after surgery for up to four years. Answers were converted to scores to compare the COVID-19 period to the time before March 2020 focusing on the follow-ups, the developments over time – including by sex and age - and the influence of the TNM cT-stage. Overall, a trend of impaired functional and symptom scores was found across all surveys with few significances (body image -10.6 percentage points (pp) after one year; defecation problems +13.5 pp, insomnia +10.2 pp and weight loss +9.8 pp after three years; defecation problems +11.3 pp after four years). cT4-stage patients lost significantly more weight than their cT1-3-stage counterparts (+10.7 to 13.7 pp). Further studies should be conducted to find possible causes and develop countermeasures for future major infectious diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0452.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Flooding from Groundwater; FEFLOW; Groundwater Modelling; Rise in River stage, Super Mesh
Online: 29 September 2022 (05:53:43 CEST)
Groundwater (GW) flooding mechanisms differ from river flooding both spatially and temporally, and preventative methods against groundwater flooding must take this into account. Although groundwater flooding caused by river water rise occurs seldom, it can occasionally become severe and last for a long time if the river is significantly flooded. In the southwest portion of the research domain, Friedrichshafen with a few urban communities, the level of the groundwater table was discovered to be roughly 1 m below the surface. It was discovered that the urban settlement area only has one-story buildings. In the study region, it is typical for the single-story building's foundation bottom level to extend up to a depth of about 1.5 meters. Therefore, flood mitigation methods are taken into account for the southwest portion of the study region. The installation of a pumping well, drainage, and a barrier in the affected area are three different flood control strategies that are taken into consideration for the study area. From a technical and cost-benefit perspective, installing a pumping well that withdraws water and lowers the groundwater table was found to be the most effective flood control measure locally in a small region (e.g., 1km x 1km). By contrast, removing groundwater by building drainage and barriers was also shown to be ineffective to lower the groundwater table over an extended region and was significantly more expensive than the installation of wells. Additionally, when river flooding is taken into account compared to the default scenario where no intake of water from the river is included along the western border of the study area, it is discovered that the spread of pollution is significantly greater.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0237.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Membranous glomerulonephritis; remission; nephrotic syndrome; chronic kidney disease; end-stage kidney diseases
Online: 18 February 2022 (14:49:32 CET)
Background: Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) is one of the most common causes of nephrotic syndrome in non-diabetic adults, accounting for up to one-third of biopsy diagnostics in some regions. A watchful waiting strategy has been adopted to accurately assess the success of MGN. In this study, we predict prognostic risk factors for primary MGN patients for effective intervention and prognosis. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study design involving 125 biopsy-proven MGN subjects on follow-up from January 2012 to October 2019 in Hospital Serdang and Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Result and Conclusion: After the median follow-up of 36 (15.0-57.0) months, 26 (20.8%) consisting of 17 (13.6%) primary MGN and 9 (7.2%) secondary MGN subjects achieved complete remission while 17 (13.6%) and 10 (8.0%) of primary and secondary MGN subjects respectively achieved spontaneous remission. Subjects with nephrotic range proteinuria have 2.917 odds more at risk of primary MGN while subjects with hypertension have 2.417 odds risk of primary MGN compared to those with no hypertension at presentation. Multiple logistic regression models retained only factors directly associated with MGN with only nephrotic range proteinuria associated with primary MGN. Those with nephrotic range proteinuria were 3.04 times the odds of primary MGN when compared with those without nephrotic syndrome (95% C. I = 1.089, 8.472). The nephrotic syndrome could be used to determine the prognosis in patients with primary MGN especially those at risk of end-stage kidney disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0109.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN); Retinol binding protein (RBP); Prognostication; End-stage renal diseases
Online: 4 August 2021 (12:06:22 CEST)
Initially, retinol-binding protein (RBP), was thought to be a biomarker for proximal convoluted tubule dysfunction could be important in chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) is an important cause of CKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Therefore, monitoring MGN patients using urinary RBP is important in effective treatment decision making and prognostication of MGN patients. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique was used to detect the RBP in the urine samples of 69 MGN patients comprising 47 primary and 22 secondary MGN, at the end of the follow-up period. The test for the urinary biomarker gave the following results: urinary RBP was detected in 27 (39.1%) and 6 (8.7%) of the primary and secondary MGN patients, respectively. The correlation analysis demonstrated a significant relationship between urinary RBP and renal function test parameters, in addition to a logistic regression analysis that proved urinary RBP as a prognostic non-invasive biomarker for primary MGN. Therefore, urinary RBP could be employed to monitor and provide effective prognosis and early treatment decisions in primary MGN.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0460.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Bacteria; community composition; growth stage; rhizosphere; root nodule; soybean; 16S rRNA gene
Online: 20 May 2021 (09:13:15 CEST)
Bacterial communities in rhizosphere and root nodules have significant contributions to the growth and productivity of the soybean (Glycine max L.). In this report, we analyzed the physiological properties and dynamics of bacterial community structure in rhizosphere and root nodules at different growth stages using BioLog EcoPlate and high-throughput sequencing technology, respectively. The BioLog assay found that the metabolic capability of rhizosphere is in increasing trend in the growth of soybeans as compared to the bulk soil. As a result of the Illumina sequencing analysis, the microbial community structure of rhizosphere and root nodules was found to be influenced by the variety and growth stage of the soybean. At the phylum level, Actinobacteria were the most abundant in rhizosphere at all growth stages, followed by Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria and the phylum Bacteroidetes showed the greatest change. But, in the root nodules Alphaproteobacteria were dominant. The results of the OTU analysis exhibited the dominance of Bradyrhizobium during the entire stage of growth, but the ratio of non-rhizobial bacteria showed an increasing trend as the soybean growth progressed. These findings revealed that bacterial community in the rhizosphere and root nodules changed according to both the variety and growth stages of soybean in the field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0054.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Anopheles mosquito; Body size; Fecundity; Gonotrophic cycle; Immature stage; Insecticide; Longevity; Temperature
Online: 5 May 2021 (12:41:25 CEST)
The rearing temperature of the immature stages can have a significant impact on the life-history traits and the ability of adult mosquitoes to transmit diseases. This review assessed published evidence of the effects of temperature on the immature stages, life-history traits, insecticide susceptibility, and expression of enzymes in the adult Anopheles mosquito. Original articles published through 31 March 2021 were systematically retrieved from Scopus, Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, ProQuest and Web of Science databases. After applying eligibility criteria, 29 studies were included. The review revealed that immature stages of Anopheles arabiensis were more tolerant (in terms of survival) to a higher temperature than An. funestus and An. quadriannulatus. Higher temperatures resulted in smaller larval size and decreased hatching and pupation time. The development rate and survival of Anopheles stephensi were significantly reduced at a higher temperature than a lower temperature. Increasing temperatures decreased the longevity, body size, length of the gonotrophic cycle and fecundity of Anopheles mosquitoes. Anopheles mosquitoes exposed at 18° or 30 °C had a higher risk of dying compared to those exposed at 25 °C. Increasing temperature also significantly increased NOS expression and decreased insecticide toxicity. Both extreme low and high temperatures affect Anopheles mosquito development and survival. Climate change could have diverse effects on Anopheles mosquitoes. There seems to be inconclusive evidence of the effects of temperature on the development and survival of Anopheles species, and more studies are needed to clarify this relationship.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0136.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: land engineering; development stage; discipline uniqueness; theory system; subject matter; land science
