ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1391.v1
Online: 21 September 2023 (03:32:12 CEST)
This study presents a transversal investigation, that we performed at Fundeni hospital, into the therapeutic benefits and efficacy of Emicizumab, a non-factor therapy, in the context of hemophilia A. Ten patients diagnosed with hemophilia A were closely monitored, using clinical and laboratory resources, during the course of Emicizumab treatment, with an average of 12.8 months. Among these patients, six exhibited anti-factor VIII inhibitors, changing the medical approach and adding complexity to their clinical profiles. A comprehensive approach was adopted to assess the coagulation status of patients under Emicizumab therapy. The study employed several key coagulation monitoring tools, of which including thrombin generation time (TGT) and thrombelastography (TEG). These methodologies proved highly valuable results in evaluating the patients' coagulation profiles during the treatment regimen. Additionally, traditionally coagulation assays were utilized to gain a comprehensive understanding of the overall coagulation dynamics. Noteworthy, impressive outcomes emerged from the study. During prophylaxis with Emicizumab all patients had experienced a reduced number of bleeding events. Moreover, a subset of these patients underwent major surgical procedures (orthopedic joint replacements) with successful outcomes. These findings underscore the potential of Emicizumab therapy as an effective option for hemophilia A patients, including those that presented a prompt production of anti-factor VIII inhibitors. As for the outcomes, this transversal study sheds some light on the positive impact of Emicizumab therapy in addressing the coagulation challenges posed by hemophilia A. The utilization of global coagulation assays, such as thrombin generation time, thrombelastography and combined with traditional coagulation assays, used as monitoring tools highlights their significance once more in evaluating the therapeutic response. This research contributes by providing physicians with valuable insights to the field, offering a potential avenue for improved patients’ care and treatment strategies that translate in enhanced quality of life for hemophilia A patients undergoing Emicizumab therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1338.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: iron chelation; iron overload; myelodysplastic syndromes; MDS; myeloproliferative neoplasms; MPN; ferritin; hematologic improvement
Online: 20 September 2023 (05:39:06 CEST)
Myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative neoplasms both represent hematologic diseases associated with bone marrow failure often resulting in anemia. For those patients, transfusion of red blood cell (RBC) units is essential, but results in iron overload (IOL) that may affect various organ functions. Therefore, iron chelation therapy plays a major role in anemic patients, not only because it reduces IOL, but also because it may improve hematopoietic function by increasing hemoglobin or diminishing requirement of RBC transfusions. To assess the utility, efficacy and safety of the different iron chelation medication approved in Germany as well as to examine the effect of chelation on hematopoietic insufficiency, a prospective, multicenter, non-interventional study named EXCALIBUR was designed. In total, 502 patients from 106 German hospitals and medical practices were enrolled. A large proportion of patients switched from deferasirox dispersible tablet to deferasirox film-coated tablet, mainly due to more convenient application which was reflected in the treatment satisfaction questionnaire for medication scores. Iron chelation was effective in lowering serum ferritin levels, with the observed adverse drug reactions being in line with the known safety profile. Hematologic response occurred in a few patients, comparable to other studies that examined hematologic improvement in patients with MDS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1180.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: myeloma; daratumumab; bispecific antibodies; chimeric antigen receptor T-cells; immunotherapy
Online: 19 September 2023 (05:28:58 CEST)
The landscape of therapeutic measures to treat multiple myeloma has undergone a seismic shift since the dawn of the current century. This has been driven largely by the introduction of new classes of small molecules, such as proteasome blockers (e.g., bortezomib) and immunomodulators (e.g., lenalidomide), as well as by immunotherapeutic agents starting with the anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody daratumumab in 2015. Recently, other immunotherapies have been added to the armamentarium of drugs available to fight this malignancy. These include the bispecifics teclistamab, talquetamab, and elranatamab, and the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell products idecabtagene vicleucel (ide-cel) and ciltacabtagene autoleucel (cilta-cel). While the accumulated benefits of these newer agents have resulted in a more than doubling of the disease’s five-year survival rate to nearly 60% and improved quality of life, the disease remains incurable, as patients become refractory to the drugs and experience relapse. This review covers the current scope of anti-myeloma immunotherapeutic agents, both those in clinical use and in development. Included in the discussion are additional monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), bi- and multi-targeted mAbs, and CAR T-cells and emerging natural killer (NK) cells, including products intended for “off-the-shelf” (allogeneic) applications. Emphasis is placed on the benefits of each along with the challenges that need to be surmounted if MM is to be cured.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1120.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: platelet function; podoplanin; soluble CLEC-2; cancer thrombosis
Online: 18 September 2023 (10:50:11 CEST)
The C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2) is expressed on platelets and mediates binding to podoplanin (PDPN) on various cell types. The binding to circulating tumor cells (CTCs) leads to platelet activation and promote metastatic spread. The increased level of soluble CLEC-2 (sCLEC-2), presumably, released from activated platelets was shown in patients with thromboinflammatory and malignant disease. However, the functional role of sCLEC-2 and the mechanism of sCLEC-2 release is not known. In this study, we focused on the effect of platelet activation on CLEC-2 expression and the sCLEC-2 plasma level in cancer patients. First, citrated blood from healthy volunteer donors (n=20) was used to measure the effect of platelet stimulation by classical agonists and PDPN on aggregation, CLEC-2 expression on platelets by flow cytometry, sCLEC-2 release to the plasma by ELISA and total CLEC-2 expression by Western blot analysis. Second, sCLEC-2 was determined in plasma samples from healthy donors (285) and patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC; 194), melanoma (160), breast cancer (BC; 99) or glioblastoma (49). PDPN caused a significant increase of the aggregation response induced by classical agonists. ADP or PDPN stimulation of platelets caused a significant decrease of CLEC-2 on platelets and sCLEC-2 in the plasma, whereas, total CLEC-2 in platelet lysates remained the same. Thus, the increased plasma level of sCLEC-2 is not a suitable biomarker of platelet activation. In patients with CRC (median 0.9 ng/mL), melanoma (0.9 ng/mL) or BC (0.7 ng/mL) we found significantly lower sCLEC-2 levels (p<0.0001), whereas, glioblastoma patients displayed higher levels (2.6 ng/mL; p=0.0233) compared to healthy controls (2.1 ng/mL). The low sCLEC-2 plasma level observed in most of the tumor entities of our study, presumably, results from the internalization of sCLEC-2 by activated platelets or binding of sCLEC-2 to CTC.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0959.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: mature plasmacytoid dendritic cell proliferation, T lymphoblastic lymphoma, myeloid neoplasms, case report
Online: 14 September 2023 (07:22:23 CEST)
To the best of the author’s knowledge, studies of mature plasmacytoid dendritic cell proliferation associated with T lymphoblastic lymphoma were extremely rare in the literature. Here, we report a patient who underwent both mature plasmacytoid dendritic cell proliferation and T lymphoblastic lymphoma. With the findings of lymph node biopsy taken from the right cervical and inguinal regions, we identified eye-catching mature plasmacytoid dendritic cells that were considered to be responsible for this lesion at the beginning, until the immunostaining of Ki67 and TDT showed a small group of positive cells hiding in these plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Bone marrow biopsy was also performed in this patient. Microscopically, the hematopoietic tissue was almost completely replaced by lymphoblastoid cells with condensed chromatin, inconspicuous nucleoli and scanty cytoplasm, which were basically the same as those seen in the lymph nodes in morphology. However, there was no sign of plasmacytoid dendritic cells or Langerhans cells in the bone marrow biopsy. With the help of bone marrow biopsy, our final diagnosis of the lymph node was T lymphoblastic lymphoma coexisting with mature plasmacytoid dendritic cell proliferation . Although accumulations of plasmacytoid dendritic cells may occur in some infections or reactive lymphadenopathy, the presence of extensive nodules or infiltration of plasmacytoid dendritic cells strongly reminds the pathologist to carefully evaluate the bone marrow or peripheral blood status of the patient to exclude a hidden myeloid or other neoplasm.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0848.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: MDS; AML; p53; MDM2; MDM4; p73; improved therapy
Online: 13 September 2023 (10:09:18 CEST)
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) originate from preleukemic hematopoietic conditions, such as clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) or clonal cytopenia of undetermined significance (CCUS) and have desolate outcomes. The prognosis is worse in patients with TP53 mutations which are often linked to complex karyotypes and contribute to worse responses to induction therapy, demethylating agents or venetoclax-based treatments. Survival of patients with TP53 gene mutations is often less than one year. Therefore, TP53-mutated MDS and AML are now classified separately in the unfavorable risk category. In the clinical setting, the wild-type p53 is reactivated pharmacologically by targeting p53/MDM2/MDM4 interactions and mutant p53 reactivation is achieved by refolding the DNA binding domain to wild-type-like conformation or via targeted degradation of the mutated protein. This review discusses our current understanding of p53 biology in MDS and AML and the promises and failures of p53 reactivation in the clinical trial setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0619.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: acute lymphoblastic leukemia; imatinib; dasatinib: nilotinib; ponatinib; blinatumomab; reducedintensity chemotherapy; chemotherapy-free; progression-free
Online: 11 September 2023 (04:05:57 CEST)
In Philadelphia chromosome positive B-cell (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (LLA), growing evidence has ac-cumulated about the efficacy of low-intensity and chemo-free regimens. Our objective was to analyze all recent trials evaluating these treatments and to compare them in terms of efficacy. We applied the Shiny method, an artificial intelligence technique, to analyze Kaplan-Meier curves and reconstruct patient-level data. Reconstructed patient data were then evaluated through standard survival statistics and subjected to indirect head-to-head treatment comparisons. The endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Based on 848 reconstructed patients, 9 trials were analyzed. The survival data from these trials were pooled into three types of treatments: i) treatments based on ty-rosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) combined with reduced-intensity chemotherapy (denoted as TKICHE); ii) TKIs as-sociated to steroids with no chemotherapy (TKISTE); iii) chemotherapy-free combinations of blinatumomab plus TKIs (TKIBLI). According to the Shiny method, the three PFS curves were reported in a single Kaplan-Meier graph and subjected to survival statistics. In terms of PFS, TKIBLI ranked first, TKICHE second, and TKISTE third; the differences between these three regimens were statistically significant. This multi-treatment Kaplan-Meier graph, generated through the Shiny method, summarized the current evidence on these treatments in both qualitative and quantitative terms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0229.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia; immunotherapy; checkpoint inhibitors; new therapeutic landscapes
Online: 6 September 2023 (14:36:13 CEST)
In the last years, molecularly targeted agents and immune based treatments (ITs) have deeply changed the landscape of anti-cancer therapy. Indeed, ITs proved to be very effective in metastatic solid tumors, where outcomes were extremely poor with standard approaches. Such a scenario has been only partially reproduced in hematologic malignancies. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), as innovative drugs are eagerly awaited in relapsed/refractory setting, different ITs have been explored, but the results are still unsatisfactory. In this work, we will discuss the most important clinical studies to date adopting ITs in AML, providing the bases to understand how this approach, although still in its infancy, may represent a promising therapeutic tool for the next future treatment of AML patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0378.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Primary immune thrombocytopenia; Glucocorticoids; Intravenous immunoglobulins; Fostamatinib; Rituximab; Recommendations
Online: 6 September 2023 (09:38:18 CEST)
Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a complex autoimmune disease whose hallmark is a deregulation of cellular and humoral immunity leading to an increased destruction and a reduced production of platelets. The heterogeneity of presentation and clinical course hampers personalized approaches for diagnosis and management. In 2021, the Spanish ITP Group (GEPTI) of the Spanish Society of Hematology and Hemotherapy (SEHH) updated a consensus document which had been launched in 2011. The updated guidelines have been the reference for diagnosis and management of primary ITP in Spain ever since. Nevertheless, the emergence of new tools and strategies makes it advisable to review them again. For this reason, we have properly updated the main recommendations. Our aim is to provide a practical tool to enable the integral management of all the aspects concerning primary ITP management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0016.v1
Online: 1 September 2023 (11:49:11 CEST)
Neutropenia refers to a decrease in the absolute neutrophil count according to age and race norms and poses a common concern in pediatric practice. Neutrophils serve as host defenders and act crucially in acute inflammation procedures. In this narrative review we systematically present causes of neutropenia in childhood mainly adopting the pathophysiological classification of Frater, thereby studying: (1) neutropenia with reduced bone marrow reserve, (2) secondary neutropenia with reduced bone marrow reserve, and (3) neutropenia with normal bone marrow reserve. Different conditions in each category are thoroughly discussed and practically approached from the clinician point of view. Secondary mild to moderate neutropenia is usually benign due to childhood viral infections and is expected to resolve in 2- 4 weeks. Bacterial and fungal agents are also associated with transient neutropenia although fever with severe neutropenia constitutes a medical emergency. Drug-induced and immune neutropenias should be suspected following a careful history and a detailed clinical examination. Cytotoxic chemotherapies treating malignancies are responsible for severe neutropenia and neutropenic shock. Rare genetic neutropenias usually manifest with major infections early in life. Our review taxonomies clinical findings and associates them to specific neutropenia disorders. We consequently propose a practical diagnostic algorithm for managing neutropenic children.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1982.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: myelodysplastic syndromes; non-coding RNA; microRNA; lnc-RNA; circ-RNA; piwi-RNA; t-RNA; sno-RNA
Online: 29 August 2023 (13:42:14 CEST)
