ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: electric vehicle; battery heat generation; battery degradation; vehicle operation cost; preheating target temperature; heating system
Online: 6 December 2016 (07:46:46 CET)
This paper presents an optimized energy management strategy for Li-ion power batteries used on electric vehicles (EVs) at low temperatures. Under low-temperature environments, EVs suffer a sharp driving range loss resulted from the energy and power capability reduction of the battery. Simultaneously, because of Li plating, battery degradation becomes an increasing concern as temperature drops. All these factors could greatly increase the total vehicle operation cost. Prior to battery charging and vehicle operating, preheating battery to a battery-friendly temperature is an approach to promote energy utilization and reduce total cost. Based on the proposed LiFePO4 battery model, the total vehicle operation cost under certain driving cycles is quantified in the present paper. Then given a certain ambient temperature, a target temperature of preheating is optimized under the principle of minimizing total cost. As for the preheating method, a liquid heating system is also implemented on an electric bus. Simulation results show that the preheating process becomes increasingly necessary with a decreasing ambient temperature; however, the preheating demand declines as driving range grows. Vehicle tests verify that the preheating management strategy proposed in this paper is able to save total vehicle operation cost.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0337.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: vehicle to grid; grid to vehicle; electric vehicles; batteries; harmonic distortion; IEEE bus standards
Online: 21 June 2018 (10:34:06 CEST)
The increase in the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) is one of the most important world problems. Decreasing of GHG emission is a big challenge in the future. Transportation sector uses a significant part of petroleum production in the world and it leads to an increase in the emission of GHG. The result of this issue is that population of the world befoul environment of transportation system automatically. Electric Vehicles (EV) have a potentiality to solve a big part of the GHG emission and energy efficiency issues such as stability and reality of energy. The energy actors and their research team determine some targets for 2050; hence, they hope to decrease the world temperature to 6 °C in the best and 2 °C in the normal condition. Fulfillment of these scenarios needs suitable grid infrastructure but in most of the countries, the grid does not have a suitable background to apply those scenarios. In this paper, some problems about energy scenarios, energy storage systems, grid infrastructure and communication systems in supply and demand side of the grid and its solutions have been investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0206.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Motion capture camera; robotic total station; autonomous vehicle; 6 DoF pose estimation; accuracy
Online: 13 December 2021 (13:30:53 CET)
To validate the accuracy and reliability of onboard sensors for object detection and localization in driver assistance, as well as autonomous driving applications under realistic conditions (indoors and outdoors), a novel tracking system is presented. This tracking system is developed to determine the position and orientation of a slow-moving vehicle (e.g. car during parking maneuvers), independent of the onboard sensors, during test maneuvers within a reference environment. One requirement is a 6 degree of freedom (DoF) pose with a position uncertainty below 5 mm (3σ), an orientation uncertainty below 0.3° (3σ) at a frequency higher than 20 Hz, and a latency smaller than 500 ms. To compare the results from the reference system with the vehicle’s onboard system, a synchronization via Precision Time Protocol (PTP) and a system interoperability to Robot Operating System (ROS) is implemented. The developed system combines motion capture cameras mounted in a 360° panorama view set-up on the vehicle with robotic total stations. A point cloud of the test site serves as a digital twin of the environment, in which the movement of the vehicle is simulated. Results have shown that the fused measurements of these sensors complement each other, so that the accuracy requirements for the 6 DoF pose can be met, while allowing a flexible installation in different environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0029.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Microeconomics And Decision Sciences Keywords: Real-world fuel consumption rate; machine learning; big data; light-duty vehicle; China
Online: 2 November 2021 (09:40:05 CET)
Private vehicle travel is the most basic mode of transportation, and the effective control of the real-world fuel consumption rate of light-duty vehicles plays a vital role in promoting sustainable economic development as well as achieving a green low-carbon society. Therefore, the impact factors of individual carbon emission must be elucidated. This study builds five different models to estimate real-world fuel consumption rate of light-duty vehicles in China. The results reveal that the Light Gradient Boosting Machine (LightGBM) model performs better than the linear regression, Naïve Bayes regression, Neural Network regression, and Decision Tree regression models, with mean absolute error of 0.911 L/100 km, mean absolute percentage error of 10.4%, mean square error of 1.536, and R squared (R2) of 0.642. This study also assesses a large number of factors, from which three most important factors are extracted, namely, reference fuel consumption rate value, engine power and light-duty vehicle brand. Furthermore, a comparative analysis reveals that the vehicle factors with greater impact on real-world fuel consumption rate are vehicle brand, engine power, and engine displacement. Average air pressure, average temperature, and sunshine time are the three most important climate factors.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: virtual sensor; automotive control; active suspension; vehicle state estimation; neural networks; deep learning; long-short term memory; sequence regression
Online: 24 September 2021 (12:42:07 CEST)
With the automotive industry moving towards automated driving, sensing is increasingly important in enabling technology. The virtual sensors allow data fusion from various vehicle sensors and provide a prediction for measurement that is hard or too expensive to measure in another way or in the case of demand on continuous detection. In this paper, virtual sensing is discussed for the case of vehicle suspension control, where information about the relative velocity of the unsprung mass for each vehicle corner is required. The corresponding goal can be identified as a regression task with multi-input sequence input. The hypothesis is that the state-of-art method of Bidirectional Long-Short Term Memory (BiLSMT) can solve it. In this paper, a virtual sensor has been proposed and developed by training a neural network model. The simulations have been performed using an experimentally validated full vehicle model in IPG Carmaker. Simulations provided the reference data which was used for Neural Network (NN) training. The extensive dataset covering 26 scenarios has been used to obtain training, validation and testing data. The Bayesian Search was used to select the best neural network structure using root mean square error as a metric. The best network is made of 167 BiLSTM, 256 fully connected hidden units and 4 output units. Error histograms and spectral analysis of the predicted signal compared to the reference signal are presented. The results demonstrate the good applicability of neural network-based virtual sensors to estimate vehicle unsprung mass relative velocity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0075.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Vehicle Exhaust PM2.5, MOVES, Artificial Neural Network, Spatial Analysis, Aerosol Optical Depth
Online: 15 October 2020 (11:57:19 CEST)
This study aims to develop a hybrid approach based on backpropagation Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and spatial analysis techniques to predict particulate matter of size 2.5 µm (PM2.5) from vehicle exhaust emissions in the State of California using Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and several climatic indicators (relative humidity, temperature, precipitation, and wind speed). The PM2.5 data were generated using Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES), the measured climatic variables and AOD were obtained from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS), and NASA’s Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The data were resampled to a seasonal format and downscaled over grids of 10 by 10 to 150 by 150, and precipitation was determined to be the most important independent variable. Coefficient of determination ( ), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) were used to assess the quality of the ANN prediction model. The model peaked at winter seasons with = 0.984, RMSE = 0.027, and MAPE = 25.311, whereas it had the lowest performance in summer with = 0.920, RMSE = 0.057, and MAPE = 65.214. These results indicate that the ANN model can accurately predict the PM2.5 concentration and can be used to forecast future trends.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0255.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Real-time estimation; IoT; Artificial Neural Network; Vehicle dynamics; Roll angle; low cost devices; Rasbperry Pi 3 Model B, Intel Edison, FANN.
Online: 19 April 2018 (16:29:07 CEST)
Given the high number of vehicle-crash victims, it has been established as a priority to reduce this figure in the transportation sector. For this reason, many of the recent researches are focused on including control systems in existing vehicles, to improve their stability, comfort and handling. These systems need to know in every moment the behavior of the vehicle (state variables), among others, when the different maneuvers are performed, to actuate by means of the systems in the vehicle (brakes, steering, suspension) and, in this way, to achieve a good behavior. The main problem arises from the lack of ability to directly capture several required dynamic vehicle variables, such as roll angle, from low-cost sensors. Previous studies demonstrate that low-cost sensors can provide data in real-time with the required precision and reliability. Even more, other research works indicate that neural networks are efficient mechanisms to estimate roll angle. Nevertheless, it is necessary to assess that the fusion of data coming from low-cost devices and estimations provided by neural networks can fulfill the reliability and appropriateness requirements for using these technologies to improve overall safety in production vehicles. Because of the increasing of computing power, the reduction of consumption and electric devices size, along with the high variety of communication technologies and networking protocols using Internet have yield to Internet of Things (IoT) development. In order to address this issue, this study has two main goals: 1) Determine the appropriateness and performance of neural networks embedded in low-cost sensors kits to estimate roll angle required to evaluate rollover risk situations. 2) Compare the low-cost control unit devices (Intel Edison and Raspberry Pi 3 Model B), to provide the roll angle estimation with this artificial neural network-based approach. To fulfil these objectives an experimental environment has been set up composed of a van with two set of low-cost kits, one including a Raspberry Pi 3 Model B, low cost Inertial Measurement Unit (BNO055 - 37€) and GPS (Mtk3339 - 53€) and the other having an Intel Edison System on Chip linked to a SparkFun 9 Degrees of Freedom module. This experimental environment will be tested in different maneuvers for comparison purposes. Neural networks embedded in low-cost sensor kits provide roll angle estimations very approximated to real values. Even more, Intel Edison and Raspberry Pi 3 Model B have enough computing capabilities to successfully run roll angle estimation based on neural networks to determine rollover risks situation fulfilling real-time operation restrictions stated for this problem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0232.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Air Corridors; Unmanned Air Vehicle; Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications; Geofence, Capacity; Collision-Avoidance
Online: 14 September 2021 (10:09:48 CEST)
Air corridors are an integral part of the advanced air mobility infrastructure. They are the virtual highways in the sky for transportation of people and cargo in the controlled airspace at an altitude of around 1000 ft. to 2000 ft. above the ground level. This paper presents fundamental insights into the design of air corridors with high operational efficiency as well as zero collisions. It begins with the definitions of air cube, skylane or track, intersection, vertiport, gate, and air corridor. Then, a multi-layered air corridor model is proposed. Traffic at intersections is analyzed in detail with examples of vehicles turning in different directions. The concept of capacity of an air corridor is introduced along with the nature of distribution of locations of vehicles in the air corridor and collision probability inside the corridor are discussed. Finally, the results of simulations of traffic flows are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0001.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: vehicle to vehicle communications; vehicle to infrastructure communications; network security; mobile ad-hoc networks
Online: 1 June 2017 (04:51:57 CEST)
Vehicle to vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) or briefly V2X communications are the one of hot topics in automotive industry. Therefore, this situation is providing many advantages of connected vehicles and infrastructures which bring to human life. For instance, vehicles and road infrastructures which shares information with each other, provides a neat flow regulation, more ordered traffic flow and therefore jammed traffic dependent accident’s percentage will be decreased. On the other hand, security is the most important issue for these systems because the operation of V2X networks is completely dependent on uninterrupted and accurate information sharing. In the light of these information, in this paper we review security issues and current solution architectures. We also propose some open problems in this lively field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0090.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Electric Vehicle; internal combustion engine; greenhouse gas; optimization techniques; Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV); Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV); Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV); Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV).