Online: 14 September 2019 (12:14:38 CEST)
Land engineering is a specific new academic discipline in China. Although the undergraduate major of land engineering was officially approved and established lately since 2017, the birth of land engineering as an academic discipline dates back 40 years ago. It has passed through four development stages: the incubation stage in 1978-1985, the initial stage in 1986-1997, the growth stage in 1998-2011, and the expanding stage from 2012 to present. However, land engineering as an academic discipline remains immature and seriously lags behind practice. There are still no unified academic community and broad academic consensus. After a historical overview of the four development stages, this study gave a strategic consideration to five key questions. We argue that the study object of the discipline is land engineering activity, which is defined as the artificial transformation of a land complex combined by various natural and human elements. The uniqueness of the discipline is rooted in its ability to study the comprehensive and integrated reorganization or rebuilding of various elements of land as a complex, with the theory of land complex reconstruction being the core theory. The discipline of land engineering is based on land pure science and land technology, and is one basis of land management. It consists of two modules (rural land engineering and urban land engineering), five secondary disciplines of each module (land development, land rearrangement, land improvement, land protection, and land remediation), and more than 30 research directions. Various technologies are only instrumental but not essential components of land engineering as an academic discipline.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; lenvatinib; transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation; intermediate stage; up-to-seven criteria
Online: 27 June 2019 (08:13:58 CEST)
Background: Although transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation (TACE) is the standard of care for intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), this is a largely heterogeneous disease that includes a subgroup of patients who do not benefit from TACE. The treatment strategy for this subgroup of patients currently remains an unmet need in clinical practice. Here, we performed a proof-of-concept study that lenvatinib may be more favourable treatment option over TACE as an initial treatment in intermediate-stage HCC patients with large or multinodular tumours exceeding the up-to-seven criteria. Methods: This proof-of-concept study included 642 consecutive patients with HCC initially treated with lenvatinib or conventional TACE (cTACE) between January 2006 and December 2018. Of these patients, 176 who received lenvatinib or cTACE as an initial treatment and met the eligibility criteria [unresectable, beyond the up-to-seven criteria, no prior TACE/systemic therapy, no vascular invasion, no extrahepatic spread and Child-Pugh A liver function] were selected for the study. Propensity score matching was used to adjust for patient demographics. Results: After propensity-score matching, outcome of 30 patients prospectively treated with lenvatinib (14 in clinical trials, 1 in early access program and 15 in real world setting) and 60 patients treated with cTACE as the initial treatment was compared. The change of ALBI score from baseline to the end of treatment were -2.61 to -2.61 for 30 patients in lenvatinib group (p = 0.254) and -2.66 to -2.09 in cTACE group (p < 0.01), respectively. The lenvatinib group showed a significantly higher objective response rate (73.3% vs. 33.3%; p < 0.001) and significantly longer median progression-free survival than the cTACE group (16.0 vs. 3.0 months; p < 0.001). Overall survival was significantly longer in the lenvatinib group than in the cTACE group (37.9 vs. 21.3 months; hazard ratio: 0.48, p < 0.01). Conclusion: In patients with large or multinodular intermediate-stage HCC exceeding the up-to-seven criteria with Child-Pugh A liver function, who usually do not benefit from TACE, lenvatinib provides more favorable outcome than TACE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0132.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: integrated forward/reverse logistics network; accelerated benders’ decomposition; two-stage stochastic programming
Online: 20 October 2017 (03:07:28 CEST)
In this paper, a two-stage stochastic programming modelling is proposed to design a multi-period, multistage, and single-commodity integrated forward/reverse logistics network design problem under uncertainty. The problem involves both strategic and tactical decision levels. The first stage deals with strategic decisions, which are the number, capacity, and location of forward and reverse facilities. At the second stage tactical decisions such as base stock level as an inventory policy is determined. The generic introduced model consists of suppliers, manufactures, and distribution centers in forward logistic and collection centers, remanufactures, redistribution, and disposal centers in reverse logistic. The strength of proposed model is its applicability to various industries. The problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming model and is solved by using Benders’ Decomposition (BD) approach. In order to accelerate the Benders’ decomposition, a number of valid inequalities are added to the master problem. The proposed accelerated BD is evaluated through small-, medium-, and large-sized test problems. Numerical results reveal that proposed solution algorithm increases convergence of lower bound and upper bound of BD and is able to reach an acceptable optimality gap in a convenient CPU time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0003.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: neutral-point-clamped inverter; buck-boost inverter; single stage conversion; photovoltaic inverter
Online: 1 March 2017 (09:31:28 CET)
This paper proposes a novel single-stage buck-boost three-Level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter with two independent dc sources coupled for the grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) application, which can effectively solve the unbalanced operational conditions generally appeared between two coupled independent PV sources induced by the unequal irradiation and temperature distribution. The proposed control scheme can simultaneously guarantee the maximum power point (MPP) operation of both PV sources and maintain the output waveform quality. Compared to the traditional two-stage PV inverter, the proposed NPC inverter could reduce the PV array voltage requirement and dc-link capacitors’ voltage rating, meanwhile show the advantage in operational efficiency. MATLAB simulations and the captured experimental results are presented to show the performance of the proposed three-level inverter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0046.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Signal Processing Keywords: WSN; multi-targets classification; DBN classifier; multi-DBN weighted voting algorithm
Online: 1 November 2023 (09:35:38 CET)
One of the most important applications in the wireless sensor networks (WSN) is to classify mobile targets in the monitoring area. In this paper, a multi-DBN weighted voting classification algorithm is proposed on the basis of the Deep Belief Network (DBN) classifier and combined with the idea of voting method, which is implemented on the nodes of the WSN monitoring system by means of "upper training, lower transplantation" appraoch. The performance of the algorithm is verified by using real-world experimental data, and the results show that the proposed method has a higher accuracy in classifying the target signal features, achieving an average classification accuracy of 84.63% across four different types of moving targets. The experiment reveals that the multi-DBN weighted voting algorithm enhances the target classification accuracy by approximately 5% in comparison to the single DBN classifier, but the memory and computation time required for the algorithm to run are also increased at the same time. Compared to the FFNN classifier, which exhibited the highest classification accuracy among the four selected methods, the algorithm achieves an improvement of approximately 8.8% in classification accuracy. However, it incurs greater time overhead to run.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1967.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: UAV images; multi-feature fusion; information aggregation; multi-scale object detection
Online: 29 May 2023 (04:52:15 CEST)
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) image object detection has great application value in military and civilian fields. However, the objects in the captured images from UAVs have problems of large scale variation, complex backgrounds, and a large proportion of small objects. To resolve these problems, a multi-scale object detector based on coordinate and global information aggregation is proposed, named CGMDet. Firstly, a Coordinate and Global Information Aggregation Module (CGAM) is designed by aggregating local, coordinate, and global information, which can obtain features with richer context information. Secondly, a Multi-Feature Fusion Pyramid Network (MF-FPN) is proposed, which can better fuse features of different scales and obtain features containing more context information through repeated use of feature maps, to better detect multi-scale targets. Moreover, more location information of low-level feature maps is integrated to improve the detection results of small targets. Furthermore, we modified the bounding box regression loss of the model to make the model more accurately regress the bounding box and faster convergence. Finally, the proposed CGMDet was tested on VisDrone and UAVDT datasets and mAP0.5 of 50.9% and 48% was obtained, respectively. At the same time, our detector achieved the best results compared to other detectors.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: UAV; multi-spectral imageries; multi-locational; Maize yield; smallholder; vegetation indices