Myelodysplastic syndromes or neoplasms (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of myeloid clonal disorders characterized by peripheral blood cytopenias, blood and marrow cell dysplasia and an increased risk for evolution to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Non-coding RNAs, especially microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs serve as regulators of normal and malignant hematopoiesis and have been implicated in carcinogenesis. This review will present a comprehensive summary of the biology and role of non-coding RNAs, including the less studied circRNA, siRNA, piRNA, and snoRNA as potential prognostic and/or predictive biomarkers or therapeutic targets in MDS.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1585.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria; aplastic anemia; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 22 August 2023 (13:19:19 CEST)
We report two cases of pancytopenia in patients after recovering from a mild COVID-19, now presenting as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and aplastic anemia. These cases il-lustrate a common pathway whereby a viral trigger causes clonal expansion of a hematological disorder. Although the association in both cases are temporal, and that COVID-19 may be an in-cidental diagnosis, the growing evidence related to hematological effects of SARS-CoV-2 infec-tion highlights the need for further investigation into the hematological consequences of COVID-19, particularly in the post-pandemic era.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1526.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Etoposide; plerixafor; mobilization; multiple myeloma
Online: 22 August 2023 (09:34:00 CEST)
To explore more effective and safer mobilization strategies for multiple myeloma (MM) patients, we conducted a prospective trial comparing single-dose etoposide (375 mg/m2 for one day) plus G-CSF versus G-CSF alone followed by risk-adapted plerixafor. After randomization, 27 patients in the etoposide group and 29 patients in the G-CSF alone group received mobilization regimens. Six (22.2%) patients in the etoposide group and 15 (51.7%) patients in the G-CSF alone group received a risk-adapted plerixafor based on a peripheral blood CD34+ cell count of less than 15/mm3 (P = 0.045). The median total count of CD34+ stem cells collected was significantly higher in the etoposide group (9.5 × 106/kg vs. 7.9 × 106/kg; P = 0.018), but the optimal collection (CD34+ cell count ≥ 6 × 106/kg) rates were not significantly different between the etoposide group and the G-CSF alone groups (96.3% vs. 82.8%; P = 0.195). The rate of collected CD34+ stem cells of 8.0 × 106/kg or grater was significantly higher in the etoposide group (77.8% vs 44.8%; P = 0.025). Meanwhile, the rates of adverse events of were relatively low, with no neutropenic fever or septic shock observed in either group. After transplantation, the median days to neutrophil and platelet engraftment were not significantly different between the two groups (P =1.000 in both). Thus, both single-dose etoposide plus G-CSF and G-CSF alone with risk-adapted plerixafor were effective and safe, but the former may be the better option for patients who are expected to receive two or more transplantations.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1373.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL); Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining; Glucoseregulated protein 94 (GRP94); CYP3A4; Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1); Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 (AKR1C3); Multi-drug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1); P53
Online: 18 August 2023 (11:42:22 CEST)
We conducted a retrospective analysis of the immunohistochemical (IHC) staining GRP94, an ER stress protein on large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) cells, intracellular p53, and 15 factors involved in the metabolism of CHOP regimen :AKR1C3 (HO-metabolism), CYP3A4 (CHOP-metabolism) and HO efflux pumps (MDR1, MRP1). The study subjects were 42 patients with LBCL at our hospital. IHC staining using antibodies against the 17 factors. The odds ratios by logistic regression analysis using a dichotomous variable of CR, non-CR/relapse were statistically significant: for MDR1, MRP1, and AKR1C3. The overall survival (OS) after R-CHOP was compared by the log-rank test. The four groups showed that Very good (5-year OS, 100%) consisted of 4 patients showed negative IHC staining for both GRP94 and CYP3A4. Very poor (1-year OS, 0%), consisted of 3 patients who showed positive results of IHC for both GRP94 and CYP3A4. The remaining 35 patients comprised two subgroups: Good (5-year OS 60-80%.): 15 patients who showed negative staining for both MDR1 and AKR1C3, Poor: 5-year OS, 10-20%) :20 patients who showed positive staining for either MDR, AKR1C3,,MRP1 or p53. The Histological Prognostic Index (HPI) (The four groups: Very poor, Poor, Good, and Very pood) is a breakthrough method for stratifying patients based on factors involved in the development of treatment resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1141.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: sickle cell; cardiac markers; vaso-occlusive; troponin; lactate dehydrogenase
Online: 16 August 2023 (03:18:46 CEST)
Background: Millions of people worldwide suffer from a genetic hemoglobinopathy known as sickle cell disease (SCD). It is a long-term condition marked by progressive multiorgan failure. Among SCD patients, cardiovascular complications are the main leading cause of death. Cardiovascular complication raises cardiac markers level as well as sickle cell vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC). This makes it challenging to determine the source. Methods: This research aims to identify the association between cardiac markers and myocardial infarction in SCD patients At King Abdulaziz University (KAUH) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. This retrospective study was conducted from June 2022 to March 2023. All patients with SCD who were 18 years and above were enrolled. Cardiac markers' associations with age, emergency room visits, ECG, blood transfusion, hydroxyurea, anticoagulants, and mortality were analyzed. Result: 537 patient records were screened during the study period, of which 270 met the inclusion criteria. Among these, 144 (53.3%) were female. The prevalence of elevated LDH, troponin, and CK-MB among the SCD patients who visited ER for the VOC was 78.5%, 9.3%, and 6.3%, respectively. Overall, there was a significant relationship between the cardiac marker level and the number of ER visits, age and mortality (p= 0.01), but there was no significant association between the cardiac marker level and for each of the following: hydroxyurea use, antiplatelet/anticoagulant use, needing of blood transfusion and ECG abnormalities. This retrospective research shed light on the significance of cardiac marker levels in patients with SCD. The level of cardiac markers was remarkably linked with age, frequency of ER visits, and patients' states.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0936.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: acute promyelocytic leukemia; arsenic trioxide; all‐trans retinoic acid; non‐hematologic toxicities
Online: 14 August 2023 (09:52:50 CEST)
Abstract The hallmark of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is the presence of the characteristic fusion transcript of the promyelocytic leukemia gene with the retinoic acid receptor α gene (PML::RARA), which is a molecular target for all-transretinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO). Therapies with ATRA plus ATO have excellent outcomes in terms of complete remission rate, overall survival, and achievement of a deep and durable molecular response with a very low incidence of relapse. However, although the combination of ATRA and ATO has lower hematologic toxicity than standard chemotherapy, its use is associated with a spectrum of unique toxicities, such as hepatic toxicity, QTc (QT interval corrected) prolongation, neurotoxicity, and differentiation syndrome. Hematologists treating patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia should be aware of possible early-complications of the ATRA plus ATO regimen and aim to balance treatment-related adverse events and efficacy. Careful follow-up of the patient’s clinical course is essential to identify and treat each complication. This study focused on treatment-related complications during induction and consolidations in patients with APL who received ATRA plus ATO. We retrospectively analyzed 26 adult patients diagnosed with APL between 2019 and 2022 at our center to identify the incidence rate, severity and time of onset of short-term non-hematologic adverse events relative to the initiation of the ATRA and ATO regimen. Additionally, we review the existing literature regarding the toxic side effects of ATO in APL and discuss how its most frequent toxicities should be managed. The median follow-up of our patients was 21.5 months (range, 1-48 months) and the most common adverse events were hepatic toxicity (69.2%), infections (46.1%), differentiation syndrome(23%) and QT prolongation (11.5%). All patients experienced at least one adverse event and grade 3 and 4 toxicities occurred in 57.6 % patients; these generally consisted of liver enzyme elevations, QTc prolongation, but also some rare manifestations such as musculoskeletal pain syndrome (1 patient) and ATO-related pancreatitis (1 patient). Most patients developed side-effects during induction. This is the first study about Romanian patients diagnosed with APL. Our results suggest that all treatment-related adverse events, except for differentiation syndrome are manageable, self-limiting and reversible. All patients, except for two (one died during induction and one died during consolidation), were able to complete the treatment consolidation with ATO and ATRA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Epstein Barr Virus, HL microenvironment, Immune suppression
Online: 2 August 2023 (05:14:23 CEST)
Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) has been recognized for its ability to transform B lymphocytes and for its association with different types of cancers including Hodgkin lymphoma. In addition, EBV may also modulate the microenvironment of HL. In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of EBV among HL cases in Ethiopia and to assess the tissue cellular composition of EBV-related and EBV-unrelated cases. We constructed a tissue microarray (TMA) of 126 consecutive cases of classical HL (cHL) and nodular lymphocyte predominant HL (NLPHL) from a tertiary cancer centre, Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and evaluated a panel of immunohistochemical markers. The quantification of immune cells was performed using HALO 2.3, a platform for image analysis from Indica Lab Inc. A total of 77/126 (61.1%) of HL cases expressed LMP1/EBER. Infiltration of CD8+, T-bet+ and FOXP3+ cells was higher in the microenvironment of EBV-related HL, with P values of <0.001, 0.006 and <0.001, respectively. In contrast, the expression of PD1 was higher in the microenvironment of EBV-unrelated HL cases (P = 0.001). Unlike in Western countries, the majority of HL cases in Ethiopia were associated with EBV. As FoxP3+ and PD1-expressing cells are thought to participate in down regulation of the immune response by different mechanisms, this finding highlights the previously unrecognized possibility that distinct immunosuppressive mechanisms may be ongoing within EBV positive and negative HL types. This may have important prognostic and therapeutic implications.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2162.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Sickle cell disease; hemolysis; vasoocclusion; l-glutamine; Liver injury; Kupffer cells
Online: 1 August 2023 (14:24:19 CEST)
Abstract: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an autosomal recessive monogenic disorder caused by a homozygous mutation in the β-globin gene, which leads to erythrocyte sickling, hemolysis, vaso-occlusion and sterile inflammation. Oral l-glutamine administration has been shown to reduce the frequency of pain crisis in SCD patients, however, the long-term effect of l-glutamine in SCD remains to be determined. To understand the long-term effect of l-glutamine administration in SCD liver we used quantitative liver intravital microscopy and biochemical analysis in humanized SCD mice. We here show that chronic l-glutamine administration reduces hepatic hemoglobin-heme-iron level, but fails to ameliorate ischemic liver injury. Remarkably, we find that this failure in resolution of hepatobiliary injury and persistent liver fibrosis is associated with reduced expression of hepatic Kupffer cells post l-glutamine treatment. These findings establish the importance to investigate the long-term effects of l-glutamine therapy on liver pathophysiology in SCD patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1984.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Cancer-related cognitive impairment; Hodgkin lymphoma; neuropsychology; affective distress; quality of life
Online: 28 July 2023 (09:23:56 CEST)
Background: Cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is one of the most serious side effects of cancer that negatively impact the quality of life of cancer patients and survivors. There is evidence of CRCI in Hodgkin lymphoma patients (HL); however, there is a lack of studies examining the presence of cognitive deficits before starting any treatment in HL patients. Methods: Forty patients (N=40) newly diagnosed with HL (with no previous cancer diagnoses) and 40 healthy controls (N=40) matched for age, sex, education, and premorbid intellect completed the neuropsychological battery and subjective and objective measures of affective distress and quality of life. Results: The results showed impairment in three out of six cognitive domains: verbal memory and learning, speed of processing/ psychomotor speed, and abstraction/executive functions in the HL patients before the initiation of any treatment. Speed of processing/psychomotor speed domain negatively correlated with depression. Conclusion: Impairment in verbal memory and learning and abstraction/executive functions domains in HL patients seems to occur before the initiation of treatment independently of anxiety, depression, or physical symptoms. This suggests that HL itself may cause cognitive deficits in these cognitive domains. However, the underlying causes of CRCI still remain unclear.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1943.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. relapsed/refractory; therapy; efficacy; toxicity
Online: 28 July 2023 (03:55:02 CEST)
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive and biologically heterogeneous disease. Approximately 40% of patients with DLBCL will experience disease relapse or will be refractory to first line chemoimmunotherapy. In recent years there have been several new therapeutic agents approved for the treatment of relapsed/refractory (R/R) DLBCL. These agents include anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapies (CAR T-cells) and monoclonal antibodies as polatuzumab and tafasitamab. Nevertheless, despite the high efficacy of all these new therapies, there are still patients who do not respond or relapse, representing an unmet clinical need. This review describes new promising therapies that are under investigation to treat R/R DLBCL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1450.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Thrombin generation; venous thromboembolism; elderly; bleeding; mortality
Online: 21 July 2023 (12:46:36 CEST)
It is currently unknown whether thrombin generation is associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence, major bleeding, and mortality in the elderly. Therefore, our aim was to prospectively study the association between thrombin generation and VTE recurrence, major bleeding and mortality in elderly patients with acute VTE. Consecutive patients aged ≥65years with acute VTE were followed for 2 years starting from 1 year after the index VTE. Primary outcomes were VTE recurrence, major bleeding and mortality. Thrombin generation was assessed in 565 patients 1 year after the index VTE. At this time, 59% of patients were still anticoagulated. Thrombin generation was discriminatory for VTE recurrence, but not for major bleeding and mortality in non-anticoagulated patients. Moreover, peak ratio (adjusted subhazard ratio 4.09, 95% CI, 1.12-14.92) and normalized peak ratio (adjusted subhazard ratio 2.18, 95% CI, 1.28-3.73) in presence/absence of thrombomodulin were associated with VTE recurrence, but not with major bleeding and mortality after adjustment for potential confounding factors. In elderly patients, thrombin generation was associated with VTE recurrence, but not with major bleeding and/or mortality. Therefore, our study suggests the potential usefulness of thrombin generation measurement after anticoagulation completion for VTE to help identifying among elderly patients those at higher risk of VTE recurrence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1468.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: CLL; atypical CLL; CD5; CD23; CLL differential diagnosis.