Online: 10 May 2017 (17:44:51 CEST)
Electric vehicles (EV) are getting more commonplace in the transportation sector in recent times. As the present trend suggests, this mode of transport is likely to replace the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in near future. Each of the main EV components has a number of technologies that are currently in use or can become prominent in the future. EVs can cause significant impacts on the environment, power system, and other related sectors. The present power system can face huge instabilities with enough EV penetration; but with proper management and coordination, EVs can be turned into a major contributor to the successful implementation of smart grid. There are possibilities of immense environmental benefits as well, as the EVs can extensively reduce the greenhouse gas emission from the transportation sector. However, there are some major obstacles for EVs to overcome before replacing the ICE vehicles totally. This paper is focused on reviewing all the useful data available on EV configurations, energy sources, motors, charging techniques, optimization techniques, impacts, trends, and possible directions of future developments. Its objective is to provide an overall picture of the current EV technology and ways of future development to assist in future researches in this sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0110.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: two-echelon routing; vehicle routing; vehicle-mounted UAVs; ISR mission
Online: 13 February 2019 (10:33:55 CET)
In this paper, we present a novel Two-Echelon Ground Vehicle and Its Mounted Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Cooperated Routing Problem (2E-GUCRP). The 2E-GUCRP arises in the field of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Routing Problem such as those encountered in the context of city logistics. In a typical cooperated system, the UAV is launched from the Ground Vehicle (GV) and automatically flies to the designated target. Meanwhile, acting as a mobile base station, the GV can charge or change the UAV’s battery on the designated landing points to enable the UAV to continue its mission. The objective is to design efficient GV and UAV routes to minimize the total mission time while meeting the operational constraints. A Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) model, which could be solved by commercial software, is constructed to describe this problem. In order to quickly solve the medium-scale problems, two existing heuristics to solve 2E-VRP are improved. The computational experiments are set up to compare our model with the 2E-VRP. The results indicate that the 2E-GUCRP obtains a better efficiency. Further discussion of the practical instance points out that the increase in efficiency is related to the speed relationship between the GV and the UAV.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0057.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Remotely Operated Vehicle; Metatranscriptomics; Niskin
Online: 10 March 2017 (10:50:15 CET)
The development of low-cost, open-source Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) systems has provided almost unrestricted access for researchers looking to monitor the marine environment in ever greater resolution. Sampling microbial communities from the marine environment, however, still usually relies on Niskin-bottle sampling (ROV or CTD based), a method which introduces an inaccuracy and variability that is incompatible with metatranscriptomic analysis. Here, we describe a versatile, easily-replicated platform which achieves in situ mRNA preservation, via the addition of RNAlater to filtered microbial cells, to enhance ROV or CTD functionality.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: aerial vehicle; algal bloom index; autonomous; chlorophyll-a mapping; GNDVI; NDVI; surface vehicle; unmanned
Online: 19 January 2021 (09:14:00 CET)
The current study investigated the use of two-dimensional spatial distribution mapping representing the chlorophyll-a level in a river generated via an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and an unmanned surface vehicle (USV). A domestically developed UAV (Remo-M, Uconsystem Inc., Korea) and a USV developed by our research team were used to collect data from the Nae Seong stream in Korea. An adaptation of the “Data Cleaner” tool was developed and used for USV data processing and analysis. The operation of the autonomous USV was successful. Four previously described indices for quantifying algal blooms in rivers were utilized to create chlorophyll-a images, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the normalized green red difference index, the green normalized difference vegetation index (GNDVI), and the normalized difference red edge index. The suitability of the linear regression analysis of the correlation between the spectral indices obtained using the UAV and the in situ chlorophyll-a data obtained using the USV was evaluated with the coefficient of determination (R2) at a significance level of p < 0.001. In field application and correlational analysis the NDVI was strongly correlated with chlorophyll-a (R2 = 0.88, p < 0.001), and the GNDVI was moderately correlated with chlorophyll-a (R2 = 0.74, p < 0.001). The map of chlorophyll-a was successfully quantified using the UAV and USV hybrid platforms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0174.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: open-source; photovoltaic; mechanical design; electric vehicle; solar energy; solar carport; electric vehicle charging station
Online: 13 September 2022 (10:41:43 CEST)
Solar powering the increasing fleet of electrical vehicles (EV) demands more surface area than may be available for photovoltaic (PV) powered buildings. Parking lot solar canopies can provide the needed area to charge EVs, but are substantially costlier than roof- or ground-mounted PV systems. To provide a lower-cost PV parking lot canopy to supply EV charging beneath them, this study provides a full mechanical and economic analysis on three novel PV canopy systems: (1) exclusively wood, single parking spot spanning system, (2) wood and aluminum double parking spot spanning system, and (3) wood and aluminum cantilevered system for curbside parking. All systems can be scalable to any amount of EV parking spots. The complete designs and bill of materials (BOM) of the canopies are provided along with basic instructions and are released with an open source license that will enable anyone to fabricate them. The results found single-span systems have cost savings of 82%-85%, double-span systems save 43%-50%, and cantilevered systems save 31%-40%. In the first operation year, the PV canopies can provide 157% of energy needed to charge the least efficient EV currently on the market if it is driven the average driving distance in London ON, Canada.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: vehicle detection; automated driving; autonomous vehicles; measurement campaign; 5G; vehicle sensors; infrastructure sensors; UHD map
Online: 15 March 2021 (16:46:28 CET)
The paper presents the measurement campaign carried out on a real-world motorway stretch of Hungary with the participation of both industrial and academic partners from Austria and Hungary. The measurement included vehicle based as well as infrastructure based sensor data. The obtained results will be extremely useful for future automotive R&D activities due to the available ground truth for static and dynamic content. The aim of the measurement campaign was twofold. On the one hand, road geometry was mapped with high precision in order to build Ultra High Definition (UHD) map of the test road. On the other hand, the vehicles - equipped with differential Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) for ground truth localization - carried out special test scenarios while collecting detailed data using different sensors. All test runs were recorded by both vehicles and infrastructure. As a complementary task, the available 5G network was monitored and tested. The paper also showcases application examples based on the measurement campaign data, in which the added value of having access to the ground truth labeling and the created UHD map of the motorway section becomes apparent. In order to present our work transparently, a part of the measured data have been shared openly such that interested automotive as well as academic parties may use it for their own purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0255.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic & Molecular Physics Keywords: atom gravimeter; vibration compensation; vehicle-mounted
Online: 15 November 2021 (11:34:46 CET)
The performance of the absolute atom gravimeters used on moving platforms, such as vehicles, ships and aircrafts, is strongly affected by the vibration noise. To suppress its influence, we summarize a vibration compensation method utilizing data measured by a classical accelerometer. The measurements with the accelerometer show that the vibration noise in the vehicle can be 2 order of magnitude greater than that in the lab during daytime, and can induce an interferometric phase fluctuation with a standard deviation of 16.70π. With the compensation method, our vehicle-mounted atom gravimeter can work normally in these harsh conditions. Comparing the Allan standard deviations before and after the vibration noise correction, we find a suppression factor of 22.74 can be achieved in static condition with an interrogation time of T = 20 ms, resulting a sensitivity of 1.35 mGal/Hz1/2, and a standard deviation of 0.5 mGal with an average time of 10 s. We also demonstrate the first test of an atom gravimeter in a moving vehicle, in which a suppression factor of 50.85 and a sensitivity of 60.88 mGal/Hz1/2 were realized with T = 5 ms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0037.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: electric mobility; electric vehicle; electrification; airport
Online: 1 July 2021 (22:00:53 CEST)
Following electrification of automotive transport, studies on the penetration of Electric Vehicles (EVs) are widespread, especially in defined contexts, e.g. cities. As major transport hubs, airports fall within contexts worth of interest. In this work, a forecast of the demand for electric mobility in an Italian international airport (Rome, Fiumicino) is presented. First, a wide review of proposed sce-narios on the penetration of EVs at international and national level and available data on local automotive transport are presented, as preliminary study for the definition of reference scenarios for the local context. Then the methodology proposed is presented and applied to the specific case study. Finally, a preliminary sizing of the required charging infrastructure is reported. The proposed approach can be considered as reference for similar studies on electrical mobility in other airport areas around the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0287.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: vehicle routing problem; Metaheuristics; VRPTW-ST
Online: 15 January 2021 (12:28:56 CET)
The research develops the vehicular routing problem for the distribution of refrigerated products in a multinational company. The mathematical model corresponds to the vehicle routing problem with hard time windows and stochastic service (VRPTW-ST) time model applied in the city of Santiago de Chile. For optimization of the model, optimization methods tabu search, chaotic search and general algebraic modeling were used. The results allow to validate the meta-heuristic chaotic search to solve the VRPTW-ST; chaotic search method obtains superior performance than tabu search method for solving a real problem in a large city.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0057.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: fault-tolerant control; thruster fault; fault detection and isolation; fault accommodation; ROV; remotely operated vehicle; underwater vehicle
Online: 8 March 2018 (02:45:28 CET)
This paper describes a novel thruster fault-tolerant control system (FTC) for open-frame remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). The proposed FTC consists of two subsystems: a model-free thruster fault detection and isolation subsystem (FDI) and a fault accommodation subsystem (FA). The FDI subsystem employs fault detection units (FDUs), associated with each thruster, to monitor their state. The robust, reliable and adaptive FDUs use a model-free pattern recognition neural network (PRNN) to detect internal and external faulty states of the thrusters in real time. The FA subsystem combines information provided by the FDI subsystem with predefined, user-configurable actions to accommodate partial and total faults and to perform an appropriate control reallocation. Software-level actions include penalisation of faulty thrusters in solution of control allocation problem and reallocation of control energy among the operable thrusters. Hardware-level actions include power isolation of faulty thrusters (total faults only) such that the entire ROV power system is not compromised. The proposed FTC system is implemented as a LabVIEW virtual instrument (VI) and evaluated in virtual (simulated) and real-world environments. The proposed FTC module can be used for open frame ROVs with up to 12 thrusters: eight horizontal thrusters configured in two horizontal layers of four thrusters each, and four vertical thrusters configured in one vertical layer. Results from both environments show that the ROV control system, enhanced with the FDI and FA subsystems, is capable of maintaining full 6 DOF control of ROV in the presence of up to 6 simultaneous total faults in the thrusters. With the FDI and FA subsystems in place the control energy distribution of the healthy thrusters is optimised so that the ROV can still operate in difficult conditions under fault scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0045.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Traffic signal congrol; vehicle control; integrated control
Online: 5 September 2022 (04:47:05 CEST)
This paper develops a two-layer optimization approach that provides energy-optimal control for vehicles and traffic signal controllers. The optimizer in the first layer computes the traffic signal timings to minimize the total energy consumption levels of approaching vehicles from upstream traffic. The traffic signal optimization can be easily implemented in real-time signal controllers, and it overcomes the issues in the traditional Webster’s method of overestimating the cycle length when the traffic volume-to-capacity ratio exceeds 50 percent. The second layer optimizer is the vehicle speed controller, which calculates the optimal vehicle brake and throttle levels to minimize the energy consumption of individual vehicles. The A-star dynamic programming is used to solve the formulated optimization problem in the second layer to expedite the computation speed so that the optimal vehicle trajectories can be computed in real-time and can be easily implemented in simulation software for testing. The proposed integrated controller is first tested on an isolated signalized intersection, and then an arterial network with multiple intersections to investigate the performance of the proposed controller under various traffic demand levels. The test results demonstrate that the proposed integrated controller can greatly improve energy efficiency with fuel savings up to 17.7%, at the same time enhancing traffic mobility by up to 47.18% reduction in traffic delay and up to 24.84% reduction in vehicle stops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0094.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Smart scheduling; Smart Reservations; Reinforcement Learning; Electric vehicle charging; Electric Vehicle Charging Management platform; DQN Reinforcement Learning algorithm
Online: 7 March 2022 (09:20:13 CET)
Abstract: As the policies and regulations currently in place concentrate on environmental protection and greenhouse gas reduction, we are steadily witnessing a shift in the transportation industry towards electromobility. There are, though, several issues that need to be addressed to encourage the adoption of EVs at a larger scale. To this end, we propose a solution capable of addressing multiple EV charging scheduling issues, such as congestion management, scheduling a charging station in advance, and allowing EV drivers to plan optimized long trips using their EVs. The smart charging scheduling system we propose considers a variety of factors such as battery charge level, trip distance, nearby charging stations, other appointments, and average speed. Given the scarcity of data sets required to train the Reinforcement Learning algorithms, the novelty of the recommended solution lies in the scenario simulator, which generates the labelled datasets needed to train the algorithm. Based on the generated scenarios, we created and trained a neural network that uses a history of previous situations to identify the optimal charging station and time interval for recharging. The results are promising and for future work we are planning to train the DQN model using real-world data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0185.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: drone detection; YOLOv5; unmanned aerial vehicle; deep learning
Online: 15 February 2022 (09:32:42 CET)
Recently, the use of drones/unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has notably increased due to their broad commercial spread and low cost. The wide diffusion of drones increases the hazards of their misuse in illegitimate actions such as drug smuggling and terrorism. Thus, the surveillance and automated detection of drones are crucial for safeguarding restricted regions or special zones from illegal drone interventions. One of the most challenging issues in drone detection in surveillance videos is the apparent similarity of drones and birds against complex backgrounds. In this work, an automated image-based drone-detection system utilizing an advanced deep-learning-based object-detection method known as you only look once (YOLOv5) is introduced for protecting restricted regions or special zones from unlawful drone interventions. Due to the lack of sufficient data, transfer learning was utilized to pretrain the object-detection method to increase the performance. The experiments showed outstanding results, and an average precision of 94.7% was accomplished.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0507.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: sport differential; torque vectoring; friction clutch; vehicle kinematics
Online: 26 November 2021 (12:56:38 CET)
The study is devoted to the issues of mathematical modeling and simulating the sport differential mechanism (DM) with controllable torque redistribution. The issue is caused by the elaboration of ADAS systems with the automated torque vectoring for transmissions of all-wheel-drive (AWD) vehicles and the inclusion of such devices in the combined autonomous vehicle trajectory control scheme. At the article's beginning, the use of devices for redistributing traction forces is reasoned by analyzing the curvilinear vehicle motion, where they could ensure the accuracy of vehicle steerability. The literature review highlights modern developments in the field of modeling and researching such DMs. Considering the vehicle turn with a minimum radius, the conditions corresponding to passing greater torque over the outrunning rear axle are determined. All the mechanism's components and loads acting between them are described in detail. To form an original method of mathematical description of the mechanism functioning, the system of differential equations, systems of kinematic and force connections are considered separately. The article details the mathematical approach to generalize the way for automating the equation compilation for rotational mechanical systems such as vehicle transmissions. In the simulation section, a Simulink model reflecting the functional components and calculation procedures is presented. A series of testing and simulations on the DM operation with forcible torque distribution is carried out. Modeling data are presented, and the analysis of simulation results is performed. In the completion, conclusions are made regarding the scope and use of this model and the prospects for further developing the method proposed to automate the formation of equation systems.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: inter-vehicle communication; content-centric network; cache miss
Online: 7 December 2019 (15:45:30 CET)