Online: 19 October 2020 (16:00:27 CEST)
Rapid assessment of maize yields in smallholder farming system is important to understand its spatial and temporal variability and for timely agronomic decision-support. Imageries acquired with unmanned air vehicles (UAV) offer opportunity to assess agronomic variables at field scale, however, it is not clear if this can be translated into reliable yield assessment on smallholder farms where field conditions, maize genotypes, and management practices vary within short distances. In this study, we assessed the predictability of maize grain yield using UAV-derived vegetation indices (VI), with(out) biophysical variables, in smallholder farms. High-resolution images were acquired with UAV-borne multispectral sensor at 4 and 8 weeks after sowing (WAS) on 31 farmers’ managed fields (FMFs) and 12 nearby Nutrient Omission Trials (NOT), all distributed across 5 locations within the core maize region of Nigeria. The NOTs included non-fertilized and fertilized plots (with and without micronutrients), sown with open-pollinated or hybrid maize genotypes. Acquired multispectral images were post-processed into several three (s) vegetation indices (VIs), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), normalized difference red-edge (NDRE), green-normalized difference vegetation index (GNDVI). Biophysical variables, plant height (Ht) and percent canopy cover (CC), were measured with the georeferenced plot locations recorded. In the NOTs, the nutrient status, not genotype, influenced the grain yield variability and outcome. The maximum grain yield observed in NOTs was 9.3 tha-1, compared to 5.4 tha-1 in FMF. Without accounting for between- and within-field variations, there was no relationship between UAV-derived VIs and grain yield at 4WAS (r<0.02, P>0.1), but significant correlations were observed at 8WAS (r≤0.3; p<0.001). Ht was positively correlated with grain yield at 4WAS (r=0.5, R2=0.25, p<0.001), and more strongly at 8WAS (r=0.7, R2=0.55, p<0.001), while relationship between CC and yield was only significant at 8WAS. By accounting for within- and between-field variations in NOTs and FMF (separately) through linear mixed-effects modeling, predictability of grain yield from UAV-derived VIs was generally (R2≤0.24), however, the inclusion of ground-measured biophysical variable (mainly Ht) improved the explained yield variability (R2 ≥0.62, RMSEP≤0.35) in NOTs but not in FMF. We conclude that yield prediction with UAV-acquired imageries (before harvest) is more reliable under controlled experimental conditions (NOTs), than in actual farmer-managed fields where various confounding agronomic factors can amplify noise-signal within the vegetation canopy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0209.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Sign Language Recognition; Multi-modality; Late Fusion; multi-sensor; Gesture Recognition
Online: 8 August 2020 (17:28:00 CEST)
In this work, we show that a late fusion approach to multi-modality in sign language recognition improves the overall ability of the model in comparison to the singular approaches of Computer Vision (88.14%) and Leap Motion data classification (72.73%). With a large synchronous dataset of 18 BSL gestures collected from multiple subjects, two deep neural networks are benchmarked and compared to derive a best topology for each. The Vision model is implemented by a CNN and optimised MLP and the Leap Motion model is implemented by an evolutionary optimised deep MLP topology search. Next, the two best networks are fused for synchronised processing which results in a better overall result (94.44%) since complementary features are learnt in addition to the original task. The hypothesis is further supported by application of the three models to a set of completely unseen data where a multi-modality approach achieves the best results relative to the single sensor method. When transfer learning with the weights trained via BSL, all three models outperform standard random weight distribution when classifying ASL, and the best model overall for ASL classification was the transfer learning multi-modality approach which scored 82.55% accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0022.v1
Subject: Insect Science, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: Aedes aegypti; immature stage; traits; fecundity; longevity; body size; Burkina Faso
Online: 1 December 2023 (05:15:07 CET)
Aedes aegypti is the main vector of various arboviruses including dengue, yellow fever, Zika and chikungunya virus. This mosquito species originated in Africa but has a wide range of distribution, colonising various ecological zones. The transmission dynamics of arboviruses depends on environmental factors, but also on mosquito life history traits including development time, fecundity, and longevity. The objective of the current study was to assess the Aedes aegypti immature development time, adult longevity, fecundity and body variation from different sampling localities. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were collected as eggs from different geographical zones and cohorts of mosquitoes were reared in standardized laboratory conditions to assess the life history traits parameters. Emerged adults were discriminated into morphotypes according to the density of white scales on the first abdominal tergite. The means of fecundity, longevity, development time and body size were assessed, and linear models were fitted to the traits parameters to assess the effects of other covariables. Average Aedes aegypti development time was estimated to 7.35 days; 7.40 days; 6.98 days and 7.40 days respectively for Dori, 1200 logements, Bobo-Dioulasso and Toudweogo. The fecundity did not vary across study sites and was not associated with the body size. The longevity varied according to the study sites with the mosquitoes from Bobo-Dioulasso having the longest longevity while the shortest longevity was found at Dori. Fed mosquitoes had longer longevity compared to unfed ones. Morphological identification showed that Aedes aegypti aegypti-like mosquitoes were more predominant than Aedes aegypti formosus-like mosquitoes in all the study sites, suggesting the predominance of Aedes aegypti in the urban environment. Our data suggest that the geographical origin of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in Burkina Faso has a little effect on its life history traits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1369.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: colorectal cancer; stage III; molecular profiling; IDEA study; whole exome sequencing; bioinfor-matics
Online: 18 August 2023 (10:51:10 CEST)
Background: This study aimed to investigate the molecular profiles of stage III CRC patients from the international IDEA study. It also sought to correlate these profiles with Toll-like and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms, clinicopathological and epidemiological characteristics, and patient outcomes. Methods: Whole Exome Sequencing and PCR-RFLP on surgical specimens and blood samples, respectively, were performed to identify molecular profiling and the presence of Toll-like and vitamin D polymorphisms. Bioinformatic analysis revealed mutational status. Results: Among the enrolled patients, 63.7% were male, 66.7% had left-sided tumors, and 55.7% received CAPOX as adjuvant chemotherapy. Whole exome sequencing identified 59 mutated genes in 11 different signaling pathways from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) CRC panel. On average, patients had 8 mutated genes (range, 2-21 genes). Mutations in ARAF and MAPK10 emerged as independent prognostic factors for reduced DFS (p=0.027 and p<0.001, respectively), while RAC3 and RHOA genes emerged as independent prognostic factors for reduced OS (p=0.029 and p=0.006, respectively). Right-sided tumors were also identified as independent prognostic factors for reduced DFS (p=0.019) and OS (p=0.043). Additionally, patients with tumors in the transverse colon had mutations in genes related to apoptosis, PIK3-Akt, Wnt, and MAPK signaling pathways. Conclusions: Molecular characterization of tumor cells can enhance our understanding of the disease course. Mutations may serve as promising prognostic biomarkers, offering improved treatment options. Confirming these findings with require larger patient cohorts and international collaborations to establish correlations between molecular profiling, clinicopathological and epidemiological characteristics and clinical outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0848.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: gibel carp; growth indicators; weight-length relationship; condition factor；growth stage; feed formulation
Online: 10 August 2023 (10:50:05 CEST)