Online: 21 July 2023 (09:07:06 CEST)
A diagnosis of typical chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) requires the presence of ≥5000 clonal B-lymphocytes/μL with the coexistence of CD19, CD20, CD5, and CD23 and the restriction of light chain immunoglobulin, and the lack of expression of antigens CD22 and CD79b. Atypical CLL (aCLL) can be distinguished from typical CLL morphologically and immunophenotypically. Atypical CLL cells are defined as prolymphocytes; morphologically, these present as deeply-clefted lymphocytes which are larger than those in typical CLL, with condensed chromatin and without prominent nucleoli. However, current aCLL diagnostics rely more on immunophenotypic characteristics rather than atypical morphology. Immunophenotypically, atypical CLL differs from classic CLL in the lack of expression of one or fewer surface antigens, most commonly CD5 and CD23, and the patient does not meet the criteria for a diagnosis of any other B-cell lymphoid malignancy. Morphologically atypical CLL has more aggressive clinical behavior and worse prognosis than classic CLL. Patients with aCLL are more likely to display markers associated with poor prognosis, including trisomy 12, unmutated IGVH, and CD38 expression compared with classic CLL. However, no standard or commonly-accepted criteria exist for differentiating aCLL from classic CLL and the clinical significance of aCLL is still under debate. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the morphological, immunophenotypic and genetic abnormalities of aCLL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1234.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Iron deficiency anemia; oral iron; side effects
Online: 18 July 2023 (14:17:18 CEST)
Introduction: In the recent years alternate day dosing has been recommended in iron deficieny treatment. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy and side effects of oral iron treatments given daily 1x1, alternate day 1x1 and 2x1 alternate day dosing in iron deficieny anemia patients. Methods: A total of 52 patients with a diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia with serum ferritin level of 25 µg/L or less were included in this retrospective study. Statistical analyzes were done with SPSS V.25. Results: The patients included in our study were between the ages of 18-51. All of the patients included in the study were female. A statistically significant increase was found between 0-14 days(p<0.001), 14-28 days(p<0.001) and 0-28 days(p<0.001) hemoglobin values in all patients. There was no statistically significant difference between 0-14 days (p=0.397) and 0-28 days(p=0.310) ferritin values in all patients. A statistically significant difference was found between 14-28 days(p<0.001) ferritin values. When the rate of change of hemoglobin and ferritin values between the groups was compared and no statistically significant difference was observed between the groups. The rate of change of ferritin values for 14-28 days was significant (p=0.012). There was no significant difference in the frequency of symptoms in the 14th day and 28th day controls for each group (p>0.05). The incidence of metallic taste and bloating symptoms was found to be statistically significant in the third control in the group with 2x1 drug use alternate day (p=0.094). Discussion: The only difference in efficacy was observed in ferritin values between 14th and 28th days. The increase in ferritin values was higher in the group that used 1x1 oral iron every day. However, since no difference was observed between the groups in terms of ferritin and hemoglobin values on days 0 and 28, all three groups were considered equally efficient. Side effects were mainly gastrointestinal side effects. Since the group that received 2x1 oral treatment alternate day had a statistically significantly higher rate of side effects, the patients’ treatment tolerance will be lower compared to the other groups. In conlusion, there is no difference in efficacy and side effects between the patient groups receiving 1x1 daily and 1x1 alternate day oral iron therapy, so 1x1 use alternate day is the most appropriate treatment method for oral iron therapy in terms of patient tolerance, adherence to treatment and pharmacoeconomics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1091.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: acute promyelocytic leukemia; relapse; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Online: 17 July 2023 (10:10:56 CEST)
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) currently represents one of the malignant hemopathies with the best therapeutic responses following the introduction of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and later of arsenic trioxide (ATO) treatment. As a result, patients with APL achieve long-term responses in a large proportion after first-line therapy, so that performing hematopoietic stem cell transplant as consolidation of first complete remission is no longer necessary. Even in the case of relapses, most patients obtain a new remission thanks to the therapy with ATO and ATRA, but to maintain it, a consolidation treatment as effective as possible is necessary. The experience accumulated from studies published in the last two decades shows the effectiveness of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in improving the evolution of patients who achieve a new complete re-mission. Thus, the recommendations of expert groups indicate transplantation as consolidation therapy in patients with a second complete remission with the mention of the use of autologous HSCT in cases with complete molecular remission and allogeneic HSCT for patients with the persistence of minimal residual disease or early relapse. However, there is a variety of contro-versial aspects related to the role of HSCT in APL, from obtaining outcome data almost exclusively from retrospective studies and historical analyzes to questions related to the type of transplanta-tion, the impact of minimal residual disease, conditioning regimens, or the role of other thera-peutic options. All these questions justify the performance of controlled prospective studies in the following years.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1039.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Keywords: sickle cell anaemia, chronic inflammation, immune system, oxidative stress, hemolysis, blood transfusion
Online: 17 July 2023 (09:25:33 CEST)
Abstract Sickle cell anaemia (SCD) is a life-threatening haematological disorder which is predominant in sub-Saharan Africa and is triggered by a genetic mutation of the β-chain haemoglobin gene resulting in the substitution of glutamic acid with valine. This mutation leads to the production of an abnormal haemoglobin molecule called haemoglobin S (HbS). When deoxygenated, haemoglobin S (HbS) polymerizes and results in a sickle-shaped red blood cell which is rigid and has a significantly shortened life span. Various reports have shown a strong link between oxidative stress, inflammation, the immune response, and the pathogenesis of sickle cell disease. The consequence of these processes lead to the development of vasculopathy (disease of the blood vessels) and several other complications. The role of the immune system, particularly the innate immune system, in the pathogenesis of SCD has become increasingly clear in recent years of research, However, little is known about the roles of the adaptive immune system in this disease. This review examines the interaction between the immune system, inflammation, oxidative stress, blood transfusion, and their effects on the pathogenesis of sickle cell anaemia
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0430.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Hodgkin lymphoma; relapsed/refractory; brentuximab vedotin; checkpoint inhibitor; PD-1 inhibitor; nivolumab; pembrolizumab; autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation
Online: 6 July 2023 (11:44:13 CEST)
Most patients with classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) are cured with combination chemotherapy, but approximately 10-20% will relapse and another 5-10% will have primary refractory disease. The treatment landscape of relapsed/refractory (R/R) cHL has evolved significantly over the past decade following the approval of brentuximab vedotin (BV), an anti-CD30 antibody-drug conjugate, and the PD-1 inhibitors, nivolumab and pembrolizumab. These agents have significantly expanded options for salvage therapy prior to autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT), post-transplant maintenance, and treatment of relapse after AHCT, which have led to improved survival in the modern era. In this review, we highlight our approach to management of R/R cHL in 2023 with a focus on choosing first salvage therapy, post-transplant maintenance, and treatment of relapse after AHCT. We also discuss management of older adults and transplant-ineligible patients who require a separate approach. Finally, we review novel immunotherapy approaches in clinical trials, including combinations of PD-1 inhibitors with other immune-activating agents as well as novel antibody-drug conjugates, bispecific antibodies, and cellular immunotherapies. Ongoing studies assessing biomarkers of response to immunotherapy and dynamic biomarkers such as circulating tumor DNA may further inform treatment decisions and enable a more personalized approach in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1996.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: anti-thymocyte globulin; acute graft-versus-host disease; chronic graft-versus-host disease; allogeneic stem cell transplantation; thymoglobuline; grafalon
Online: 28 June 2023 (10:20:03 CEST)
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is a potentially curative treatment modality, frequently applied in patients suffering from haematological malignancies. In the last two decades, there have been multiple randomised controlled trials (RCTs), review articles, and meta-analyses addressing the efficacy of rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (r-ATG) as a graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis. Nevertheless, only a few aimed to compare the effectiveness of different r-ATG formulations. We performed a systematic literature review of articles published since 2017 to this day utilising PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, and MEDLINE, with the main endpoints being prophylaxis of acute GvHD (aGvHD) and chronic GvHD (cGvHD). We subjected to scrutiny a total of 5 studies, of which 4 compared the differences between Thymoglobulin (ATG-T) and Grafalon (ATG-G), and 1 discussed the impact of ATG-T dose. Overall cGvHD, aGvHD grades II-IV, TRM, OS, NRM, LFS, relapse, overall infections, and EBV reactivation do not seem to be affected by the type of utilised rATG. However, data on aGvHD grades III-IV, GRFS, moderate-severe cGvHD, and CMV reactivation is conflicting. Through our research, we sought to summarise the most recent findings concerning r-ATGs in allo-HCT, and provide insight into the differences between the targets and origin of various ATG formulations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1942.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); Thalassemia; Iron; Transfusion-Dependent Thalassemia (TDT); Non-Transfusion-Dependent Thalassemia (NTDT); Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)
Online: 28 June 2023 (03:55:10 CEST)
Thalassemia is a heterogeneous congenital hemoglobinopathy common in the Mediterranean region, Middle East, Indian subcontinent, and Southeast Asia with increasing incidence in Northern Europe and North America due to immigration. Iron overloading is one of the major long-term complications in patients with thalassemia and can lead to organ damage and carcin-ogenesis. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies in both transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT) and non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia (NTDT). The incidence of HCC in patients with thalassemia has increased over time, as better chelation therapy confers a sufficiently long lifespan for the development of HCC. The mechanisms of iron overloading-associated HCC development include the increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammation cytokines, dysregulated hepcidin, and ferroportin metabolism. The treat-ment of HCC in patients with thalassemia was basically similar to those in general population. However, due to the younger age of HCC onset in thalassemia, regular surveillance for HCC development is mandatory in TDT and NTDT. Other supplemental therapy and experience of novel treatment for HCC in thalassemia population were also reviewed in this article.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1898.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: chronic lymphocytic leukemia; older patient; ibrutinib; acalabrutinib; zanubrutinib; venetoclax; sustainabiity
Online: 27 June 2023 (12:04:57 CEST)
Keywords: chronic lymphocytic leukemia; older patient, Bruton tyrosine kinase, BCL2, cost-effectiveness Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors (BTKi) and the BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax, with or without the anti CD20 monoclonal antibody Obinutuzumab, represent the preferred options for the first-line therapy of CLL because they are more effective and may improve quality of life. However, pa-tient’s inclusion criteria were heterogeneous across trials designed for older patients and the identification of CLL-specific parameters identifying unfit patients at risk of developing drug-specific adverse events are required to guide treatment choice. Due to inclusion/exclusion criteria in trials, higher discontinuation rates with BTKi were reported in real-world studies and registry analyses provided useful information on factors predicting for earlier discontinuation in a real-world setting. Though targeted agents were shown to be cost-effective treatments in high-income countries, the out-of-pocket expenses may limit accessibility to these drugs and the overall expenditure for new drugs in CLL is projected to increase substantially posing an issue for sustainability. This being said, the choice of a finite duration treatment based on venetoclax containing regimens or treatment until progression with BTKi is today possible in high- income countries and the therapy choice drivers are represented by coexisting medical conditions rather than age, by patient expectations, logistics and sustainability.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1128.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: myeloid sarcoma; acute myeloid leukemia; chronic myeloid leukemia; chloroma; granulocytic sarcoma; case report
Online: 16 June 2023 (07:15:03 CEST)
Background: Myeloid sarcoma (MS), also known as granulocytic sarcoma or chloroma, is a rare disease entity characterized by the emergence of an extramedullary tumour which may be antecedent, coexisting or manifest secondarily to an ongoing malignancy of lymphoid origin. Owing to its low prevalence, scientific reports addressing this matter comprise mainly retrospective studies with a limited number of participants, rather low-quality research and only few case reports. Despite MS’s rarity, the need for enhancing diagnostic tools and refinement of therapeutic regimens is broadly recognised among physicians. Case summary: In this case series, we present the clinical histories of two patients diagnosed with MS. The former (Case 1) exhibited MS of the sternum alongside chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), while in case of the latter (Case 2) MS was the initial manifestation of a current acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Regardless of treatment institution comprising chemotherapy (CHTH) and radiotherapy (RT), the patient afflicted by CML did eventually pass due to cardiorespiratory insufficiency secondary to an infection, whereas the second one is in clinical remission up to this date, that is 16 months since MS had been diagnosed. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis of previously reported cases was conducted which involves MS in patients with AML and CML. Conclusion: The objective of this report is to emphasize the heterogeneity among the clinical manifestations of MS, to underline the relevance of histopathological and molecular diagnostic tools in opting for the appropriate therapy and that, in spite of it occurring rather uncommonly, physicians should think of MS in presence of pathological masses in patients under risk of hematological malignancies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1076.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Thymoquinone; SBE-β-CD; Leukemia; Drug delivery system; Telomerase inhibition; Apoptosis
Online: 15 June 2023 (05:37:50 CEST)
Leukemia, characterized by abnormal blood cell proliferation, remains a significant challenge in cancer treatment. Thymoquinone (TQ), a bioactive compound derived from black seed, has demonstrated anticancer properties, including telomerase inhibition and induction of apoptosis. However, TQ's poor solubility and limited bioavailability hinder its clinical application. This study explores the use of SBE-β-CD, a cyclodextrin derivative, to enhance the solubility and stability of TQ for leukemia treatment. SBE-β-CD offers low hemolytic activity and has been successfully employed in controlled drug release systems. The study investigates the formation of inclusion complexes between TQ and SBE-β-CD and assesses their effects on leukemia cell growth. Results indicate that the TQ/SBE-β-CD complex exhibits improved solubility and enhanced cytotoxic effects compared to TQ alone, suggesting the potential of SBE-β-CD as a drug delivery system for TQ. Annexin V-FITC tests demonstrate increased apoptosis and reduced telomerase activity in leukemia cells treated with TQ/SBE-β-CD, supporting its anti-leukemic potential. Molecular docking analysis reveals a strong binding affinity between TQ and telomerase. However, further research is needed to optimize the apoptotic effects and minimize necrosis induction. In conclusion, TQ/SBE-β-CD shows promise as a novel strategy for leukemia treatment by targeting telomerase and enhancing the cytotoxic effects of TQ, offering a potential solution to overcome the limitations of TQ's poor solubility and bioavailability.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0943.v1
Online: 13 June 2023 (14:33:46 CEST)
HIV infection is well-known to be associated with the development of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) with extranodal involvement being exclusive bone marrow involvement is less common. Co-infection by other viruses such as the esptein Baar virus (EBV) increases the incidence of a frequent complication denominated hemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis (HLH). We present the case of a 50-year-old patient with the above clinical spectrum who develops several serious complications during treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0849.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Molecular biology; infectious diseases; clinical diagnostic; early detection; prognosis
Online: 12 June 2023 (14:31:24 CEST)
Epigenetic alterations are heritable and enduring modifications in gene expression that play a pivotal role in immune evasion. These include alterations to noncoding RNA, DNA methylation, and histone modifications. DNA methylation plays a crucial role in normal cell growth and development but alterations in methylation patterns such as hypermethylation or hypomethylation can enable tumor and viral cells to evade host immune responses. Histone modifications can also inhibit immune responses by promoting the expression of genes involved in suppressing normal immune function. In the case of T-cell lymphoma, adult T-cell Lymphomas (ALT) also undergo immune evasion through the exceptional function of its accessory and regulatory genes. Epigenetic therapies are emerging as a promising adjunct to traditional immunotherapy and chemotherapy regimens. Clinical trials are currently investigating the use of epigenetic therapies in combination with immunotherapies and chemotherapies for more effective treatment of ATL and other cancers. This review highlights epigenetic alterations that are widely found in T cell malignancies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0742.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Cryoglobulinaemia; IgM; Waldenström macroglobulinemia; monoclonal gammopathy of clinical significance