Recently, inter-vehicle communication, which helps to avoid collision accidents (by driving safety support system) and facilitate self-driving (by dissemination of road and traffic information), has attracted much attention. In this paper, in order to efficiently collect road / traffic information in the request / response manner, first a basic method, Content-centric network (CCN) for Vehicular network (CV), is proposed, which applies CCN cache function to inter-vehicle communication. Content naming and routing, which take vehicle mobility into account, are investigated. On this basis, the CV method is extended (named as ECV) to avoid the cache miss problem caused by vehicle movement, and is further enhanced (named as ECV+) to more efficiently exploit cache buffer in vehicles, caching content according to a probability decided by channel usage rate. Extensive evaluations on network simulator Scenargie, with realistic open street map, confirm that the CV method and its extensions (ECV, ECV+) effectively reduce the average number of hops of data packets (by up to 47%, 63%, 83% respectively) and greatly improve the content acquisition success rate (by up to 356%, 444%, 689%, respectively), compared to the method without cache mechanism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0487.v2
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: location routing; unmanned aerial vehicle; border patrol; heuristic
Online: 16 January 2019 (10:04:50 CET)
The location routing problem of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in border patrol for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance is investigated, where the location of UAV base stations and the UAV flying routes for visiting the targets in border area are jointly optimized. The capacity of the base station and the endurance of the UAV are considered. A binary integer programming model is developed to formulate the problem, and two heuristic algorithms combined with local search strategies are designed for solving the problem. The experiment design for simulating the distribution of stations and targets in border is proposed for generating random test instances. Also, an example based on the Sino-Vietnamese border is presented to illustrate the problem and the solution approach. The performance of the two algorithms are analyzed and compared through randomly generated instances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0182.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Vibration Control, Piezoelectric, Fuzzy Logic Control, Launch Vehicle
Online: 21 December 2018 (11:12:32 CET)
Satellites are subject to various severe vibration during different phases of flight. The concept of satellite smart adapter is proposed in this study to achieve active vibration control of launch vehicle on satellite. The satellite smart adapter has 18 active struts in which the middle section of each strut is made of piezoelectric stack actuator. Comprehensive conceptual design of the satellite smart adapter is presented to indicate the design parameters, requirements and philosophy applied which are based on the reliability and durability criterions to ensure successful functionality of the proposed system. The coupled electromechanical virtual work equation for the piezoelectric stack actuator in each active strut is drived by applying D'Alembert's principle. Modal analysis is performed to characterize the inherent properties of the smart adapter and extraction of a mathematical model of the system. Active vibration control analysis was conducted using fuzzy logic control with triangular membership functions and acceleration feedback. The control results conclude that the proposed satellite smart adapter configuration which benefits from piezoelectric stack actuator as elements of its 18 active struts has high strength and shows excellent robustness and effectiveness in vibration suppression of launch vehicle on satellite.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0119.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: smart scheduling; smart reservations; reinforcement learning; electric vehicle charging; electric vehicle charging management platform; neural network; DQN reinforcement Learning algorithm
Online: 8 March 2022 (08:54:48 CET)
The widespread adoption of electromobility constitutes one of the measures designed to reduce air pollution caused by traditional fossil fuels. However, several factors are currently impending this process, ranging from insufficient charging infrastructure, battery capacity, long queueing and charging time, to psychological factors. On top of range anxiety, the frustration of the EV drivers is further fueled by the lack the uncertainty of finding an available charging point on their route. To address this issue, we propose a solution that comes to bypass the limitations of the Reserve now function of the OCPP standard, enabling drivers to make charging reservations for the upcoming days, especially when planning a longer trip. We created an algorithm that generates reservation intervals based on the charging station's reservation and transaction history. Subsequently, we ran a series of test cases that yielded promising results, with no overlapping reservations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0427.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Cooperative localization; Vehicle network; Game theory; Evolutionary coalitional game
Online: 28 January 2022 (07:31:21 CET)
Cooperative localization under complex urban environments has become a solution to replace the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning. Due to utilizing distance measured and information exchanged between vehicles, cooperative localization results in high computational complexity and heavy communication overhead. This paper proposes a cooperative localization method based on evolutionary coalitional game theory, which implements vehicles' location estimation with less communication cost. We select the neighboring vehicles to form a coalition based on the node's square position error bound and communication cost. The location is obtained via exchanging information between vehicles. It is evident from the simulations and results that the proposed method holds low communication overhead while maintaining localization accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0211.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: advanced vehicle safety; standard airbag; nanobag; frontal sled test
Online: 13 December 2021 (15:57:43 CET)
Objective: The future mobility challenges leads to considering new safety systems to protect vehicle passengers in non-standard and complex seating configurations. The objective of this study is to assess the performance of a brand new safety system called nanobag and to compare it to the traditional airbag performance in the frontal sled test scenario. Methods: The nanobag technology is assessed in the frontal crash test scenario and compared with the standard airbag by numerical simulation. The previously identified material model is used to assemble the nanobag numerical model. The paper exploits an existing validated human body model to assess the performance of the nanobag safety system. Using both the new nanobag and the standard airbag, the sled test numerical simulations with the variation of human bodies are performed in 30 km/h and 50 km/h frontal impacts. Results: The sled test results for both the nanobag and the standard airbag based on injury criteria shows a good and acceptable performance of the nanobag safety system compared to the traditional airbag. Conclusion: The results show that the nanobag system has its performance compared to the standard airbag, which means that thanks to the design, the nanobag safety system has a high potential and extended application for multi-directional protection against impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0222.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: efficiency; electric vehicle; finite element analysis; inductive charger; optimization
Online: 13 September 2021 (15:57:55 CEST)
Energy efficiency and leakage magnetic field (LMF) are two important issues in electric vehicle inductive chargers. In this work, the maximum achievable coil efficiency and the corresponding LMF strength are formulated as functions of hardware parameters, and figure of merits (FOM) are proposed for assessing the efficiency and LMF performance of the coil assembly pair. The impacts of the coil assemblies’ geometric parameters on both FOMs are examined with the aid of finite element analysis (FEA), and measures to improve the FOMs are extracted from FEA results. A coil assembly pair is manually optimized within given dimensional limits. Compared with the initial design, the optimized one achieves higher efficiency and lower LMF strength while consuming less copper. The performance improvement is verified by FEA results and experimental data measured on an 85 kHz electric vehicle inductive charger prototype. The key measures for coil assembly optimization are summarized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0452.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: IPMSM; compressor; V-shaped PM; electric vehicle; Air conditioner
Online: 17 November 2020 (14:05:17 CET)
Air conditioning system of electric vehicles has new change as the internal combustion engine is being replaced with electrified AC motor. With large amount of batteries installed at the bottom of frame, the conventional compressor which is belt-driven can be removed and another AC motor can play the role for air conditioning in electric vehicles. From this change, the system efficiency would be improved since it is possible to control the electrified compressor independently from traction system in contrast with the belt-driven compressor. As a result, by applying the electrified compressor for air conditioning system, the whole system can achieve better efficiency and longer driving distance, which is most important in electric vehicles. In this paper, 3-phase interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) was designed using lumped-parameter model and finite element method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0468.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: unmanned underwater vehicle; broadband radio communication; surface electromagnetic wave
Online: 31 March 2020 (23:08:38 CEST)
This paper presents several novel designs of underwater portable radio antennas operating in the 2 MHz, 50 MHz and 2.4 GHz bands and efficient for launching surface electromagnetic waves at the seawater/air interface. The antenna operation is enabled by an impedance matching antenna enclosure, which is filled with de-ionized water. Enhanced coupling to surface electromagnetic waves is based on the field enhancement at the antenna tip. These design features allow us to reduce antenna dimensions and improve the coupling of electromagnetic energy to the surrounding saltwater medium. Since surface wave propagation length far exceeds the skin depth of conventional radio waves at the same frequency, this technique is useful for broadband underwater wireless communication over distances, which far exceed the skin depth in seawater. We conclude that the developed broadband underwater radio communication technique will be useful in networking of unmanned underwater vehicles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0334.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Russia; solar power; hydrogen energy; electric vehicle; lithium battery
Online: 28 January 2020 (05:47:34 CET)
With a relatively small population, Russia accesses huge oil, natural gas, coal and uranium resources, and hosts advanced nuclear energy, oil and natural gas industries. However, the combined effect of today’s low cost electricity generation via photovoltaic modules, water and wind turbines and similarly low cost storage in Li-ion battery and solar hydrogen obtained via water electrolysis will have a profound impact on Russia’s energy and automotive industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0306.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: vineyard; pesticide application; variable rate application; unmanned aerial vehicle
Online: 26 November 2019 (03:54:47 CET)
Canopy characteristics are crucial for accurately and safely determining the pesticide quantity and volume of water used for spray applications in vineyards. The inevitably high degree of intra-plot variability makes it difficult to develop a global solution for the optimal volume application rate. Here, the design procedure of, and the results obtained from, a variable rate application (VRA) sprayer are presented. Prescription maps were generated after detailed canopy characterization, using a multispectral camera embedded on an unmanned aerial vehicle, throughout the entire growing season in Torrelavit (Barcelona) in four vineyard plots of Chardonnay (2.35 ha), Merlot (2.97 ha), and Cabernet Sauvignonn (4.67 ha). The maps were obtained by merging multispectral images with information provided by DOSAVIÑA®, a decision support system, to determine the optimal volume rate. They were then uploaded to the VRA prototype, obtaining actual variable application maps after the application processes were complete. The prototype had an adequate spray distribution quality and exhibited similar results in terms of biological efficacy on powdery mildew compared to conventional (and constant) application volumes. The VRA results demonstrated an accurate and reasonable pesticide distribution, with potential for reduced disease damage even in cases with reduced amounts of plant protection products and water.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0043.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: telemedicine; carbon dioxide; air pollutants; vehicle emissions; primary care
Online: 4 October 2019 (10:25:37 CEST)
This retrospective study evaluates the effect of a telemedicine program developed in the central Catalan region in lowering the environmental footprint by reducing the emission of atmospheric pollutants thanks to a reduction in the number of hospital visits involving journeys by road. Between January 2018 and June 2019 a total of 12,322 referrals were made to telemedicine services in the primary care centers, avoiding a total of 9,034 face-to-face visits. In total, the distance saved was 192,682 km, with a total travel time savings of 3,779 hours and a total fuel reduction of 11,754 liters with an associated cost of €15,664. This represents an average reduction of 3,248.3 g of carbon dioxide, 4.05 g of carbon monoxide, 4.86 g of nitric oxide and 3.2 g of sulphur dioxide. This study confirms that telemedicine reduces the environmental impact of atmospheric pollutants emitted by vehicles, reducing the number of journeys made for face-to-face visits and can contribute to environmental sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0165.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: autonomous vehicle; trajectory planning; speed planning; nonlinear optimization; nonlinear restrictions
Online: 11 February 2022 (21:08:27 CET)
This study presents the substantiation, development, and analysis of a technique for planning the autonomous vehicle (AV) motion reference parameters. The trajectory plan, speed and acceleration distributions, including other AV's kinematic parameters, are determined using sequential optimization. The study objectives are based on an analysis of the fundamental problems of AV motion planning summarized in this area's latest publications. The proposed approach combines the basic principles of the finite element method (FEM) and nonlinear optimization with nonlinear constraints. First, the generalization on representing an investigated function by finite elements (FE) is briefly described. A one-dimension FE with two nodes and three degrees of freedom (DOF) in a node was chosen as the basic one, corresponding to the 5th-degree polynomial. Next, a method for determining the motion trajectory is presented. The following are considered: formation of a restricted space for the AV's allowable maneuvering, the geometry of motion trajectory and its relation with vehicle steerability parameters, cost functions and their influences on the desirable trajectory's nature, compliance of nonlinear restrictions of the node parameters with the motion area boundaries. At the second stage, a technique for optimizing AV speed and acceleration redistribution is presented. The model considers possible combinations of cost functions, conditions of limiting the kinematic parameters with the tire slip critical speed, maximum speed level, maximum longitudinal acceleration, and critical lateral acceleration. In the simulation section, several variants of trajectories were searched and compared. Several versions of distributing the longitudinal speed and acceleration curves are determined, and their comparative analysis is fulfilled. At the end of the paper, the advantages and drawbacks of the proposed technique are noted. The conclusion is made regarding the options for improving the method in further studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0204.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: vehicular network; VANET; vehicle-to-everything; mobile edge computing; blockchain
Online: 13 December 2021 (13:19:39 CET)
As V2X technology develops, acute problems related to reliable and secure information exchange between network objects in real time appear. The article aims to solve the scientific problem of building a network architecture for reliable delivery of correct and uncompromised data within the V2X concept to improve the safety of road users, using blockchain technology and mobile edge computing (MEC). The authors present a formalized mathematical model of the system, taking into account the interconnection of objects and V2X information channels, and an energy-efficient algorithm of traffic offloading to the MEC server. The paper presents the results of application of blockchain technologies and mobile edge computing in the developed system, their description, evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of the implementation.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: internal combustion engine vehicle; life cycle assessment (LCA); energy analysis
Online: 27 November 2020 (07:27:37 CET)
The environmental safety of a car is currently one of the most important indicators of the vehicle competitiveness and quality in the consumer market. Currently, the assessment of the ecological properties of vehicles can be made based on various criteria. In the case of combustion-powered cars, the most attention is usually paid to the values characterizing their use, and in the environmental assessment, first of all to pollutant emissions and operational fuel consumption. The proposed article considers the possibility of using the life cycle assessment to analyze the ecological properties of a passenger car during its operation. A simplified LCA method of the vehicle was presented, which in strictly defined cases can be used for the analysis of environmental impacts and the assessment of the energy analysis related to its operation. For this purpose, a vehicle life cycle model was developed. Data on the operation of 33 passenger cars of different manufacturers with similar operational characteristics, coming from different production periods, were analyzed in detail. The obtained results were found to be highly sensitive to the assumptions made in the article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0149.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Ahmed Body; vehicle aerodynamics; drag force measurement; Simulation/Numerical investigation
Online: 12 June 2020 (12:20:55 CEST)
Automotive aerodynamics comprises of the study of aerodynamics of road vehicles. Its main goals are reducing drag, minimizing noise emission, improving fuel economy, preventing undesired lift forces and minimizing other causes of aerodynamic instability at high speeds. The Ahmed body has the form of a highly simplified car, consisting of a blunt nose with rounded edges fixed onto a box-like middle section and a rear end that has an upper slanted surface, the angle of which can be varied. It retains vital features of real vehicles in order to study the flow fields around it and the related turbulence models which characterizes the actual flow at elevated Reynolds number. In the present study, the aerodynamic behavior of this body is investigated numerically by the aid of commercial CFD tool: Ansys Fluent. The results of the simulation are validated with available experimental data and results of the simulations from other literatures. The numerical data were obtained for a fixed free stream velocity of 25 m/s at the inlet. The simulations were performed at a fixed slant angle of 25 degree and zero yaw angle. The present study focuses on how local refinement of mesh inside the concerned body and the outside, helps affect the results and for which grid dependency test is the primary objective of this paper. The present study also helps demonstrate how the drag of the body behaves, which is mainly the effect of pressure drag force generated at the rear portion of the body. The study also focuses on important properties like the velocity magnitude at different locations for different meshing cases, and to capture the flow pattern in the front or near the wake region. The study can be further helpful to future researchers in determining resistance, fuel efficiency etc. helping designers to optimize in specialized areas for better efficiency.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Space Science Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle; undergraduate education; remote sensing; surveying and mapping
