Preprint Article Version 1 This version not peer reviewed

Concentrations of Carotenoids and Tocopherols in Breast Milk from Urban Chinese Mothers and their Associations with Maternal Characteristics:A Cross-Sectional Study

Version 1 : Received: 4 October 2017 / Approved: 6 October 2017 / Online: 6 October 2017 (08:39:21 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Xue, Y.; Campos-Giménez, E.; Redeuil, K.M.; Lévèques, A.; Actis-Goretta, L.; Vinyes-Pares, G.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, P.; Thakkar, S.K. Concentrations of Carotenoids and Tocopherols in Breast Milk from Urban Chinese Mothers and Their Associations with Maternal Characteristics: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1229. Xue, Y.; Campos-Giménez, E.; Redeuil, K.M.; Lévèques, A.; Actis-Goretta, L.; Vinyes-Pares, G.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, P.; Thakkar, S.K. Concentrations of Carotenoids and Tocopherols in Breast Milk from Urban Chinese Mothers and Their Associations with Maternal Characteristics: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1229.

Journal reference: Nutrients 2017, 9, 1229
DOI: 10.3390/nu9111229

Abstract

This study aims to quantify carotenoids and tocopherols in human milk from healthy Chinese women, and to explore their associations with region, lactation stage, and maternal socio-economic and obstetric factors. Human milk was obtained from 509 healthy mothers and the compounds of carotenoids and tocopherols were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography after mild saponification and solvent extraction. Socio-economic and obstetric characteristics of the mothers and their dietary intakes through a single 24-hour dietary recall were evaluated. The median content of each component [μg/100mL, median (interquartile range)] in colostrum and mature milk was, respectively, β-carotene 8.0 (4.7-15.2) and 1.8 (1.4-2.7), β-cryptoxanthin 6.2 (2.4-12.9) and 1.8 (1.1-3.4), lutein 5.7 (2.9-10.2) and 3.4 (1.5-6.0), lycopene 6.3 (4.0-9.9) and 1.4 (1.1-2.0), zeaxanthin 1.0 (0.6-1.5) and 1.0 (0.6-1.4), α-tocopherol 645 (388-1176) and 211 (131-321), γ-tocopherol 68 (48-121) and 77 (45-120). The levels of all those vitamins presented regional differences, and decreased as lactation stage increased except for zeaxanthin and γ-tocopherol. Associations of carotenoid contents with maternal education, delivery mode, and present body mass index were found in multivariate analyses. These results suggest that some region, lactation stage, obstetric and socio-economic factors are associated with human milk concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols in healthy Chinese mothers.

Subject Areas

Breast milk; Carotenoids; Tocopherols; Colostrum; Lactation stage; Cross-sectional study

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