Online: 12 June 2023 (03:16:55 CEST)
Cryoglobulinaemia is characterised by immunoglobulins which precipitate at temperatures be-low 37°C and redissolve on warming. Monoclonal IgM immunoglobulin may be associated with type I and II cryoglobulinaemia with underlying Waldenström macroglobulinemia, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance or other non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We review the clinical characteristics, laboratory testing and suggest a management approach for monoclonal IgM associated cryoglobulinaemia. Laboratory testing is critical as even a minimal amount of measurable cryoglobulin may result in symptoms. Accurate detection of cryoglobulins may be challenging and care must be taken with preanalytical variables and repeat testing of monoclo-nal protein and cryoglobulins is indicated if clinical suspicion is high. Presentations range from asymptomatic disease to multisystem involvement so careful evaluation of the features and thorough interrogation of organ systems and the underlying clone is critical. Immediate man-agement is required for clinical red flag features. Due to their rarity, data to inform treatment decisions are scant and collaborative research is imperative to aid defining optimal treatment strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0579.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Hb Adana; non-deletional α-thalassaemia; Hb Constant Spring; HbE
Online: 8 June 2023 (03:58:49 CEST)
Hb Adana is a non-deletional α-thalassaemia variant, due to mutations in α1- or α2-globin codon 59 (αCD59) that produce unstable α-globin. Clinical appearance can range from silent carrier to blood transfusion reliance, hepatosplenomegaly, skeletal deformities, and spinal cord compression. Despite the importance of Hb Adana inheritance, this Hb variant is challenging to study since molecular tests are scarce and routine diagnosis can be missed. This study explored the distribution of Hb Adana among local high school students and evaluate the hematological parameters and haemoglobin analysis of Hb Adana in this region of Malaysia. This retrospective study included 13,721 blood samples from high school students enrolled in Malaysia's National Thalassaemia Screening Program at Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II (HRPZ II). Multiplex Gap PCR was used to detect deletional α-thalassaemia. Common non-deletional α-thalassaemia was detected using multiplex ARMS PCR. Evaluable data were retrieved from the HRPZ II database. Results: A total of 2327 subjects exhibited common deletional (n=1037, 44.6%) and non-deletional (n=1290, 55.4%) α-thalassaemia. Hb Constant Spring was the most frequent non-deletional α-thalassaemia. Thirty-one participants (1.33%) had αCD59α/αα and one (0.04%) had αCD59α/-α3.7. The 32 Hb Adana subjects were 87.5% Malay, and 12.5% Orang Asli. Additionally, seven cases of HbE/Hb Adana were discovered. The haemoglobin level in heterozygous Hb Adana ranged from mild anaemia to normal, 95.0 g/L to 153.0 g/L. The MCV and MCH were approximately 73 fL and 23 pg, respectively. Conclusions: We have denoted the distribution of alpha thalassaemia mutation patterns among high school students in Kelantan, Northeast Peninsular of Malaysia. Our observation showed Hb Adana was rarely uncommon in our region and the co-inheritance with an α-gene deletion generates α+-thalassaemia; with HbE, α0-thalassaemia. All heterozygous Hb Adana exhibited low MCVs and MCHs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0213.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: β-thalassemia; iron overload; iron chelators; TDT; NTDT
Online: 2 June 2023 (14:27:31 CEST)
β-thalassemia, a congenital genetic hematological disorder characterized by decreased or absence of β-globin chains, leads to decrease in levels of Hemoglobin A. The affected individuals can be categorized into two cohorts based on transfusion dependency: transfusion dependent thalassemia (TDT) and non-transfusion dependent thalassemia (NTDT). Remarkably, despite the primary pathology lying in β-globin chain depletion, β-thalassemia exhibits an intriguing association with iron overload. Iron metabolism, a tightly regulated physiological process, reveals a complex interplay in these patients. Over time, both cohorts of β-thalassemic individuals develop iron overload, albeit through distinct mechanisms. Addressing the diverse complications arising due to iron overload in β-thalassemic patients, the utilization of iron chelators has gained a lot of significance. With varying efficacies, routes of administration, and modes of action, different iron chelators offer unique benefits to patients. In the Indian context, three commercialized iron chelators have emerged, showcasing a high adherence rate to the iron chelator-based treatment regimens among β-thalassemic individuals. In this review, we explore the intriguing connection between β-thalassemia and iron overload, shedding light on the intricate mechanisms at play. We delve into the intricacies of iron metabolism, unveiling the distinct pathways leading to iron accumulation in these patients. Additionally, we critically evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of different iron chelators, emphasizing their respective advantages in managing iron overload complications. Through this comprehensive analysis, we aim to deepen our understanding of β-thalassemia and iron overload, paving the way for optimized treatment strategies. Ultimately, our findings provide valuable insights into improving the care and outcomes of individuals affected by β-thalassemia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2148.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: disease management; hemorragic events; hydroxyurea; resistance; symptomatic evaluation; patient-reported outcomes; thrombotic events; polycythemia vera
Online: 30 May 2023 (13:11:32 CEST)
Patients with polycythemia vera (PV) are at increased risk of thrombosis and hemorrhages. Although hydroxyurea (HU) has been the frontline therapy for patients at high-risk of vascular complications, about 25% of patients develop resistance/intolerance to this therapy. The aim of this non-interventional, multicenter cohort study was to understand the clinical characteristics and HU treatment response of Portuguese PV patients. HU resistance/intolerance was defined according to adjusted European LeukemiaNet (ELN) criteria. 134 PV patients with a mean disease duration of 4.8±5.0 years were included and followed up for 2 years. At baseline, most patients were ≥60 years old (83.2%), at high risk for thrombotic events (87.2%), and receiving HU therapy (79.1%). A total of 10 thrombotic events and 8 hemorrhagic events were reported, resulting in a 5-year probability of thrombo-hemorrhagic events of 17.2%. Hematocrit (p=0.007), hemoglobin (p=0.012) and MPN10 symptom score (12.0±11.6 vs 10.3±9.1; p=0.041) decreased significantly at the 24-month visit compared to baseline. Overall, 75.9% of patients met at least one of the adjusted ELN criteria for HU resistance. 14.4% of patients remained on HU throughout the study. The results from this real-world study may help identify the subset of patients at higher risk of disease sequelae who may benefit from earlier second-line treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2138.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: frailty; elderly; multiple myeloma; choice of treatment; over 75 years old; early mortality
Online: 30 May 2023 (12:26:24 CEST)
Fragility scales are intended to help in therapeutic decisions. Here we asked if the fragility as-sessment in MM patients ≥75 years old qualified for treatment by the local physician correlates with the choice of treatment: a 2- or 3-drug regimen. Between 7/2018 to 12/2019 we prospectively enrolled 197 MM patients at the start of treatment from the 13 Polish Myeloma Group centers. The data to assess fragility were prospectively collected, but centrally assessed fragility was not disclosed to the local center. The activity of daily living (ADL) could be assessed in 192 (97.5%) and was independent in 158 (80.2%), moderately impaired in 23 (11.7%), and 11 (5.6%) in com-pletely dependent. Patients with more than 3 comorbidities were 26.9% (53 patients). Thus, ac-cording to the Palumbo calculator, 43 patients were in the intermediate-fitness group (21.8%), and the rest belonged to the frailty group (153, 77.7%). Overall, 79.7% of patients (157) received 3-drug regimens and 20.3% (40) received 2-drug regimens. In each ECOG group, more than 3/4 of patients received 3-drug regimens. According to the ADL scale, 82.3% of the independent 65.2% of moderately impaired, and 81.8% of the dependent received 3-drug regimens. Out of 53 pa-tients with at least 4 comorbidities, 71.7% received 3-drug regimens, and the rest 2-drug regi-mens. Three-drugs regimens received 34 patients from the intermediate-fit group (79.0%), and 123 (79.9%) from the frail group. Early mortality occurred in 25 patients (12.7%). No one discon-tinued treatment due to toxicity. To conclude, MM patients over 75 are mainly treated with tri-ple-drug regimens, not only in reduced doses, regardless of their frailty scores. However, the absence of prospective fragility assessment did not negatively affect early mortality and the number of treatment discontinuations which questions the clinical utility of current fragility scales in everyday practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1725.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Molecular biology; infectious diseases; clinical diagnostic; early detection; prognosis
Online: 25 May 2023 (03:34:18 CEST)
Antibiotic therapy is a cornerstone of modern medicine, yet the development of antibiotic re-sistance threatens to render these therapies ineffective. The gut microbiota, a complex ecosystem of microorganisms residing in the gastrointestinal tract, plays a critical role in modulating anti-biotic efficacy and resistance. This review delves into the intricate relationship between gut mi-crobiota, antibiotic therapy, and resistance, and discusses the potential applications of gut mi-crobiota research in guiding personalized antibiotic therapy and resistance mitigation strategies. Recent advancements in metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metabolomics have demon-strated the potential for tailored antibiotic regimens that minimize collateral damage to com-mensal bacteria and reduce the risk of resistance. Adjuvant therapies such as probiotics, prebi-otics, and synbiotics have shown promise in restoring gut microbial balance and mitigating the adverse effects of antibiotic therapy. We address the challenges associated with this emerging field including the need for standardized methodologies, ethical considerations, and interdisci-plinary collaboration. With continued interdisciplinary collaboration and the implementation of standardized methodologies, gut microbiota research can contribute to the global fight against antibiotic resistance and improve patient outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0843.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: CLL, Zanubrutinib, BTK inhibitors, efficacy, safety, chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Online: 22 May 2023 (16:15:16 CEST)
Ibrutinib, a first-in-class Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor (BTKi), is a commonly deployed therapeutic option for previously untreated, and relapsed/refractory (R/R) patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The use of ibrutinib is, however, partially limited by significant off-target side effects. Zanubrutinib (zanu) is a second-generation BTKi with enhanced target selectivity and occupancy of the kinase binding site. The SEQUOIA study showed that zanu significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) when compared to bendamustine–rituximab (BR) in treatment-naive CLL patients with an acceptable safety profile. More recently, data from the phase III ALPINE trial which directly compared zanu with ibrutinib has demonstrated that zanu’s advantages are both an improved safety profile and enhanced clinical efficacy. Based on the results of the SEQUOIA and ALPINE pivotal trials the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) licensed zanu for the treatment of patients with CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) in January 2023. The updated (v2.2023) National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines and newly released German CLL algorithm, suggest that zanu may replace first-generation BTKi as one of the preferred therapeutic options for patients with CLL/SLL due to its increased selectivity for the kinase binding site, improved therapeutic efficacy, and favorable toxicity profile.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1500.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; relapsed; refractory; autologous stem cell transplantation
Online: 22 May 2023 (10:29:20 CEST)
Treating relapsed and refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is still challenging for clinicians, but the available CAR-T and bispecific antibodies revolutionized therapy. Autologous stem cell transplantation was the most effective treatment modality previously. The authors report data from a single center over ten years. The retrospective study included 116 patients. There were 53 relapsed, 39 primary refractory cases, 19 had CNS involvement, and 5 received primary consolidation transplants. The median duration of follow-up was 46 months. The median event-free survival was 75 months, and the median overall survival was 105 months for all cases. Five-year overall survival was 59%, and event-free survival was 54%. Pretreatment prognostic factors at diagnosis had no effect on the outcome of transplantation. The authors found no difference between survival in relapsed or refractory cases, and the number of salvage lines or the germinal center / activated B-cell type also did not influence the results. Complete metabolic response before transplant confirmed by 18FDG PET/CT strongly affected survival. The pretransplant creatinine and CRP levels significantly influenced the long-term outcome. The number of stem cells infused did not affect survival, but engraftment within nine days did result in better survival. These data support the finding that the response to salvage therapy did select a better prognostic group who may still benefit from autologous transplantation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1477.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: myelofibrosis; ruxolitinib; severity of symptoms; adherence to therapy
Online: 22 May 2023 (08:52:13 CEST)
We aimed to explore symptoms severity and adherence to therapy for patients with myelofibrosis treated with ruxolitinib in Bulgaria. It is a prospective, non-interventional study performed at the Specialized hospital for active treatment of hematological diseases in Sofia during 2022 - 2023. Date of diagnosis, demographic characteristics, clinical indicators, ruxolitinib dose, and other data points were collected. Clinical indicators were assessed at baseline, in the middle and at the end of observation. Severity of symptoms was measured with MPN-SAF TSS and adherence to therapy with the Morisky 4 questionnaire 6 times during the observation. The mean age of diagnosis was 58.5 years, with the average duration of disease of 3 years. Pa-tients’ laboratory results were within physiological ranges, with spleen size experiencing a con-stant decrease. The average value for the severity of the symptoms per MPN-SAF TSS results decreased significantly, indicating better disease control. The average adherence to therapy did not change and remained high at around 9 points, except for one patient. In conclusion the treatment of myelofibrosis patients with ruxolitinib decreased symptoms se-verity and spleen size. Patients were adherent to the therapy over the observed period but as treatment duration increases the risk of adherence decreasing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1382.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Fetal hemoglobin; pregnancy; glycosylated hemoglobin; HbA1C; β-HCG
Online: 19 May 2023 (05:17:09 CEST)
It is believed that fetal hemoglobin (HbF) expression in adults is largely genetically regulated. The increased expression of HbF in pregnancy has been reported in a small number of articles. Different mechanisms have been proposed, but the description of HbF expression during pregnancy remains unclear. The objectives of this study were to document HbF expression during peri and postpartum periods, confirm its maternal origin, and assess clinical and biochemical parameters potentially associated with HbF modulation. In this observational prospective study, 345 pregnant women were followed. At baseline, 169 had HbF expression (≥1% of total hemoglobin) and 176 did not have HbF expression. Women were followed at the obstetric clinic during their pregnancy. Clinical and biochemical parameters were measured at each visit. Analyses were made to determine which parameters had a significant correlation to HbF expression. Results show that HbF expression of ≥ 1% during peri and postpartum periods in pregnant women without influencing comorbidities is at its highest peak during the first trimester. In all women, it was proven that HbF was of maternal origin. A significant positive correlation between HbF expression, β-HCG, and HbA1C was present. A significant negative association between HbF expression and total hemoglobin was found. HbF expression induction during pregnancy is probably associated with increase in β-HCG and HbA1C, and decrease of total hemoglobin, which could temporarily reactivate the fetal erythropoietic system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1213.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Hodgkin lymphoma; tumor microenvironment; tumor associated macrophages; CD169+ macrophages; immune evasion; immunosuppression
Online: 17 May 2023 (09:37:22 CEST)
Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is a lymphoid neoplasm composed of rare neoplastic Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells surrounded by a reactive tumor microenvironment (TME) with suppressive properties against anti-tumor immunity. TME is mainly composed of T-cells (CD4 helper, CD8 cytotoxic and regulatory), and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) but the impact of these cells on the natural course of the disease is not absolutely understood. TME contributes to the immune evasion of neoplastic HRS cells through production of various cytokines and/or aberrant expression of immune checkpoint molecules, in ways that have not been fully understood yet. Herein, we present a comprehensive review of findings regarding the cellular components and the molecular features of the immune TME in cHL, its correlation with treatment response and prognosis as well as the potential targeting of the TME with novel therapies. Among all cells, macrophages appear to be a most appealing target for immunomodulatory therapies, based on their functional plasticity and antitumor potency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0887.v1
Online: 12 May 2023 (05:04:48 CEST)
Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a critical cancer cell survival factor that activates several signaling pathways to foster drug resistance, cancer stem cell survival, metastasis, inflammation, epithelial mesenchymal transition, and angiogenesis. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and chemotherapy have been the standard treatments for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), but clinical studies have shown that arsenic trioxide (ATO), alone or in combination with ATRA, can improve outcomes. ATO exerts cytotoxic effects in a variety of ways by inducing oxidative stress, genotoxicity, altered signal transduction, and/or epigenetic modification. In the present study, we showed that ATO increased ROS production and apoptosis ratios in ATRA-differentiated NB4 leukemia cells and that these responses were enhanced when TG2 was deleted. The combined ATRA+ATO treatment also increased the amount of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) transcription factor, an adaptive regulator of cellular oxidative stress response, and proteolytic activity of calpain, resulting in TG2 degradation and reduced survival of WT leukemia cells. We further showed that upon ATO treatment, the induced TG2 protein expression was degraded in the MCF-7 epithelial cell line, and primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells, thereby sensitizing these cell types to apoptotic signals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0700.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; autoimmune limbic encephalitis; cyclo-phosphamide; regulatory T cells; CD25; Foxp3; IL-6; fever; acute graft-versus-host disease; cyto-kine-release syndrome
Online: 10 May 2023 (07:46:24 CEST)
Autoimmune limbic encephalitis (LE) is a rare, but devastating complication of allogeneic hem-atopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). There is currently limited evidence describing the risk factors, laboratory features, and underlying mechanisms of this neurologic adverse event. We retrospectively reviewed available clinical, imaging, and laboratory data from adult patients with hematological malignancies who underwent haploidentical HSCT with cyclophosphamide (PTCy) at Chungnam National University Hospital from June 2016 to May 2020. Patients who developed LE were compared to those who did not based on clinical assessment, serum inflam-matory biomarkers, and reconstitution of various T cell populations. Of 35 patients, four devel-oped LE. There were no differences in patient demographics, donor demographics, or treatment conditions between patients that did and did not develop LE. Overall, patients with LE had worse clinical outcomes and overall survival than those without. In addition, they tended to have higher markers of systemic inflammation in the early post-transplant period, including fever, C-reactive protein (CRP), and cytokines. Remarkably, baseline interleukin-6 levels before HSCT were found to be higher in patients who developed LE than those who did not. In addition, analysis of T cell subsets showed impaired expansion of CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells in LE compared to non-LE patients despite appropriate reconstitution of the total CD4+ T cell population. Patients that developed LE within the first 30 days of HSCT were likely to have high serum IL-6 among other inflammatory cytokines coupled with suppression of regulatory T cell differentiation. Further work is needed on the mechanisms underlying impaired Treg expansion following HSCT and potential therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0320.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: non-invasive; point-of-care testing; blood values; Radial arterial blood; blood gas; transcutaneous; algorithm
Online: 4 May 2023 (03:07:48 CEST)
The purpose of this work was to evaluate a novel methodology developed by Digital Blood Corporation (DBC) to calculate critical blood values using four non-invasive measured values as input. The values obtained using a point-of-care testing (POCT) device were utilized for comparison and reference. Radial arterial blood was collected for the POCT comparator analysis using the Abbott i-STAT® device. The non-invasive methodology from DBC requires four parameters to be directly measured: temperature, hemoglobin, pO2, and pCO2. Subsequently, sodium, potassium, chloride, ionized calcium, total carbon dioxide, pH, bicarbonate, and oxygen saturation are calculated using an algorithm. The agreement between the POCT and DBC’s methodology was analyzed using Bland-Altman difference plots. For a second data set, pO2 and pCO2 values collected with the POCT were used as input for DBC’s algorithm to test its robustness. Data from 37 healthy ambulatory individuals, mean age: 42.4 + 13 years; range: 18-64 years, were included in the primary analysis. In the case of the non-invasive gained four input values the greatest variation between POCT and DBC’s approach was observed for pO2 and consequently for algorithm values that depend upon pO2 precision. Replacing transcutaneous pO2 and pCO2 with POCT values demonstrates the principal ability of DBC’s algorithm to predict the additional 8 blood values in sufficient agreement with a standard POCT device in healthy patients. The algorithm developed by DBC appears to be robust in the case of healthy patients but does need the four measured input values with preciseness comparable to a POCT device to give reliable and clinically relevant results. The present study thus serves as a proof of concept to facilitate future study and further development of this methodology into a non-invasive device.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1236.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: FLT3 mutations; resistant/relapsed acute myeloid leukemia; tyrosine kinase inhibitors; gilteritinib
Online: 29 April 2023 (10:55:21 CEST)
The traditionally dismal outcome of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients carrying the FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) mutations has been mitigated by the recent introduction into the clinics of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) such as midostaurin and gilteritinib. The present work summarizes the clinical data that led to the use of gilteritinib in clinical practice. Gilteritinib is a 2nd generation TKI with deeper single-agent activity than 1st generation drugs against both FLT3-ITD and TKD mutations, in human studies. Moreover, the phase I/II dose-escalation, dose-expansion Chrysalis trial showed an acceptable safety profile of gilteritinib (diarrhea, elevated aspartate aminotransferase, febrile neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, sepsis, and pneumonia) and a 49% overall response rate (ORR) in 191 FLT3-mutated relapsed/refractory (R/R) AML patients. In 2019, the pivotal ADMIRAL trial showed that the median overall survival was significantly longer in patients treated with gilteritinib than among those receiving chemotherapy (9.3 vs 5.6 months, respectively) and the ORR to gilteritinib was 67.6%, outperforming the 25.8% for chemotherapy arm and leading to the license for its clinical use by the US Food and Drug Administration. Since then, several real-world experiences confirmed the positive results in the R/R AML setting. Finally, gilterinib based combinations currently under investigation with several compounds (venetoclax, azacitidine, conventional chemotherapy, etc.) and some practical tips (maintenance after allogeneic transplantation, interaction with antifungal drugs, extramedullary disease, and onset of resistance) will be analyzed in detail in the review.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1161.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Multiple myeloma; belantamab mafodotin; antibody-drug-conjugate.
Online: 28 April 2023 (10:12:31 CEST)
Despite the recent approval of novel immunotherapies, as immunomodulatory drug, proteasome inhibitors and anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies, Multiple Myeloma (MM) remains incurable and the acquisition of triple-refractoriness leads to really dismal outcomes, in even earlier lines of therapy. More recently, innovative therapeutic strategies targeting B cell maturation antigen (BCMA), highly expressed on the plasma cell surface, are drawing different future landscapes in terms of effectiveness and outcomes. Belantamab Mafodotin, a first-in-class anti-BCMA antibody drug conjugates, demonstrated good efficacy and safety profile in triple-refractory patients in the phase 2 DREAMM-2 trial and it was approved for the treatment of MM triple-exposed patients with >4 prior lines of therapy. Here, starting from Belantamab Mafodotin clinical trials also exploring combination studies and different schedules in order to improve its efficacy and toxicity, we focused on real life experiences all over the world, which have confirmed clinical trial data and encourage further Belantamab Mafodotin investigations
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0616.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: CP-CML; Accelerated Phase (AP); Blast Phase (BP); CD26+LSCs
Online: 20 April 2023 (07:31:53 CEST)
In Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) patients, CD34+/CD38-/CD26+ cell population represents a “CML specific” Leukemia Stem Cell (LSC) compartment. Indeed, preliminary studies showed that the expression of CD26 discriminates bone marrow CML Leukemic Stem Cells (LSCs) from nor-mal Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs) or from LSCs of other myeloid neoplasms. We were first to demonstrate that at diagnosis CD34+/CD38-/CD26+ cells are easily measurable also in Peripheral Blood (PB) and that residual circulating CD26+LSCs persist, with a fluctuating trend, in most pa-tients in optimal response during treatment with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs) and even after successful TKI discontinuation. These data corroborate and confirm the possibility of using flow-cytometry CD26+ evaluation as an important diagnostic tool that, combined with molecular biology and cytogenetic, could provide a rapid diagnosis of Chronic Phase (CP) CML starting from a simple PB sample. Yet, few data are available regarding the behavior of CD26+LSCs during Accelerated Phase (AP) or Blast Phase (BP) CML and the role, if any, this peculiar staminal cell compartment may play in disease progression. In the present study we compared the presence and phenotypic characteristics of circulating CD26+LSCs in CP CML patients at diagnosis, during AP and in cases of progression to lymphoid BP, inquiring a possible role of these cells during dis-ease evolution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0482.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Acute Myeloid Leukemia, cellular therapies, chimeric antigen T cells, T cell receptor T cells, CAR-NK cells, RNAseq
Online: 18 April 2023 (04:22:46 CEST)
Despite exhaustive studies, researchers have made little progress in the field of adoptive cellular therapies for relapsed-refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML), unlike the notable uptake for B cell malignancies. Various single antigen targeting chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell Phase I trials have been established worldwide and have recruited approximately 100 patients. The high heterogeneity at the genetic and molecular levels within and between AML patients resembles a black hole: a great gravitational field that sucks in everything, considering only around 30% of patients show a response but with consequential off-tumor effects. It is obvious that a new point of view is needed to achieve more promising results. This review first introduces the unique therapeutic challenges of not only CAR T cells but also other adoptive cellular therapies in AML. Next, recent single cell sequencing data for AML to assess somatically acquired alterations at the DNA, epigenetic, RNA and protein levels are discussed to give a perspective on cellular heterogeneity, intercellular hierarchies, and the cellular ecosystem. Finally, promising novel strategies are summarized, including more sophisticated next-generation CAR T, TCR-T and CAR-NK therapies; approaches to tailor the microenvironment and target neoantigens; and allogeneic approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0415.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: spacetime theorems; naturalism; abiogenesis; panspermia; process structuralism; Cambrian explosion; amino acids; homochirality; hand of God dilemma
Online: 23 March 2023 (13:40:22 CET)
The more than thirty spacetime theorems developed over the past five decades establish that the universe and its spacetime dimensions have emerged from a cause/Causal Agent beyond the cosmos. Thus, to infer that this cause/Causal Agent may have intervened in the origin and history of Earth and Earth’s life resides well within the bounds of reason. Meanwhile, proponents of each of the three prevailing naturalistic models for the origin and history of Earth’s life have marshalled arguments and evidence that effectively undermine and refute the other two models. A biblical perspective and approach to Earth’s life can help resolve this impasse. While a superficial and pervasive appeal to divine intervention thwarts scientific advance, so does a rigid adherence to naturalism. A productive way forward is to identify which models (or parts of models), whether naturalistic, theistic, or a combination, most effectively narrow, rather than widen, knowledge gaps, minimize anomalies, offer the most comprehensive and detailed explanation of the data, and prove most successful in predicting scientific discoveries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0371.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Nuclei isolation; Next-generation sequencing; Cell-type specific isolation; Epigenetics; Transcriptomics; Single cell sequencing; Single nucleus sequencing
Online: 21 March 2023 (06:40:11 CET)
In the last decade, we have witnessed an upsurge in nuclei-based studies, particularly coupled with next-generation sequencing. Such studies aim at understanding the molecular states that exist in heterogeneous cell populations by applying increasingly more affordable sequencing approaches, in addition to optimized methodologies developed to isolate and select nuclei. Although these powerful new methods promise unprecedented insights, it is important to understand and critically consider the associated challenges. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the rise of nuclei-based studies and elaborate on their advantages and disadvantages. Improved designs and appropriate use of the various experimental strategies will result in acquiring biologically accurate and meaningful information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0469.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Long COVID; Laboratory Markers; Haematological Tests
Online: 27 February 2023 (09:53:40 CET)
Long COVID affects a significant number of people after acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and haematological changes can persist in the COVID-19 phase. This study aimed to evaluate these haematological laboratory markers, linking them to clinical findings and long-term outcomes in patients with long COVID. This cross-sectional study selected participants from a ‘long COVID’ clinical care programme in the Amazon region. Clinical data and baseline demographics were obtained, and blood samples were collected for quantification of erythrogram-, leukogram-, and plateletgram-related markers. Long COVID was reported for up to 985 days. Patients hospitalised in the acute phase had higher mean red/white cell, platelet, and plateletcrit levels and red cell distribution width. In addition, haematimetric parameters were higher in shorter periods of long COVID. Patients presenting with more than six concomitant long COVID symptoms had a higher white blood cell count, shorter prothrombin time (PT), and increased PT activity. Within up to 985 days of long COVID, our results suggest a probable benign compensation for erythrogram-related markers. Increased levels of leukogram-related markers and increased coagulation activity were observed in the worse long COVID groups, also indicating an exacerbated response after the acute disturbance, which is uncertain and requires further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0467.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Diagnostic; Iron deficiency; Polycythemia; Polycythemia vera; Secondary polycythemia
Online: 27 February 2023 (09:36:45 CET)
Several observations have shown that patients with polycythemia have iron deficiency. Our objectives were to report the prevalence of iron deficiency, to evaluate the diagnostic performance of serum ferritin in polycythemia vera and to describe the mechanisms of this association. This is a retrospective descriptive and analytical study carried out in the internal medicine department of the Henri Mondor Hospital, Aurillac, France. The study involved 114 patients with polycythemia, followed in the department from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2021. To evaluate the diagnostic performance, the JAK2 mutation was considered as the gold standard of diagnosis. Thirty-three patients had polycythemia vera and 76 patients had secondary polycythemia. The mean age of the patients was 61.79 years (±15.44) with a sex ratio of 4.43. The overall prevalence of iron deficiency was 21.05%. The prevalence was 53% in polycythemia vera group and 1.32% in secondary polycythemia group. The risk of iron deficiency was high in polycythemia vera (OR=115; 95% CI [14.4-918.2], p<0.000). The sensitivity and specificity of serum ferritin were 52.63% and 100% respectively. Assessment of iron deficiency should be part of the initial evaluation of polycythemia. The presence of iron deficiency is specific for polycythemia vera.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0311.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Monozygotic twins (MTs); morphology; hemodynamics; environmental and genetic factors; neurovascular diseases; cerebral aneurysms (CAs)
Online: 17 February 2023 (13:01:18 CET)
The contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the pathophysiology of cerebral aneurysms in monozygotic twins is under-reported and presents ambiguous arguments. The morphology and hemodynamics of neurovascular arteries in a pair of monozygotic twins (MTs) were investigated to reveal the underlying mechanisms. Four arterial models were reconstructed for the twin A-right brain and left brain, twin B-left brain, and B-left brain without anterior cerebral arteries based on preclinical scanned information. Subsequently, the dimensions, configurations and outlined curves of the three-perspective geometries were compared between the MTs. Adopting an in-vitro validated numerical cerebral aneurysm model, hemodynamic patterns were investigated and compared in the MT models, respectively. Morphological comparisons of the MTs show the size and shape of cerebral arteries exist significant differences, despite of the expected genetic similarities. These differences can be attributed to variations during embryological development and external environmental influences. Qualitatively and generally, numerical results indicate the MTs have some hemodynamic similarities (e.g., time-averaged pressure (TAP) distributions (~13400 Pa), and oscillatory shear index (0~0.49), but present significant differences in specific local arteries due to morphological variances. Specifically, the difference in the volumetric blood flow rate in corresponding arteries between the MTs is from 16% (smallest) in anterior choroidal artery (AChA) to 221% (largest) in the ophthalmic artery (OphA), varying with specific compared arteries. Also, the registered hemodynamic indicators, such as the maximum time-averaged wall shear stress (TWSS) (53.6 Pa vs. 37.8 Pa), and different local OSI distributions were observed between the MTs. The findings revealed that morphological variations in MTs could be generated by embryological and environmental factors, thus assuming they share the identical morphology in cardiovascular and neurovascular systems may lead to significant misevaluations in hemodynamics quantifications and further lesions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0368.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Betulinic acid; bovine serum albumin; doxorubicin; drug delivery system; lung cancer; synergistic effect.