Online: 10 December 2019 (07:50:33 CET)
This work mainly discusses an innovative teaching platform on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle digital mapping for Remote Sensing (RS) education at Wuhan University, underlining the fast development of RS technology. Firstly, we introduce and discuss the future development of the Virtual Simulation Experiment Teaching Platform for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VSETP-UAV). It includes specific topics such as the Systems and function Design, teaching and learning strategies, and experimental methods. This study shows that VSETP-UAV expands the usual content and training methods related to RS education, and creates a good synergy between teaching and research. The results also show that the VSETP-UAV platform is of high teaching quality producing excellent engineers, with high international standards and innovative skills in the RS field. In particular, it develops students' practical skills with technical manipulations of dedicated hardware and software equipment (e.g., UAV) in order to assimilate quickly this particular topic. Therefore, students report that this platform is more accessible from an educational point-of-view than theoretical programs, with a quick way of learning basic concepts of RS. Finally, the proposed VSETP-UAV platform achieves a high social influence, expanding the practical content and training methods of UAV based experiments, and providing a platform for producing high-quality national talents with internationally recognized topics related to emerging engineering education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0012.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: lithium-ion battery; battery recycling; battery electric vehicle; circular economy
Online: 5 May 2019 (11:10:23 CEST)
Driven by the rapid uptake of battery electric vehicles, Li-ion power batteries are increasingly reused in stationary energy storage systems, and eventually recycled to recover all the valued components. Offering an updated global perspective, this study provides a circular economy insight on lithium-ion battery reuse and recycling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0070.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: motorcycle crash risk; intersection; vehicle turning signals; conspicuity; Logit model
Online: 6 March 2019 (10:38:25 CET)
The relationships among the potential causes of a car and motorcycle collision involving turn maneuvers as well as the perception of rear and front turn signal (on/off) configuration is examined in this paper. The investigation has been based on data pooled from the answers of a survey proposed to 136 people, with special regards to the correct detection of indicators aspect. Experimental videos have been realized during the tests campaign, both in urban and suburban areas, using a 360-camera attached to a motorcyclist’s helmet, reproducing vehicular conflicts able to potentially generate crash risks. The detection of the blinker was combined with other factors (e.g. age, gender, location of the test site, presence of the car behind tester vehicles and if the bikers are also habitual car or bike drivers) in a stepwise logistic regression that modelled the odds of detecting the turn signal turned on as a function of all of these factors. The results suggest the existence of a connection between the detection of the turn signal aspect and some of the variables considered (e.g. age, being a cyclist or a car driver and the presence of a protecting car).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0072.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: high-voltage powerline inspection; vehicle routing; arc routing; drone; heuristic
Online: 7 February 2019 (12:59:30 CET)
A novel high-voltage powerline inspection system is investigated, which consists of the cooperated ground vehicle and drone. The ground vehicle acts as a mobile platform that can launch and recycle the drone, while the drone can fly over the powerline for inspection within limited endurance. This inspection system enables the drone to inspect powerline networks in a very large area. Both vehicle’ route in the road network and drone’s routes along the powerline network have to be optimized for improving the inspection efficiency, which generates a new two-layer point-arc routing problem. Two constructive heuristics are designed based on “Cluster First, Rank Second” and “Rank First, Split Second”. Then local search strategies are developed to further improve the quality of the solution. To test the performance of the proposed algorithms, practical cases with different-scale are designed based on the road network and powerline network of Ji’an, China. Sensitivity analysis on the parameters related with the drone’s inspection speed and battery capacity is conducted. Computational results indicate that technical improvement on the inspection sensor is more important for the cooperated ground vehicle and drone system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0239.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: regenerative, shock absorber, drive mode, vehicle dynamics, output power, nonlinearity
Online: 28 March 2018 (14:18:30 CEST)
In this paper, the current technologies of the regenerative shock absorber systems have been categorized and evaluated. Three drive modes of the regenerative shock absorber systems, namely the direct drive mode, the indirect drive mode and hybrid drive mode are reviewed for their readiness to be implemented. The damping performances of the three different modes are listed and compared. Electrical circuit and control algorithms have also been evaluated to maximize the power output and to deliver the premium ride comfort and handling performance. Different types of parameterized road excitations have been applied to vehicle suspension systems to investigate the performance of the regenerative shock absorbers including that of the nonlinear regenerative shock absorber. The research gaps for comparison of the different drive modes and the nonlinearity analysis of the regenerative shock absorbers are identified and, the corresponding research questions have been proposed for future work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0093.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: water level measurement; surface hydrology; unmanned aerial vehicle; drone; dam
Online: 10 January 2018 (17:48:03 CET)
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are now filling in the gaps between spaceborne and ground-based observations and enhancing the spatial resolution and temporal coverage of data acquisition. In the realm of hydrological observations, UAVs have a key role to quantitatively characterize the surface flow allowing for remotely accessing the water body of interest. In this paper we propose a technology which uses a sensing platform encompassing a drone and a camera to determine the water level. The images acquired my means of the sensing platform are then analyzed using the Canny method to detect the edges of water level and of Ground Control Points (GCPs) used as reference points. The water level is then retrieved from images and compared to a benchmark value obtained by a traditional device. The method is tested at four locations in an artificial lake in central Italy. Results are encouraging as the overall mean error between estimated and true water level values is around 0.02 m. This technology is well suited to improve hydraulic modeling and thus provide a reliable support to flood mitigation strategies also in uneasy-to-access environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0053.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: electrical vehicle; anti-lock braking system (ABS); regenerative brake; control
Online: 5 August 2016 (09:49:08 CEST)
Recently, design of electric scooters (ESs) has commonly adopted brushless DC motors (BLDCMs) in place of brushed DC motors. This invention develops a new anti-lock braking system (ABS), based on a slip-ratio estimator, for ES utilizing the braking force generated by the BLDCM when electrical energy releases to the load yielding an analogous effect of ABS control in gas-engine vehicles. Comparing to mechanical ABS, the design possesses the advantages of rapid torque responses due to fast actuating response. The electrical ABS is realized by associating with kinematic and Short-circuit braking. A current controller is used to adjust the braking force, while the sliding mode control strategy is adopted to regulate the slip ratio for best road adhesion while braking. Real-world experiments have been conducted for functional and performance verification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0321.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: electric vehicle; electromagnetic model; optimization; silicon-iron; thermal model; Vanadium Cobalt
Online: 24 March 2022 (02:59:21 CET)
The use of cobalt-iron (VaCoFe) core is investigated as an alternative to silicon-iron (FeSi) on the design of interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM). A spoke-type IPMSM geometry is optimized considering FeSi and VaCoFe cores for a torque range up to 40 N.m, providing a general comparative analysis between materials, considering the application of a 4-motor competition vehicle’s powertrain. A genetic optimization algorithm is applied over a hybrid analytical/finite-element model of the motor to provide sufficiently accurate electromagnetic and thermal results within a feasible time. VaCoFe can result in an estimated increase of up to 5 % in efficiency for the same torque, or up to 64 % torque increase for the same efficiency level. After optimization, and using a detailed time-dependent model, a potential 3.2 % increase in efficiency, a core weight reduction of 4.1 %, and a decrease of 9.6 % in the motor’s core volume was found for the VaCoFe at 20 Nm. In addition, for the same motor volume, the VaCoFe allows an increase of 51.9 % of torque with an increase of 1.1 % of efficiency, when compared with FeSi.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0101.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: electronic paste; organic vehicle; mixed-solvents; solubility parameter; low residual rate
Online: 7 December 2021 (11:46:21 CET)
The copper end paste used in multilayer ceramic capacitors sintered in nitrogen atmosphere will lead to carbon residue of organic vehicle, which will lead to the reduction of electrode conduc-tivity and high scrap rate. With an attempt to leave no residue in the sintering, the compatibility of solvents and thickeners should be improved because it has an important influence on the hi-erarchical volatilization and carbon residue of organic vehicles. In this work, the volatility of different solvents was compared and several solvents were mixed in a definite proportion to prepare an organic vehicle with polyacrylate resins. The hierarchical volatility and solubility parameters of mixed solvents were adjusted effectively by changing proportions of different components, the thermogravimetric curves of resins and organic vehicles were measured by thermogravimetric analyzer, the effect of solubility parameter on the dissolvability of resins in the solvent and the residual of organic vehicles were studied. Results showed that the hierar-chical volatilization of solvents can be obtained by mixing different solvents; the intrinsic vis-cosity of the organic vehicle is higher and the thermal decomposition residue of polyacrylate resins is lower when the solubility parameters of mixed solvents and polyacrylate resins are closer. The low residual sintering of organic vehicles can be achieved by using the mixed solvent with hierarchical volatility and approximate solubility parameters as resins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0245.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Electric Vehicle; Power Grid; Carbon Reduction Benefit; Multi-objective Optimization Model
Online: 18 October 2021 (13:12:29 CEST)
Under the goal of carbon peak and carbon neutrality, the carbon emission reduction of the automobile industry has attracted more and more attention in recent years. Electric vehicle has the dual attributes of power load and energy storage unit. With the increase of the number of electric vehicles, reducing carbon emissions through the collaborative interaction between electric vehicle and power network will become an important way to control carbon emissions in the automotive field. In this study, an optimization model of emission reduction benefits based on integrated development of electric vehicle and power grid is proposed, which explores the best technical way of synergy between power grid and electric vehicle, achieves the best carbon reduction effect and provides a model basis for large-scale demonstration application. Numerical simulations based on the real case in Beijing are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0042.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle; more electric aircraft; turbofan engine; distributed control system
Online: 2 September 2021 (13:48:38 CEST)
The article presents development of the more electric turbofan engine in distributed architecture with a design thrust in the range from 3 to 7.5 and from 7.5 to 30 kN for small and medium-sized unmanned aerial vehicles. The engine subsystems are considered as separate smart modules with a built-in control system, exchanging data via a digital channel with the central engine control and diagnostics unit. The key smart engine units are combined in the following subsystems: starter and turbine generators, oil pumps, actuator of guide vanes, fuel pumps, fuel metering unit, control and diagnostic unit. All pumps and guide vane actuator are electrically driven. Control and monitoring signals are transmitted via a digital bus. Functional and reliability analysis, technical configuration design of each subsystem are presented. Based on analysis of the architecture of distributed control system for gearbox-free more electric engine, different configurations of described subsystems are proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0015.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Autonomous Vehicle; Dual-rate control; Dual-rate EKF; MPC; LPV model
Online: 4 January 2021 (11:28:07 CET)
In this contribution, different lane-keeping control strategies for Autonomous Ground Vehicles (AGV) have been analyzed and compared. The AGV must be oriented and kept within a given reference path using the front wheel steering angle as the control action for a specific longitudinal velocity. While non-linear models can describe the lateral dynamics of the vehicle in an accurate manner, they might lead to difficulties when computing some real-time control laws such as Model Predictive Control (MPC). Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) models can provide a trade-off between computational complexity and model accuracy. Another way to reduce computational complexity is to explore other control strategies, for example, the one based on the Inverse Kinematic Bicycle model (IKIBI). Additionally, AGV sensors typically work at different measurement acquisition frequencies so that Kalman Filters (KF) are usually needed for sensor fusion. If these frequencies are slower than the actuation rate, a multi-rate KF may be needed. The two control strategies (MPC using a LPV model and IKIBI) have been compared in simulations over a circuit path in the presence of process and measurement Gaussian noise. The MPC controller has shown to provide a more accurate lane-keeping behavior than an IKIBI control strategy. Finally, it has been seen that Dual-Rate Extended Kalman Filters (DREKF) constitute an essential tool when only slow and noisy sensor feedback is available in an AGV lane-keeping application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0022.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle; grain sorghum; herbicide injury; remote sensing; sorghum breeding
Online: 1 October 2020 (15:47:27 CEST)
Manual evaluation of crop injury to herbicides is time-consuming. Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and high-resolution multispectral sensors and machine learning classification techniques have the potential to save time and improve precision in the evaluation of herbicide injury in crops, including grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). The objectives of this research were to (1) evaluate three supervised classification algorithms (support vector machine, maximum likelihood, and random forest) for categorizing high-resolution UAS imagery to aid in data extraction and (2) evaluate the use of vegetative indices (VIs) collected from UAV imagery as an alternative to traditional methods of visual herbicide injury assessment in mesotrione-tolerant grain sorghum breeding trials. An experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design using a factorial treatment arrangement of three genotypes by four mesotrione doses. Herbicide injury was rated visually on a scale of 0 (no injury) to 100 (complete plant mortality). The UAS flights were flown at 9, 15, 21, 27, and 35 days after treatment. Results show the SVM algorithm to be the most consistently accurate, and high correlations (r = -0.83 to -0.94; p < 0.0001) were observed between the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) and ground-measured herbicide injury. Therefore we conclude that VIs collected with UAS coupled with machine learning image classification, has the potential to be an effective method of evaluating mesotrione injury in grain sorghum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0153.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: vehicle park violations; POI; urban safety; urban healthy living; parking prediction
Online: 15 September 2019 (15:52:05 CEST)
Car parking is a challenging part of urban transportation and the traffic violations around it cause many problems for citizens. In recent years, due to the fast growth and development of urbanization, temporary and unauthorized stopping of cars along the streets, especially in large cities, has led to an increased traffic, urban disorders, dangers for citizens, and violation of rules. Studies have shown that there is a direct relationship between vehicle parking violations and urban places. GIScience capabilities and tools play an important role in analysing the spatial distribution of these violations. In this study, we investigated the spatial distribution of vehicle violations in a region of Tehran, Iran that is suffering from a heavy traffic load and heavily polluted air. Although two dissimilar urban segregations exist in the north and south of the study area, our analysis indicates a similar pattern of car parking violations. In both of the areas, about 70% of all curb parks are legal, while the remaining are illegal. Also, spatial analysis reveals a direct relationship between some POIs and the occurrence of car park violations so that the density of legal curb parks is high near some POIs, and less near some others and vice versa. For example, the number of vehicle park violation around the hospitals is more than the average of the study area. However, the number of park violations around the universities is less than the average. Our findings reveal that co-location of certain POIs, for instance a hotel and a supermarket will lead to an increase in the number of park violations. In other words, there is a strong correlation between the type of POIs and curb-parks violations. Our results also show that POIs have an impact radius that leads to violations occurring in that area. For example, the area of the impact of a hospital on the creation of car park violations was estimated at 125 meters. Our presented approach along with the discussed findings along with conclusions can be useful to a large range of stakeholders including urban planner, traffic police departments, local municipalities, law enforcement agencies, and environmentalists to have a better perspective of infrastructure planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0249.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: vehicle; shell thickness, coating; focused ion beam; containing cross-linking agents
Online: 23 July 2019 (07:36:14 CEST)
This research was conducted to manufacture thermally expandable microspheres (TEMs) for vehicles’ underbody coating and to apply them on an industrial scale. TEMs heat resistance was studied depending on the ratios of a cross-linking agent and an initiator. This research focused on the content of a cross-linking agent and how it affected the results. The TEMs’ outer shell was thickened to solve the problem of the foam expansion ratio’s reduction that occurred due to the shrinkage after the maximum expansion (Tmax) was reached. After foaming, the cross-sectional thickness and surface of the sample with thickened outer shell were observed. The TEMs with the thickened shell showed the least shrinkage, which indicated excellent shrinkage stability, even after prolonged exposure to heat.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0214.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Smart city; energy management; electric vehicle; classification; state of charge; intelligence.