ccurate recording of growth indicators for aquaculture species at different stages is essential for evaluating aquaculture production effectiveness and the rationality of feed formulations. Due to their convenience and non-invasiveness, weight, length, and condition factor are commonly used to assess the growth of aquaculture species . However, fish growth indicators, can vary significantly with age structure and feed components(nutrition), and relying on a single indicator may lead to misjudgments . In this study we investigated the growth indicators of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio var. CAS V) at different growth stages (juvenile and adult) and different feed formulations. Meanwhile, fish weight-length relationship () was used to assess the growth indicators. The results showed that the weight-length relationship of gibel carp varied significantly with age and feed formulations. Additionally, the condition factor calculated depended on the weight-length relationship was more consistent with weight/length changes than measured. Weight analysis indicated that both weight, length, height, back thickness, and carcass ration had higher weights in analyzing fish growth. Therefore, during aquaculture production, fish growth evaluating requires considering diverse indicators such as weight, length,body height, back thickness, carcass ration,as well as condition factor to avoid misjudging the actual growth situation. Meanwhile, the use of the condition factor should consider the sufficient amount of data and whether the assumptions (such as being in a isometric growth period) are met.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1089.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: rebar-cutting waste; rebar usage; lap splice; cutting pattern; two-stage algorithm, optimization
Online: 17 July 2023 (11:29:05 CEST)
The extensive utilization of rebar during the construction of the project generates immense rebar waste, leading to increased construction costs and significant greenhouse gas emissions. Various approaches have been explored focusing on the minimization of rebar-cutting waste, such as optimizing cutting patterns, lap splice position, and special-length rebar utilization. Nonetheless, reducing rebar usage by minimizing the number of splices remains uninvestigated. In response to these issues, a two-stage optimization algorithm was developed, prioritizing special-length rebar to achieve near-zero rebar-cutting waste of less than 1% and concurrently reduce rebar usage, thereby promoting sustainable construction practices. The two-stage algorithm presented in this study involves the optimization of the lap splice position for the continuous rebar with a reduction of splices number. Furthermore, it integrates a special-length minimization algorithm for the additional rebars. Applying the algorithm to beam structures in a small-sized factory building project led to a notable reduction of 29.624 tons of rebar, equivalent to 12.31% of the total purchased quantity. Greenhouse gas emissions were reduced by 102.68 tons, and associated costs decreased by USD 30,256. A rebar-cutting waste of 0.99% which is near zero was achieved. These findings highlight the significant potential of the proposed algorithm in reducing rebar waste and facilitating sustainable construction practices. In addition, the application of the proposed algorithm in reinforced concrete construction projects will amplify the associated advantages accordingly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0140.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: fly-back converter; zero-voltage-switching (ZVS); Variable-frequency-controller (VFC); single-stage
Online: 9 May 2018 (07:43:25 CEST)
This paper proposes a single-stage asymmetrical half-bridge fly-back (AHBF) converter with resonant mode using dual-mode control. The presented converter has an integrated boost converter and asymmetrical half-bridge fly-back converter and operates in resonant mode. The boost-cell always operates in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) to achieve high power factor. The presented converter operates simultaneously using a variable-frequency-controller (VFC) and pulse-width-modulation (PWM) controller. Unlike the conventional single-stage design, the intermediate bus voltage of this controller can be regulated depending on the main power switch duty ratio. The asymmetrical half-bridge fly-back converter utilizes a variable switching frequency controller to achieve the output voltage regulation. The asymmetrical half-bridge fly-back converter can achieve zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) operation and significantly reduce the switching losses. Detailed analysis and design of this single-stage asymmetrical half-bridge fly-back converter with resonant mode is described. A wide AC input voltage ranging from 90 to 264 Vrms and output 19 V/ 120 W prototype converter was built to verify the theoretical analysis and performance of the presented converter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0413.v1
Online: 21 January 2021 (09:31:21 CET)
Urgent environmental challenges and emerging additive manufacturing (AM) technologies push research towards more performant and new materials. In the field of metallurgy, high entropy alloys (HEAs) have recently represented a topic of intense research because of their promising properties, such as high temperature strength and stability. Moreover, this class of multi-principal element alloys (MPEAs) have opened up researcher community to unexplored compositional spaces, making prosper literature of high-throughput methodologies and tools for rapidly screening large number of alloys. However, none of the methods has been aimed to design new MPEAs for AM process known as selective laser melting (SLM) so far. Here we conducted nanoindentation testing on single scan tracks of elemental powder blends and pre-alloyed powders after ball milling of AlTiCuNb and AlTiVNb. Results show that nanoindentation can represent an effective technique to gain information about phase evolution during laser scanning, contributing to accelerate the development of new MPEAs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0161.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: multi-agent systems; multi-agent reinforcement learning; internet of vehicles; urban area
Online: 11 March 2022 (05:13:15 CET)
Smart Internet of Vehicles (IoVs) combined with Artificial Intelligence (AI) will contribute to vehicle decision-making in the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). Multi-Vehicle Pursuit games (MVP), a multi-vehicle cooperative ability to capture mobile targets, is becoming a hot research topic gradually. Although there are some achievements in the field of MVP in the open space environment, the urban area brings complicated road structures and restricted moving spaces as challenges to the resolution of MVP games. We define an Observation-constrained MVP (OMVP) problem in this paper and propose a Transformer-based Time and Team Reinforcement Learning scheme (T3OMVP) to address the problem. First, a new multi-vehicle pursuit model is constructed based on decentralized partially observed Markov decision processes (Dec-POMDP) to instantiate this problem. Second, by introducing and modifying the transformer-based observation sequence, QMIX is redefined to adapt to the complicated road structure, restricted moving spaces and constrained observations, so as to control vehicles to pursue the target combining the vehicle’s observations. Third, a multi-intersection urban environment is built to verify the proposed scheme. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed T3OMVP scheme achieves significant improvements relative to state-of-the-art QMIX approaches by 9.66%~106.25%. Code is available at https://github.com/pipihaiziguai/T3OMVP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1900.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: sitting position during the second stage of labour; maternal and neonatal outcomes; childbirth experience
Online: 28 September 2023 (05:16:37 CEST)
Existing research concerning the effects of the sitting birth position during the second stage of labour on maternal and neonatal outcomes remains controversial, and there is a lack of studies to explore its effect on the childbirth experience. The objective of this study is to explore whether the sitting birth position would influence maternal and neonatal outcomes, as well as the childbirth experience reported by Chinese women using the Childbirth Experience Questionnaire (CEQ). A total of 296 women (including primiparous women and multiparous women) were enrolled in our study, and they were divided into the sitting position cohort (n=106) or the lithotomy position cohort(n=116). The study found that primiparous women in the sitting position cohort had a shorter duration of the second stage of labour, higher spontaneous vaginal birth rates, lower episiotomy rates and better childbirth experience (p<0.01). There was no significant difference for perineal lacerations, 2h-postpartum haemorrhage (P>0.05) between the two cohorts of primiparous women. After adjusting for confounding factors through multiple linear and logistic regression analyses, the results remained consistent with those reported above. No neonate in each cohort had Apgar scores at 1min and 5 min postpartum less than 7 or the Cord artery pH less than 7.00, regardless of parity. In addition, among multiparous women, there was no significant difference in any maternal and neonatal outcomes and women’s CEQ scores (p>0.05) between two cohorts. Based on the findings, we recommend that women could take the sitting birth position into account when giving birth for a positive childbirth experience, especially for primiparous women. The study could also serve as a reference for healthcare providers in the management of childbirth positions and the development of high-quality maternal care.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1209.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: End-stage renal disease; medication review; drug-related problems; negative outcomes associated with medication.