Online: 20 December 2022 (10:40:12 CET)
Nanosized drug delivery systems (DDS) have been studied as a novel strategy against cancer due to their potential to simultaneously decrease drug inactivation and systemic toxicity and increase passive and/or active drug accumulation within the tumor(s). Triterpenes are plant-derived compounds with interesting therapeutic properties. Betulinic acid (BeA) is a pentacyclic triterpene which has great cytotoxic activity against different cancer types. Herein, we developed a nanosized protein-based DDS of bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the drug carrier combining two compounds: doxorubicin (Dox) and the triterpene BeA using an oil-water-like micro-emulsion method. Spectrophotometric assays were performed to determine protein and drug concentrations in the DDS. The biophysical properties of these DDS were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy confirming nanoparticle (NP) formation and drug loading into the protein structure, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency was 77% for Dox and 18% for BeA. More than 50% of both drugs were released within 24 h, at pH 6.8, while less drug was released at pH 7.4 in this time period. Co-incubation viability assays of Dox and BeA alone for 24 h demonstrated synergistic cytotoxic activity in the low μM range against the non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) A549 cells. Viability assays of the BSA(Dox+BeA) DDS demonstrated a higher synergistic cytotoxic activity than the two drugs with no carrier. Moreover, confocal microscopy analysis confirmed cellular internalization of the DDS and nucleus accumulation of the Dox. We determined the mechanism of action of the BSA(Dox+BeA) DDS, confirming S-phase cell cycle arrest, DNA damage, caspase cascade activation, and downregulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression. This DDS has the potential to synergistically maximize the therapeutic effect of Dox and diminish chemoresistance induced by EGFR expression using a natural triterpene against NSCLC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0152.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: chronic limb-threatening ischemia; outcome; sex; age; limb salvage
Online: 8 December 2022 (09:39:30 CET)
Background: Identifying sex-related differences/variables associated with 30-day/1-year mortality in patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI). Methods: Multicenter/retrospective/observational study. Database sent to all-the-Italian vascular surgeries to collect all-the¬-patients operated for CLTI in 2019. Acute lower-limb ischemia and neuropathic-diabetic foot not included. Follow-up: 1-year. Data on demographics/comorbidities, treatments/outcome, and 30-day/1-year mortality investigated. Results: Information on 2399 cases (69.8% men) from 36/143 (25.2%) centers. Median (IQR) age: 73 (66-80) and 79 (71-85) yrs for men/women, respectively (p<.0001). Women more over-75 (63.2%vs40.1%, p=.0001). More men smokers (73.7%vs42.2%, p<.0001), on hemodialysis (10.1%vs6.7%, p=.006), affected by diabetes (61.9%vs52.8%, p<.0001), dyslipidemia (69.3%vs61.3%, p<.0001), hypertension (91.8%vs88.5%, p=.011), coronaropathy (43.9%vs29.4%, p<.0001), bronchopneumopathy (37.1%vs25.6%, p<.0001), underwent more open/hybrid surgeries (37.9%vs28.8%, p<.0001), and minor amputations (22%vs13.7%, p<.0001). More women underwent endovascular revascularizations (61.6%vs55.2%, p=.004), major amputations (9.6%vs6.9%, p=.024), and obtained limb-salvage if with limited gangrene (50.8%vs44.9%, p=.017). Age >75 (HR3.63, p=.003) associated with 30-day mortality. Age >75 (HR2.14, p<.0001), nephropathy (HR1.54, p<.0001), coronaropathy (HR1.26, p=.036), infection/necrosis of the foot (dry, HR1.42, p=.040; wet, HR2.04, p<.0001) associated with 1-year mortality. No sex-linked difference in mortality statistics. Conclusion: Women exhibit fewer comorbidities, but are struck by CLTI when over-75, a factor associated with short/mid-term mortality, explaining why mortality doesn’t statistically differ between the sexes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0087.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: low T3 syndrome, oxidative stress, sepsis, septic shock, thyroid hormone, type 3 deiodinase
Online: 6 December 2022 (02:18:24 CET)
Background: Low T3 syndrome occurs frequently in patients with sepsis. Type 3 deiodinase (Dio3) is present in immune cells but there is no description of its presence in this patients. Here we aimed to determine the prognostic impact of thyroid hormones levels (TH) measured on ICU admission on mortality and on evolution to chronic critical illness (CCI) and the presence of D3 in white cells. Methods: Prospective cohort study with a follow-up for 28 days or deceased. Results: Low T3 levels at admission were present in 86.5% of the patients. Dio3 was 55% induced in immune cells. The cut-off value of 60 pg/mL for T3 displayed a sensitivity and specificity of 81% and 64% for predicting death, odds ratio of 4.89. Lower T3 yielded an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.76 and 0.75 for mortality and evolution to CCI, respectively, thus displaying better performance than commonly used prognostic scores. Conclusions: We advance in the pathophysiology of low T3 showing induced D3 in immune cells during sepsis. Low T3 levels independently predicted a progression to CCI and mortality within 28 days in sepsis and septic shock.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0002.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: antithrombin; recombinant thrombomodulin; SOFA score; JAAM DIC score; PMX-DHP
Online: 1 October 2022 (07:09:59 CEST)
Backgroud. To improve mortality in patients with sepsis and septic shock, anticoagulant and acute blood purification therapies are performed depends on their severity of organ failure including coagulopathy. Therapeutic approach is required in clinical settings. Material and Methods. We evaluated anticoagulant and acute blood purification therapy in 2,007 patients with sepsis-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in a post-marketing survey examining plasma-derived antithrombin (AT) concentrate. Results. The 28-day mortality rate was 24.2%; before AT administration, there was a significant difference in proportion to the severity of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (p<0.001). The median SOFA score was 9. In patients with SOFA scores >9, the mortality rate was lower in AT combined therapy with recombinant thrombomodulin (rTM) than in AT monotherapy if their JAAM DIC score was >6 (28.5% and 40.0%, respectively; p =0.031). In multiple logistic regression analysis, endotoxin adsorbed polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column direct hemoperfusion (PMX-DHP) before AT administration was correlated with reduced 28-day mortality (odds ratios: 2.071; 95% confidence intervals 1.374–3.121, p=0.001). Conclusions. To improve mortality in patients with sepsis, if patients with endotoxin-induced septic shock, PMX-DHP would undergo, and further development to DIC, AT concentrate administer, followed by rTM if their SOFA and JAAM DIC scores are >9 and 6, respectively. Further prospective study is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0299.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: leprosy; ABO/Rh blood group; Clinical; Angola
Online: 20 September 2022 (09:28:22 CEST)
Introduction: Leprosy, caused by Mycobacterium leprae is one of the oldest infectious diseases in human history and its eradication is linked to poverty control, lack of basic sanitation, the fragility of health, and education services. Objective: To evaluate the frequency of blood groups (ABO/Rh) and the sociodemographic and clinical profile of Angolan patients with Leprosy treated at the Anti-Tuberculosis and Leprosy Dispensary in Luanda, the capital city of Angola. Methodology: A descriptive, introspective, cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach was carried out with 102 patients of Luanda, in the second half of 2021. Results: Of the 102 patients included in the study, the majority belonged to the ORh+ group (51.9%), followed by the BRh+ group (27.4%) and ARh+ (18.6%), most were under 51 years of age ( 87.3%), with low education (54.9%), coming from urban areas (44.1%). As for clinical conditions, most had a multibacillary infection (93.1%), diagnosed mainly by smear microscopy (75.5%) without other infection (79.4%), some of them with complications (28.4%) and individuals with non-O blood group showed changes in the blood count. Conclusion: Leprosy seems to be common in ORh+ individuals, it continues to affect especially those residing in areas of population agglomerations and with low education, presenting itself as a multibacillary infection, where changes in the blood count are greater in non-O individuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0114.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Blood Transfusion; Knowledge; Attitude; Practice; Healthcare Providers
Online: 8 September 2022 (03:02:03 CEST)
Introduction: Blood transfusion involves the transfer of blood from donors to patients. A blood transfusion is carried out every 2 seconds in the US. It is made up of about 29000 units of red blood cells and is transfused every day in the US. When blood transfusion is done correctly, it can result in the saving of lives and the improvement of healthcare. However, it may also lead to immediate, late, delayed, and chronic complications. No previous studies have been conducted in Qatar to address this issue. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study intended to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practice toward blood transfusion among healthcare providers at Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC), which is the principal healthcare provider in Qatar. Participants between 18 and 25 years of age were selected for the research study. A 10-item online questionnaire that people can fill out on their own will be used to get the data needed for the analysis and meet the study's goals. Results: the analysis has indicated that facing negative reactions after blood transfusion and being worried about getting affected by any infection have a small positive association, with the specific values coming in at r = 0.317, p = 0.000. Fever after blood transfusion and feeling like refusing blood transfusion have a significant and moderate positive correlation, with the specific values coming in at r = 0.630 and p = 0.000. Conclusion: The findings of this study have helped us figure out how healthcare providers feel, what they know, and what they do during a blood transfusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0193.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: liver; Neuropilin-1; Toll-like receptors; COVID-19
Online: 10 August 2022 (05:05:04 CEST)
Purpose: The study aimed to investigate if there were any links between liver function biomarkers and immunoglobulins levels in serum, and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and neuropilin-1 (NRP1) in COVID-19 patients. The study also aimed to assess the accuracy—sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) by the receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis for immunoglobulins levels and TLRs expressions. Patients and Methods: This study included 150 patients (100 patients with confirmed COVID-19 and 50 healthy volunteers as a control group). Patients with COVID-19 were subdivided into two groups according to the severity of symptoms (moderate and severe, with 50 patients each). Serum C-reactive protein (CRP), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), immunoglobulin (Ig) G, and IgM levels were estimated. TLRs (TLR2 and TLR4) and NRP1 gene expression in blood samples were investigated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). ROC analysis was also applied to determine the accuracy of various detected parameters in predicting the possibility of COVID-19 infection. Results: In COVID-19 patients, serum parameters related to liver function, except serum albumin, CRP, IgG, IgM, and TLR2, TLR4, and NRP1 mRNA expression levels, significantly elevated compared to controls. Severe COVID-19 patients exhibited significantly higher liver enzymes (ALT, AST and LDH), CRP, and TLR2 mRNA expression levels and lower albumin levels than the moderate group. In the moderate and severe groups, ALT, CRP, TLR2, and TLR4 had a significant positive correlation with IgM levels. ALT, AST, LDH, CRP, TLR2, and TLR4 showed a significant positive correlation with IgG levels in both groups. In both the moderate and severe groups, NRP1 expression was found to be significantly correlated with CRP, IgG, IgM, TLR2, and TLR4. In contrast, serum albumin levels exhibited a significant negative correlation with IgG and IgM levels only in the severe group, but they showed a significant negative correlation with TLR2, TLR4, and NRP1 expression in both moderate and severe groups. Serum ALT and AST activities were positively correlated with NRP1 expression in the moderate group but not in the severe group and as well as TLR2 and TLR4 expression in both the moderate and severe groups. ROC analysis indicated that AUC was higher than 0.800 for serum IgM level and TLR4 gene expression in moderate COVID-19 group. Conclusions: The increased liver function biomarkers in serum and NRP1 expression are closely correlated with sustained activations in humoral and innate immune responses during COVID-19 infection. As a result, TLR2, TLR4, and NRP1 could be targets for limiting COVID-19 infection and impairment effects on liver function. Moreover, detection of IgM level in serum and TLR4 expression in blood have a good accuracy in predicting the possibility of infection with COVID-19 in moderate cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0058.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Digital reference object; Perivascular spaces; Spatio-temporal imaging artefacts; Perivascular space enhancement; Cerebral small vessel disease
Online: 3 August 2022 (11:12:43 CEST)
Growing interest surrounds the assessment of perivascular spaces (PVS) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their validation as a clinical biomarker of adverse brain health. Nonetheless, the limits of validity of current state-of-the-art segmentation methods are still unclear. Here, we propose an open-source three-dimensional computational framework comprising 3D digital reference objects and evaluate the performance of three PVS filtering methods under various spatiotemporal imaging considerations (including sampling, motion artefacts, and Rician noise). Specifically, we study the performance of the Frangi, Jerman and RORPO filters in enhancing PVS-like structures to facilitate segmentation. Our findings were three-fold. First, as long as voxels are isotropic, RORPO outperforms the other two filters, regardless of imaging quality. Unlike the Frangi and Jerman filters, RORPO’s performance does not deteriorate as PVS volume increases. Second, the performance of all “vesselness” filters is heavily influenced by imaging quality, with sampling and motion artefacts being the most damaging for these types of analyses. Third, none of the filters can distinguish PVS from other hyperintense structures (e.g. white matter hyperintensities, stroke lesions, or lacunes) effectively, the area under precision-recall curve dropped substantially (Frangi: from 94.21 [IQR 91.60, 96.16] to 43.76 [IQR 25.19, 63.38]; Jerman: from 94.51 [IQR 91.90, 95.37] to 58.00 [IQR 35.68, 64.87]; RORPO: from 98.72 [IQR 95.37, 98.96] to 71.87 [IQR 57.21, 76.63] without and with other hyperintense structures, respectively). The use of our computational model enables comparing segmentation methods and identifying their advantages and disadvantages, thereby providing means for testing and optimising pipelines for ongoing and future studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0424.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: SARS-COV-2; COVID-19; TTP; refractory; thrombotic microangiopathies
Online: 30 June 2022 (09:06:54 CEST)
Introduction: The proliferation of literature regarding COVID-19 pandemic has served to highlight a wide spectrum of disease manifestations and complications like thrombotic microangiopathies. Our review with a brief case presentation highlights the increasing recognition of TTP in COVID-19 and describes its salient characteristics. Methods: We screened the available literature in Pubmed, EMBASE and Cochrane database from inception till April 2022 of articles mentioning COVID-19 associated TTP in English Language. Results: From 404 records, we included 8 articles mentioning data of 11 patients in our review. TTP was predominantly reported in females (72%) with a mean age of 48.2 years (SD 15.1). Dyspnea was the most common symptom in 1/3rd of patients (36.6%). Neurological symptoms were reported in 27.3% of cases. The time to diagnosis of TTP was 10 days (SD: 5.8) from onset of Covid-19. All 11 cases underwent plasma exchange (PLEX), with a mean of 12 sessions per patient, whereas six cases received Rituximab (54.5%), and three received Caplacizumab (27.3%). One patient died from the illness. Conclusion: This review of available literature highlights the atypical and refractory nature of COVID-19 associated TTP. It required longer sessions of PLEX with half of the patients receiving at least one immunosuppressant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0230.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: COVID-19; carotid stenosis; abdominal aortic aneurysm; chronic limb-threatening ischemia; amputation; deep venous thrombosis
Online: 16 June 2022 (04:40:54 CEST)
Background: To investigate the effects of the COVID-19 lockdowns on the vasculopathic population. Methods: The Divisions of Vascular Surgery of the southern Italian peninsula joined this multicenter retrospective study conducted through cross-sectional survey. Each received a 13-point questionnaire, investigating the hospitalization rate of vascular patients in the first 11 months of the COVID-19 pandemic and in the preceding 11 months. Results: 27 out of 29 Centers were enrolled. April-December 2020 (7092 patients) vs 2019 (9161 patients): post-EVAR surveillance, treatment for Rutherford category 3 peripheral arterial disease, and asymptomatic carotid stenosis revascularization significantly decreased [1484 (16.2%) vs 1014 (14.3%), p=0.0009; 1401 (15.29%) vs 959 (13.52%), p=0.0006; and 1558 (17.01%) vs 934 (13.17%), p<0.0001, respectively]; while revascularization or major amputations for chronic limb-threatening ischemia, and urgent revascularization for symptomatic carotid stenosis significantly increased [1204 (16.98%) vs 1245 (13.59%), p<0.0001; 355 (5.01%) vs 358 (3.91%), p=0.0007; and 153 (2.16%) vs 140 (1.53%), p=0.0009, respectively]. Conclusions: The suspension of elective activities during the COVID-19 pandemic caused a significant reduction in asymptomatic carotid stenosis revascularization, treatment for Rutherford 3 peripheral arterial disease, post-EVAR surveillance. Contestually, we observed a significant increase in urgent revascularization for symptomatic carotid stenosis, and revascularization or major amputations for chronic limb-threatening ischemia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0208.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: End of Life; Advance Directives; Advance Care Planning; Intensive Care, Medical Oncology; malignant hemopathy
Online: 14 January 2022 (11:34:51 CET)
Patients living with cancer often experience serious adverse events due to their condition or its treatments. Those events may lead to a critical care unit admission or even result in death. One of the most important but challenging part of care is to build a caring plan according to the patient’s wishes, meeting his goals and values. Advance directives (ADs) allow everyone to give their preferences in advance regarding life sustaining treatments, continuation, and withdrawal or withholding of treatments in case one is not able to speak his mind anymore. While the absence of ADs is associated with a greater probability of receiving unwanted intensive care around the end of his life, their existence correlates with the respect of the patient’s desires and his greater satisfaction. Although progress has been made to promote ADs’ completion, they are still scarcely used among cancer patients in many countries. Several limitations to their acceptation and use can be detected. Efforts should be made to provide tailored solutions for the identified hindrances. This narrative review aims to depict the situation of ADs in the oncology context, and to highlight the future areas of improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0207.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Hematological parameters; biochemical parameters; reference ranges; sickle cell disease; Tanzania; steady-state.