Online: 22 January 2019 (11:18:42 CET)
Smart cities and smart technologies have been incorporated into several axes to increase the comfort of life. The connected building's concept was introduced for this reason. However, it was utilized in power management for better organizing, greater buildings management, and monetary savings. Cars technologies and the number of vehicles are also involved; Nowadays, each house has at least one car. Technological evolution helped to make those cars intelligent and connected. In the latest versions, the majority of those cars were equipped with several sensors, several communication protocols and a principal electrical control unit (ECU), especially for the electric vehicle model. This type of architecture was an essential element in a smart city, thus, it helps to manage power and decide when a vehicle needs to be charged. Based on the smart city concept and using possible network communication between buildings and vehicles, EVs can share their own information related to the powerful experience on a specific path. This information can be gathered in a gigantic database and used for managing the power inside these vehicles. In this field, we propose in this paper a new approach for power management inside an electric vehicle based on bi-communication between vehicles and buildings. The proposed approach is founded on two essential parts; the first is related to vehicles’ classification and buildings’ recommendation according to different car positions. Two algorithms, related to the SVC and neural network was employed in this work for implementing the final process. Different possibilities and situations were discussed for this approach. The proposed method was tested and validated using Simulink/Matlab application. The state of charge of the used battery was compared at the end of this work, for two specified cases, for showing the contribution of this approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0193.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: location-based services; Vehicle-to-Everything(V2X); publish-subscribe; application protocol
Online: 20 January 2019 (09:43:11 CET)
Location-Based Services (LBS) have been widely deployed for the connected vehicle (CV) applications such as vehicle navigation,vehicle tracking and location-based augmented reality. The current LBS deployments have limitations in supporting time-critical CV use cases, including vehicle to vehicle (V2V), vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle-to-people (V2P) safety applications. The paper presents the new LBS framework based on the publish-subscribe communication paradigm, to enable device-to-device (D2D) connections through use of selected application protocols in the application layer of the TCP/IP layered protocol model. Two publish-subscribe application protocols, Distributed Data Service (DDS) real-time publish and subscribe (DDS-RTPS) and Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT), are introduced to support the LBS D2D applications. A number of test scenarios with Mosquitto MQTT and OpenDDS under 4G-mobile broadband (MBB) services are designed to assess the transmit/receive round-trip time (RTT) and packet-loss rate (PLR) with settings of a publisher to multiple subscribers, to simulate the connections to multiple vehicles. The transmission frequency is set for 10 Hz and the message sizes vary from 100 to 2000 Bytes. The PLRs are defined as the percentages of the delayed messages beyond a delay limit. Static test results with OpenDDS show that for the RTT delay beyond the limit of 100 ms, the total PLRs range between 5.25% and 8.76% for the message size of 50 to 2000 Bytes. Vehicle testing results with Mosquitto show that PLRs for the RTT delays between 200 ms and 1000 ms are 0.63%, 3.58% and 5.77%, for connections with 1, 4 and 10 vehicles, respectively. The results demonstrate the potential of the D2D LBS framework for medium-demanding CV safety applications such as V2P and V2I use cases, taking advantages of the 4G-MBB services and 5G extreme mobile broadband (eMBB) services and mobile devices generally available with all road users.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0625.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Electric vehicle charging station (EVCS), HOMER, MATLAB, CO2 emission, payback period
Online: 31 July 2018 (14:20:28 CEST)
The abrupt increase of the electric vehicles in Bangladesh needs huge amount of power. As a result, alternative energy sources are emphasized due to limited fossil fuels in order to develop a sustainable energy sector with environment friendly resources. Bangladesh has an enormous potential in the field of renewable resources like biogas and biomass. This paper presents 20 kW electric vehicle charging station (EVCS) utilizing biogas resources where maximum energy requirement is 100 kWh. In this paper, the biogas based EVCS is designed using MATLAB Simulink and HOMER software. Daily 15-20 electric vehicles can be recharged their batteries using the proposed charging station. The proposed system offers lower cost of energy compared to the grid electricity. Moreover, the proposed charging station shows 68.75% reduction in CO2 emission than grid based charging station. In addition, the proposed EVCS will save monthly $ 16.25 and $ 27.50 respectively for easy bike and auto rickshaw type electric vehicles in Bangladesh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: electric vehicle; Nissan Leaf; lithium-ion battery; capacity loss; battery degradation
Online: 15 March 2018 (07:19:52 CET)
Analysis of 1382 measures of battery State of Health (SoH) from 283 Nissan Leafs (“Leaf/s”), manufactured between 2011 and 2017, has detected a faster rate of decline in this measure of energy-holding capacity for 30 kWh variants. At two years of age, the mean rate of decline of SoH of 30 kWh Leafs was 9.9% per annum (95% uncertainty interval of 8.7% to 11.1%; n = 82). This was around three times the rate of decline of 24 kWh Leafs which at two years averaged 3.1% per annum (95% uncertainty interval of 2.9% to 3.3%; n = 201). For both variants there was evidence for an increasing rate of decline as they aged, although this was much more pronounced in the 30 kWh Leafs. Higher use of rapid DC charging was associated with a small decrease in SoH. Additionally, while 24 kWh cars with greater distances travelled showed a higher SoH, in 30 kWh cars there was a reduction in SoH observed in cars that had travelled further. The 30 kWh Leafs sourced from United Kingdom showed slower initial decline than those from Japan, but the rate of decline was similar at two years of age. Improvements in the battery health diagnostics, continuous monitoring of battery temperatures and state of charge, and verification of a fundamental model of battery health are needed before causes and remedies for the observed decline can be pinpointed. If the high rate of decline in battery capacity that we observed in the first 2.3 years of a 30 kWh Leaf’s lifetime were to continue, the financial and environmental benefits of this model may be significantly eroded. Despite 30 kWh Leafs accounting for only 14% of all light battery electric vehicles registered for use on New Zealand roads at the end of February 2018, there is also the potential for the relatively poor performance of this specific model to undermine electric vehicle uptake more generally unless remedies can be found.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0033.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: electric vehicle; solar power; techno-economic analysis; carbon emission mitigation; India
Online: 4 May 2017 (06:22:04 CEST)
The technologies influencing alternative ways of transportation are augmenting in recent years as the need for transportation is increasing rapidly due to urbanization and motorization. In this paper, a solar powered electric auto-rickshaw (SPEA) is designed and developed for Indian conditions. The developed vehicle is comprehensively analyzed techno-economically for its viability in the Indian market. The performance analysis of SPEA results in an optimal charging rate of 2 kWh per day with an average solar irradiance of 325 W/m2. The discharging characteristics are studied based on different loading conditions. The vehicle achieved a maximum speed of 21.69 km/h with battery discharge rate of 296W at 90kg load and also reached a maximum discharge rate of 540W at 390kg loading with a maximum speed of 12.11 km/h. The environmental analysis of SPEA displayed yearly CO2 emissions of 1,777 kg, 1,987 kg and 1,938 kg using Compressed Natural Gas, Liquefied Petroleum Gas and gasoline engines respectively can be mitigated using SPEA. The results of financial analysis of SPEA were welcoming as the investor gets 24.44% lesser payback duration compared to gasoline run vehicle. Socio-Economic analysis of SPEA discussed its significant advantages and showed 18.73% and 3.9% increase in yearly income over gasoline driven and battery driven vehicles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0213.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: travel time predictability; multiple entropy; travel time series; vehicle trajectory data
Online: 28 March 2017 (17:22:03 CEST)
With the great development of intelligent transportation systems (ITS), travel time prediction has attracted the attentions of many researchers and a large number of prediction methods have been developed. However, as an unavoidable topic, the predictability of travel time series is the basic premise for travel time prediction has received less attention than the methodology. Based on the analysis of the complexity of travel time series, this paper defines travel time predictability to express the probability of correct travel time prediction and proposes an entropy-based method to measure the upper bound of travel time predictability. Multiscale entropy is employed to quantify the complexity of travel time series, and the relationships between entropy and the upper bound of travel time predictability are presented. Empirical studies are made with vehicle trajectory data in an express road section. The effectiveness of time scales, tolerance, and series length to entropy and travel time predictability are analysis, and some valuable suggestions about the accuracy of travel time predictability are discussed. Finally, the comparisons between travel time predictability and actual prediction results from two prediction models, ARIMA and BPNN, are conducted. Experimental results demonstrate the validity and reliability of the proposed travel time predictability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Decarbonization Methodology; Urban Traffic; Agent-Based Transport Simulation; Life Cycle Assessment; Sustainability; Total Cost of Ownership; Charging Concepts; Conceptual Vehicle Design; Battery Electric Vehicles; Vehicle Routing Problem
Online: 6 December 2020 (18:16:16 CET)
This paper presents a new methodology to derive and analyze strategies for a fully decarbonized urban transport system which combines conceptual vehicle design, a large-scale agent-based transport simulation, operational cost analysis, and life cycle assessment for a complete urban region. The holistic approach evaluates technical feasibility, system cost, energy demand, transportation time and sustainability-related impacts of various decarbonization strategies. In contrast to previous work, the consequences of a transformation to fully decarbonized transport system scenarios are quantified across all traffic segments, considering procurement, operation and disposal. The methodology can be applied to arbitrary regions and transport systems. Here, the metropolitan region of Berlin is chosen as a demonstration case. First results are shown for a complete conversion of all traffic segments from conventional propulsion technology to battery electric vehicles. The transition of private individual traffic is analyzed regarding technical feasibility, energy demand and environmental impact. Commercial goods, municipal traffic and public transport are analyzed with respect to system cost and environmental impacts. We can show a feasible transition path for all cases with substantially lower greenhouse gas emissions. Based on current technologies and today’s cost structures our simulation shows a moderate increase in total systems cost of 13-18%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0299.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: battery thermal management; biodiesel fuel; hybrid vehicle; Li-ion battery; cooling technology
Online: 20 July 2022 (09:01:45 CEST)
This paper focuses on the comparative analysis of lithium-ion batteries (LIB) thermal management with aim to maintain working temperature in the range 15 ℃ – 35 ℃. This is to prevent thermal runaway and high temperature gradients. The proposed approach is to employ the biodiesel, situated inside the diesel/LIB powered hybrid electric vehicle, to supply as fuel and coolant. A 3S2P LIB module is simulated using Ansys-Fluent CFD software tool. The system without a coolant shows that LIB has exceeded the optimum maximum temperature, which leads to shortened life-cycle and poor performance. Four fatty acid methyl ester biodiesels are used as coolants, namely palm, karanja, jatropha, and mahua oils. When compared with conventional methods of cooling, using air and 3M Novec liquid, the palm biodiesel coolant proves to be the best option to maintain LIB temperature within the optimum working range. With the use of palm biodiesel, the system is estimated to lightweight the BTMS by 43%, compared to the case when 3M Novec is used to maintain the same temperature range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0074.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: vehicle routing problem; time window; parallel meta-heuristic; cooperative search; tabu search
Online: 6 June 2022 (09:08:33 CEST)
This paper presents a cooperative parallel tabu search meta-heuristic for the vehicle routing problem with time windows. It is based on the scheme in which several search threads cooperate by asynchronously exchanging information on the best solutions identified. The exchanges are performed through a mechanism called adaptive memory which holds and manages a pool of solutions. This enforces the asynchronous strategy of information exchanges and ensures the independence of the individual search threads. Each of these independent threads implements a tabu search meta-heuristic. Comprehensive computational experiments and comparisons to best known solutions show that the proposed cooperative parallel tabu search algorithm is able to achieve 48 new best solutions on VRPTW benchmark instances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0326.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: air pollution; transportation policy; vehicle fleet projections; electric vehicles; exponential smoothing; Greece
Online: 21 December 2021 (12:26:52 CET)
This study provides a thorough review and analysis of the evolution of the Greek vehicle fleet over the last ~30 years, which is next used for the generation of high granularity fleet projections and for the estimation of relevant environmental benefits by 2030. The integrated methodology developed takes also into account vehicle clustering and the Brown’s Double Simple Exponential Smoothing technique that together with the adoption of COPERT based emission factors allow for the estimation of the anticipated emissions in 2030. Expected 2030 emissions levels suggest a reduction across all pollutants in comparison to 2018, ranging from 3.7% for PM10 to 54.5% for NMVOC (and 46% for CO, 14% for SO2, 28% for NOX and 21% for CO2). We find that Greece is on track with national goals concerning the reduction of air pollution from the transportation sector, stressing the positive contribution of EVs and new, "greener" vehicles, and setting new challenges for the further improvement of the sector beyond the 2030 outlook.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0421.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Unmanned Surface Vehicle; Guidance; Navigation and Control; Path Following; Adaptive Sliding Mode
Online: 23 November 2021 (12:37:17 CET)
This paper investigates the path following control problem for a unmanned surface vehicle (USV) in the presence of unknown disturbances and system uncertainties. The simulation study combines two different types of sliding mode surface based control approaches due to its precise tracking and robustness against disturbances and uncertainty. Firstly, an adaptive linear sliding mode surface algorithm is applied, to keep the yaw error within the desired boundaries and then an adaptive integral non-linear sliding mode surface is explored to keep an account of the sliding mode condition. Additionally, a method to reconfigure the input parameters in order to keep settling time, yaw rate restriction and desired precision within boundary conditions is presented. The main strengths of proposed approach is simplicity, robustness with respect to external disturbances and high adaptability to static and dynamics reference courses without the need of parameter reconfiguration.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Computational electromagnetics; Electric Vehicle; EMF safety; low frequency dosimetry; Wireless Power Transfer