Online: 16 June 2023 (10:13:13 CEST)
(1) Background: This article reviews the available scientific literature on drug-related problems and negative outcomes associated with medications identified by medication review with follow-up for end-stage renal disease and discussed with the physicians; (2) Methods: A systematic review was conducted of the scientific literature retrieved from the following databases: MEDLINE (via PubMed), Web of Science, SCOPUS, Cochrane Library: The Cochrane Central Register and Control Trials (CENTRAL) and Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe (LILACS), Medicina en Español (MEDES), and the SciELO bibliographic database (collection of scientific journals). The following terms were used as descriptors and searched in free text: "end-stage renal disease", "medication review", and "drug-related problems” and “negative outcomes associated with medication". The following limits were applied: "humans" and "adults (more than 18 years)”; (3) Results: A total of 59 references were recovered and after applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, 16 articles were selected. Of these selected articles, 15 provided information on drug-related problems and only 1 on negative outcomes associated with medications; (4) Conclusions: It can be concluded that drug-related problems and negative outcomes associated with medication affect patients with end-stage renal disease, mainly those receiving renal replacement therapy. More evidence is needed, especially on negative outcomes associated with medication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0005.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma; 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography; computer tomography; magnetic resonance imaging; tumor stage
Online: 3 October 2022 (12:08:53 CEST)
18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (18F-FDG PET-CT) is increasingly used in the diagnosis, prognosis, staging, and treatment monitoring of many tumor types. However, only a small number of studies have reported the use of 18F-FDG PET-CT in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). This study aimed to examine the accuracy of tumor staging in ICC by using 18F-FDG PET-CT. Between January 2009 and December 2020, patients with suspected ICC were retrospectively enrolled in the study and underwent imaging. The sensitivity and specificity of 18F-FDG PET-CT, CT, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting tumors, satellite focus, vascular invasion, and lymph node metastases were analyzed. The efficacy of 18F-FDG PET-CT for tumor staging was evaluated. Of the 110 patients who were enrolled in the study, 52 underwent surgical treatment and 45 were histologically diagnosed with ICC. When compared with CT or MRI, 18F-FDG PET-CT had similar sensitivity and specificity values for diagnosing satellite focus and vascular and bile duct invasion; however, PET-CT showed higher accuracy in diagnosing regional lymph node metastases. The accuracy of tumor staging by 18F-FDG PET-CT was higher than that by CT/MRI. Thus, 18FDG PET-CT may support tumor staging in ICC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0168.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: aquaculture; shellfish; future food; nursery stage; mud crab; juvenile; seed production; hatchery; crablet; breeding
Online: 5 February 2021 (16:18:19 CET)
This study attempted to explain the definition, objectives, and key stages in mud crab nursery activities. The nursery stages of Scylla spp was started from megalopa stage to several crablet instar stages or started from earlier crablet stage to several crablet stages. Direct stocking of megalopa into ponds is not recommended due to their sensitivity. Instead, nursery rearing is needed to produce mud crab of larger size before stocking. Individual nursery rearing results in higher survival rate (up to 100%), but with reduced growth rate, and a more complicated maintenance process compared with communal rearing. Nursery of mud crab can be done indoors, or outdoors, with adequate shelter and feed required to obtain good survival and growth performance. Artemia nauplii are the main, established nursery feed, particularly at megalopa stage, while survival rate may be improved if combined with artificial feed, such as micro bound diet formulations. Water quality parameters, identical to those proposed in tiger shrimp culture, can followed. Crablets may be transported to the pond location with, or without water. The provision of monosex seeds from mud crab hatcheries is expected to become more common, increasing seed price, and thus improving income of farmers. Numerous aspects of mud crab nursery, including nutrition, feeding strategies, understanding of their behaviour, i.e., cannibalism, control of environmental factors, and practical rearing techniques, still need further improvement.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Dyalisis in pregnancy; End stage renal disease; haemodyalisis; peritoneal dyalisis; intensive dyalisis regimen; preeclampsia
Online: 30 December 2020 (16:55:39 CET)
Background. Pregnancy rates in women on dialysis have increased in the last decades, thus making it a topic of growing interest. The rarity of this event is predominantly due to fertility problems and to the high rates of pregnancy failure including stillbirth, fetal and neonatal deaths . Methods. We conducted a narrative review of existent literature in order to analyse the major issues about pregnancy on dialysis to give the reader a full updated prospective about this topic which, even if not common, is becoming more and more frequent. Results. Even if recently acquired knowledge has improved diagnosis and treatment of dialysis pregnancies focusing on several aspects, pregnancy on dialysis remains a great challenge for obstetricians and should be managed by a multidisciplinary expertise team. Conclusion. Dialysis in pregnancy may be necessary for women previously affected by end stage renal disease (ESRD) becoming pregnant, or in case of acute renal injury presenting for the first time during gestation or, again in case of existent renal pathology worsening during pregnancy and requiring dialysis. Although some evidence suggests that more intensive dialysis regimens are correlated with better obstetric outcomes, the optimal therapeutic protocol still remains to be established.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0200.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: smart meters; low voltage distribution networks; energy losses; three-stage algorithm; typical load profiles
Online: 24 June 2019 (10:43:32 CEST)
In the paper, an improved smart meter data-based three-stage algorithm to calculate the power/energy losses in the three-phase networks with the voltage level below 0.4 kV (low voltage - LV) is presented. In the first stage, a loading function of input data was built having as main feature the working at the same time with files from the database of smart metering system (SMS) containing the hourly electricity records, and files including the characteristic load profiles established by the Distribution Network Operator (DNO) for the consumers with standard energy meters depending the following factors: consumption class, day and season. In the second stage, a function which is based on the work with the structure vectors was implemented to identify easy the configuration of analysed networks. In the third stage, an improved version of forward/backward sweep-based algorithm was proposed to calculate fast the power/energy losses to three-phase LV distribution networks in balanced and unbalanced regime. A real LV rural distribution network from a pilot zone belonging to a Distribution Network Operator (DNO) from Romania was used to confirm the accuracy of the proposed approach. The comparison with the results obtained using the DigSilent PowerFactory Simulation Package certified the performance of the algorithm, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) being 0.94%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0307.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: constrained optimization; multi-operator; multi-parameter adaptation; ensemble constraint handling techniques; Evolutionary Algorithms