Online: 11 January 2022 (12:54:23 CET)
Hematological and biochemical reference values in sickle cell disease (SCD) are crucial for patient management and evaluation of interventions. This study was conducted at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) in Dar es Salaam, to establish laboratory reference ranges in SCD at steady-state. Patients were grouped into five age groups with respects to their sex. Aggregate functions were used to handle repeated measures within the indi-vidual level in each age group. A nonparametric approach was used to smooth the curves and a parametric approach was used to determine SCD normal ranges. Comparison between males and females and against the general population was documented. Data from 4,422 patients collected from 2004-2015 were analyzed. The majority of the patients (35.41%) were children aged between 5-11 years. There were no significant differences (p≥0.05) in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), lymphocytes, basophils and bilirubin direct observed between males and females. Significant differences (p<0.05) were observed in all selected parameters across age groups except neutrophils and MCHC in adults, as well as platelets and alkaline phosphatase in infants when SCD estimates were compared to the general population. Laboratory reference ranges in SCD at steady-state were different from those of the general population and varied with sex and age. The established reference ranges for SCD at steady-state will be a helpful in the management and monitoring of the progress of SCD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0578.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: DPI; Mitochondria; Leukaemia; Oxidative stress; OxPhos; Ara-C
Online: 30 November 2021 (21:37:18 CET)
Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is characterized by the accumulation of undifferentiated blast cells in the bone marrow and blood. In most AMLs, relapse frequently occurs due to resistance to chemotherapy. Compelling research results indicate that drug resistance in cancer cells is highly dependent on the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Modulating ROS levels is therefore a valuable strategy to overcome the chemotherapy resistance of leukemic cells. In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a well-known inhibitor of ROS production, in targeting AML cells. Results showed that although inhibiting cytoplasmic ROS production, DPI triggered an increase in the mitochondrial ROS levels caused by the disruption of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. We also demonstrated that DPI blocks the mitochondrial oxidative respiration (OxPhos) in a dose-dependent manner and that AML cells with high OxPhos status were highly sensitive to treatment with DPI, which synergizes with the chemotherapeutic agent cytarabine (Ara-C). Thus, our results suggest that targeting mitochondrial function by DPI might be exploited to target AML cells with high OxPhos status.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0438.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Systemic Sclerosis; Raynaud’s phenomenon; ultrasound; microvascular imaging; blood flow
Online: 23 November 2021 (16:15:51 CET)
Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune disease characterized by organ fibrosis and vasculopathy. Almost all patients suffer from Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP). Currently, several imaging techniques are available; nailfold video capillaroscopy (NVC) is the most widely available, but flow quantification is not possible with NVC. Novel imaging techniques are of interest in this population. We performed a single-center feasibility study using Micro Vascular Imaging (MVI) as a novel imaging technique for flow quantification of small fingertip vessels. We compared a group of 20 healthy controls (HCs) with 20 Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) patients. In HCs, flow measurements assessed with MVI were statistically significantly higher in individual fingers and combined for all fingers (p<0.0001). As a cut-off value to discriminate HCs from SSc, a peak systolic (PS) flow velocity of <6.9 cm/s and an end-diastolic (ED) flow velocity of <2.68 cm/s was determined. Test characteristics for PS flow velocity showed moderate sensitivity (0.69, 95% CI 0.58-0.78) but high specificity (0.88, 95% CI 0.79-0.93). Similar test characteristics for ED flow velocity were obtained. The optimal cut-off point was estimated at <2.68 cm/s, sensitivity was moderate (0.65, 95% CI 0.53-0.75), specificity was 0.80 (95% CI 0.70-0.87). Here, we present the first study on the use of MVI to assess blood flow in the fingertips with high specificity in SSc patients. Future studies need to investigate correlations with the risk for organ complications, such as digital ulcers or pulmonary arterial hypertension.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0320.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Arteriogenesis; Arterial structure; extracellular matrix; peripheral arterial disease; collateral circulation
Online: 18 November 2021 (10:59:12 CET)
When a large artery becomes occluded, hemodynamic changes stimulate remodeling of arterial networks to form collateral arteries in a process termed arteriogenesis. However, the structural changes necessary for collateral remodeling have not been defined. We hypothesize that decon-struction of the extracellular matrix is essential to the remodeling of smaller arteries into effective collaterals. Using multiphoton microscopy, we analyzed collagen and elastin structure in maturing collateral arteries isolated from ischemic rat hindlimbs. Collateral arteries harvested at different timepoints showed progressive diameter expansion associated with striking rearrangement of in-ternal elastic lamina (IEL) into a loose fibrous mesh, a pattern persisting at 8 weeks. Despite a 2.5-fold increase in luminal diameter, total elastin content remained unchanged in collaterals compared with control arteries. Among the collateral midzones, baseline elastic fiber content is low. Outward remodeling of these vessels with a 10-20 fold diameter increase was associated with fractures of the elastic fibers and evidence of increased wall tension as demonstrated by straight-ening of the adventitial collagen. Inhibition of lysyl oxidase (LOX) function with β-aminopropionitrile resulted in severe fragmentation or complete loss of continuity of the IEL in developing collaterals. Collateral artery development is associated with permanent redistribution of existing elastic fibers to accommodate diameter growth. We found no evidence of new elastic fiber formation. Stabilization of the arterial wall during outward remodeling is necessary and dependent on LOX activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0404.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: pathogen reduction; blood safety; platelet transfusion; INTERCEPT; plasma
Online: 27 October 2021 (12:27:33 CEST)
(1) Background: We reviewed the logistics of the implementation of pathogen inactivation (PI) using the INTERCEPT Blood System™ for platelets and the experience with routine use and clinical outcomes in the patient population at the Sírio-Libanês Hospital of São Paulo, Brazil. (2) Methods: Platelet concentrate (PC), including pathogen reduced (PR-PC) production, inventory management, discard rates, blood utilization, and clinical outcomes were analyzed over the 40 months before and after PI implementation. Age distribution and wastage rates were compared over the 10 months before and after approval for PR-PC to be stored for up to 7 days. (3) Results: A 100% PR-PC inventory was achieved by increasing double apheresis collections and production of double doses using pools of two single apheresis units. Discard rates decreased from 6% to 3% after PI implementation and further decreased to 1.2% after 7-day storage extension for PR-PCs. The blood utilization remained stable, with no increase in component utilization. A significant decrease in adverse transfusion events was observed after the PI implementation. (4) Conclusion: Our experience demonstrates the feasibility for Brazilian blood centers to achieve a 100% PR-PC inventory. All patients at our hospital received PR-PC and showed no increase in blood component utilization and decreased rates of adverse transfusion reactions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0448.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: stroke; cellular senescence; coagulation; adhesion
Online: 14 October 2021 (15:21:58 CEST)
The most important predictors for outcomes after ischemic stroke, that is, for health deterioration and death, are chronological age and stroke severity; gender, genetics and lifestyle / environmental factors also play a role. Of all these, only the latter can be influenced after the event, even though recurrent stroke may be prevented by antiaggregant/anticoagulant therapy, angioplasty of high-grade stenoses, and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, blood cell composition and protein biomarkers such as C-reactive protein or interleukins in serum are frequently considered as biomarkers of outcome. We surveyed protein biomarkers that were reported to be predictive for outcome after ischemic stroke, specifically considering biomarkers that predict long-term outcome (≥3 months) and that are measured over the first days following the event. We classified the protein biomarkers as immune‑inflammatory, coagulation-related, and adhesion-related biomarkers. Some of these biomarkers are closely related to cellular senescence and, in particular, to the inflammatory processes that can be triggered by senescent cells. Moreover, the processes that underlie inflammation, hypercoagulation and cellular senescence connect stroke to cancer, and biomarkers of cancer-associated thromboembolism, as well as of sarcopenia, overlap strongly with the biomarkers discussed here. Finally, we demonstrate that most of the outcome-predicting protein biomarkers form a close-meshed functional interaction network, suggesting that the outcome after stroke is partially determined by an interplay of molecular processes relating to inflammation, coagulation, cell adhesion and cellular senescence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0127.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Zingiber officinale; 6-Shogaol; 6-gingerol; hematopoiesis; hepcidin; anaemia
Online: 7 September 2021 (12:08:59 CEST)
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) evolves due to genomic instability, dysregulated signalling pathway and overproduction of inflammatory markers. Reactive oxygen species contribute to the inflammatory response, which causes gene damage, cellular remodelling and fibrosis. MDS can be a debilitating condition, and management options in patients with MDS aim to improve cytopenias, delay disease progression, and enhance quality of life. High serum ferritin levels, a source of iron for reactive oxygen species production, correlate with a higher risk of progression to acute myeloid leukaemia, and iron overload is compounded by blood transfusions given to improve anaemia. 6-shogaol is a natural phenolic compound formed when ginger is exposed to heat and/or acidic conditions, and it has been shown to possess anti-tumour activity against leukaemia cell lines and antioxidant effects. This narrative review assessed the potential benefits of this phytochemical in lower-risk MDS patients through examining the current evidence on the pharmacological and therapeutic properties of ginger and 6-shogaol.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0203.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Polymorphism; genes; phase-II metabolism; glutathione; clopidogrel resistance
Online: 8 July 2021 (13:30:31 CEST)
Clopidogrel is one of the thienopyridine antiplatelet drugs commonly used as a prophylactic medication to prevent coagulation in vessels and cardiovascular events. The molecule of clopidogrel is metabolized in the liver via phase-I and phase-II metabolism pathways. The sulfenic acid clopidogrel metabolite undergoes phase-II metabolism through conjugation with glutathione by the glutathione-s-transferase (GST) to form a glutathione conjugate of clopidogrel (inactive metabolite). A glutaredoxin enzyme removes the glutathione conjugated with clopidogrel to form cis-thiol-clopidogrel. This review focused on the polymorphisms of genes related to phase-II metabolism during the clopidogrel bioactivation process. Overall, no well-controlled studies were done about the relationship between the clopidogrel bioactivation process and genes related to phase-II metabolism’s enzymes. Nevertheless, some polymorphisms of G6PD, GCLC, GCLM, GSS, GST, GSR, HK, and GLRX genes could be responsible for clopidogrel resistance due to low glutathione conjugate or glutaredoxin plasma levels. Studies needed to be concerned with the relationship between clopidogrel resistance and phase-II metabolism issues in the near future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0322.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Hemophilia A; Prophylaxis; Factor VIII; Platelets; Microvesicles; Calcium
Online: 14 September 2020 (16:12:08 CEST)
Aim: In the present work we have studied the role of platelets and microvesicles in patients with severe hemophilia A (HA) treated under the regimen of prophylaxis. We have analyzed whether the administration of coagulation factor FVIII modifies this hemorrhagic phenotype in a cohort of 16 patients with diagnosis of severe HA, who were on prophylactic treatment with recombinant FVIII. Methods: Blood tests were performed before (72h without FVIII, baseline sample) and after 15 minutes of FVIII infusion. As a control group, 15 healthy subjects were studied. Platelet aggregation was determined by closure time, optical aggregation, impedance aggregation and flow cytometry. We also studied the expression of the platelet activation markers P-selectin, CD63, platelet-tissue factor, formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates and tissue factor exposure. The total number of platelet and endothelial microvesicles were also analyzed by flow cytometry, as well as platelet cytosolic Ca2+ mobilization. Results: We found no significant differences in platelet function in patients with severe HA in prophylactic treatment before and after FVIII infusion. After FVIII administration, patients presented fewer endothelial microvesicles, indicating that the treatment does not increase one of the possible thrombotic risk markers of these patients. The total amount of plasma microvesicles and the platelet microvesicles were decreased in patients with HA compared to the control group. Conclusions: Our results do not support any effect of FVIII on platelet function in patients with severe HA treated under the regime of prophylaxis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0275.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; real-time RT-PCR; COVID-19 symptoms; COVID-19 hematological findings; Bangladesh
Online: 21 June 2020 (14:47:03 CEST)
Objective: SARS-Cov-2 infection or COVID-19 is a global pandemic. From the time of identification to till, multiple clinical symptoms and parameters have been identified by the researchers of various countries and regions regarding the diagnosis and presentations of COVID-19 disease. In this manuscript, we investigated the primary symptoms and basic hematological presentations of SARS-CoV-2 infection among the Bangladeshi patients. Methodology: We have collected the disease history of mild to moderate degree of COVID-19 patients; hematological and biochemical on admission reports of moderate degree COVID-19 patients. All of them were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR in different institutes in Bangladesh. Results: According to this study though COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh commonly presented with fever, cough, fatigue, shortness of breath, and sore throat, but symptoms like myalgia, diarrhea, skin rash, headache, Abdominal pain/cramp, nausea, vomiting, restlessness, and a higher temperature of >1000F have a greater presentation rate and more frequent than other published studies. CRP and Prothrombin time was found to increase in all the patients. Serum ferritin, ESR, SGPT, and D-Dimer were found increased among 53.85%, 80.43, 44%, and 25% patients respectively. 17.39% of the patients had leukocytosis and neutrophilia. 28.26% of patients presented with lymphocytopenia. 62.52% of patients had mild erythrocytopenia. Conclusion: Despite some similarities, our study has evaluated a different expression in presenting symptoms in the case of COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh. CRP, Prothrombin time, serum ferritin, ESR, SGPT, D-Dimer, erythrocytopenia, and lymphocytopenia can be initial diagnostic hematological findings and assessment for prognosis COVID-19 disease. Also, gender variations have a different scenario of clinical and laboratory appearance in this region.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Covid19; DIC; coagulopathy; Sars Covid; blood coagulation disorder
Online: 7 June 2020 (07:41:24 CEST)