Online: 11 January 2021 (15:55:44 CET)
In this study, the external magnetic field emitted by a wireless power transfer (WPT) system and the internal electric field induced into human body models during recharging operations of a compact electric vehicle (EV) are evaluated. To this aim an ad-hoc formulation for the source modeling is coupled with a commercial software that performs numerical dosimetry. Specifically, two realistic anatomical models both in a driving position and in a standing posture are considered, and the chassis of the EV is modeled either as a currently employed aluminum alloys and as a futuristic carbon fiber composite panel. Aligned and misaligned coil configurations of the WPT system are considered as well. The analysis of the obtained results shows that the ICNIRP reference levels are exceeded in the driving position, especially for the carbon fiber chassis, whereas no exceedance is observed in terms of basic restrictions, at least for the considered scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0283.v3
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Autonomous vehicle; Self-driving; Real Driving Behavior; Deep Neural Network; LSV-DNN
Online: 30 November 2020 (11:16:54 CET)
Considering the significant advancements in autonomous vehicle technology, research in this field is of interest to researchers. To drive vehicles autonomously, controlling steer angle, gas hatch, and brakes need to be learned. The behavioral cloning method is used to imitate humans’ driving behavior. We created a dataset of driving in different routes and conditions and using the designed model, the output used for controlling the vehicle is obtained. In this paper, the Learning of Self-driving Vehicles Based on Real Driving Behavior Using Deep Neural Network Techniques (LSV-DNN) is proposed. We designed a convolutional network which uses the real driving data obtained through the vehicle’s camera and computer. The response of the driver is during driving is recorded in different situations and by converting the real driver’s driving video to images and transferring the data to an excel file, obstacle detection is carried out with the best accuracy and speed using the Yolo algorithm version 3. This way, the network learns the response of the driver to obstacles in different locations and the network is trained with the Yolo algorithm version 3 and the output of obstacle detection. Then, it outputs the steer angle and amount of brake, gas, and vehicle acceleration. The LSV-DNN is evaluated here via extensive simulations carried out in Python and TensorFlow environment. We evaluated the network error using the loss function. By comparing other methods which were conducted on the simulator’s data, we obtained good performance results for the designed network on the data from KITTI benchmark, the data collected using a private vehicle, and the data we collected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0595.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle; low-altitude sounding; atmospheric turbulence; wind velocity; fluctuations; spectrum
Online: 25 September 2020 (05:43:34 CEST)
Based on the theory of turbulence, equations are derived for estimations of turbulent fluctuations of the longitudinal and transverse components of the wind velocity during ideal hovering of a quadcopter in a turbulent atmosphere. We present the results of experiments which were carried out on the territory of the Geophysical Observatory of Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, located in Tomsk Akademgorodok on the territory with complex orography, in a parkland zone with buildings of research institutes and motorways. Time series of turbulent fluctuations of the longitudinal and transverse components of wind velocity fluctuations were received with the use of an automated weather station, and time series of estimates of these components, from data of a DJI Phantom 4 Pro quadcopter during hovering. According to the automated weather station data, anisotropy was observed in one experiment during measurements in the atmosphere, but this phenomenon was not observed in the other experiment: the fluctuation spectra of all components of wind speed fluctuations coincide. The spectra of fluctuations of the longitudinal and transverse wind velocity components based on the automated weather station data and UAV telemetry are presented. The fluctuation spectra of these components for the automated weather station data and quadcopter generally coincide. The behavior of the spectra coincides with the spectrum which corresponds to Kolmogorov–Obukhov “–5/3” law within the inertial range. The turbulent spectra of the wind velocity fluctuations obtained with the use of the automatic weather station and with the unmanned aerial vehicle differ in the high-frequency spectral region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0132.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: V2X; vehicle-to-network; blockchain; distributed registry; data protection; network; decentralized systems
Online: 5 September 2020 (08:21:40 CEST)
Over the past decade, wireless communication technologies have developed significantly for intelligent applications in road transport. This paper provides an overview of telecommunications-based intelligent transport systems with a focus on ensuring system safety and resilience. In vehicle-to-everything, these problems are extremely acute due to the specifics of the operation of transport networks, which requires the use of special protection mechanisms. In this regard, it was decided to use blockchain as a system platform to support the needs of transport systems for secure information exchange. This paper describes the technological aspects of implementing blockchain technology in vehicle-to-network; the features of such technology are presented, as well as the features of their interaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0399.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: terrestrial laser scanning; unmanned aerial vehicle; image matching; remote sensing; forest inventory
Online: 27 March 2020 (02:30:55 CET)
Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) provides detailed three-dimensional representation of the surrounding forest structure. However, due to close-range hemispherical scanning geometry, the ability of TLS technique to comprehensively characterize all trees and especially the upper parts of forest canopy is often limited. In this study, we investigated how much forest characterization capacity can be improved in managed Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands if TLS point cloud is complemented with a photogrammetric point cloud acquired from above the canopy using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). In this multisensorial (TLS+UAV) close-range sensing approach, the used UAV point cloud data was considered feasible especially in characterizing the vertical forest structure and improvements were obtained in estimation accuracy of tree height as well as plot-level basal-area weighted mean height (Hg) and mean stem volume (Vmean). Most notably the root mean square error (RMSE) in Hg improved from 0.88 m to 0.58 m and the bias improved from -0.75 m to -0.45 m with the multisensorial close-range sensing approach. However, in managed Scots pine stands the mere TLS captured also the upper parts of the forest canopy rather well. Both approaches were capable of deriving stem number, basal area, Vmean, Hg and basal area-weighted mean diameter with a relative RMSE less than 5.5% for all of the sample plots. Although the multisensorial close-range sensing approach mainly enhanced characterization of forest vertical structure in single-species, single-layer forest conditions, representation of more complex forest structures may benefit more from point clouds collected with sensors of different measurement geometries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0442.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Digital Elevation Models; ortho-mosaicked images; glacier; remote sensing; Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
Online: 28 February 2020 (13:34:22 CET)
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) based remote sensing (RS) studies in glaciology are mainly focusing on obtaining accurate high-resolution data from UAV images. Studies for identifying and minimising the challenges faced during the UAV-based RS data acquisition survey on inaccessible and harsh terrains of mountain glaciers is limited. This study aims to examine the practical challenges faced during UAV surveys of glaciers and derive strategies to minimize them. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study that addresses such problems over the Himalayan region. Here, the UAV surveys were conducted using a fixed-wing commercial-grade off-the-shelf UAV (eBee plus, SenseFly) on three glacier sites (East Rathong, Hamtah and Panchinala-A) located in different zones and climate regimes lying within the Indian part of Himalayas. From UAV collected photos, the study was able to generate ultra-high-resolution ortho-mosaicked images and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) at 0.1m GSD. UAV-derived DEMs was able to achieve vertical (horizontal) accuracy of 0.45 and 0.21 m (0.15 and 0.1 m) with 3 and 6 ground control points (GCPs) for an area of 0.75 km2 and 1.38 km2. Accuracy assessment of UAV DEMs generated with and without GCPs indicate that GCPs are must to obtain decimetre level accurate DEM especially on glaciers with steep-valleyed terrains. The utility of the obtained ultra-high-resolution ortho-mosaicked images was demonstrated by generating glacier surface feature maps. Based on the challenges observed during UAV surveys, the study identifies and recommends best-suited locations on a glacier and its adjacent regions for conducting UAV surveys efficiently in the glaciated terrain of Himalayas and possibly beyond. Recommendations reported in this article shall minimise the challenges faced and involved risks for data acquisition and thus enable UAVs to cover more glaciated area successfully.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0229.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle networks (UAVNs); secure communication; agent-based self-protective; HIS
Online: 21 January 2020 (03:02:34 CET)
UAVNs (unmanned aerial vehicle networks) may become vulnerable to threats and attacks due to their characteristic features such as high mobility, highly dynamic network topology, and open-air wireless environments. Since previous work has focused on classical and metaheuristic-based approaches, none of these approaches have a self-adaptive approach. In this article, we examine the challenges of cyber detection methods to secure UAVNs and review exiting security schemes proposed in the current literature. Furthermore, we propose an agent-based self-protective method (ASP-UAVN) for UAVNs that is based on the Human Immune System (HIS). In ASP-UAS, the safest route from the source UAV to the destination UAV is chosen according to a self-protective system. In this method, a multi-agent system using an Artificial Immune System (AIS) is employed to detect the attacking UAV and choose the safest route. In the proposed ASP-UAVN, the route request packet (RREQ) is initially transmitted from the source UAV to the destination UAV to detect the existing routes. Then, once the route reply packet (RREP) is received, a self-protective method using agents and the knowledge base is employed to choose the safest route and detect the attacking UAVs. The method is evaluated here via extensive simulations carried out in the NS-3 environment. The experimental results of four scenarios demonstrated that the ASP-UAS increases the Packet Delivery Rate (PDR) by more than 17.4, 20.8, and 25.91%, and detection rate by more than 17.2, 23.1, and 29.3%, and decreases the Packet Loss Rate (PLR) by more than 14.4, 16.8, and 20.21%, the false-positive and false-negative rate by more than 16.5, 25.3, and 31.21% those of SUAS-HIS, SFA and BRUIDS methods, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0035.v4
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: PVA-ECC; vehicle-induced vibrations; setting periods; tensile performance; grey correlation analysis
Online: 7 August 2019 (03:35:46 CEST)
Polyvinyl alcohol-engineering cementitious composites (PVA-ECC) has been widely applied in bridge deck repairing or widening, the common practice for doing this is that a portion of a bridge is left open to traffic while the closed portion is constructed, which expose the early age PVA-ECC to the vehicle-induced vibrations. However, whether vehicle-induced vibrations affect the tensile performance of early age PVA-ECC remains unknow. The purpose of this study was to conduct laboratory test programs on how much vehicle-induced vibrations during early ages affected the tensile performance of PVA-ECC. A self-improved device was used to simulate the vehicle-induced vibrations, and after vibrating with the designed variables, both a uniaxial tensile test and a grey correlation analysis were performed. The results indicated that: the effects of vehicle-induced vibrations on the tensile performance of early age PVA-ECC were significant, and they generally tended to be negative in this investigation. In particular, for all of the vibrated PVA-ECC specimens, the most negative age when vibrated occurred during the period between the initial set and the final set. We concluded that although vehicle-induced vibrations during the setting periods had no substantial effects on the inherent strain-hardening characteristics of PVA-ECC, the effects should not be ignored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0183.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: two-echelon routing; vehicle routing; truck and drone; heuristic; simulated annealing algorithm
Online: 19 February 2019 (15:17:33 CET)
A new variant of two-echelon routing problem is investigated, where the truck and the drone are used to cooperatively complete the deliveries of all parcels. The truck not only acts as a tool for parcel delivery, but also serves as a moving depot for the drone. The drone can carry several parcels and take off from the truck, while returning to the truck after completing the delivery. The energy consumption model for the routing process of the drone is analyzed, when it is utilized to deliver multiple parcels. A two-stage route-based modelling approach is proposed to optimize both the truck’s main route and the drone’s adjoint flying routes. A hybrid heuristic integrating nearest neighbor and cost saving strategies is developed to quickly construct a feasible solution. The simulated annealing algorithm is applied to improve the quality of the solution, where a Tabu list is employed to improve the search efficiency. Random instances at different scales are used to test the performance of the proposed algorithm. A case study based on the practical road network in Changsha, China, is presented, through which the sensitivity analysis is conducted with respect to some critical factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0040.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: agriculture; digital image processing; machine vision; precision agriculture; unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)
Online: 12 October 2016 (10:28:54 CEST)
Precision agriculture is a farm management technology that involves sensing and then responding to the observed variability in the field. Remote sensing is one of the tools of precision agriculture. The emergence of small unmanned aerial vehicles (sUAV) have paved the way to accessible remote sensing tools for farmers. This paper describes the comparison of two popular off-the-shelf sUAVs: 3DR Iris and DJI Phantom 2. Both units are equipped with a camera gimbal attached with a GoPro camera. The comparison of the two sUAV involves a hovering test and a rectilinear motion test. In the hovering test, the sUAV was allowed to hover over a known object and images were taken every second for two minutes. The position of the object in the images was measured and this was used to assess the stability of the sUAV while hovering. In the rectilinear test, the sUAV was allowed to follow a straight path and images of a lined track were acquired. The lines on the images were then measured on how accurate the sUAV followed the path. Results showed that both sUAV performed well in both the hovering test and the rectilinear motion test. This demonstrates that both sUAVs can be used for agricultural monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0385.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Wireless Sensors Networks; Fiber Bragg Grating; Pressure; Speed; Wheelbase distance; Weight; Vehicle; Identification.