Online: 17 August 2022 (08:35:44 CEST)
Real-world optimization problems are often governed by one or more constraints. Over the last few decades, extensive research has been performed in Constrained Optimization Problems (COPs) fueled by advances in computational intelligence. In particular, Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) are a preferred tool for practitioners for solving these COPs within practicable time limits. We propose an ensemble of multi- method hybrid EA framework with four mutation operators, two crossover operators, multi-search [Differential Evolution (DE) & Gaining Sharing Knowledge (GSK)] optimization algorithm, and ensemble of constraint handling techniques to solve global real- world constrained optimization problem. The proposed frame- work FEPEA has an ascendancy of multiple adaptation strategies concerning the control parameters, search mechanisms, two sub-populations as well as uses knowledge sharing mechanism between junior and senior phases. The algorithm also combines the power of four popular constraint handling techniques (CHT) and uses a voting mechanism to select any particular CHT. On top of that, this algorithm also uses both linear and non- linear population size reduction in every step of the evolutionary process. We test our method on 57 real-world problems provided as part of the CEC 2020 special session & competition on real- world constrained optimization benchmark suite. Experimental results indicate that FEPEA is able to achieve state-of-the- art performance on real-world constrained global optimization when compared against other well-known real-world constrained optimizers.
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: bond graph; multi bond; vector bond; hybrid; switching; multi-body; dynamics; system; model
Online: 23 April 2020 (10:33:06 CEST)
The hybrid bond graph has been studied in depth for scalar bond graphs, but how does this translate to the multi-bond graph? Here, the controlled junction – used to model structural switching such as contact – is extended to the multi-bond case. This is a simple process, assuming that all bonds switch simultaneously (which makes physical sense). A controlled 0-junction is applied to multi-bond graph of a car, which can lose contact with the ground in cornering. Dynamic causality features, but this can be accommodated using an equational submodel in 20-Sim (in a manner similar to that used with scalar bond graphs). The junction is proposed for subsequent work to develop a validated multi-body dynamics car model in cornering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0036.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: digital elevation models; multi-source fusion; multi-scale fusion; global evaluation; accuracy validation.
Online: 5 June 2019 (10:26:30 CEST)
The quality of digital elevation models (DEMs) is inevitably affected by the limitations of the imaging modes and the generation methods. One effective way to solve this problem is to merge the available datasets through data fusion. In this paper, a fusion-based global DEM dataset (82°S-82°N) is introduced, which we refer to as GSDEM-30. This is a 30-m DEM mainly reconstructed from the unfilled SRTM1, AW3D30, and ASTER GDEM v2 datasets combining the multi-source and multi-scale fusion techniques. A comprehensive evaluation of the GSDEM-30 data, as well as the 30-m ASTER GDEM v2 and AW3D30 DEM, was presented. Global ICESat GLAS data and the local National Elevation Dataset (NED) were used as the reference for the vertical accuracy validation, while GlobeLand30 was introduced for the landscape analysis. Furthermore, we employed the maximum slope approach to detect the potential artefacts in the DEMs. The results show that the GDEM data are seriously affected by noise and artefacts. With the advantage of the multiple datasets and the refined post-processing, the GSDEM-30 are contaminated with fewer anomalies than both ASTER GDEM and AW3D30. The fusion techniques used can also be applied to the reconstruction of other fused DEM datasets.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: vendor selection; product life cycle; multi-objective linear programming; Multi-choice goal programming.
Online: 3 June 2019 (09:52:41 CEST)
The framework of product life cycle (PLC) cost analysis is one of the most important evaluation tools for a contemporary high-tech company in an increasingly competitive market environment. The PLC-purchasing strategy provides the framework for a procurement plan and examines the sourcing strategy of a firm. The marketing literature emphasizes that ongoing technological change and shortened life cycles are important elements in commercial organizations. From a strategic viewpoint, the vendor has an important position between supplier, buyer and manufacturer. The buyer seeks to procure the products from a set of vendors to take advantage of economies of scale and to exploit opportunities for strategic relationships. However, previous studies have seldom considered vendor selection (VS) based on PLC cost (VSPLCC) analysis. The purpose of this paper is to solve the VSPLCC problems considering the situation of a single-buyer-multiple-supplier. For this issue, a new VSPLCC procurement model and solution procedure are derived by this paper to minimize net cost, rejection rate, late delivery and PLC cost subject to vendor capacities and budget constraints. Moreover, a real case in Taiwan is provided to show how to solve the VSPLCC procurement problem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0059.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: multi-slope sliding-mode control (MSSMC); single-phase inverter; multi-slope function (MS)
Online: 19 July 2016 (04:54:06 CEST)
In this paper, a new approach to the sliding-mode control of single-phase inverters under linear and non-linear loads is introduced. The main idea behind this approach is to utilize a non-linear, flexible and multi-slope function in controller structure. This non-linear function makes the controller possible to control the inverter by a non-linear multi-slope sliding surface. In general, this sliding surface has two parts with different slopes in each part and the flexibility of the sliding surface makes the multi-slope sliding-mode controller (MSSMC) possible to reduce the total harmonic distortion, to improve the tracking accuracy, and to prevent overshoots leading to undesirable transient-states in output voltage which are occurred when the load current sharply rises. In order to improve the tracking accuracy and to reduce the steady-state error, an integral term of the multi-slope function is also added to the sliding surface. The improved performance of the proposed controller is confirmed by simulations and finally, the results of the proposed approach are compared with a conventional SMC and a SRFPI controller.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2177.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic And Molecular Physics Keywords: PAH; proton collision; multi-fragmentation
Online: 31 May 2023 (07:13:48 CEST)
Fragmentation processes of multiply charged ions of C10H8 isomers produced in fast proton collision (velocity between 1.41 and 2.4 a.u.) is discussed in view of their fundamental molecular dynamics. Especially so in the mechanisms to produce a variety of carbon clusters from such ions. This aspect is assessed with the help of a multihit analysis of daughter ions in coincidence with elimination of H+ and CHn+ (n = 0 to 3). The elimination of H+/C+ was found to be very different from CH3+ loss. The loss of CH3+ was found to be accompanied with the formation of heavy ions like C9H5+, C9H5++ and C7H3+ by a cascade of momentum correlated dissociations. The most probable structures of large fragment ions in the CH3+ loss cascade are predicted with the help of computed electronic energy and the multihit ToF correlations of second and third hit. In addition, we report observation of super-dehydrogenation of naphthalene and azulene targets, with evidence of complete dehydrogenation in a single collision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1386.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: multi-terminal; force tracking; Adaptive