COVID-19 induces coagulopathy at the base of SIC (sepsis-induced coagulopathy) and it is an important cause of death in the patients. Cytokine storm causes imbalance in coagulation and fibrinolytic system. A combination of hypercoagulability state, decrease or inhibition of fibrinolytic and endothelialopathy causes thromboembolic events. Underlined disease with a high rate of mortality in COVID-19 like diabetes, hypertension and some conditions like aging and obesity are the main disorders with hemostatic disturbance and increase of coagulopathy. Therefore, it seems that the combination of COVID-19 infection and these risk factors increase the risk of thromboembolic all together.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0001.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Copper; transfusion-dependent thalassemia; zinc; oxidative stress; antioxidants; biomarkers
Online: 2 June 2020 (09:21:13 CEST)
Measurements of copper and zinc in transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT) show contradictory results.Aim of the study: To examine serum levels of these minerals in TDT in relation to iron overload indices and erythron variables. Methods: This study recruited 60 children with TDT and 30 healthy children aged 3-12 years old.Results: Zinc was significantly higher in TDT children than in control children, whilst copper and the copper to zinc ratio were significantly lowered in TDT. Serum zinc was significantly associated with the number of blood transfusions and iron overload variables (including serum iron and TS%) and negatively with erythron variables (including hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin). Serum copper was significantly and negatively associated with the same iron overload and erythron variables. The copper to zinc ratio was significantly correlated with iron, TS%, ferritin, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Albumin levels were significantly higher in TDT children than in control children. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the increase in zinc in children with TDT may be explained by iron loading anemia and hemolysis and the consequent shedding of high amounts of intracellular zinc into the plasma. Increased albumin levels and treatment with Desferral may further contribute towards higher zinc levels in TDT. We suggest that the elevations in zinc in TDT are a compensatory mechanism protecting against infection, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Previous proposals for prophylactic use of zinc supplements in TDT may not be warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0454.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: ABO blood groups; antigen; allele frequency; phenotype
Online: 29 February 2020 (08:26:18 CET)
Approximately 300 different types of blood groups are identified so far, the ABO and Rh antigens are still the clinically most significant and genetically most polymorphic of all human blood group systems to date. A total of 200 unrelated individuals from Uttar Pradesh were studied for the phenotype and allele frequency distribution of ABO and Rh (D) blood groups. In total 200 samples analyzed, phenotype B blood type has the highest frequency 36.5% (n=73), followed by O (34.5%; n=69), A (20.5%; n=41) and AB (8.5%; n=17). The O, A and B frequencies were 0.5849, 0.1571 and 0.2580 respectively. The overall phenotypic frequencies of ABO blood groups were B>O>A>AB. The variation in phenotypic frequencies between male and female might be due to small sample size of male sample. The allelic frequency of Rh-negative was 0.2.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: inherited platelet disorders; hereditary thrombocytopenias; blood smear; immunofluorescence; bleeding tendency
Online: 20 January 2020 (09:50:59 CET)
Inherited platelet disorders (IPDs) are rare diseases featured by low platelet count and/or defective platelet function. Patients have variable bleeding diathesis and sometimes additional features that can be congenital or acquired. Identification of an IPD is desirable to avoid misdiagnosis of immune thrombocytopenia and use of improper treatments. Diagnostic tools include platelet function studies and genetic testing. The latter can be challenging as the correlation of its outcomes with phenotype is not easy. The immune-morphological evaluation of blood smear (by light- and immunofluorescence microscopy) represents a reliable method to phenotype subjects with suspected IPD. It is relatively cheap, not excessively time-consuming, and applicable to shipped samples. In some forms, it can provide diagnosis by itself, as for MYH9-RD, or in addition to other first-line tests as aggregometry or flow cytometry. In regard to genetic testing, it can guide specific sequencing. Since only minimal amounts of blood are needed for preparation of blood smears, it can be used to further characterize thrombocytopenia in pediatric patients and even newborns. In principle it is based on visualizing alterations in the distribution of proteins, which result from specific genetic mutations, by using monoclonal antibodies. It can be applied to identify deficiencies in membrane proteins, disturbed distribution of cytoskeletal proteins, and alpha as well as delta granules. On the other hand mutations associated with impaired signal transduction are difficult to identify by immunofluorescence of blood smears. This review summarizes technical aspects and the main diagnostic patterns achievable by this method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0283.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: chronic inflammation; biomarker panels; leukocyte count; C-reactive protein; related syndromes and pathologies; risk assessment; screening programmes; ageing; elderly's health
Online: 25 October 2019 (04:16:43 CEST)
C-reactive protein (CRP) and leukocytes are blood biomarkers involved in "Inflamm-Aging", which is a risk factor for the onset and progression of age-related diseases. Studies show that higher serum concentrations of these biomarkers are associated with functional disability, increased risk of low muscle strength, decreased muscle mass and mortality in the elderly. The objective was to estimate the predictive power and discriminating criteria of C-reactive protein and leukocyte concentrations for the risk of adverse health factors in the elderly within 30 days after hospital discharge (HD). Prospective cohort study using exploratory methods and blood biomarkers with 135 older adults admitted to medical and surgical clinics at a government hospital. The elderly were monitored at home after 30 days of HD for adverse health factors (rehospitalization, falls, amount of medication consumed, disability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living and mortality). CRP> 2.4; ≥ 0.7 and> 24.7 mg / dL and leukocytes ≥ 6.410; ≥ 8.690 and> 8.310 mm³ were discriminant for rehospitalization, falls and mortality within 30 days after HD, respectively. The cut-off points described may be used as a reference in the screening of hospitalized elderly vulnerable to adverse health events after hospital discharge.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0199.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs); polychlorinated dibenzo-p-furans (PCDFs); human exposure; blood samples; dietary intake; risks
Online: 20 August 2019 (04:20:00 CEST)
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-furans (PCDD/Fs) are environmental pollutants with a great persistence, capacity of bioaccumulation, and well known important toxic effects in humans and animals. Incinerators of hazardous, municipal and medical waste, chlorine bleaching of paper pulp, cement plants, and the traffic of motor vehicles are the most frequent emission sources of these compounds. The diet, followed at a great distance by inhalation, is generally the main way of human exposure to PCDD/Fs. Human biomonitoring is of a great importance to prevent potential adverse effects derived from exposure to chemicals such as PCDD/Fs. In relation to this, blood is among the most used biological monitors. In the current review, we have summarized the recent information (2000-2009) published in the scientific literature (databases: Scopus and PubMed) on the concentrations of PCDD/Fs in blood samples of non-occupationally exposed populations, as well as in some groups of occupationally exposed individuals. We have revised a number of studies conducted in various African American, Asian and European countries, and Australia. Unfortunately, the information is quite limited. No data are available for most countries over the world. Based on the results here reviewed –where available- the current health risks for the general populations do not seem to be of concern. Moreover, taking into account the important reductions observed in the levels of PCDD/Fs in foodstuffs, new decreases in the concentrations of PCDD/Fs in blood -and other biological tissues- are very probable in the immediate years.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0435.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Acute Myeloid Leukemia; FLT3; Tyrosine kinase inhibitors; resistance
Online: 21 September 2018 (10:28:34 CEST)
Identification of recurrent driver mutations in genes encoding tyrosine kinases has resulted in the development of molecularly targeted strategies designed to improve the outcomes for patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3, is the most commonly mutated gene in AML, with internal tandem duplications within the juxtamembrane domain (FLT3-ITD) or missense mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain (FLT3-TKD), present in 30%-35% of AML patients at diagnosis. An established driver mutation and marker of poor prognosis, the FLT3 tyrosine kinase has emerged as an attractive therapeutic target, and thus has encouraged the development of FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, the therapeutic benefit of FLT3 inhibition, particularly as monotherapy, frequently results in the development of treatment resistance and disease relapse. Commonly, FLT3 inhibitor resistance is induced by the emergence of secondary lesions in the FLT3 gene, particularly in the second tyrosine kinase domain at residue Asp835 (D835) to form a ‘dual mutation’ (ITD-D835). Individual FLT3-ITD and FLT3-TKD mutations influence independent signaling cascades however, currently little is known which divergent signaling pathways are controlled by each of these FLT3 specific mutations, particularly in the context of patients harboring dual ITD-D835 mutations. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the known discrete and cooperative signaling pathways regulated by each of the FLT3 specific mutations, as well as the therapeutic approaches that hold the most promise for development of more durable and personalized therapeutic approaches targeting mutant FLT3, to improve the treatment of AML.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0422.v1
Online: 23 July 2018 (12:34:21 CEST)
Ghrelin and obestatin, two antagonist peptide hormones, are purportedly involved in stimulating appetite and controlling energy balance in humans. Serum ghrelin level is also associated with iron deficiency anemia (IDA), but no study has yet been made of the obestatin level in patients with IDA, even though both hormones are a single gene product. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation is to see whether there is a link between IDA and these two hormones among other hematological parameters in patients with IDA. To measure ghrelin and obestatin, human saliva and serum were collected from 30 women with IDA, aged 31.7 ± 10.7 years, and 30 control women, aged 30.2 ± 8.0 years, with repeated collection of samples over a period of 1 week and 1 month. Saliva and serum ghrelin levels were measured by ELISA. Serum hemoglobin, ferritin, hematocrit and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) values were determined with an Olympus AU2700. Saliva and serum ghrelin and obestatin levels were significantly lower in the IDA group compared with controls; these levels increased slightly above baseline with iron treatment, but remained below the control values. Furthermore, and as expected, serum hemoglobin, ferritin, and hematocrit levels were significantly increased with iron treatment, while total iron-binding capacity decreased compared to baseline concentrations. The findings suggest that IDA might be linked to imbalance of circulating (serum) and non-circulating (saliva) ghrelin and obestatin levels. Decreased ghrelin and obestatin might destroy iron homeostasis through its effect on intestinal absorption. Measuring these hormone levels might be useful for monitoring the response to iron treatment. Also, serum and saliva levels for both hormones were well correlated. Thus, using saliva in place of serum for monitoring the two hormones should minimize inconvenience and patient discomfort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: alpha; thalassemia; deletional; cut-off; number of genes; microcytic anemia; differential diagnosis
Online: 21 September 2017 (04:47:16 CEST)
Most of α-thalassemia cases are caused by deletions of the structural α-globin genes. The degree of microcytosis and hypochromia has been correlated with the number of affected α-globin genes, suggesting a promising role of hematologic parameters as predictive diagnostic tools. However, specific cut-off points for these parameters to discriminate between the different subtypes of α-thalassemia remain to be clearly defined. Six hematologic parameters (total number of erythrocytes, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and red cell distribution width) were evaluated in 174 cases of deletional α-thalassemia (92 heterozygous α+ thalassemia, 39 homozygous α+ thalassemia, 34 heterozygous α0 thalassemia and 9 cases of Hb H disease). A good correlation between the number of deleted alpha genes and MCV (r = -0.672, p<0.001), MCH (r = -0.788, p<0.001) and RDW (r = 0.633, p<0.001) was observed. The deletion of at least two alpha genes in adult individuals with microcytosis without iron deficiency and normal values of Hb A2 and Hb F should be discarded when MCH levels are lower than 23.15 pg. Furthermore, MCH <21.90 pg and/or MCV <70.80 fL are strongly suggestive of the presence of one α0 allele. Finally, an accurate presumptive diagnosis of Hb H disease can be made if both RDW ≥20% and MCH <18.45 pg are seen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0037.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: autologous; buffy coat; growth factor level; platelet-rich fibrin; thrombocyte concentrate
Online: 4 May 2017 (08:37:59 CEST)
Fibrin rich of platelets (PRF®) of Choukroun represents a new step in the therapeutic concept of platelet gel with a simplified processing and biochemical changes little artificial. A valid method of preparation of the PRF must effectively separate the plates by erythrocytes and concentrate without damaging or lysing the plates themselves. In this study the experimental design is to standardize the production of L-PRF in horse directing it to human production. Our hypothesis is that the L-PRF is easy to produce in the horse, without modifications of the human protocol, thus allowing a better standardization of the human protocol. A new device for the preparation and the standardization of L-PRF clots and membranes is the L-PRF Wound Box®. The optical microscopy, most cell bodies were highlighted concentrated in the proximal portion of each membrane, the last 1/4 was observed at the center; the distal part had only residual traces of cell bodies. The L-PRF will form constantly when the phases described above are strictly adhered to. The success of the art L-PRF depends entirely on the speed of blood collection and transfer in centrifuge within a minute and by a temperature of centrifugation and compression is higher than 21°C (between 21 and 30°C). Our experiments on the horse will no doubt be able to improve our understanding on wound healing, in particularly in chronic skin lesions therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0005.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Landfill, Waste, Socio-environmental impact, Hematologic diseases
Online: 4 October 2016 (09:03:17 CEST)
We are experiencing an unprecedented urbanization process that alongside with physical, social and economic developments is having a significant impact on population’s health. Due to higher apprehensions of pollution, violence and poverty, our modern cities no longer ensure a good quality of life so they become unhealthy environments. This study aims to measure the socio-environmental and hematologic profile of residents of Santo André’s landfill – “Bairro Espírito Santo” by using the contextualization of the studied area. The research method is Observational type and from Retrospective cohort and by convenience sampling in Santo André in the Greater ABC region. The study determined a socio environmental profile and the hematologic diseases screening related to a close location to the landfill. The disease manifests itself within a broad spectrum of symptoms that causes changes in blood count parameters. The full blood counts analysis was performed, indicating that the blood counts of residents living near the landfill led to positive hematological changes and diseases like Leukopenia, Anemia, Neutropenia and lymphocytosis were the most common changes. However it is considered that the proof of the relation of cause- effect to environmental exposures that may trigger chronic manifestations in humans requires specific studies that are often complicated.