Online: 22 September 2021 (13:27:42 CEST)
Due to the renewed variation in government and political systems inside and outside countries, and with the high tariffs at borders, the latter have become an outlet for terrorism and smugglers. Therefore, each country seeks to develop its own protection system, and the technologies used in these systems vary according to the severity and the importance of the installations to be protected, it is found that some of them are expensive and unnecessary, but other have good and variable levels of efficiency. Consequently, the idea of designing a surveillance system that can monitor and control access becomes indispensable. In the same context, this work is of crucial strategic and geopolitical importance. It combines pre-existing alarm and monitoring methods and revolutionary Internet of Things (IoT) application products, of which Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) and Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS) are part of this application. This article presents the distribution of wireless radar nodes accompanying with a Bragg fiber sensor to identify each rolling intruder incoming the zone to be monitored, from the determination of its speed, weight and wheelbase distance.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Bayesian optimization; Gaussian process; Neural network; SMOTE; Usage-based insurance (UBI); Vehicle telematics
Online: 1 February 2021 (12:51:02 CET)
This article describes techniques employed in the production of a synthetic dataset of driver telematics emulated from a similar real insurance dataset. The synthetic dataset generated has 100,000 policies that included observations about driver’s claims experience together with associated classical risk variables and telematics-related variables. This work is aimed to produce a resource that can be used to advance models to assess risks for usage-based insurance. It follows a three-stage process using machine learning algorithms. The first stage is simulating values for the number of claims as multiple binary classifications applying feedforward neural networks. The second stage is simulating values for aggregated amount of claims as regression using feedforward neural networks, with number of claims included in the set of feature variables. In the final stage, a synthetic portfolio of the space of feature variables is generated applying an extended SMOTE algorithm. The resulting dataset is evaluated by comparing the synthetic and real datasets when Poisson and gamma regression models are fitted to the respective data. Other visualization and data summarization produce remarkable similar statistics between the two datasets. We hope that researchers interested in obtaining telematics datasets to calibrate models or learning algorithms will find our work valuable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0725.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: traffic monitoring; intelligent transportation systems; traffic queues; vehicle counts; artificial intelligence; deep learning
Online: 30 September 2020 (08:08:38 CEST)
Manual traffic surveillance can be a daunting task as Traffic Management Centers operate a myriad of cameras installed over a network. Injecting some level of automation could help lighten the workload of human operators performing manual surveillance and facilitate making proactive decisions which would reduce the impact of incidents and recurring congestion on roadways. This article presents a novel approach to automatically monitor real time traffic footage using deep convolutional neural networks and a stand-alone graphical user interface. The authors describe the results of research received in the process of developing models that serve as an integrated framework for an artificial intelligence enabled traffic monitoring system. The proposed system deploys several state-of-the-art deep learning algorithms to automate different traffic monitoring needs. Taking advantage of a large database of annotated video surveillance data, deep learning-based models are trained to detect queues, track stationary vehicles, and tabulate vehicle counts. A pixel-level segmentation approach is applied to detect traffic queues and predict severity. Real-time object detection algorithms coupled with different tracking systems are deployed to automatically detect stranded vehicles as well as perform vehicular counts. At each stages of development, interesting experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system. Overall, the results demonstrate that the proposed framework performs satisfactorily under varied conditions without being immensely impacted by environmental hazards such as blurry camera views, low illumination, rain, or snow.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0313.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Vehicle Routing Problem; Delivery and Pickup; Time Windows; Left-over Cost; Reusable Container
Online: 19 May 2020 (09:27:52 CEST)
A lot of previous research have proposed various frameworks and algorithms to optimize routes to reduce the total transportation cost, which accounts for over 70% of overall logistics cost. However, it is very hard to find the cases applied the mathematical models or algorithms to the practical business environment cases, especially daily operating logistics services like convenient stores. Most of previous research have considered the developing an optimal algorithm which can solve the mathematical problem within the practical time while satisfying all constraints such as the capacity of delivery and pick-up, and time windows. For the daily pick-up and delivery service like supporting several convenient stores, it is required to consider the unit transporting container as well as the demand, capacity of trucks, traveling distance and traffic congestion. Especially, the reusable transporting container, trays, should be regarded as the important asset of logistics center. However, if the mathematical model focuses on only satisfying constraints related delivery and not considering the cost of trays, it is often to leave the empty trays on the pick-up points when there is not enough space in the track. In this research, it has been proposed to build the mathematical model for optimizing pick-up and delivery plans by extending the general vehicle routing problem of simultaneous delivery and pickup with time windows while considering left-over cost. With the numerical experiments, it has been proved that the proposed model may reduce the total delivery cost. It may be possible to apply the proposed approach to the various logistics business which uses the reusable transporting container like shipping containers, refrigerating containers, trays, and pallets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0049.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: intelligent driving vehicle; trajectory planning; end-to-end; deep reinforcement learning; model transfer
Online: 2 August 2018 (13:06:39 CEST)
Aiming at the problem of model error and tracking dependence in the process of intelligent vehicle motion planning, an intelligent vehicle model transfer trajectory planning method based on deep reinforcement learning is proposed, which obtain an effective control action sequence directly. Firstly, an abstract model of the real environment is extracted. On this basis, Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (DDPG) and vehicle dynamic model are adopted to jointly train a reinforcement learning model, and to decide the optimal intelligent driving maneuver. Secondly, the actual scene is transferred to equivalent virtual abstract scene by transfer model, furthermore, the control action and trajectory sequences are calculated according to trained deep reinforcement learning model. Thirdly, the optimal trajectory sequence is selected according to evaluation function in the real environment. Finally, the results demonstrate that the proposed method can deal with the problem of intelligent vehicle trajectory planning for continuous input and continuous output. The model transfer method improves the model generalization performance. Compared with the traditional trajectory planning, the proposed method output continuous rotation angle control sequence, meanwhile, the lateral control error is also reduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0244.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Image Fusion, Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2, Wetlands, Object-Based Classification, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
Online: 13 July 2018 (17:11:07 CEST)
Wetlands benefits can be summarized but are not limited to their ability to store floodwaters and improve water quality, providing habitats for wildlife and supporting biodiversity, as well as aesthetic values. Over the past few decades, remote sensing and geographical information technologies has proven to be a useful and frequent applications in monitoring and mapping wetlands. Combining both optical and microwave satellite data can give significant information about the biophysical characteristics of wetlands and wetlands` vegetation. Also, fusing data from different sensors, such as radar and optical remote sensing data, can increase the wetland classification accuracy. In this paper we investigate the ability of fusion two fine spatial resolution satellite data, Sentinel-2 and the Synthetic Aperture Radar Satellite, Sentinel-1, for mapping wetlands. As a study area in this paper, Balikdami wetland located in the Anatolian part of Turkey has been selected. Both Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 images require pre-processing before their use. After the pre-processing, several vegetation indices calculated from the Sentinel-2 bands were included in the data set. Furthermore, an object-based classification was performed. For the accuracy assessment of the obtained results, number of random points were added over the study area. In addition, the results were compared with data from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle collected on the same data of the overpass of the Sentinel-2, and three days before the overpass of Sentinel-1 satellite. The accuracy assessment showed that the results significant and satisfying in the wetland classification using both multispectral and microwave data. The statistical results of the fusion of the optical and radar data showed high wetland mapping accuracy, with an overall classification accuracy of approximately 90% in the object-based classification. Compared with the high resolution UAV data, the classification results give promising results for mapping and monitoring not just wetlands, but also the sub-classes of the study area. For future research, multi-temporal image use and terrain data collection are recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0399.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Shared Autonomous Vehicle (SAV); Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA); Microphone Array; Sound Source Localization
Online: 26 January 2022 (13:07:39 CET)
With the current technological transformation in the automotive industry, autonomous vehicles are getting closer to the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE) automation level 5. This level corresponds to the full vehicle automation, where the driving system autonomously monitors and navigates the environment. With SAE-level 5, the concept of a Shared Autonomous Vehicle (SAV) will soon become a reality and mainstream. The main purpose of an SAV is to allow unrelated passengers to share an autonomous vehicle without a driver/moderator inside the shared space. However, to ensure their safety and well-being until they reach their final destination, it is required an active monitoring of all passengers. In this context, this article presents a microphone-based sensor system that is able to localize sound events inside an SAV. The solution is composed of a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) microphone array with a circular geometry connected to an embedded processing platform that resorts to Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology to successfully process in hardware the sound localization algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0370.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: gravel pavement; roughness; straightedge; power spectral density; international roughness index; vehicle response; driving comfort
Online: 16 July 2021 (11:58:32 CEST)
The gravel road pavement has a lower construction cost but poorer performance than the asphalt surface. It also emits dust and deforms under the impact of vehicle loads and ambient air factors. The resulting ripples and ruts are constantly deepening, increasing vehicle vibrations and fuel consumption, reducing safe driving speed and comfort. In this article, existing pavement quality evaluation indexes are analysed, and a methodology for their adaptation for roads with gravel pavement is proposed. This article reports the measured wave depth and length of the gravel pavement profile by the straightedge method of a 160 m long road section in three road exploitation stages. The measured pavement elevation was processed according to ISO 8608, and vehicle frequency response has been investigated using simulations in MATLAB/Simulink. The applied International Roughness Index (IRI) analysis showed that a speed of 30-45 km/h instead of 80 km/h provides the objective results of IRI calculation on the flexible pavement due to a decreasing velocity of vehicle's unsprung mass on a more deteriorated road pavement state. The influence of the corrugation phenomenon of gravel pavement has been explored, identifying specific driving safety and comfort cases. Finally, an increase in the Dynamic Load Coefficient (DLC) at a low speed of 30 km/h on the most deteriorated pavement and a high speed of 90 km/h on the middle-quality pavement demonstrates the demand for timely gravel pavement maintenance and the complicated prediction of a safe driving speed for drivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0081.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Over-Actuated Unmanned Aerial Vehicle; Nonlinear Control Allocation; Software In10 The Loop; Threshold Time
Online: 5 July 2021 (09:30:01 CEST)
This paper presents a study on the influence of the frequency variation of a nonlinear1 control allocation technique execution, developed by the author , named by Fast Control2 Allocation (FCA) for the Quadrotor Tilt-Rotor (QTR) aircraft. Then, through Software In The3 Loop (SITL) simulation, the proposed work considers the use of Gazebo, QGroundControl, and4 Matlab applications, where different frequencies of the FCA can be implemented separated in5 Matlab, always analyzing the QTR stability conditions from the virtual environment performed in6 Gazebo. TheresultsshowedthattheFCAneedsatleast200HzoffrequencyfortheQTRsafeflight7 conditions, i. e., 2 times smaller than the main control loop frequency, 400 Hz. Lower frequencies8 than this one would case instability or crashes during the QTR Operation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Safety Interventions; Fire Engine; Vehicle, Aerosol; Fine Dust Measurement
Online: 6 May 2021 (15:24:53 CEST)
Physical distancing and wearing a face mask are key interventions to prevent COVID-19. While this remains difficult to practice for millions of firefighters in fire engines responding to emergencies, the delayed forthcoming of evidence on the physical effectiveness of such safety interventions in this setting presents a major problem. In this field experimental study, we provided initial evidence to close this gap. We examined total aerosol burden in the cabin of a fire engine whilst manipulating crew size, natural ventilation, use of FFP2 respirators and use of SCBA full-face masks during 15-minute driving periods. At the same time, we controlled for crew activity and speaking, vehicle speed, cabin air temperature, pressure and humidity. Limiting the crew size, using FFP2 respirators and not donning SCBA full-face masks was associated with a reduction of the arithmetic mean of total aerosol burden of up to 49%. Natural ventilation as tested in this study was associated with both an increase and a decrease of total aerosol burden. This study provided initial evidence on the physical effectiveness of safety interventions in fire engines to reduce potential airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through aerosols. More research about the physical and clinical effectiveness of such safety interventions is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0088.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: weeds detection; deep learning; unmanned aerial vehicle; image processing; precision agriculture; crop lines detection
Online: 5 September 2018 (06:13:06 CEST)
In recent years, weeds is responsible for most of the agricultural yield losses. To deal with this threat, farmers resort to spraying pesticides throughout the field. Such method not only requires huge quantities of herbicides but impact environment and humans health. One way to reduce the cost and environmental impact is to allocate the right doses of herbicide at the right place and at the right time (Precision Agriculture). Nowadays, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is becoming an interesting acquisition system for weeds localization and management due to its ability to obtain the images of the entire agricultural field with a very high spatial resolution and at low cost. Despite the important advances in UAV acquisition systems, automatic weeds detection remains a challenging problem because of its strong similarity with the crops. Recently Deep Learning approach has shown impressive results in different complex classification problem. However, this approach needs a certain amount of training data but, creating large agricultural datasets with pixel-level annotations by expert is an extremely time consuming task. In this paper, we propose a novel fully automatic learning method using Convolutional Neuronal Networks (CNNs) with unsupervised training dataset collection for weeds detection from UAV images. The proposed method consists in three main phases. First we automatically detect the crop lines and using them to identify the interline weeds. In the second phase, interline weeds are used to constitute the training dataset. Finally, we performed CNNs on this dataset to build a model able to detect the crop and weeds in the images. The results obtained are comparable to the traditional supervised training data labeling. The accuracy gaps are 1.5% in the spinach field and 6% in the bean field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0304.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Safe-drone; Emergency Detection; Time-window; Event-based Control; UAV(Unmanned Aerial Vehicle)/Quadrotor Drone
Online: 23 May 2022 (10:57:36 CEST)
Quadrotor drones have rapidly gained interest recently. Numerous studies are underway for the commercial use of autonomous drones, and especially the distribution businesses are taking serious reviews on drone delivery services. However, there are still many concerns about urban drone operations. The risk of failures and accidents makes it difficult to provide drone-based services in the real world with ease. There have been many studies that introduced supplementary methods to handle drone failures and emergencies. However, we discovered the limitation of the existing methods. The majority of approaches were improving PID-based control algorithms which is the dominant drone control method. This type of low-level approach lacks situation awareness and the ability to handle unexpected situations. This study introduces an event-based control methodology that takes a high-level diagnosing approach that can implement situation awareness via time-window. While leaving the low-level controller to involve in operating the drone for most of the time in normal situations, our controller operates at a higher level and detects unexpected behaviors and abnormal situations of the drone. We tested our method with real-time 3D computer simulation environments with Unreal Engine and AirSim. We were able to verify that our approach can provide enhanced double safety and better ensure safe drone operations. We hope our discovery to possibly contribute to the advance of real-world drone services in the near future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0210.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: diesel sport utility vehicle (SUV); idle vibration; multi-body dynamic model; vibration reduction; vibration absorber
Online: 22 April 2022 (07:52:21 CEST)
This paper presents a study on the idle vibration reduction of a diesel sport utility vehicle (SUV). To reduce idle vibration, the transmission paths of vibration from the engine to the driver seat floor were investigated with the vehicle components related to idle vibration. Furthermore, operational deflection shape (ODS) tests were conducted to visualize the vibration shapes during engine idling. Experimental modal analyses were performed to obtain the natural frequencies and mode shapes. Through the ODS and modal tests, the vibration characteristics of the diesel SUV during idling were identified. Considering these vibration characteristics, a multi-body dynamic model for the diesel SUV described by differential equations of motion was established to evaluate the idle vibration. To implement the dynamic model effectively, the equivalent stiffnesses and damping coefficients included in the model were determined experimentally or analytically. The established dynamic model was verified by comparing the natural frequencies and idle vibration levels between simulations. Using this dynamic model, we analyzed the effects of various design variables on idle vibration and obtained an optimal design for reducing the idle vibration level. Finally, we present a design guide to reduce the idle vibration for diesel SUVs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0377.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Lake Victoria; Photovoltaic; off-grid; model; electric two-wheeled vehicle; Wa-ter-Energy Hub; CARNOT
Online: 26 October 2021 (12:05:07 CEST)
Two-wheeler vehicles are the most significant mode of transportation for Kenyans in both rural and urban regions thereby contributing to local air pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). The transition to electric two-wheeler vehicles can make a significant contribution to reducing GHG and improving the socio-economic lives of people living in rural Kenya. Re-newable energy systems can considerably contribute to the charging of electric two-wheeled vehicles, thus leading to the reduction of carbon emissions and the expansion of renewable energy penetration in rural Kenya. Therefore, this paper focuses on integrating and modelling electric two-wheeled vehicles (e-bikes) into an off-grid photovoltaic Water-Energy Hub located in the Lake Victoria Region of Western Kenya using the Conventional and Renewable Energy Opti-mization (CARNOT) Toolbox in MATLAB / Simulink. Electricity demand data obtained from the Water-Energy Hub was investigated and analysed. Potential solar energy surplus was identified and electric two-wheeler vehicles were integrated based on the surplus. A field measurement investigation on the energy consumption of the electric two-wheeler vehicles based on the rider’s driving behaviour was also carried. The annual electricity demand of 27,267 kWh, photovoltaic (PV) electricity production of 37,785 kWh with an electricity deficit of 370 kWh were obtained from the simulation results. To reduce the electricity deficit, a load optimisation algorithm was de-veloped to optimally integrate the electric 2-wheeler vehicle into the Water-Energy Hub. It was found that using the load optimisation algorithm, the annual electricity deficit was reduced to 1 kWh and the annual electricity demand was increased by 11% (30,767 kWh) which is enough to charge 4 additional electric two-wheeler batteries daily.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0365.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV); faulty sensors; fault detection and isolation; abrupt fault; feedback linearization control
Online: 14 June 2021 (13:25:52 CEST)
A novel adaptive neural network-based fault-tolerant control scheme is proposed for six-degree freedom nonlinear helicopter dynamic. The proposed approach can detect and mitigate sensors' faults in real-time. An adaptive observer-based on neural network (NN) and extended Kalman filter (EKF) is designed, which incorporates the helicopter's dynamic model to detect faults in the navigation sensors. Based on the detected faults, an active fault-tolerant controller, including three loops of dynamic inversion, is designed to compensate for the occurred faults in real-time. The simulation results showed that the proposed approach is able to detect and mitigate different types of faults on the helicopter navigation sensors, and the helicopter tracks the desired trajectory without any interruption.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0274.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: theoretical design, aero submarine, aerial submersible vehicle, direct dive, water-air transition, air-water transition.