Online: 19 May 2023 (05:48:25 CEST)
This paper proposes a multi-terminal adaptive collaborative operation method to solve the problem of unstable internal force tracking in clamping and handling unknown objects by multi-terminal robots. In the proposed method, the internal command force changes the complex internal force control problem into an internal force tracking problem from multi-slave to master. Moreover, we develop an algorithm for multi-slave setups to estimate object stiffness and motion uncertainty in the direction of the internal command force according to Lyapunov theory. Finally, the impedance control generates a reference trajectory for the multi-slave to maintain the desired internal force and track the master’s motion. Several experiments are conducted on a self-made robot equipped. The experimental results show that the oscillation amplitude of each slave end is less than 1 mm, the directional oscillation amplitude is less than 1 degree during the tracking of the desired commanded internal force. For objects with low stiffness, the error of the commanded internal force is less than 1 N (6%) per slave. The error in tracking the commanded internal force for objects with high stiffness is less than 2 N (8%). The results prove the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0159.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: relaxation; spectral methods; multi-domain
Online: 18 April 2022 (08:28:47 CEST)
In gravitational theory and astrophysical dynamics, singular initial value problems (IVPs) are frequently encountered. Finding the solutions to this class of IVPs can be challenging due to their complex nature. This study strives to circumvent the complexity by proposing a numerical method for solving such problems. The approach proposed in the current research seeks solutions to the IVP by partitioning the domain [0,L] of the problem into two intervals and solving the problem on each domain. The study seeks a closed-form solution to the IVP in the interval containing the singular point. A linearization technique and piecewise partitioning of the domain not containing the singularity are applied to the nonlinear IVP. The resulting linearized differential equation is solved using the Chebyshev spectral collocation method. Some examples are presented to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method. Numerical analysis of the solution and residual errors are shown to ascertain convergence and accuracy. The results suggest that the technique gives accurate convergent solutions using a few collocation points.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0400.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Immuno-informatics; Multi-epitope; Dracunculiasis
Online: 18 May 2021 (09:31:15 CEST)
Dracunculiasis (also known as Guinea worm disease) is caused by Dracunculus medinensis parasite and it spreads by drinking water containing Larvae of Guinea worm. The lack of safe water facilities, preventions and treatments resulted in highly dangerous consequences in its endemic regions. The economy of the affected regions totally falls down due to less production which is the result of agricultural field worker’s bad health. In this study, a multi epitope vaccine was designed against Dracunculus medinensis by using immune-informatics. The vaccine was designed by using T-Cell and B-Cell epitopes derived from Dracunculus medinensis proteins (Lactamase-B domain-containing protein, G-Domain containing protein and Ferrochelatase) in addition to Adjuvants and Linkers. The tertiary structure, physiochemical properties and immunogenic elements of vaccine were achieved. The validation of tertiary structure was accessed, and quality was achieved. In addition, the world coverage of parasite’s CTL and HTL epitopes is 95.61%. The stability of the chimeric vaccine was achieved through disulfide engineering. The molecular docking with Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR-4) of vaccine showed its binding efficiency followed by Molecular Dynamic Simulation. The immune simulation suggested the mediated cell immunity and repeated antigen clearance. At the end, the optimized codon was used in in silico cloning to ensure vaccine’s higher exposure in bacterium E. coli strain K12. With further assessments, it is believed that the proposed multi epitope vaccine has strong immunogen to control Dracunculus medinensis which may result in better social and economic conditions of endemic regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0327.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Multi-drug resistance; Tuberculosis; Pakistan
Online: 12 November 2020 (08:24:40 CET)
Introduction Tuberculosis is common in Pakistan. Due to various factors including socioeconomic factors, compliance is poor to anti-tuberculosis drugs, leading to resistance. We aim to determine the prevalence of Multidrug resistance (MDR) tuberculosis in Pakistani population.Methods A prospective observational study was conducted from April 1, 2019, to December 31, 2019, in the Pulmonology department of a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Culture and sensitivity were assessed using a sputum sample or, in cases of an absent sputum sample, from Broncho alveolar lavage.ResultsApproximately 71.3% percent patients who had tuberculosis were found to be resistant to Isoniazid and around 48.6% did not respond to Rifampin. Multi-drug resistant was found in 29.4% participants.ConclusionMulti-drug resistance tuberculosis is very prevalent in Pakistan, which may increase burden on health care system and may lead to various complications of tuberculosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0614.v1
Online: 31 July 2018 (09:49:06 CEST)
Phenotypic studies require large datasets for accurate inference and prediction. Collecting plant data in a farm can be very labor intensive and costly. This paper presents the design, architecture (hardware and software) and deployment of a distributed modular agricultural multi-robot system for row crop field data collection. The proposed system has been deployed in a soybean research farm at Iowa State University.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1845.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: (luminal) breast cancer; breast cancer biology; mutations; primary tumor; de novo - stage IV; tumor microenvironment
Online: 27 June 2023 (04:47:03 CEST)
Background. The molecular mechanisms underlying de novo metastasis of luminal breast cancer (dnMBC) remain largely unknown. Materials & Methods. Newly diagnosed dnMBC patients (grade 2/3, ER+, PR+/-, HER2-), with available core needle biopsy (CNB), collected from the primary tumor, were selected from our clinical-pathological database. Tumors from dnMBC patients were 1:1 pairwise matched (n=32) to tumors from newly diagnosed patients who had no distant metastases at baseline (eBC group). RNA was extracted from 5 x 10µm sections of FFPE CNBs. RNA sequencing was performed using the Illumina platform. Differentially expressed genes (DEG)s were assessed using EdgeR, deconvolution was performed using CIBERSORTx to assess immune cell fractions. Paired Wilcoxon test was used to compare dnMBC and eBC groups, and corrected for false discovery rate (FDR). Results. Many regulatory DEGs were significantly downregulated in dnMBC compared to eBC. Also, immune-related and hypoxia-related signatures were significantly upregulated. Paired Wilcoxon analysis showed that CCL17 and neutrophils fraction were significantly upregulated, whereas the memory B-cell fraction was significantly downregulated in the dnMBC group. Conclusion. Primary luminal tumors of dnMBC patients display significant transcriptomic and immunological differences compared to comparable tumors from eBC patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0856.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: quality evaluation of school management; compulsory education stage; big data technology; visualization techniques; evaluation models
Online: 11 May 2023 (13:26:38 CEST)