Online: 9 June 2021 (22:57:46 CEST)
Aero submarines (aerosubs) are vehicles that can both fly both in air and travel under water. The concept of dual aerial and aquatic vehicles emerged in 1939 when Russian engineer Boris Ushakov proposed the “flying submarine”, and this was followed by further developments including RFS1 , convair project in 1964 , etc. however, to date, limited attempt has been diverted towards the advanced development of such aircraft. This is heavily influenced by challenges associated with the design and operation of the same. Based on the review of literature the authors aim to introduce a theoretical design for an aerosub (QFS-20) with a view to address the design and operation issues including power, entry to and exit from water.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0012.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV); UAV-photogrammetry; Structure From Motion (SfM); cut slope; extreme topography; landslide
Online: 3 April 2017 (18:34:22 CEST)
UAV photogrammetry development during the last decade has allowed to catch information at a very high spatial and temporal resolution from terrains with very difficult or impossible human access. This paper deals with the application of these techniques to study and produce information of very extreme topography which is useful to plan works on this terrain or monitoring it over the time to study its evolution. The methodology stars with the execution of UAV flights on the cut slope studied, one with the cam vertically oriented and other at 45º respect that orientation. Ground control points (GCPs) and check points (CPs) were measured for georeference and accuracy measurement purposes. Orthophoto was obtained projecting on a fitted plane to a studied surface. Moreover, since a digital surface model (DSM) is not able to represent faithfully that extreme morphology, information to project works or monitoring it has been derived from the point cloud generated during the photogrammetric process. An informatics program was developed to generate contour lines and cross sections derived from the point cloud, which was able to represent all terrain geometric characteristics, like several Z coordinates for a given planimetric (X, Y) point. Results yield a root mean square error (RMSE) in X, Y and Z directions of 0.053 m, 0.070 m and 0.061 m respectively. Furthermore, comparison between contour lines and cross sections generated from point cloud with the developed program on one hand and those generated from DSM on other hand, shown that the former are capable of representing terrain geometric characteristics that the latter cannot. The methodology proposed in this work has been shown as an adequate alternative to generate manageable information, as orthophoto, contour lines and cross sections, useful for the elaboration, for example, of projects for repairing or maintenance works of cut slopes with extreme topography.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0402.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: Rechargeable Sensor Network; Unmanned Aerial Vehicle; One-to-one Charging; Space-time Collaboration; Optimal Charging Trajectory
Online: 27 September 2022 (02:07:41 CEST)
Aiming at the problem of low charging efficiency caused by the scattered sensor nodes in traditional wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs), a UAV-assisted WRSN Online Charging Strategy Based on Dynamic Queue and Improved K-means (UOCS) is proposed. The scheme assumes that the energy consumption of nodes is unpredictable, and only generates charging requests when the energy is lower than a threshold, and performs on-demand responses to nodes that issue charging requests. The scheme combines the characteristics of one-to-one charging of UAVs, the selection and allocation timing of waiting queues and the number of UAVs, and the improved K-means partitioning based on space-time coordination(SPKM), which simplifies the problem of coordinated charging of multiple UAVs and maximizes energy. Using the efficiency and charging success rate, the optimal charging trajectory can be found under the constraint that the node will not starve to death due to power shortage. Finally, a simulation comparison experiment is carried out with the existing UAV charging scheduling strategy. UOCS achieves the optimal node survival rate with low algorithm complexity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0031.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Autonomous Vehicle; bicycle Robot; Control, path planning; differential equation; initial value problem; Runge-Kutta; scientific computing.
Online: 2 September 2022 (03:19:29 CEST)
This paper aims at computing feasible control strategies and the corresponding feasible state trajectories to drive an autonomous rear-axle bicycle robot from a given initial state to a final state such that the total running cost is minimized. Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle is applied and derives the optimality conditions from which the feasible control functions, expressed as functions of state and costate variables, are substituted into the combined state-costate system to obtain a new free-control state-costate nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations. A computer program was written in Scilab to solve the combined state-costate system and obtain the feasible state functions, the feasible costate functions and the feasible control functions. Associated Computational Simulations were provided to show the effectiveness and the reliability of the approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0119.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Quadrotor control; Autonomous Surface Vehicle control; Cooperative Path Following; Online Path Planning; Chemical Spill Boundary Encircling
Online: 8 February 2022 (14:55:03 CET)
This article addresses the problem of formation control of a quadrotor and one (or more) marine vehicles operating at the surface of the water with the end goal of encircling the boundary of a chemical spill, enabling such vehicles to carry and release chemical dispersants used during ocean cleanup missions to break-up oil molecules. Firstly, the mathematical models of the Medusa class of marine robots and quadrotor aircrafts are introduced, followed by the design of single vehicle motion controllers that allow these vehicles to follow a parameterized path individually using Lyapunov based techniques. At a second stage, a distributed controller using event triggered communications is introduced, enabling the vehicles to perform cooperative path following missions according to a pre-defined geometric formation. In the next step, a real time path planning algorithm is developed that makes use of a camera sensor, installed on-board the quadrotor. This sensor enables the detection in the image of which pixels encode parts of a chemical spill boundary and use them to generate and update in real time a set of smooth B-spline based paths for all the vehicles to follow cooperatively. The performance of the complete system is evaluated by resorting to 3-D simulation software, making it possible to simulate visually a chemical spill. Results from real water trials are also provided for parts of the system, where two Medusa vehicles are required to perform a static lawn-mowing path following mission cooperatively at the surface of the water.
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: automated machine learning; Neural Architecture Search; high-throughput plant phenotyping; wheat lodging assessment; unmanned aerial vehicle.
Online: 1 February 2021 (14:11:08 CET)
Automated machine learning (AutoML) has been heralded as the next wave in artificial intelligence with its promise to deliver high performance end-to-end machine learning pipelines with minimal effort from the user. However, despite AutoML showing great promise for computer vision tasks, to the best of our knowledge, no study has used AutoML for image-based plant phenotyping. To address this gap in knowledge, we examined the application of AutoML for image-based plant phenotyping using wheat lodging assessment with UAV imagery as an example. We compared the performance of an open-source AutoML framework, AutoKeras in image classification and regression tasks to transfer learning using modern convolutional neural network (CNN) architectures. For image classification which classified plot images as lodged or non-lodged, transfer learning with Xception and DenseNet-201 achieved best classification accuracy of 93.2%, whereas Autokeras had 92.4% accuracy. For image regression which predicted lodging scores from plot images, transfer learning with DenseNet-201 had the best performance (R2=0.8303, RMSE=9.55, MAE=7.03, MAPE=12.54%), followed closely by AutoKeras (R2=0.8273, RMSE=10.65, MAE=8.24, MAPE=13.87%). Interestingly, in both tasks, AutoKeras models had up to 40-fold faster inference times compared to the pretrained CNNs. The merits and drawbacks of AutoML compared to transfer learning for image-based plant phenotyping are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0471.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Energy management; hybrid electric vehicle; powertrain electrification; equivalent consumption minimization; supercharging, hardware-in-the-loop experiments
Online: 18 November 2020 (11:16:31 CET)
This work studies a novel low voltage (<60 V) hybrid system that supports engine boosting and downsizing in addition to start-stop, regenerative braking, and constrained torque assist/regeneration. The hybrid power split supercharger (PSS) shares a 9 kW motor between supercharging the engine or providing hybrid functionalities through a planetary gear set, a brake and a bypass valve. The PSS operation is limited to only one of the parallel hybrid or boosting modes at a time, necessitating a highly optimized decision making algorithm to select the device mode and power split ratio. In this work an adaptive equivalent consumption minimization strategy (A-ECMS) is developed for energy management of the PSS. The A-ECMS effectiveness is compared against a dynamic programming (DP) solution with full drive cycle preview through hardware-in-the-loop experiments on an engine dynamometer testbed. The experiments show that the PSS with A-ECMS reduces a vehicle fuel consumption by 18.4% over standard FTP75 cycle compared to a baseline turbocharged engine, while global optimal DP solution decreases the fuel consumption by 22.8% compared to baseline.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0017.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: microwave photonic sensor system; numerical simulation; addressed fiber Bragg structures; load sensing bearings; vehicle dynamics control
Online: 1 September 2020 (12:11:45 CEST)
The work presents an approach to instrument the load sensing bearings for automotive applications for estimation of the loads acting on the wheels. The system comprises fiber-optic sensors based on addressed fiber Bragg structures (AFBS) with two symmetrical phase shifts. A mathematical model for load-deformation relation is presented, and the AFBS interrogation principle is described. The simulation includes (i) modeling of vehicle dynamics in a split-mu braking test, during which the longitudinal wheel loads are obtained, (ii) the subsequent estimation of bearing outer ring deformation using a beam model with simply supported boundary conditions, (iii) the conversion of strain into central wavelength shift of AFBS, and (iv) modeling of the beating signal at the photodetector. The simulation results show that the estimation error of the longitudinal wheel force from the strain data acquired from a single measurement point was 5.44% with root-mean-square error of 113.64 N. A prototype load sensing bearing was instrumented with a single AFBS sensor and mounted in a front right wheel hub of an experimental vehicle. The experimental setup demonstrated comparable results with the simulation during the braking test. The proposed system with load-sensing bearings is aimed at estimation of the loads acting on the wheels, which serve as input parameters for active safety systems, such as automatic braking, adaptive cruise control, or fully automated driving, in order to enhance their effectiveness and safety of the vehicle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0059.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: automotive, fuel consumption; Fuel Reduction Value (FRV); Life Cycle Assessment (LCA); light-weighting; vehicle system dynamics
Online: 10 November 2016 (16:45:36 CET)
A tailored model for the assessment of environmental benefits achievable by “light-weighting” in the automotive field is presented. The model is based on the Fuel Reduction Value (FRV) coefficient, which expresses the Fuel Consumption (FC) saving involved by a 100 kg mass reduction. The work is composed of two main sections: simulation and environmental modelling. Simulation modelling performs an in-depth calculation of weight-induced FC whose outcome is the FRV evaluated for a wide range of Diesel Turbocharged (DT) vehicle case studies. Environmental modelling converts fuel saving to impact reduction basing on the FRVs obtained by simulations. Results show that for the considered case studies, FRV is within the range 0.115–0.143 and 0.142–0.388 L/100 km × 100 kg, respectively, for mass reduction only and powertrain adaptation (secondary effects). The implementation of FRVs within the environmental modelling represents the added value of the research and makes the model a valuable tool for application to real case studies of automotive lightweight LCA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0214.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Energy Harvesting; power management, Connected Vehicles; wind energy harvester; Smart Cities; electric Vehicle; IoT; Tesla; autonomous sensors
Online: 9 July 2021 (10:20:07 CEST)
The recent advancements in the field of communication have led data sharing to become an integral part of today's smart cities with the evolution of concepts such as the internet of vehicles (IoV) paradigm. As a part of IoV, Electric Vehicles (EVs) have recently gained momentum as authorities have started expanding their Low Emission Zones (LEZ) in an effort to build green cities with low carbon footprints. Energy is one of the key requirements of EVs not only to support the smooth and sustainable operation of EV itself but to also ensure connectivity between the vehicles and infrastructure with controlling devices like sensors and actuators installed within an EV. In this context, renewable energy sources (such as wind energy) dramatically play their parts in the automobile sector towards designing the energy harvesting electric vehicles (EH-EV) to pare the energy reliance on the national grid. In this article, a novel approach is presented to achieve electric generation due to vehicle mobility to support the communication primitives in electric vehicles which enables plenty of IoV use cases in the presence of surplus energy at hand. A small-scale wind turbine is designed to harness wind power for converting it into mechanical power. This power is then fed to the onboard DC generator to produce electrical energy. Furthermore, the acquired power is processed through a regulation circuitry to consequently achieve the desired power supply for the end load, i.e. the batteries installed. The suitable orientation for efficient power generation is proposed on ANSYS-based aerodynamics analysis. The voltages induced by DC generator at No-Load condition are 35V while at Full-Load 25V are generated at rated current of 6.9A, along with the generation of power at around 100W (at constant voltage) at the rated speed of 90 mph for nominal battery charging. Moreover, the acquired data can be monitored via an android application interface by using a Bluetooth module.