With the spread of compulsory education emerged school management problems continued, and the quality of school management in compulsory education has attracted a great deal of attention in China. However, the application of information technology in the field is not yet detailed and wide, resulting in problems of heavy workload and high difficulty in the whole evaluation process. Accordingly, we use big data technologies such as Apache Spark, Apache Hive, and SPSS to carry out data cleaning, correlation analysis, dynamic factor analysis, principal component analysis, and visual display on 1760 sample data from 40 primary and secondary schools in Q Province in China, and constructs a model school management of quality evaluation in the compulsory education stage, which reduces the 22 management tasks required for previous evaluation to 5, greatly reducing the workload and difficulty of evaluation. It has improved the efficiency and accuracy of evaluation, and further promoted the simultaneous development of education of five domains and education equity in the compulsory education stage.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0161.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Antibody-mediated rejection; Crossmatch; Daratumumab; End-stage renal disease; Flow cytometry; HLA; Multiple myeloma; Transplantation
Online: 13 September 2022 (05:48:27 CEST)
We report the first case of Daratumumab interference of allogeneic crossmatch tests repeatedly causing aberrant false-positive results, which inadvertently delayed transplant for a waitlisted renal patient with multiple myeloma. Daratumumab is an IgG1κ human monoclonal antibody commonly used to treat multiple myeloma, characterized by cancerous plasma cells and often leads to renal failure requiring kidney transplant, by depleting CD38-expressing plasma cells. In this case study, the patient had end-stage renal disease secondary to multiple myeloma and was continuously receiving Daratumumab infusions. The patient did not have any detectable antibodies to human leukocyte antigens but repeatedly had unexpected positive crossmatch by the flow cytometry-based method with 26 of the 27 potential deceased organ donors, implying donor-recipient immunological incompatibility. However, further review and analysis suggested that the positive crossmatches were likely false-positive as a result of interference from Daratumumab binding to donor cell surface CD38 as opposed to the presence of donor-specific antibodies. The observed intensity of the false-positive crossmatches was also highly variable, potentially due to donor- and/or cell-dependent expression of CD38. The variability of CD38 expression was, therefore, for the first time, characterized on the T and B cells isolated from various tissues and peripheral blood of 78 individuals. Overall, T cells were found to have a lower CD38 expression profile than the B cells, and no significant difference was observed between deceased and living individuals. Finally, we show that a simple cell treatment by dithiothreitol can effectively mitigate Daratumumab interference thus preserving the utility of pre-transplant crossmatch in multiple myeloma patients awaiting kidney transplant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0120.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: IMERG; Stage IV; Infrared; Passive microwave; Snow; Ice; Precipitation; GPM; Wet-bulb temperature; AMSR-2
Online: 3 June 2021 (14:59:21 CEST)
Various products of the Integrated Multisatellite Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) and passive mi-crowave (PMW) sensors are assessed with respect to near-surface wet-bulb temperature (Tw), precipitation intensity, and surface type (i.e., with and without snow and ice on the surface) over the CONUS and using Stage-IV product as reference precipitation. IMERG products include precipitation estimates from infrared (IR), combined PMW, and their combination. PMW products generally have higher skills than IR over snow- and ice-free surfaces. Over snow- and ice-covered surfaces (1) PMW products (except AMSR-2) show a higher correlation coefficient than IR, (2) IR and PMW precipitation products tend to overestimate precipitation, but at colder temperatures (e.g., Tw<-10oC) PMW products tend to underestimate and IR product continues to show large overestimations, and (3) PMW sensors show higher overall skill in detecting precipitation oc-currence, but not necessarily at very cold Tw. The results suggest that the current approach of IMERG (i.e., replacing PMW with IR precipitation estimates over snow- and ice-surfaces) may need to be revised.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0068.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: cost-effectiveness; pembrolizumab; etoposide-platinum; extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer; small cell lung cancer.
Online: 1 February 2021 (18:10:59 CET)
Background: The phase III KEYNOTE-604 study confirmed the benefit of pembrolizumab combined with chemotherapy in the first-line treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer(ES-SCLC). Intergrated the clinical benefits of pembrolizumab and its high cost into account, this study aim to assess the cost-effectiveness of adding pembrolizumab to standard first-line etoposide-platinum (EP) for patients with ES-SCLC from the the US payer perspective. Methods: A Markov model was developed to compared the costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of pembrolizumab plus EP and placebo plus EP over a 10-year time horizon. Clinical efficacy, treatment utilization and safety data were pooled from the KEYNOTE-604 trial. Utilities were obtained from published resources. Costs were mainly collected from Medicare in 2020. Sensitivity analyses were performed to examined the robustness of our model. Results: Adding pembrolizumab to standard first-line EP, resulted in better effectiveness than the use of EP alone for ES-SCLC by 0.22 QALYs. Pembrolizumab plus EP was dominated economically by placebo plus EP, leading to an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio(ICER) of $334,373/ QALY. Deterministic sensitivity analyses indicated that the uncertainty in model parameters exerts no substantial effect on our results. Probability sensitivity analysis indicated that probabilities for pembrolizumab plus EP being cost-effective within a wide rang of willingness to pay were modest. Conclusion: From the US payer perspective, the first-line treatment for ES-SCLC with pembrolizumab plus EP was not cost-effective compare with placebo plus EP. Although pembrolizumab combination chemotherapy was beneficial to the survival of ES-SCLC, price reduction may be the necessary measure to improve its cost-effectiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0246.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: fluoropyrimidine; metronomic maintenance therapy; oxaliplatin-based regimen; stage III colorectal cancer; epidermal growth factor receptor
Online: 19 December 2019 (07:04:39 CET)
Background: This retrospective study evaluates the survival effects of metronomic maintenance therapy with fluoropyrimidine in patients with stage III colorectal cancer (CRC) according to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression. Methods: We enrolled 197 patients with stage III CRC who had undergone radical resection and FOLFOX regimen adjuvant chemotherapy. The clinicopathological features and effects of metronomic maintenance therapy on survival according to treatment group and EGFR expression were analyzed. By conducting an in vitro cell line study and in vivo study through knockdout of EGFR gene, we analyzed the capacities of cell proliferation and migration. Results: Postoperative relapse and mortality were significantly more common in the FOLFOX group. Metronomic maintenance therapy was a significantly independent predictive factor of postoperative relapse and mortality, as well as a prognostic factor of disease-free survival and overall survival. The significant differences of survival between the two groups were only observed in patients with positive EGFR expression. Conclusions: The present study suggested EGFR expression as the prognostic factor in patients with stage III CRC receiving metronomic maintenance therapy. By analyzing EGFR expression, we can identify the potential candidates with optimal survival benefit from metronomic maintenance therapy in patients with stage III CRC.